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OpenAirInterface (OAI) for Experimentation in 5G

Bheemarjuna Reddy Tamma, Rohit Gupta and Kiran Kuchi


Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016, 06/11/2016

Unleashing the potential of open-source in the 5G arena


Agenda
PART I:
LTE Architecture
About Open Air Interface (OAI)
OAI 5G Software Alliance (OSA) & its strategic areas
OAI Use cases
OAIs High-level Software Architecture
OAI LTE RAN Implementation
OAI LTE EPC Implementation

Hardware Targets
OAI Installation/Development environment/Usage

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 2


Agenda

PART II:
Performance Results of OAI LTE Prototype using
GPPs, USRP RF & COTS UE
5G Vision
Cloud-RAN
Setting up of C-RAN testbed using OAI

LTE and Wi-Fi Aggregation (LWA)


Setting up of LWA testbed using OAI
Performance Results

Summary & Future Directions

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 3


LTE Architecture

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 4


What is OpenAirInterface (OAI)?

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 5


What is OpenAirInterface (OAI)?

Open-source software-based implementation of LTE Rel 10


Spanning the full protocol stack of 3GPP standards
E-UTRAN (eNB, partial UE)
EPC (MME, S+P-GW, HSS)
Real-time RF and scalable emulation platforms
Runs on x86/ARM platforms with many SDR front ends (ExpressMIMO2,
USRP, )
Objectives
Bring academia closer to complex real-world systems
Open-source tools to ensure a common R&D and prototyping framework for
rapid proof-of-concept designs
Other use cases
Interoperability with 3rd party components (UE, eNB, EPC)
Matlab/Octave tools for non real-time experimentation
Real-time channel sounding (EMOS)
802.11p Modem
Unitary simulations

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 6


OpenAirInterface (OAI) Features
IP packets AT commands

MME Application S+P-GW Application

Linux IP
NAS eNB Application NAS S11 Abstraction S1-U
stack

RRC RRC S1-MME X2AP S1-U S1-MME S6a/Diameter GTP-U SGi

PDCP PDCP SCTP UDP SCTP UDP

RLC RLC IP IP

MAC MAC Ethernet Ethernet

PHY PHY

UEs eNBs MME + S+P-GW

3GPP layers Control Plane

Implements 4G LTE Rel10 Access Stratum (eNB & UE) Linux stack Data Plane, IP packet

and EPC (MME, S+P-GW, HSS)


All the stack (incl. PHY) runs entirely on a PC in real-time operating system (RTAI,
Xenomai, low-latency kernel)
Works with ExpressMIMO (Eurecom), USRP (Ettus/National Instruments), Blade RF
(nuand), LMS-SDR (Lime Micro)

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 7


OAI SW Package Distribution

Openair5G (For realization of OAI RAN)


openair1 : 3GPP LTE PHY layer + PHY RF simulation
openair2 : 3GPP LTE RLC/MAC/PDCP/RRC/X2AP implementation
openair3 : 3GPP LTE for S1AP, NAS GTPV1-U for both eNB and UE
common : Some OAI utilities
cmake_targets : OAI Build System (Cmake)
targets : Wrapper for unitary PHY simulations & system level simulations

OpenairCN (For realization of OAI EPC)


SCRIPT : LTE Core Network Procedures/scripts (HSS,MME,S/P-Gw)
SRC : Tunnel, NAS, Interface implementation scripts
BUILD : Storage Path for executables
DOCS : Documentation/Concise user guides
ETC : Supporting Files
TEST : Testing and performance scripts

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 8


OAI Execution Environment

C Implementation under low latency kernel for x86


and ARM based linux systems

Rapid prototyping
and PoC

Performance
evaluation

Field trials and


testing

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 9


Workspace Stack for Executables

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 10


Collaborative Web Tools

www.openairinterface.org
OpenAirInterface gitlab server (includes Wiki)
RAN (eNB + UE)
https://gitlab.eurecom.fr/oai/openairinterface5g
EPC
https://gitlab.eurecom.fr/oai/openair-cn

Mailing list
openair5g-user: for the users of OpenairInterface.
openair5g-devel: for the developers of OpenairInterface.
openaircn-user: for the users of OpenairCN.
openaircn-devel: for the developers of OpenairCN.

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 11


OAI 5G SOFTWARE ALLIANCE (OSA)

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 12


OSA Strategic Areas (Detailed)

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 14


USE CASES OF OAI

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 15


Use cases of OAI I

Classical 3GPP setup:


OAI EPC + OAI eNB <--> COTS UE
Commercial/3rd party EPC + OAI eNB <-->COTS UE
OAI EPC + Commercial/3rd party eNB <--> COTS UE

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 16


Use cases of OAI II

Non-3GPP setup:
OAI eNB <--> OAI UE

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 17


Use cases of OAI III

Simulation/Emulation (oaisim)
OAI eNB <--> OAI UE
OAI EPC + OAI eNB <--> OAI UE
Commercial/3rd party EPC + OAI eNB <--> OAI UE
Unitary simulators
DLSCH simulator dlsim
ULSCH simulator ulsim
PUCCH simulator pucchsim
PRACH simulator prachsim
PDCCH simulator pdcchsim
PBCH simulator pbchsim
eMBMS simulator mbmssim
Other uses
EMOS (real-time channel sounding)
octave (simple experimentation)

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 18


OAI: HIGH LEVEL SOFTWARE
ARCHITECTURE

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 19


High Level SW Architecture ( /w PCIExpress)

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 20


High Level SW Architecture ( /w USB)

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 21


Overall OAI RAN Software

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 22


FH/RAU/RCC Threads, Instances and
Component Carriers

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 23


FH/RAU/RCC Threads, Instances and
Component Carriers

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 24


RAN Timing (Multi-thread mode)

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 25


RAN Timing

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 26


RAN TX Procedures

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 27


RAN TX Flowchart

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 28


RAN TX Flowchart

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 29


RAN TX Flowchart

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 30


RAN RX Procedures

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 31


RAN ULSCH Demodulation

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 32


OAI eNB features (PHY)
The Physical layer implements 3GPP 36.211, 36.212, 36.213 and provides
the following features:

LTE release 8.6 compliant, and implements a subset of release 10;


FDD (stable) and TDD configurations 1 and 3 (experimental);
Bandwidth: 5, 10 (stable), and 20 MHz (experimental);
Transmission modes: 1, 2 (stable), 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 (experimental);
Max number of antennas: 2
CQI/PMI reporting: aperiodic, feedback mode 3-0 and 3-1;
PRACH preamble format 0
All downlink (DL) channels are supported: PSS, SSS, PBCH, PCFICH, PHICH, PDCCH,
PDSCH, PMCH;
All uplink (UL) channels are supported: PRACH, PUSCH, PUCCH (format 1/1a/1b), SRS
(experimental), DRS;
HARQ support (UL and DL);
Highly optimized base band processing (including turbo decoder).
Expected throughputs DL
5 MHz, 25 PRBS/ MCS 28 = 16-17 Mbit/s (measured with COTS UE Cat 3/4)
10 MHz, 50 PRBS/MCS 28 = 34-35 Mbit/s (measured with COTS UE Cat 3/4)
20 MHz, 100 PRB = 60 Mbps (experimental)
Expected throughputs UL
5 MHz, 20 PRBs / MCS 20 = 9 Mbit/s (measured with COTS UE Cat 3/4)
10 MHz, 45 PRBs / MCS 20 = 17 Mbit/s (measured with COTS UE Cat 3/4)
20 MHz, 100 PRBs = 24 Mbits/s (experimental)

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 33


OAI eNB features (MAC)

The MAC layer implements a subset of the 3GPP 36-


321 release v8.6 in support of BCH, DLSCH, RACH,
and ULSCH channels.
The eNB MAC implementation includes:
RRC interface for CCCH, DCCH, and DTCH
Proportional fair scheduler
DCI generation
HARQ Support
RA procedures and RNTI management
RLC interface (AM, UM)
UL power control
Link adaptation

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 35


OAI eNB MAC Scheduler
Separation of MAC-RLC and
MAC-PHY interface from the
scheduler

Preprocessor : Converts two-


dimensional buffer of users x
logical channels into a single
dimension as shown below

Scheduler : Sorting of the


blocks

Post-processor :Converts the


scheduling decision into the
PHY format (i.e. DCI for LTE)

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 37


OAI eNB features (PDCP)

The current PDCP is header compliant with 3GPP 36-


323 Rel 10.1.0 and implement the following
functions:
User and control data transfer
Sequence number management
RB association with PDCP entity
PDCP entity association with one or two RLC entities
Integrity check and encryption using the AES and Snow3G
algorithms

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 38


OAI eNB features (RLC)

The RLC layer implements a full specification of the 3GPP 36-322


release v9.3
RLC TM (mainly used for BCCH and CCCH)
Neither segment nor concatenate RLC SDUs
Do not include a RLC header in the RLC PDU
Delivery of received RLC PDUs to upper layers
RLC UM (mainly used for DTCH)
Segment or concatenate RLC SDUs according to the TB size selected by MAC
Include a RLC header in the RLC PDU
Duplication detection
PDU reordering and reassembly
RLC AM, compatible with 9.3
Segmentation, re-segmentation, concatenation, and reassembly
Padding
Data transfer to the user
RLC PDU retransmission in support of error control and correction
Generation of data/control PDUs

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 39


OpenAirInterface eNB features (RRC)

Based on 3GPP 36.331 v9.2.0.


System Information broadcast (SIB 1, 2, 3, and 13)
RRC connection establishment
RRC connection reconfiguration (addition and removal of radio
bearers, connection release)
RRC connection release
inter-frequency measurement collection and reporting
(experimental)
eMBMS for multicast and broadcast (experimental)

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 40


OAI UE features (PHY)

The Physical layer implements 3GPP 36.211, 36.212,


36.213 and provides the following features:
LTE release 8.6 compliant, and implements a subset of release 10;
FDD (stable) and TDD configurations 1 and 3 (experimental);
Bandwidth: 5, 10 (stable), and 20 MHz (experimental);
Transmission modes: 1, 2 (stable), 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 (experimental);
Max number of antennas: Rx: 2, Tx: 1
CQI/PMI reporting: aperiodic, feedback mode 3-0 and 3-1;
All downlink (DL) channels are supported: PSS, SSS, PBCH,
PCFICH, PHICH, PDCCH, PDSCH, PMCH;
All uplink (UL) channels are supported: PRACH, PUSCH, PUCCH
(format 1/1a/1b), SRS (experimental), DRS;
HARQ support (UL and DL);
Highly optimized base band processing (including turbo decoder).
Carrier frequency synchronization (around a given frequency)

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 42


OAI UE features (MAC)

The MAC layer implements a subset of the 3GPP 36-


321 release v8.6 in support of BCH, DLSCH, RACH,
and ULSCH channels.
UE MAC implementation includes:
PDU formats: all control elements and logical channels
RLC interface AM,UM, TM
RRC transparent interface for CCCH and BCCH
Buffer status reporting and scheduling request procedures
Power headroom reporting

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 43


OAI UE features (PDCP)

The current PDCP is header compliant with 3GPP 36-


323 Rel 10.1.0 and implement the following
functions:
User and control data transfer
Sequence number management
RB association with PDCP entity
PDCP entity association with one or two RLC entities
Integrity check and encryption using the AES and Sonw3G
algorithms

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 44


OAI UE features (RLC)

The RLC layer implements a full specification of the 3GPP 36-322


release v9.3
RLC TM (mainly used for BCCH and CCCH)
Neither segment nor concatenate RLC SDUs
Do not include a RLC header in the RLC PDU
Delivery of received RLC PDUs to upper layers
RLC UM (mainly used for DTCH)
Segment or concatenate RLC SDUs according to the TB size selected by MAC
Include a RLC header in the RLC PDU
Duplication detection
PDU reordering and reassembly
RLC AM, compatible with 9.3
Segmentation, re-segmentation, concatenation, and reassembly
Padding
Data transfer to the user
RLC PDU retransmission in support of error control and correction
Generation of data/control PDUs

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 45


OAI UE features (RRC)

Based on 3GPP 36.331 v9.2.0.


System Information reception (SIB 1, 2, 3, and 13, all others just
displayed)
RRC connection establishment
RRC connection reconfiguration (addition and removal of radio
bearers, connection release)
RRC connection release
inter-frequency measurement collection and reporting
(experimental)
eMBMS for multicast and broadcast (experimental)

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 46


OAI UE features (NAS)
Implemented
EMM procedures:
GUTI reallocation Partially implemented


authentication;
security mode control;
Not implemented
identification;
EMM information.
EMM specific procedures:
attach
combined attach.
detach and combined detach.
normal tracking area updating and combined tracking area updating (S1 mode only);
periodic tracking area updating (S1 mode only).
EMM connection management procedures (S1 mode only):
service request.
paging procedure.
transport of NAS messages (for SMS);
generic transport of NAS messages.
ESM Procedures related to EPS bearer contexts:
default EPS bearer context activation;
dedicated EPS bearer context activation;
EPS bearer context modification;
EPS bearer context deactivation.
ESM Transaction related procedures:
PDN connectivity procedure;
PDN disconnect procedure;
bearer resource allocation procedure;
bearer resource modification procedure.
ESM information request procedure.
ESM status procedure;
notification procedure.

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 47


OAI UE Interfaces

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 48


OAI eNB/UE Build Process

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 49


OAI EPC overview

EPC (mme_gw executable+GTP kernel module)

eNB S1-C MME S6a HSS

S11

S1-U SGW PGW SGi INTERNET

eNB and EPC on different hosts (recommended)

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 50


Overall OAI EPC Software

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 51


OpenAirInterface EPC features
Implemented
E-UTRAN Initial attach Partially implemented
Attach with IMSI
Attach with GUTI Not implemented
Tracking Area Update procedures: Always reject
Routing Area Update procedures
Service Request procedures
UE triggered Service Request: always reject
Network triggered Service Request
S1 Release procedure
GUTI Reallocation procedure
Detach procedure
UE-Initiated Detach procedure for E-UTRAN
MME-Initiated Detach procedure for E-UTRAN
HSS-Initiated Detach procedure for E-UTRAN
HSS User Profile management function procedure
Bearer deactivation
PDN GW initiated bearer deactivation
MME initiated Dedicated Bearer Deactivation
Intra E-UTRAN handover

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 52


OAI EPC Build Process

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 53


HARDWARE TARGETS

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 54


OAI System Architecture

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 55


Hardware Requirements

SDR platform
ExpressMIMO2
USRP B2x0, X300
Blade RF
LMS-SDR
A powerful x86 PC
Intel Core i5, i7
Intel Xeon
Intel Atom (experimental)
4 cores, > 3GHz, SSE 4, AVX
ARM (experimental)
Odroid
Antennas, Duplexers, etc

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 56


Express MIMO 2

RF RX
(4 way)

RF TX
(4 way)

PCI Express
(1 or 4 way)
Spartan 6 LX150T
4xLMS6002D RF ASICs 12V from ATX power supply
250 MHz 3.8 GHz GPIO for external RF control

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 57


Express MIMO 2

Integrated baseband/RF PCI Express board for x86-based


software defined radio
Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA
4 RF chains based on LIME LMS6002D Semiconductor zero-IF
RF chipsets
Eurecom board, designed and maintained by EURECOM
1.5/5/10/20 MHz, FDD/TDD
4 channels (4x4 MIMO or 4 SISO Component Carriers)
Total aggregate bandwidth: full duplex 64Msps
(Corresponds to 4x5MHz, 2x10MHz, or 1x 20MHz full duplex)
Carrier frequencies: 300 MHz 3.8 GHz
~10 dBm output power
LTE RF compliance (UE, small-cell eNB)
Status:
more than 60 cards currently fabricated
used by many research institutes (academic and industrial)

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 58


USRP B210 (mini)

Designed by ETTUS (now part of NI)


Analog Devices AD9361 RFIC Dual Channel
Transceiver (70 MHz - 6GHz)
Full duplex, MIMO (2 Tx & 2 Rx) operation with up to
56 MHz of real-time bandwidth (61.44MS/s
quadrature)
Slightly less in our experiments

Data acquisition over USB3

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 59


USRP X310

Designed by ETTUS (now part of NI)


2 TX/RX chains, 120Msps
Several RF daughterboards available covering DC to
6 GHz
Xilinx Kintex 7 FPGA
10Gbit Ethernet or 4x PCIexpress

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 60


Blade RF

Designed by Nuand
Based on LimeMicro LMS6002D (same as
ExpressMIMO2)
Altera Cyclone IV FPGA
USB3

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 61


LMS SDR

Designed by Lime Microsystems


Based on LMS7002M
Same as LMS6002D but with 2TX/2RX

Altera Cyclone IV FPGA


USB3
Crowdfunded:
https://www.crowdsupply.com/
lime-micro/limesdr

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 62


Comparison
USRP B210 USRP X310 ExpressMIMO Blade RF LMS SDR
2
Data USB3 Gbit EtherNet, PCIexpress USB3 USB3
acquisition PCIexpress
MIMO and 2x1 MIMO 2x2 MIMO, 4x4 MIMO 5 1x1 SISO 2x2 MIMO
bandwidth 20MHz or 2x2 120MHz MHz, 2x2 20MHz 20MHz
capabilities MIMO 10MHz MIMO 10Mhz,
SISO 20MHz
RF chip AD9361 n/a LMS6002D LMS6002D LMS7002M
(x4)
Frequency 70MHz DC-6GHz 300 MHz 300 MHz 300 MHz
range 6GHz (depends on 3.8GHz 3.8GHz 3.8GHz
daughterbrd)
Price 1,130 ~5,000 ~3,000 $420 $299

Duplexing FDD FDD or FDD FDD or TDD FDD FDD or TDD

Output power 10dBm 10dBm 0dBm@ 6dBm 10dBm


2.6GHz
10dBm @
700MHz
Noise figure <8dB ? 10-15dB ? ?

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 63


Other experimental targets

CPRI - PCIexpress
IT Avero
Based on Xilinx eval board

CPRI gateway
Bell Labs
Based on Xilinx or Intel platform

Syrtem platform
NXP QorIQ9131 platform

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 64


INSTALLATION

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 65


Software Requirements

Operating system
Ubuntu 14.04.3 (Ubuntu 14.04.4 and higher under test)
For real-time operation, a low-latency kernel is required
See details on Wiki
Get code from Eurecoms Gitlab server
RAN (eNB+UE): https://gitlab.eurecom.fr/oai/openairinterface5g
Branch master most stable
Branch develop latest features (rather stable)
Several feature branches for cutting-edge developments
EPC: https://gitlab.eurecom.fr/oai/openair-cn
Branch master most stable
Branch develop latest features (rather stable)
Branch unstable for cutting-edge developments

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 66


OpenAirInterface5G directories

cmake_targets
New directory for building all the targets
Contains mother build_oai script
targets
Hardware specific code (drivers, tools, etc)
lte-softmodem, oaisim
openair1
Basic DSP routines for implementing subset of LTE specifications
under x86 (36.211, 36.212, 36.213 3GPP specifications)
Channel simulation, sounding and PHY abstraction software,
openair2
MAC/RLC/PDCP/RRC
openair3
Contains interfaces S1-C, S1-U (GTP, SCTP, S1AP) and NAS UE

67
Compiling OpenAirInterface5G

Top-level build script located in


cd openairinterface5g/cmake_targets
Compile lte-softmodem
./build_oai
-I installs additional required software
-w <hw_target> select HW target
--eNB compiles the lte-softmodem (for UE and eNB)
-x compiles with support for xforms softscope
-V compiles with support for VCD debugging
--UE compiles UE specific NAS parts
-h help
This creates executables in
openairinterface5g/targets/bin

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 68


Compiling OAI EPC + HSS

Top-level build script located in


cd openairCN/SCRIPTS
Compile EPC
./build_epc
-i installs additional software packages*
--local-hss compiles for use of HSS on same machine
--remote-hss <yourhssfqdn> compile for use of HSS on remote
machine (requires FQDN to be set in /etc/hosts)
./build_hss
-i installs additional software packages*
-I installs database
--local-mme compiles for use of MME on same machine

*when asked to set password for root, use linux (or change it later in config file).

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 69


HSS and SIM card configuration

Configuration file: /usr/local/etc/oai/hss.conf


Use PHPmyadmin: http://yourhsshost/phpmyadmin
User: hssadmin, password: admin

Add your MME


Add your user
Configure your SIM card
Use a blank SIM card, card reader and programming tool,
or a pre-programmed SIM card

See Wiki for details

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 70


EPC and eNB configuration

EPC configuration
/usr/local/etc/oai/epc.conf
Check MCC, MNC, TAC
Check IP addresses for interfaces

eNB configuration
targets/PROJECTS/GENERIC-LTE-EPC/CONF/
Select the config file that is most appropriate for your
configuration (Band and Hardware)
Check
MCC, MNC, TAC
downlink_frequency
mme_ip_address
IP addresses of S1-MME and S1-U interfaces
Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 71
Running OAI

Running EPC
./run_epc
./run_hss

Run eNB
sudo ./lte-softmodem.Rel10 O <file.conf> -d V

Start the UE!


Have fun & debug if it fails!

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 72


OAI Debug Tools

Spectrum Analyzer (UL and DL)


Shows RF performance and signal integrity
Logs
Verbosity can be adjusted in config file
Shows L2/L3 events
PHY scope
signals in time and frequency domain
Constellation plots of PUSCH, PUCCH
Stats window
eNB measurements (noise, signal power, etc)
UE feedback (CQI, etc.)
UL and DL HARQ statistics
VCD file
Analyze real-time behavior by tracking function execution,
gtkwave -a ~/openairinterface5g/targets/RT/USER/eNB_usrp.gtk
Wireshark
To analyze messages over S1 interface
Can also analyze MAC, RLC, PDCP, RRC if enables (see twiki for details)
Iperf/speedtest
Shows throughout for UDP and IP

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 73


Agenda
PART I:
LTE Architecture
About Open Air Interface (OAI)
OAI 5G Software Alliance (OSA) & its strategic areas
OAI Use cases
OAIs High-level Software Architecture
OAI LTE RAN Implementation
OAI LTE EPC Implementation

Hardware Targets
OAI Installation/Development environment/Usage

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 75


Agenda

PART II:
Performance Results of OAI LTE Prototype using
GPPs, USRP RF & COTS UE
5G Vision
Cloud-RAN
Setting up of C-RAN testbed using OAI

LTE and Wi-Fi Aggregation (LWA)


Setting up of LWA testbed using OAI
Performance Results

Summary & Future Directions

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 76


OAI LTE Testbed

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 77


OAI LTE Testbed Parameters

Parameter Value
LTE Mode FDD
No. of RBs 25 (5 MHz)
Operating Band Band 7 (2500 MHz)

Traffic TCP file download from


Remote Server

Tx Gain 90
Rx Gain 20

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 78


Performance Evaluation of Testbed

Instantaneous Throughput observed at UE at varying distance from


the base station (i.e., 1, 5, 10 mts) for downloading a 64 MB file from
Remote Server

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 79


DATA Explosion!!!
Introduction of iPhone, tablets and smart phones
New applications on the Internet On-demand video/music, online video
conferencing, e/m-commerce, Apps, IoT, etc
Users want to always stay connected by some means!
Telecom operators are seeing huge surge in data traffic in cellular networks

Credits: http://ciscovni.com/forecast-widget/index.html

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 80


How to cope with Data Explosion??
o Telecom operators are under pressure to find
solutions with reasonable cost
o Two broad ways to tackle the issue
1) Optimization of cellular networks to improve spectral
efficiency, data rates, capacity
Carrier aggregation, CoMP, additional spectrum bands, densification of
cells
LTE-Advanced, Smallcells, Cloud-RAN, HetNets, ..., 5G
2) Inclusion of other radio access technologies which already
exist to offload some traffic
IEEE 802.11 WLAN (aka Wi-Fi) is widely deployed in indoors
Ericsson: about 70% of mobile traffic is from indoors
Mobile devices come with built-in Wi-Fi radios
Wi-Fi operates on unlicensed bands (no need of procuring spectrum at
hefty prices)
2.4 GHZ and 5.2 GHz: 20 MHz to 160 MHz Bandwidth
Gigabit rates with 802.11ac and upcoming 802.11ax

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 81


Way forward
o LTE and Wi-Fi are not competing technologies but complementary
technologies
o Cellular networks were at LTE/LTE-A. Its all-IP based which makes
easy integration with other IP networks like Wi-Fi.
o Licensed spectrum remains cellular operators top priority to deliver
advanced services and user experience
o Opportunistic use of unlicensed spectrum is becoming an important
complement for operators to meet the growing traffic demand
o Operators will have two options to offload traffic to unlicensed
spectrum:
Wi-Fi offload (LTE-Wi-Fi Aggregation)
LTE over unlicensed band (LTE-U/LAA)
o It will then be up to each individual operator to choose which approach
to use, which will depend on a number of factors
o Hopefully these approaches would ease out the mobile data crunch

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 82


5G VISION

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 83


5G - Targets

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 84


5G Network Big Picture (ITU IMT2020 FG)

Source: https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/Workshops-and-Seminars/itu-ngmn/Documents/Abstracts_and_Presentations/Peter-Ashwood-Smithv2.pdf
Visions of 5G

5G CORE

Heterogeneous
PDCP

RAN Cloud
LTE-RLC 5G-RLC
LTE-MAC 5G-MAC
LTE-PHY 5G-PHY
Higher-Latency
Front-haul
Low-Latency split
Front-haul
split WIFI
5G-RLC LTE-RLC
MAC
5G-MAC LTE-MAC
WIFI
LTE-PHY 5G-PHY 5G-PHY LTE-PHY
PHY
Radio Radio

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016


ITU-Vision for Open Source and 5G

Source: http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/wtsa16/prepmeet/Documents/CIS-RCC/presentations/Presentation_1_Forum_ITU-Vision%202020.pdf

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016


5G Evolution and Ecosystem

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 88


Challenges in running OAI in
Containers/VM (Docker, LXC, KVM)

Real-time support in containers + KVM


Access to HW Resources (USB, PCIe)
Low latency transport over Ethernet
Integration with High Performance SoC platforms for
heavy number-crunching (for ex. Turbo Decoder)
Study different types of Base-band split between
BBU/RRH
Orchestration framework that guarantees real-time HW
requirements

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016


Running OAI in Containers + KVM
Evaluate RT performance when running in Containers + KVM
Orchestration solutions based on JuJu, OpenStack + other solutions

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016


JuJu

Juju is an open source, service orchestration tool.


Juju allows you to configure, manage, maintain, deploy, and scale
cloud services quickly and efficiently
Juju can be integrated with public clouds, as well as on physical
servers, OpenStack, and containers.
You can use Juju from the command line or through its beautiful
GUI.

Search for solutions Model your service Deploy instantly Monitor and Maintain

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 91


JuJu Charms

Charms
o Sets of scripts for deploying and managing services.
o Event handling is built in with charms

Bundles
o Bundles are collections of charms that link services together, so
you can deploy whole chunks of app infrastructure in one go

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 92


OAI Charms

It deploys OAI LTE eNodeB


It supports many RF front ends

It is to be deployed with oai-enb charm to


setup LTE RRH
Provides an Ethernet-based RRH GW function
that can be connected to the OAI eNB

It deploys OAI EPC

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 93


OPNFV Framework for 5G Virtualization
OAI as an upstream project

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 94


OAI Integration w/ ETSI NFV

Integration w/ MOSAIC
MEC Framework
Integration of OAI w/ XOS
Integration w/ OPNFV
ONOS Project
Joint PoCs in ETSI NFV,
MEC and so on
Large scale deployment in
US within NSF/PAWR
program (TBD: Prof
Roy@UW, Seattle)
Integration w/ WiFi devices

Open source blueprint of E2E 3GPP Reference platform

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 95


OPNFV vEPC using OAI EPC

Realization of OPNFV vEPC using OAI EPC


Two development environments: FUEL and Juju OPNFV
Infrastructure Deployer (JOID)
Target Integration of vEPC for Release D of OPNFV

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 96


CLOUD-RAN USING OAI

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 97


Base Station Architecture Evolution

Legacy Macro BS Cloud-RAN with RRHs

Co-located in one unit. BBUs from many sites are co-


High power consumption. located in the pool within 20-40 km
Resources are underutilized. Lower power consumption & efficient
resource utilization
Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 98
Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN)

C-RAN
Promising architecture for next generation cellular networks
Centralized BBU pool
RRHs reside at cell site with RF functions
Optical fiber carries In-phase Quadrature samples (IQ) from RRHs
to BBUs
Functional split between BBUs and RRHs defines different C-RAN
architectures

Advantages of C-RAN
Cost-saving on CAPEX & OPEX
Capacity Improvement
Adaptability to Non-uniform Traffic
Smart Internet Traffic Offload

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 99


OAI based Cloud RAN Testbed Framework

Source : http://www.openairinterface.org/?page_id=1695
Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 100
C-RAN: RRH/BBU Split of eNodeB

Functional block diagram of eNodeB

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 101


C-RAN: NGFI Splits

Current OAI implementation supports either


time-domain fronthaul (> 1 GbE required)
NGFI IF4 split (FFTs) (< 500 Mbit/s fronthaul)
per carrier/sector

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 102


OAI remote radio head (RRH)

Transport of radio signals over


Ethernet
Enabler for cloud RAN
Fronthaul protocol specified by
Eurecom
Flexible header format in
support of RoE, and NGFI
Allows for experimentation for
different functional splits
between RRH and eNB

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 103


Cloud RAN - IITH Testbed

Single node RRH-BBU setup


A COTS UE could successfully connect to this testbed and access
Internet

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 104


Cloud RAN Playground at Eurecom

50 Low cost RRU, Band 38 (2.6 GHz) and 42-43 (3.5 GHz).
Dense servers x86-64 Xeon (today) or potentially ARM (Cavium)
Optical (40 GbE) and copper (1 Gbe) distribution

RRU

Example
Radio Cloud
Processing units

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 105


RRUs (Experimental)

Band 7(FDD),38 (TDD),42/43 (TDD)


Up to 25 dBm output
20 MHz BW
1 or 2 antennas per RRU
<1000 euros / RRU

Pico-ITX form factor (100mm x 72 mm)


Intel Atom E3845 or X7-8300, <10W TDP
PoE from aggregation switch
10 MHz reference from clock distribution at aggregation switch
1GbE front-haul per RRU
MIMO/MU-MIMO done via multiple RRU

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 106


Phase 1

24x10 MHz
FDU RRU
240 RRU
RRU
20 GbE 24-port
Switch 24x 1GbE
10 GbE PoE
openairCN Dell
Or S1/SGi T620 Ercom
Commercial 20 core Mobipass
EPC 3.6 GHz

10 GbE CPRI ALU


GW RRH

Fronthaul Network

Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016


PTPv2 100 24x10 MHz
Phase 2 grandmaster
GbE PTPv2
client
FDU RRU
240 RRU
RRU
24-port
Dense Switch 24x 1GbE
40 GbE Server
PoE
S1/SGi 24x10 MHz
PTPv2 FDU RRU
client
240 RRU
RRU
openairCN 24-port
or Dense
Server Switch 24x 1GbE
Commercial
EPC PoE
PTPv2
client
Ercom
Mobipass
PTPv2
Dense client
Server CPRI ALU
GW RRH

CRAN Fabric Fronthaul Network


LTE-WI-FI AGGREGATION
USING OAI

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 109


3GPP LTE-Wi-Fi Evolution

Credits: Intel Presentation (TSDSI)

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 110


3GPP LTE-Wi-Fi Evolution

Credits: Intel Presentation (TSDSI)

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 111


LTE-Wi-Fi Integration Architecture
In rel. 13, 3GPP introduced two
solutions
LWA: Integration at PDCP layer
Wi-Fi only in Downlink
LWIP: Integration at IP /w IPSec tunnel
Wi-Fi in both Downlink and Uplink
Minimal changes and quick to market

Benefits of these solutions


Additional radio resources
Simplified network Arch
Unified OAM and security
Mobility anchored at LTE
Reduced control signaling
Tightly coupled radio bearer
Improved traffic steering
Better QoS

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 112


LWIP Architecture

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 113


Non-collocated LWIP Testbed using OAI

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 114


Realizing non-collocated LWIP using OAI
Implementation details:
LTE-Wi-Fi link aggregation
module implemented on
OAI_eNB
Patch for enabling both
interfaces of Android UE
(Nexus 5) using IPtables
Link Aggregation between LTE
and Wi-Fi interfaces at Android
UE
Android app developed for
enabling download through both
interfaces simultaneously

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 115


LWIP Experimental Configuration

Parameter Value

LTE Mode FDD

LTE Bandwidth 25 RBs (5 MHz)

LTE Operating Band Band 7 (2500 MHz)

LTE Delay 10 ms

Wi-Fi Std IEEE 802.11b

Wi-Fi Delay 40 ms

Wi-Fi Bandwidth 22 MHz

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 116


LWIP Experimental Configuration

Parameter Value

LTE Mode FDD

LTE Bandwidth 25 RBs (5 MHz)

LTE Operating Band Band 7 (2500 MHz)

LTE Delay 10 ms

Wi-Fi Std IEEE 802.11b

Wi-Fi Delay 40 ms

Wi-Fi Bandwidth 22 MHz

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 117


LWIP: Performance Results

Throughput in iPerf test using UDP (in Downlink)

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 118


Video Streaming over LWIP

Video streaming over LWIP network

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 119


Further works

Intelligent decision making solution with rich traffic steering


algorithms to enhance the interworking benefit

Co-located vs non-collocated LWIP/LWA

Mobility management in context of LWIP/LWA

Studying performance of Application traffic in LWIP/LWA

HetNet-Cloud deployment for LWIP/LWA

Aggregation at RLC/MAC layer of eNodeB for even tighter level of


integration

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 120


Summary & Future Directions

Contribute to OAI Alliance Projects + 3GPP/ITU/ETSI Standards


Cloud-RAN
All aspects of SDN/NFV/MEC + RRH/BBU Split
Contribute towards OPNFV/M-CORD Collaboration
NB-IoT
Current proposal within community for impl. of NB-IoT (Rel 13)
LTE-LAA
LTE/WiFi Coexistence studies
NS-3/OAI Integration
Integration of NS-3 MAC + OAI PHY in NSF/PAWR program
Telecom Infra Project (Facebook)
Usage of OAI within TIP (still ongoing)

E2E 3GPP Ref. Platform for Prototyping + Research


Academic + Industrial Community

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 121


References I

OAI: http://www.openairinterface.org/
OPNFV: https://www.opnfv.org/
M-CORD: opencord.org/
FUEL: https://wiki.opnfv.org/display/fuel/Fuel+Opnfv
JOID: https://wiki.opnfv.org/display/joid/JOID+Home
Charm Store: https://jujucharms.com/store
MAAS: http://maas.io/

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 122


References II
https://gitlab.eurecom.fr/oai/openair-
cn/blob/master/DOCS/EPC_User_Guide.pdf

https://gitlab.eurecom.fr/oai1B/openairinterface5g/wikis/home

https://gitlab.eurecom.fr/oai/openairinterface5g/wikis/home

https://gitlab.eurecom.fr/oai/openairinterface5g/wikis/OpenAirSoftw
areSupport

https://gitlab.eurecom.fr/oai/openairinterface5g/wikis/OpenAirUsage

https://gitlab.eurecom.fr/oai/openairinterface5g/wikis/AllianceProjec
tsProposal

https://gitlab.eurecom.fr/oai/openairinterface5g/wikis/OAITestSetup

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 123


THANK YOU!!
Feedback ?
tbr@iith.ac.in,
rohit.gupta@eurecom.fr,
kkuchi@iith.ac.in

Nov 6, 2016 Tutorial @ IEEE ANTS 2016 124