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ou oxp~~ ~e:~c.n&~.t B.L. (Rang.), ).S.D.


(Yale), LL.D. (Utrecht) of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-
Law.
Jll ~ . ~~tB.A., B.L. ,
"" oxp~ ~.G~~ B.A., Barrister-at-Law.
<f11 ~ ~B.A., B.L.
~u ~ ~ B.A., B.L.
Gu oxp~ ~o.:>S:~ B.A., B.L.

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:)I ,sc~e:mS oxr=w~ ~~ ~e:~~. B.L.
(Rang.), J.S.D. (Yale~ LL.D. (Utrecht) of Lincoln'
Inn, Barri1te1-at-LarD.
1 ;sc~e:mS oxr=w~ ~ ~~ooS . B.A~,. B.L.
\"' ~c~e:mS axp:~ ~ ~ B.A., B.L.
9' ;M~e:mS ~Gt~P ~t B.Sc., B~L., Advocate.
~ G9k&r.r.>:Y.)()')t M.A., Ph.D., 'D.Litt., of Lincoln lnll

Barrister-at-LarD.
c;. ~~~~.B.A., Bamntt-at-u., 1.c.s. (Retd.).
?' ~ B.A., B~L., Advocate.
Ill

LAW OFF.ICERS OF THE UNION OF BURMA DURING


THE YEAR 1966

Attorney-General
U BA SEIN, B.S~ .. B.L., Advocate.

Legal R~membrancer

U KYAWTHOUNG, Bar-at-Law.

Assistant Attorney-General
U BA KYAW, B.A .. B.L., Advocate .

law Officer to tbe States


U TtN 0HN, B.A. (Hons.). B.L.. LL.B. (Lond.). Bar-at-Law.

Government Advo.:ates
U ToE MAUNG, B.A . B.L .. Advocate.
U BA KYJNE. B.Sc., B.L .. Advocate, up to 8th October
1966.
U BA PE, B.A., B.L.. Advocate, up to roth October
1966.
U BA PE. B.Sc., B.L. Advocate, up to 23rd April 1966.
U HL" THIN, B.A .. B.L., Advocate.
U TUN LWIN, B.A ., B.L., Advocate.
U TUN NYo, B.A . B.L.. Advocate, up to 30th July 1966.
U KHIN MAUNG, Advocate.
MR . S. K . GHOSH, B.A .. B.L.. Advocate.
U Mvo KHtN, M.A. (Cantab.). Bar-at-Law. up to
r 1 th November 1966.
DAw MYA THAN Nu. B.A . &.L.... Advocate.
U HNIT, B.A . B.L., Advocate.
U KHIN SEJN, Advocate. up to 2 rst May 1966.
U MYA SHEIN, B.A . B.L.. Advocate.
U BA THAN, B.A . B.L. . Advocate.

'. '.
i:v

U Myo HroN LYNN, M .Com., LL.B. lLond.\.


DOCfORANDUS (Utrecht), Bar-otLaw.
. u- WrN PE, B.A., B.L., A~voeate.
U ZIN, Advocate.
U KYAW GAUNC, B.A ., B.L., Advocate.

Lepl Draftsmea
U LuN PE, B.A., B.L., Advocate.
DAw AYE Kn, B.A., BL., Advocate.
u SEIN WIN HLAIN<l, B.A., B.L.
Assistant Legal Dnfbmen
U HLA THOUNC, B.SC., B.L., Dip. in Law (Lohd ),
Ajdvocate.
u SAN SHIN, B.A., B.L.
LepJ Researeh Ofticer
U THEIN HAN, B.A., B.L., Advocate.
v

LIST OF CASES REPORTED

CHIEF COURT OF BURMA

Ah Too v. The Uinion ol Burma


B. Ladasaria v. U Kyi
Babu Bhagwandas v. Messrs. A. Aboo Backer & Co.
Daw Hla Yin and one v. U Maung Sein and two others
- - Khin Kyi, widow of U Ba v. Daw. Ma Ma
(deceased) and one
- - Myat May & Co. v. Sein Tun and Pe Than and
two others
- - Obn Khiri v. .Y Kyin Sein
- - Saw Nyun v. Ma Hla Kyin
Ghanshamdas Bil~sroy v. Madanlal Saraf and three
others
H. T. Ahuja and others v. P. C. Ghosh (deceased)
represented . by his wife Daw Hla Yin and
daughter J.R
and seven others v. P. C. Ghosh
(deceased) and two others
In the Matter of Ramniranjan Lhila
the Estate of . U Kyaw Gaung
(deceased)
]. Sang Ning v. U Ya Lik
Ko Aye v. Ma Khin Saw Win and four others
-Than v. Daw Saw Mya
VI

Let, Hpwa v. The Union of Burma

Ma Dorothy v. U Han ::>?


- Myint Kyi v. U Kyaw and another ~~o
- Than and one v. Mathews Joseph J ?e
- Than Kyi and six others v. Daw Ge ~~(;
Maung Thee Myaing (a) Lon Yun (a) Kaung Tha v.
The Union of Burma oo-
---Tin Nyo v. The Union of Burma JJ
- -.- Khet v. Ma Yin J'2
Mariappa Chettiar and two others v. Shri Vrajlal
Narandas Desai and four others
Mlessrs. Bhodia Brothers v. Faizar Rahman Chowdhury
and three others
---William Jacks & Co., Ltd. v. Yangon Palladium
and five others ?J
Mingala Thukha Rice Mill Co., ltd. v. U Than Sein by
its managing partner Tan Ku Aun . ...
~r. B. Ghosh v. R. R. Dey , .
Oung Sein Chit v. The Additional Commissioner of
Income tax, Burma, Rangoon 000

People's Bank No. 1t v. Chen Sin Siu and ten others


P. Yan Soo (a) Maung Thaung Nyun v. The Union of
Burma
Ramniranjan Lhila v. Ramnorranjandas Mahabir Prased
Firm
Ratanlal v. N.A.P.L Firm by Ma Aung .Kyi an~ one ...

. State Agricultural Marketing Board v. Aung Trading Co.


--Commercial Bank v. Thibaw Commerd;ll Sy.ndi-
cate Ltd. and one
- - - - - - - - - v. U Po Dan and six others ...
The Bank of Q~ttinad Ltd. v. The Income-tax Assess-
ment, Collection and Inspection Board, Rangoon

- - - - - Communication v. Khin Co.
vii
~t"
The Bank of Communication v. Khyn Company
J~~
U Akyit Kaw v. Daw Ngwe Thein
J'P
- Aung Myint v. U HOe J?C>
---Thein v. U Than Htut and one JC>O
-Aye Maung v. Ba Tun and one JC><;
-Jamal v. Ma Bi J""
-Kyauk Sein v. The Additional Commissioner of
Income-tax, Burm.l o:>c;J
-Kyin Kha and one v. U Sein Paw ~G
-Maung Maung and two others v. Ma Talokma $n
- .- Mye v. Ko Tun Yin and one Je?
-Pe and two others v. Sao Kham noG
-Po Daung v. People's Bank No. 19 np
- Pyu and one v. U Ngwe Tun and one ~0
-Tun Min and one v. People's Bank No. 22
"JG
- Union of Burma v. Maung Ba Mai ~00
-------v. Maung Ba Shwe oo\>G
- - - - -- - v. Maung Tin Scin oo~e
- - - - - - v. U Tin Aye =>\>~G
V. E. RM. AR. Chettyar v. U Mya Shwe ~G,r
Zakaria Khan (deceased) by his L/R Mr. Mohamed
Khan and two others v. The Official Liquidator.
Chief Court Buildings. Rangoon

'.
VIII

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XIX
~:~
INDEX

. f~c~oxp:;=
CHIEF COURT OF BURMA

Acts; ~-
BURMA CARRIAGE OF GooDS BY SEA ACT.
----COMPANIES ACT.
---INCOME- TAX ACT.
---INSOLVENCY ACT.
- - - - STAMP ACT.
BURMESE CUSTOMARY LAW.
CHIN SPECIAL DIVISION (EXTENSION OF
LAWS)ACT. -
CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE.
---CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
CONTRACT ACT.
COURT FEES ACT.
EASEMENT ACT.
EVIDENCE ACT.
GUARDIAN AND WARDS ACT.
LAND AND REVENUE ACT.
LIMITATION ACT.
MONEY LENDERS ACT.
NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS ACT.
PARTNERSHIP ACT.
PENAL CODE.
PROVIDENT FuNDS ACT.
PuBLIC PROPERTY PROTECTION ACT.
RANGOON CITY CIVIL COURT ACT
- -- INSOLVENCY ACT.
XX

SJ1LS TAX ACT.


SPECIFIC REUFF ACT.
SuccESSION AcT
.TRANSFER .OF PROPERTY ACT.
UNioN JuoiCIARY AcT.
URBAN ~ENT CONTROL Act.
WRIT OF CeJRIORARl.

. ABATEMENT Of APPEALS -Code of Civil Procedure 0. 22 R.


2 and 4 -applicability to appeal - Abatement of appeal - no
abatemenl though !he legal repre senlative of' the d~eased
appellanl not brought on the record if the right of appeal
survives to the surviving appellants- application of rhe test
whether the respondents could sue the surviving. appellants
in the Trial Coun in .the absence of the deceas~d appellanl.

MARIAPPA CHEUIAR AND TWO OTHERS 1;). SHRI


VRAJLAL NARANDAS DESAI AND fOUR OTHERS 780

AcT or: Goo oR Y1s MAJOR -Carriage of Gunnies by Sea -loss of


the gunnies - Suit for compensation- whether the written
contract of agreemenr is enforceable in law- Act of God as
defence- whether 1he agreement is void under s. 23 or 56 of
the Contract Act.

THE STATE 1\GRICULTURAL MARKETING


BOARD '1?. AUNG TRADING CO. 262

ADVERSE PossESSION - Suit for ejectment- plea that pennission was


given by the owner to construct permanent buildihgs -
Easements Act - a sufficient defence against the ejectment
-Suit for ejectment -plea of adverse possession constitution
of adverse possession- physical exclusive. ~pen and hostile
with intention to hold for himself as owner.

U PE AND rwo OTHERS '0. SAO PO KHAM tav HIS


AGENT DAW TIN MAY. SAO TUN PHA (MINOR)
BY HIS FRIEND SAW PO KHAMI 816

F-
al':'iJoS
AMENDMENT OF WRITTEN STATEMENT - City Civil Court Act, s.25
- amendment of written. statement.

MA DOROTHY 'll U HAN 13

APPEAL AGAINST AN ORDER OF DETENTION IN THE BORSTAl ScHOOL


- Whether the appeallies to the Court of Sessions.

LET HPWA '\?. THE UNION OF BURMA II

APPLICATION FOR SucCESSION CERTIFICATE- Grant of succession certifi-


cate- a temporary arrangement-enablfng the grantee to realize
the assets - nominee to receive gratuity from Goverment -
whether he/she gets an absolute title' to it - Whether such
momination a testamentary disposition under Bumiese buddhist
Law - different from life insurance and provident funds -
separate living whether ruptures fllial relations. .

KO AYE 'tl. MA KHIN SAW WIN AND FOUROTHERS 1350

APPLICATION TO SET ASIDE AN EXPARTE DECREE - running of time


meaning of substituted service.

MR. 8 GHOSH t>. _R.R. DEY 244

APPLICATION TO SET ASIDE EXPARTE DECREE- Summons


duly served on the wife- onus to establish sufficient grounds .
for non- appearance running of time where the defendant is
duly served with summotlS.

U AUNG MYINT v. ~ HOE . 278

ARREST BEFORE JuDGEMENT- Code of civil Procedure 0.38, Rule 1


-arrest before judgment- whether an agent can be arrested
before judgment in a soit against his principat

V.E.RM.AR. CHETTYAR '{?. U MYA SHWE 569

BONA FIDE REQUIREMENT OF THE PERMISES .foR CoNSTRUCTION 'BUILD-


ING - Urban Rent Control Act. 1960- land in possesion of
Receiver- sale of land by the original owner- whether the
buyer obtained good title over the land wheth~r the trans-
feree can claim rent from the occupant of the premises -
XX 'II

. . : ~,.,
bona fide requirement of the premises construction of
building. .

U AKYIT KAW 'Q. DAW NGWE THEIN '271

BURMA COMPANIES ACT - Wifiding up of company - Burma Col)l


panies Act,s. 235 - inquiry into the conduct and acts of di
rectors-surrender and forreiture of .shares encails reduction
of capital can, do with t~e sanction of the Coun -com-
mission of acts of misfeasance .- assessment of compensa-
tion on the loss suffered by the Company - neither wrong
nor unreasonable - acts . 4lf directors do not call for ben-
efits of s.281 Bwma Companies Act. .

ZAKARJAKHAN . .by bis L/R MR. MoHAt." o KHAN


AND TWO OTHERS '?1. THE . OFFICIAL LIQUIDATOR.
CHIEF COURT BUILDING RANGOON 304

BURMA INCOME- TAX ACT Specific Relief Act, S. 45 jurisdiction


of the Court limited toca~es . of.clear breach,.9f duty to do
or forbear from doing - Burma Income ~x Act, s. 30.
proviso 4 -exercise of discretion by the Jncom-tax Assesss-
ment, Collection and inspection Board -correctness not to
be challenged - party not to be directed has to exercise the
discretion.

THE DANK OF CHETTINAD UMITEO \'.THE


INCOME - TAX ASSESSMENT. CO.LLECTION
AND INSPECTION BOARD, RANGOON 806

BURMA INCOME - TAX Aci -Certiorari- application for a writ of


The Bunna Income- tax Act.,s.23 exercise' of revisional
power by the Additional Commissioner of Income -
tax merging..of tbe appellate orde.r. of the Appellate Assistant
Commissioner . and that o(the assessment order of the
.Jncome-ta~ Offic~r-1~ be questioned . only under s. 33A -
proviso to s . 33 . subject to. .t~e ~ubstantive pan of the .
section.

OUNG . SEIN CHJT i7. JHE ADDITIONAL COM


MISSIONER .OF INCOME- 'rAX. BURMA. RAN-
GOON . goo F
. .'
~':<ijoS
OuRMA INCOME - T.~x. s 66 {2) - the best of judgment assessment-
Inc9me of the assessee trom undisclosed sources- construc-
tion of the President Ctnema - rehance: .on valuatiop .of.
assessors and other reports in nUlking the assessment- whether..
it can be said the assessments were made perversely or in
the absence of evidence - estimated irtcome used up jn the
construction lor that year itself - Burma Income- tax
Act.s. 37 - burden of proof.

U KYAUK SEIN 11.THE ADDitiONAL COMMIS..


SIONER OF INCOME- TAX BURMA 1142

Bu~Mr.SF. Buoou~r SPOuSES - impleading tlie wife cts ~ pacty de~


fendant - loan taken for the benefit of the joint family
business- liability of the wife tor the ..debt contracted by
the husblfnd.

STATE COMMERCIAL BANK ~. U PO DAN


AND SIX OTHERS 252

llu~MESf. CuSTOMARY LAW -Succession - application by the grand


children of the father of adoptee-application by the younger
sister of the adoptee- propinquity ofthe relationship of the
rival applicants to the adoptee.

MAUNG KHET ANI> TWO OTHERS '0 MA YIN 27

CHIN SPECIAL OtviSION(Ex rF.t-ISION OF LAws)Law- Suit for recovery ~>f


share capital- a receipt granted acknowledging the receipt
of money- no stipulation regarding the time for payment -
Article 120 of the limitation Act- Chins Special Divisions
(Extension of Laws) Act- Notitication No.23 of .the ct,in
Affairs Council - granting of relief on the principles of
justice, equity and good conscience. .

J. SANG NING '0. U YA UK . 776

CIVIL PROCEDURE Cooe - application to set, aside an ex-parte decree


in a summary suit under 0. 31 of the C:P.C;- decree against
a dead person - nothing to set aside.

BABU BHAGWANDAS ~ MESSRS A ABOO


28 BACKER AND CO..
XX iv
alt:<ijoS Q>?Eij<"Pt'.)
CODE OF CiviL PRoceDURE- dismissal order for default of appear-
ance whether the Court should proceed under 0 17,
R.2C.P.C

RATANLAL 11 M.A.P.L. FIRM BY MA AUNG KYI


AND ONE. 248

CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE. 0 Vl , Rule 17 - amendment of plaint


under pennission for- whether permissible.

MESSRS. WILLIAM JACKS A~ CO. Lro. '13.


YANGON PALLADIUM AND FIVE OTHERS..

CoDE OF CIVIL PROCt'DURE, 0. VI Rule 17 - amendment of


pleadings - at any stage of the proceedings - whether pro
posed amendments to be underlined in red i~k - principles
for guidance in allowing amendments.

THE BANK OF COMMUNICAYIONS ~- KHJN


COMPANY 811

Cooe oF C1v1L PROCEDURE ORDER VIII, Rule I -whether the detend


ant bound to present wrinen statement -'fanning of prelimj~
nary issue.

DAW SAW NYUN tl MA HLA KYIN 760

CODE OF Clvn. PRocEI!>URE ORDER XXI, Rule 29- stay of execution-


suit by land lord against tenant for recovery of arrears of
rent- suit by tenant for recovery of money given as security
- application for stay of .execution by tenant.

DAW OHN KHIN 'tl U KYIN SEIN

CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE ORDER 21. RuLe 4Q- EXECUTION OF DECR~E


- application for imprisonment of the judgment debtor -
0. 21. R. 40 C. P. Code and Proviso to s.5 I CJ,.C-wh.e.n
the Court has power order imprjsonment

U . AUNG THEIN '\?. U THAN HTUT AND ONE 281


~~:~~
CoDE OF CtvtL PROCCDURE 0.26 Rule 5- issue of conunission for
examination of witness residing abroad- whether evidence
relavant and essential for the proper decision of the suit-
whether application is 'bona fide.

MA THAN ANO ONE ~ MATHEWS JOSEPH. 239

CODE oF CtvtL PROCF.DURE , 0 .33 R.6- application to dispauper- 0.33


R. 2 (I)- obtaining leave to sue as pauper under- duty-to
show that all the property consists of the items set out and
valued in the schedule to the petition - fraudulent suppression
in the disclosure of assets - dismissal of the petition.

U PO DAUNG 'U. PEOPLES' BANK NO.I9 821

CoDE OF" CtvtL PROCEDUltE , 0 .38 R. 5 and 6- test for furnishing


security or in default attachment before judgement in a
promissory note suit

DAW MYAT MAY AND CO. 1l SElN TUN AND


PE THAN CO. AND TWO OTHERS 7

CooE OFCtvtt PROCEDURE CoDE,0.41 Rule 27- additional eviden<:e-


admission after the appreciation of evidence on record to
enable to pronounce judgment or for any substantial cause-
whether it can be exercised before the appeal is heard on
merits.

DAW HLA YIN AND ONE " U MAUNG SEIN AND


TWO OTHERS. S39

CoDE or Ctvtt PROCEDURE, ORDER 41 Rule 31 - Judgment of the I"


appellate Court - what it should contain.

U AYE MAlJliiG '11 U BA TUN AND ONE 284

CODE c.r Ctvtt PROCEDURE S.24 - transfer of suits and execution


proceedings.

u MAUNG MAUNG ANOTWO OTHERS 1).MA TALOK


MA ~
XX VI

CoNTRACT ACl:- Suit for specific perfonnance of Contract - oral


contract between the parties-whether the contract has been
proved - whether the appellate Court is justified in
disagreeing with the finding of the.trial Court-intention of
the party detennining factor-whether or not time was the
essence of the contract-whether the suit is time- barred.

U JAMA 11 MA BI . 288

CONTRACT ACT - Suit for Recovery of loan on a promissory not -


debt barred by Limitation-acknowledgment of the loan with
a promise to pay- whether the document is a pro-note or
an. acknowledgment of the debt- a promise to pay a barred
debt comes under s. 25 sub-s (3) of the contract Act whether
to be stamped under No. 5 (c) of schedule I of the Bunna
Stamp Act as amended by Act No. 28 of 1957 whether
admissible in evidence.

THE BANK OF COMMUNICATION 1l KHYN


COMPANY 255

CouRT FEES AcT,s.5- reference py Registrar of the Original Side-


No. II of Schedule I of the Court fees Act- complete assets
!lnd properties of the deFea~ed to. be shown in the Annex-
ure A-S . 191 (I) of the tourt Fees Act- applicant to file a
valuation of the property, in the fom1 set forth in the Third
Scnedule- Rule 4 of the; Rules of Procedure in the Grant
of Letters of Administration of the Rules and Order of the
High (chief) Court- aftid~vit of valuation and affidavit or
certificate of valuation of immovable property to accompany
the application.
JN THE MATTER OF THE ESTATE OF U KYAW
GAUNG ,_ DAW NYUNT. 769

CouRT FEES ACT,- Transfer of Property Act,s 53 -a representatiye


suit for declaration that a deed of gift is not binding
upon the plaintiffs - ..-nether a suit for mere declaration is
maintainable -whether Court fees is payable under s. 7 (iv)
(c) of the Col!rt Fees Act- suit by creditors burden of proof
fraud on the creditors- shifting of the burden to the debtor.

1-J.T AHUJA AND SEVEN OTHERS 'p.. P.C.GHOSH


(decea$ed) AND TWO OTHERS . 22R
a3+:'tirl5
CouRT fEES Acr, Article 17 Clause vt of Schedule II -suit for
ejectment of a licensee -plaintiff at liberty to put his own
valuation - erroneous framing of issue ground for revision.

U PYU 1\ND ONE 1l U NGWE TUN AND ONE. 51

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE S .33 Penal Code s.420 conviction


under- fine or in default to suffer imprisonment - Code of
Criminal Procedure s .33 - imprisonment in default of pay -
ment of fine not to exceed one-fourth of the period of
imprisonment which magistrarte is competent to pass
Penal Code. s. 65 imprisonment in default of payment of
fine not to exceed -one~fourth' of the tenn of imprisonment
for the offence.

THE UNION OF BURMA ~ MAUNG BA SHAWE. 1136

CRIMINAL PRoceDURE Cooe PENAL CoDE s.325-Trial of warrant ~


as summons case - whether irregularity curable bp s. 537
Criminal Procedure Code - enhancement of sentence.

THE UNION OF BURMA ,, MAUNG TrN SEIN. 1139

CUSTODY OF A MfNOR SON Guardian and Word Act, s. 25- appJica


tion by mother for custody of her minor soh-minor too
young to be capable of forming an intelligent opinion of
or expressing his vei~- insanity of father- applicant's financial
means to .look . after the child- application . not unfit and
incapable of retaining the custody of the child.

MA MYINT KYI ll U KYAW AND ANOtHER SS I

ExecUTION OF CONSENT- decree Money - Lender's Act, 1945- carry


ing on ~oney lending business after the enforcement of the
Act but ceasing after a certain period - whether a money
- lender within the meaning of the Act- carrying on the
business of money - !_ending after expiry of mo~ey- lending
certificate - whether to be regarded as a mo!1ey-lender as
defined in S.2(6)- s.9 of the Money -lenders Act- Prohibiting
Court from passing any order.on the application of a money-
lender for execution of a decree - registration ot" money -
28 lender to be in force- whether relief can be granted. when
XX viii
~':~aS
licence ~xpires before. making any. order.

B. LADASARIA ,,. U KYI 535

EviDENCE Acr-s. l45and 155 (3)- witness unworthy of credit-


falsity .of statement proved by contradictory statement - by
examination of Investigating Officer or admission of. the
witness .statement as exhibit.
. .
P. YAN SQO tA) MAVNG THAUNG NYUN 'U.
THE UNION OF BURMA. 43

FRAUDULENT TRANSFER- Suit for declaration that the . tfimsf~r of ~


bouse was void against the creditors - presumption of :fraud
in case of a voluntary settlement- transferor largely indebted
.at the rime of settlement- transferee tt> show go.od faith as
weJI as payment of consideration - whether a gratuitous
consideration such as natural love and affection is a "valuable"
consideration.

U . TUN MIN AND. ONE "t'- PEOPLES' BANK N0.22,


RANGOON . 826

(NSOI.VENCY BUJtMA INSOLVENCY Acr S. 4(2)- placing h.is claim by


a c-laimant before the insolv.ency Court-determi11ation of the
question.- whether . its decision is final and binding between
the partie~ - whether the .claimant can re-agitate the mer-Its
of his claim by bringing a regular suit-whether the remedy
lies if by way of appeal under s.75. Bunna Insolvency Act-
grant Of leave to appeal - under whether the Court can
exercise in favour of a creditor - competency of appeal
under s.4 and 75(3) of the Bunna Insolvency Act avoidance
of transfers under s.53, Bunna Insolvency Act-grossly inad-
equate consideration in the transfer of the house in question
- whether the tiansf'!r was bona fide- bona fide transfer on
account of pressore 6f a creditor- absence of collusion and
of kitowledge of the embar.rassing circumstances of the
debtor- whether the transfer ftaudulent within the meaning
of s. 53.
MESSRS. BHODIA BROTHE-RS '" FAIZAR
&AltMAN CHOWDHURY AND 'THREE OTHERS . 784
2d~:~o5
INTEREST- Suit for recovery of money being the value of bags of
. groundnuts - no agreement or evidence of usage of trade to
justify the award of interest- whether the provisions of the
interest Act are appljcable - whether interest is payable
under s. 61 of the sales of Goods Act.

UNION OF BURMA '0. U. TIN AYE 1356 .

LANQ AND R.EVENU ACT - SS 46 - 48 Mortgage by Deposit of title


- deeds - sale of one the mortgaged properties by the
revenue authorities for arrears of sale tax due.

PEOPLES' BANK 1'{0.11 'It CHEN SIN SIU ANI;>


TEN OTHERS 36

LEssEE's DUTY To PAY RENT WITHOUT OEMAHf> FROM THE l.asoR.


-Suit for Recovery of Rent from tenant- Urban Rent Control
Act, 1960 - Transfer of Property Act- notic- no provision to
give- Transrfer of Property Act, s. 108 (l) to pay rent-
duty of lessee.

U MYE '0 KO TUN YIN AND ONE 297

LIMITATION ACT , - Suit for recovery of possession of a house site-


infructuous sale deed- evidence of possession of the site as
purchaser not as lictnsee - adverse possession from the
date of invalid sale- Limitation Act, Article 144.

MA THAN KYI AND SIX OTHERS "U DAW GE 556

MALICIOUS PROSECUTION AND ARREST - Suit for recovery of damages


for malicious prosecution and arrests -passing of a cheque
which was dishonoured - prosecution for cheating whether
reasonable or probable cause for- acceptance of cheque
and creditiing it into accounts. relating to all contracts-
cheque found useless - apprehension that fraud had beer
practised- prosecution in a criminal court -whether answerable
in a suit for damages for malicious prosecution -competent
legal advice on disclosure of true and relevant facts-whether
a valid protection against action for malicious prosecution.

RAMNIRANJAN LHILA 11 RAMNIRANJANDAS


MAHABIR PRASAD FIRM . 561

'.
.
XXX
~~:~oS GY:l~oS,-::
MoNEY LENDERS Acr, I 945 - Suit for recovery of .money due on
promissory note- application for dismissa of suit before
the conclusion o( the trial -Money lenders Act (194 5)- fram-
ing of several issues- neither expedient nor wise to dismiss
suit on one issue.

GHANSHAMDAS BILASROY ANB THRF.E OTIIJ::Rs U


MAQANLAL SARAF 1128

NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS Acr s. 4- promissory note- intention of the


parties.

KO THAN ~ DAW SAW MYA . 234

PARlNERSIIIP ACT- Suit for recovery of Money due on accounts


taken-balance sheet prepared by qualified accountant -failure
to point out its incorrectness - no proof of irregularity
of erroneousness- whether sufficient to attach. liability on
the defendant.

H.T. AHUJA AND OTHERS 'o. P.C GHOSH (deceased)


represented by his wife DAw HLA YIN AND DAUGHTER 223

PENAL CooE, s. 376- sentenced to undergo 4 years' rigorous impris-


onment and to suffer 20 lashes of whipping- whether appeal
lies to the Court of Session or to the Chief Court.

AH TOO V. THE UNION OF BURMA .

PENAL CooE - framing of charge under s.450 - additional charge


under s. 326 possible.

MAUNG THEE MYAING (a) LON YUN (a)


KAUJ'iG THA '!'- THE UNION OF BURMA . 18

Pusuc P-ROPERTY pROTECTION Acr, s. (6)(!)- while committing theft


of petrol belonging to the People's Oil Industry - arrest
of accused - legality or other- wise of the arrest- whether it
c~n affect the question the accused is or is not guilty of
the offence charged - whether the conviction is vitiated.

UNION OF BURMA ~. MAUNG BA MAl. 300


xxxi
~':~oS - ~~
~ANGOON INSOLVENCY Acr, s. 9 (e)- commission of an act of insol
vency by the debtor under - Rangoon lnsovency Act, s. II
(b} - order of adjudication under - burden to show that the
Court has jurisdiction to entertain the petition -definition of
" ordinarily resided" - proof that the debtor nonnaUy or
usually ate, drank and slept at the place - requirement by
law pf clear and unequivocal evidence to adjudicate a
person insolvent-proof that the property in question is a
dwelling - house Pr.oof that it belonged to the respondent
during the requisite period of time.

IN THE MATfER Of RAMNIRAJAN LHILA '0


DAW THAN 763

RIGHT Of PRIVATE OEfENcr - reasonable apprehension of grieVOus


hurt being caused deceased nashinc forwards holding a
torch.

MAUNG TIN NYO '0 THE UNION OF BURMA 22

STAY OF EXECUTION -application by the unsuccessful claimant tiding


a suit under 0 . 21, R. 6;J C.P.C

U KYIN KHA AJlD ONE 12 U SEIN PAW S6

SuiT FOR RECOVERY OF DAMAGES FOR LOSS PADDY - occurence of loss


in a collision - a moving v~ssel running down a stationary
vt:Ssel -applicability of doctrine of res ipsa loquitor- burden
on the part ofthe moving vessel to show no negligence on
her part - judgment of a criminal Court- whether relevant
and binding on a civil Court -liberty of a thrid party to sue
the owner of either vessel.

MINGALA THUKA RJCE MILL CO., Lm. BY lST


MANAGING PARTNER TAN KU AUN 1) U THAN
SEIN . 794

UNION Juou.:IARY Acr, s. 6- construction of will -plain and unarr.-


biguous language - whether it shall ~eive its literal con-
struction use ofambiguous words -duty of Court to ascertain
the intention of the testaor- consideration of surrounding
circumstance, testator's family relationship, testator's use of
words in a praticular sense - construction settled - duty of
XXX ii
ai~:~
Court to carr-y out the expressed in~ntioa of the testator -
whether .tbe Jaw favours lntesteoc)'eltlter wholly or 98!1Jal~

DAW KHJN KYl widow of U Ba (deceased) AND


ONE 'Q DAW MA MA . :541

UNION JUDICIARY Act s IS- cause of action - not arising -


wholly within the locat jurisdiction of the Court - leave to
sue- the very foundation for exercise of jurisdiction - leave
to sue whether a fonnal matter of procedure -suit based on
contract.

STATE COMMERCIAL BANK 1:l THIBAW COM _


MERCIAL SYNDICATE Lro. AND ONE 1311
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'CRIMJNAL APPEAL

Btfure U Thtt Pe, J. tC.C.


1<)66
AH TOO (APPELLANT) Fb9
v.
THE UNION OF BURMA (RESPONDENT).

Penal Cork. s. 376-ient~d to undergo 4 years' rigorous imprison-nt and to


suffer zo lashes of whipping-whether appeall~s to the Cour.t of Session or to
the Chief Court.
Held : The words "sentence of imprisonment for a term exceeding four
yean" clearly connote that an appeal lies to this Court only when the sub-
:ttantive sentence of im'prisonment is m~re than 4 years. The section wiU haw
no application to a sentence of not more than 4 years' imprisonment although
Such a sentence is passed in COnjunction With SOme Other form Of punishment
like whipping or fine for the simple reason that w}ripping or fine ia not a eentence
of imprisonment.
Maung Tun Tha v. The State. I.L.B.R. (1<)0002), p. 57 ;
Khuda Bakhsh v. The Stau. A.l.R. (t9t8) La h., p. 384 ;
Kaijan v. The Stott, A.I.R. (1934) Oudh, p. 433 (z), referted to.

None for the appellant.


None for the respondent.

U THET PE, J.-The appellant Ah Too was convicted.


~nder seCtion 376 of the Penal Code and sentenced to
undergo 4 years' rigorous imprisonment and also to suffer
20 lashes under section 4 (a) of the Whipping Act by the
First Additional Special Power Magistrate, Kawkareik.
Criminal Appeal No. 179 of 1965.
t Appeal from the or~er of the JSt Additional Special Power Masisuate of
Kawkareik, dated the t3tb day of May 1965, passed in his C.R. Reg. Trial
No. roof C):6s.
J
c.c. On appeal to the Court of Session, Moulmein, the learned
16
Sessions judge took the view that the appeal lay to this
AH Too
v. Court, and not to the Court of Sessions. under proviso (b)
TM
UNION oF
to section 408 of the Code of Criminal Procedure and
BURMA. accordingly submitted the memorandum of appeal to this
Court.
Now, proviso (b) to section 4o8 of the Code of Criminal
Procedure reads:--
.. (b) when in any case ~n Assistant Sessions judge or a
Magistrate specially empowered under section 30 passes any
sentence of imprisonment for a term exceeding four years,
or any sentence of transportation. the appeal of all or any
of the accused convicted at such trial shall lie to the High
Court; ..

The words "sentence of imprisonment for a term exceed-


ing four years " clearly connote that an appeal lies to this
Court only when the substantive sentence of imprisonment
is more than 4 years. The section will have no applica-
tion to a sentence of not more than 4 years' imprisonment
although such a sentence is passed in conjunction with
some other form of punishment like whipping or fine for
the simple reason that whipping or fine is not a sentence
of imprisonme~t. The same view has been adopted in
Mg Tun Tha v. The State (1). Khuda Bakhsh v. The State (2)
and Kajjan v. The Stale (3). I therefore hold that the
present appeal will lie to the Court of Session, not to
this Court.
In the result. the appeal is transferred to the Court of
Session, Moulmein, for disposal and the Session judge is
directed to accept the appeal as having been instituted in
his Court on the date o~ which the memorandum of
appeal was presented in this Court.

(r) I.L.B.R. {1900-o~)'. p. 57 (:z) A.I.R. {r918) Lah p. 384


GT A.J.R. (19J4) Oudh., p. 4JJ (:z).
CIVIL REGULAR c.c.
~
Before U Kyaw Zan U, j. Ja,., .a8.
BABU BHAGWAND AS (PLAINTIFF)
v.
MESSRS. A. ABOO BACKER AND Co. (DEFENDANTS).*

Civil Procedure Code---<Jpplication to set aside an ex. parte decree in a summary


suit under 0. 37 of tlu C.P.C.-'-decree against a duld p"son-110thit~~:
to s(t aside.
Held : A decree against a firm in the name of the finn must be deem~
to be a decree agamst all the pytn~rs.. But the decree which had been passed
after the d~ath of both the p~s:tners of the defendant firm without bringing their
legal representatives on tJ:le ;record. must be regarded as a nullity and has no
e~:istence in law. When a decree is in fact no decree at all there is nothing to
be set aside and the present appli~tio~ to s~l aside will not ther~forelie.
Kesho Prasad Si,gh v. Shamnandan Rai, A.I:R. (1926) Pat. 504;
Ma Min Thin v. Maa"g Po Win.,-A.I.R. (1917) Lower Bunna ~~ ;
. Jadu Nandan Ram v. P.arsown Gi,ni"C Co. Ltd., A.I.R. (1930) All 636;
Lachihmon Singh v. Mt: Chatter Kaur, A.I.R. b927) Lah. 66j ;
S.A. Nathan v. S.R ..Samson, 9 Ran. 480 at 491 (F.B.), referred to.

!yfr. Rishi Ram for the plaintiff.


U Hla Pe (2) for the d~f~ndants...

U KYAW ZAN U. J.~is order relates to the applica-


tion of one M. I. Abdul Hamid dated the 4th December
I 964 which arose und~t the following circumstances : -
On I 3th October 1964 the plaintiff Babu Bhagwandas
sued the defendant Messr~. A. Aboo Backer: and Company
under the summary procedure provided by Order XXXVII
of the Code of Civil .frocedu~:e for recovery of K 54.800
due on a promissol)1 npte. On 19th October 1964 sum-
mons in the prescri~e&!orm was duly served on ~he. de-
fendant firm. Then' on 29th October I964 A. Mohamed
Ebrahim, a partner of the defendant firm, appeared and
filed an application for time to engage a laWy-er to defend
the suit. Time was gran~ed till 5th November I 964 but
no one appeared for the d~fendant firm on that date. The
Civii Regular No. so of 1964.

'. '.
c.c. proceedings were thereupon placed before the Court for
1966
orders and my predecessor passed a decree as prayed for
BHA~~As by the plaintiff with costs on uncontested scale on 9th
. M..;Rs. A. November 1964. Then on 4th December 1964 the present
AJJoo BAClCER applicant describing himself as the legal representative
ANo Co. of the partners of the defendant firm instituted the instant
application to set aside the ex parte decree passed against
the defendant firm and to grant him leave to defend the
suit. Various objections were raised by the plaintiff
against the application with the r~sult that the Court '
ordered an enquiry, in the course of-which it was brought
out that the defendant firm was originally constituted by
two p-artners, namely. A. Mohamed Ebrahim and
M. I. Omar by a registered deed of partnership dated the
7th Juy 1950 and that M. I. Omar died on 17th November
1962 and A. Mohamed Ebrahim expired on tth Novem-
ber I9~4
The only serious argument which has been submitted
on behalf of the plaintiff against the app1ication is that .
a summary suit under Order XXXVII of the Code of Civil
Proceaure, where a defendant can only appear and contest
the claim with the permission of the Court, is unlike a
suit of ordinary nature and that a decree passed thereon
cannot be set aside by reason of the absence of the defend-
ant. In a summary suit. m~re absence of the defendant
who has been duly served with summons in the prcscrihrd
form is of course no ground for setting aside a decr<'e. 1\ut
it cannot be disputed th.u the Court has the discrf.Jion t ~1
set aside su~h. a dCLTl't utHI~jl{ulc 4. ~rder X~XVI 1_ of tilt'
Code of Clv~:l Procedure 1f there exist special nrcums-
tances. However, before any .action under Rule 4. Order
XXXVII is contemplated it must in the first instance be
considered whether the present application to set aside
the decree will lie in the circumstances of the ~ase.
A firm unlike a corporation is not a legal entity and
has no existence in Jaw apart from its partners. It is noth-
ing but a name for the partners of which it consists c.c.
When a suit is brought against a firm the suit must be ~
regarded as having sued an the partners. It follows there- BHA~~AS
from that a decree against a firm in the name of the firm M -v.
ESSRS . A.
must be deemed to be a decree against all the partners A!looBA<:XER
In the present case, the result of the enquiry shows that AND Co.
at the time of the insti~ution of the suit one of the partners,
namely, M. I. Omar was already dead. But the plaintiff's
suit was not invalid In
view of the provisions of Rule 4,
Order XXX of the Code of Civil Procedure as the other
partner A. Mohamed Ebrahim was then still alive. How-
ever, when the Court passed the decree against the defend-
ant firm on 9th November 1964 none of the partners were
alive, the other partner, namely, A. Mohamed Ebrahim
having died on 4th November .1964. The decree which
had been passed in the present case after .t he death of both
the partners of the defendant firm without bringing their
legal representatives on the record must be regarded as
a nullity. The diary entry dated 6th November 1964
show that the Court was informed of the death of
A. Mohamed Ebrahim on 4th November 1964 and the
plaintiff must therefore be fully aware of his death before
the decree was recorded. It is settled law that a decree
passed against a dead person is null and void. Kesho
Prasad Singli v. Shamnandan Rai (1), Ma Min Thin v.
Maung Po Win (2). ]adu Nandan Ram v. Parsota11 Ginning
Co. Ltd. (3). La'hihman Singh v. Mt. Chattar Kaur (4).
In S. A. Nathan v. S. R. Samson (5) Page. C.J. has this to
say in connection with the decree against a dead person :-
"the executing Court can only execute a decree', and
if what purportS to be a decree has been passed by a Court
not duly constituted in accordance with Jaw such an adjudica-
tion is not a decree at all in the eye of the Jaw. Such a

(t) A.l.R. (19z6) Pat S04 (3) A.I.R. (1930) All 636.
(z) A.I.R. (1917) L 8 IJZ (4) A.I.R. (1927) Lah 663.
(S) 9 Ran 48o at :l91 (F.B.).
c.c. decree' in the strict sense of the term is a nullity, a mere .
16 nothing,' that need not be set aside and ,may be disregarded
BA.BU by any Court to which it is presented. So also is a decree
.BHACWANDAS
v. that has been passed against a dead person."
~.A.
~B~ At page 505 of the same report Carr, J. had also made
the following observation-
"Where a decree has been passed against a person after
hi.s death we might safely say that it is a nullity, but I
should myself prefer to avoid the use of the dangerous word
nullity, and to say simply that the decree is inexecutable
because it has been passed against nobody. and is therefore,
executable against nobody. If it is sought to execute . the
decree against the estate of the deceased person in the hands
of his legal-representatives it is open to those . representativ.es
to contest execution on the ground that they are strangers
to the suit, ?nd are, therefore. not bound by the decree; and
they can riglltly d;tiin\ . that the estate passed to them
at t.he moment of the deceased's death before the decree was
passed. and that, therefore, there is no. estate liable 10 be
seized in execution."

I am in respectful 3greement with their remarks and


hold that since the decree passed in the presellt case being
one against dead persons is a nullity and has no existence
in law. When a decree is in fact no decree at aJI there
is nothing to be set aside and the present applicatioo to
set aside will not therefore lie.
ln the result the application of M. I. Abdul HamiC.:
dated the 4th December 1964 is dismissed. In the cir-
cumstances ( f the case there will be no order as to costs.
CIVIL REGULAR

Befort U Tlut P~. J.

DAW MYAT MAY AND Co. (PLAINTIFFS) c.c.


t966
Y.
, 7~

SEIN TUN AND PE THAN Co. AND TWO O"J:"HERS


(DEfENDANTS).

CiiJil ProcttJure Code. 0. 38. R. s and 6-telt for furnishing ucurity or in default
attachment lkfore judgement ;, a promissory note suit.
1
Held: .The jurisdiction of the Coun to attach the defendanu' property
before the rights of the panies are finally adjudicated upon is extrlordinary
and urgent in nature. One useful test to ju~tify for adoption of such a courae
is whether the plaintiffs would suffer an irreparable injury unless the order
asked for is granted and tht the mischief or inconvenience which is likely to
arise in consequence of withholding the relief will be greater than that from
rrant~g it. .
The mere apprehension of the plaintiffs that their dues might remain unpaid
without any concrete evidence is not a ground for calling upon the defenoants
to furnish security much less to order the attachment before judgment.
Heldfurtlli!r : The words used in ~ule s, Order 38 of the Civil Procedu:e
Code' indicate that it applies to cases where the defendants a~e about to dispose
of their propenies not in cases of completed transctions.
Hari BakJuh v. Babula/ and anotlli!r, A.I.R. (1928) Lah., p. 7?%.
Betumarul Rai and othtrl v. Nabokutnar Singh a~rd other~, A.I.R. (1938)
Pat p. t6t. referred to.

U Ba Shun for the plaintiffs.

Mr. V. San C. Po for the defendants.

U THET PE, J.-


This is an application under Order 38.
rules 5 and 6 of the Civil Procedure Code to direct the
defendants to furnish security and in default to attach
before judgment three pieces of land with three modern ..
cottages and one three-storeyed pucca building standing
thereon valued at K 3.oo,ooo belonging to the defendants.
II Civil Regular Suit No. # of 1963.
0

c.c. The plaintiffs, who had sued the defendants for re-
1966
DAW MYI\1" covery of K 69.500 said to be due on a promissory note
MAy AND alleged that the defendants are not possessed of any pro-
Co.
v. perty other than those mentioned above which they had
SEIN TuN
AND given in mortgage to the State Commercial Bank and that
.P 'I'HAN Co. they had sold two acres out of eight acres from one item of
AND TWO
OTHERS. mortgaged lands which would go to show that they are
bent on disposing the properties with the permission of
the mortgagees and utilizing the proceeds for their own
benefit thereby would deprive the plaintiffs of the fruit
of the decree which they might eventually obtain in the
present suit.
.Jt is true that the defendants had mortgaged their pro-
perties with the State Commercial B~nk which had filed
a suit against them for recovery of K 1.42,036/67 in Civil
~egular Suit No. 24 of 1964 of this Court. The properties
are ad,-nittedly. on the own show~ng of the plaintiffs.
worth not less thaJJ K 3.oo.ooo which even after deducting
1
the mortgaged debt due to the State Commercial Bank is
more than sufficient to cover ~he claim of the plaintiffs.
The sale of two acres out of eight acres from one piece
of land by the defendants would not reduce the total value
of the properties to such an extent as to prejudice the
plaintiffs' claim.
The jurisdiction of the Court to attach the defendants'
property before the rights of the parties are finally adjudiT
cafed upon is extraordinary and urgent in nature. One
useful test to justify for adoption of such a course is
whether the pl:lintiffs would suffer an irreparab~ injury
unless the orde; asked for is granted and that the missl:lief
or inconvenience which is likely to arise in consequence
of withholding the relief will be greater than that from
granting it. The present application was made as early
as 30th October I 964 and it cannot~ at the time of hearing.
which took place on the 3rd January 1966, be serjously
contended by the plaintiffs that the defendants are in that c.c.
1966
period of more than one year contemplating to dispose
, ' .t he d'tsposa } o f t he1r
o f or negouatmg . properties
. ' and t hat DAW M.YAT
MAY ANo
there exists the real fear of a grave danger that the defend- c:..
ants are dishonesdy trying to cheat the probable fruits SEI~N;;uN
of the judgment. They could only stress about the sale Pe '1'ttAN Co.
by the defendants of tWo acres out of eight acres in one ~~~~~~
piece of la~d. which as pointed above is not likely to effect
the claim of the plaintiffs. The mere apprehension of the
plaintiffs that their dues might remain unpaid without
any concrete evidence is not a grotino for calling upon
the defendants to furnish security much less to order the
attachment before judgment.
Besities the words used in rule 5. Order 38 of the Civil
Procedure Code indicate that it applies to cases - where
the defendants are about to dispose of their properties
not in cases of completed transactions. It appears from
the reply of the State Commercial Bank in Civil Regular
No. 21 of 1964 of this Court that the defendants had paid
the sale proceeds of two acres of land amounting to
K ts.ooo on the 29th of january 1964 which was much
earlier than the date of this application namely. 30th
October 1964.
Thus it has been ruled in Hari Bakhsh v. Babu La/ and
another (1) that,
"Rute 5 contemplates attachment of property which the
defendant is about to dispose of or remove fro,m the juris.
diction of the Court and not of the property alre11dy disposed
of.''
In Bedanand Rai and others v. Nabokumar Singh,
Plaintiff and others (2) it was observed that,
" Before the provisions of R. 5 of 0. 38 could come into
play, the Court has to be satisfied that transfers were going
to be made by the defendant after the suit had been filed and
that such transfers were with the obj~t of obslructing the

(I) A.r.it. (&9s8) Lah., p . nz. (2) A.l.R. (1938) Pat, p. 161.

'.
00

c.c.
1966
plaintiff if he won the suit in executing the
decr,ee ; and
mere allegation~ to this effect are of no avail but the facts
DAW MYAT must be positively proved by satisfactory evidence."
MAY AND
Co.
" Even assuming that the defendants had sold two acres
~
SIDN out of eight acres in one piece of land after the institu.tion
PEA'!n~~o. of the suit it was done in. order to pay up part of the
oTHERS. mortgaged debt due to the St~te Commercial Bank. There
is nothing to suggest that the disposal w;:ts made with
intent to o1>struct or delay .the execution of any decree
that may be passed in favour of the plaintiffs. In 'this
connection it will be relevant to refer to the decision in
Nowroji Pudumjee Sirador v. The Deccan Bank Ltd. (3)
where it was held that,
" Merely because the defendant attempts to sell some of
his immoveable property, while proceedings against him are
pending, it does not follow that he is disposing of the pro-
p~rty with intent to obstruct ,or delay the execution of any
. decree that may be passed in the suit."

Lastly I would respectfully adopt, the observatiqn of


Lord Williams, J., in Dutga Das Das v. Nolin Chandra
Nandan and others (4) which reads,
"Finally neither injunction nor attachment ought to be
lightly granted. It would be a serious thing if persons In
possession were restrained from making use of the property
merely because a suit had been instituted about it. It is
only where i't is essential that property should be kept in its
existing condition pending suit, that the Court should
interfere."

In the result the application of the plaintiffs under


Order 38, rules 5 and 6 of the C~vil Procedure Code fails
and is dismissed. In the circumstances of the case there
wfli be ~o order as to costs.

(J)A.I.R. (1921) Born., p. 69. (4) A.I.R. (1934) Cal., p. 694 at 698.
CRIMINAL APPEAL

Before U Thet Pe, J.


tC.C.
LET HPWA (APPELLANT) 1966

v. Yan. 31

THE UNION OF BURMA (RESPONDENT).*

.Appeal against an order of detention i~ the Borstal School--whether the appeal


lies to the Court of Sessions. .
Held : The appeal against an order of detention in the Borstal School
by a District Magistrate lies to the Court of Scssi~ns, not to the Chief Court.
Marmg Tha E and another v. The State, 14 Ran . p. 143 referred to and
followed.

- for the appellant.

U Net (Government Advocate) for the respondent.

U THET PE, ].-This is an appeal by <?ne Let Hpwa,


who has been ordered to be detained in the Borstal School
for a period of five years by the District Magistrate, Pa-an.
The appeal against an order of detention in the Borstal
School by a District Magistrate lies to the Court of Ses-
sions, and not to this Court. In Maung Tha E and another '
v. The State (1), it has been held that:
"It is provided by s. 13 of the Prevention of Crime (Young
Offenders) Act that in respect of any order passed by a magis-
.tr'ate under Part II of the Act (which includes an order for
detention in a Borstal Scheol) an appeal shall lie to the Court
of Session ~ An order of detention in a Borstal School is not
a sentence of imprisonment, and against such an order for
any period passed by a magistrate there is a right of appeal

Criminal Appeal No. 206 of 1965.


t Appeal from the order of the District Magistrate of Pa-an, dated the 30th
day of April 1965, passed in Criminal Regular Trial No. 12 of 1965.
(1) 1 Ran., P L-+3
OJ
c.c. to the local Co~,trt d. Selsion. The only circumstance 111
1966 which the appeal against such an order will lie to the Hi&b
Lft HPWA Court is under proviso (b) to s. 4o8 of the Criminal Procedure
tl. Code when a co-accused, ~ho has been tried together with
Ttm UNJON the juvenile affected by the o-rder, has been sentenced to
OfBUaMA.
imprisonment for a term exceeding four years."

This appeal will therefore be transferred to the Court


of Sessions, Moulmein for disposal and the Sessions judge
i.s directed to accept the appeal as having been instituted
in his Court on the date on which the Memorandum of
Appeal was presertted in this Court. A copy of this order
will be sent to. the appellant for information.
CIVIL REVISION
Ik/DTt U Thet Pe, J.
MA DOROTHY (APPLICANT)
/ c.c.
v. Jg66

u HAN ,(.I~.ESPONDENT) . Ftb. 25

City Civil Court Act, s. zs-ammdment of written statmtent.


Held; The petitioner has by the. proposed amended written statement
Taised two additional p leas namely: (a) that the document filed as promissory-
note is in.fact a bond and (b) that the mortgage being a simple mortgage ia
'i nvalid for want of a registered deed. The construction of a docwnent whether
itis a promissory-note or a bond is a matter of law which can be raised at any
stage o~ the proceedings. It will not mvolve the reopening of the entice~
The tvo additional pleas put up by the petitioner can be decided on arguments
alone without adducing any further evidence.
The tower Court is di rected that the proposed amended written statement
of the petitioner be admitted.
Ma .Than Yin v. Tan Keat Khang (a) Tan Keit &in, (1951) B.L.R.,p. r6r
(H.C.);
Ma Thein Yin v. U Nyu11 and four others, (1953) B.L.R., p. 26o (H.C.),
distinguished.
Daw SmtJ '' Ramafi(Jthan Chettyar, (1955) n.L.R., p . 49 (H.C.);
K. La.:o:man Rao v. Bha'CJani Singh and anothn-, A.I.R. (1950) Hyder;~bad,
p . 43:
Allhil Rmrjan Das Gupia v. B .N. Biswas, A.I.R. (1950) Cal.,p. 472';
N~isingh Prasad Paul v. Steel Products Ltd., A.I.R. (1953) Cal., p. rs;
Secretary of State for ~ndia v. /. M. Loll, ( 1945) F. C.R. , p. 103;
Gujadhar Mahton v. Ambiha Prasad Te?:uari and others, A. I.R. (1925) (P.C.),
p. 169 at x?o, referred to.

U Ko Ko for the applicant.


U Ba Than (1) for the respondent.

U THET PE, J.-In Civil Regular Trial No.. 25 of 1964


.Gf.the City Civil Court, Rangoon, the respondent-pl~intiff
sued t he petitioner-defendant and three others for recovery
of K 29,900 said to be due on an equitable m ortgage. On
completion of necessary pleadings by the parties the suit
Civi I Revision No. 2-1 of 1965 against the order of the Chief Judge of tho
City Civil Cour:t of ltingoon in Civil Regular Trial No. 25 oJ 1964 dated the
A . 28th June 1<)65.

'. '. '.


c.c. went- to trial. After the respondent-plaintiff had closed
1966
his case the petitioner and her co-defendants proceeded
THY to examine their witnesses. Then the Court granted an
v. adjournment to examine one of the petitioner's vvitnesses
UHAN.
who was absent on the date fixed for hearing. At this
stage the petitioner applied for the amendment of her
wrinen statement which was however rejected by the
learned Chief Judge on the ground that it was belated and
that the proposed amendment, if allowed. would involve
the reopening of the entire case. The learned Judge
further remarked that the proposed amended written state-
ment had . not been filed with the application for amend-
ment. This last remark of the learned Judge appears to be
incorrect as the proposed amended written statement is
found on page 48of the trial proceedings.
It has been argued at the outset by the learned
Advocate for the respondent that this revision does not
Ji~ on the authority of Ma Than Yin v. Tan Keat Khang (a)
Tan Keit Sein .(I). It must however be at once pointed out
that this application is one under Section 25 of the City
Cfvil Court Ad and not under Section liS of the Code
of Civil Procedure. The powers of this Court under Sec-
tion 25 of the City Civil Court Act are much wider than
those exercisable under Section I I 5 of the Code of Civil
Procedure and the propriety or otherwise of an order
passed by the City Civil Court can be called into
question by this Court. Vide Daw Saw v. Ramanathan
Chettiai (2).
The sheet anchor of the respondent's argument against
the application is the decision in Ma Thein Tin v! U Nyan
and four others (3) where it was held that.
"leav~ to amend pleadings is a matter in the discretion
of the Court and the Court would ordinarily be justified .in
refusing to allow amendment to raise new issues especially

(1) (1951) B.L.R. p. 161 (H.C.). (2) (1955) B.L.R. p. 49, (H- C.).
(3) (1953) B.L.R. p . 26o, (H- C.).
when the parties .have closed their respective .cases. and .only .
arguments remain to be heard. The applicant c~nnot .be
..;9f6.
permitted to convert the original defence jnto. another of a MA Doao-
fundamentally different and inconsistent c})ara<:ter-.~ :. THY
v:
UHAN.
The facts occurring therein can easily be. distinguished
from those obtaining in the case under review. hi that
ciecision the proposed amended written state ":len~ . was re-
jectGP on the ground that it would bring about a 'com,plete
change of front in the defence. In the inst<:t~t case ':'Vhat
the petitioner proposes to do is to add furthergrounds of
defence over and above the defence set up .. i~. the original
written statement. The addiqon of new grounds by the
defendant in support of he.r case for rejection of the plain~
tiff's suit cannot be said to alter her case cpmple~ely . .
.. In ~ Laxman Roo v. Bhavani Singh and another (4)
.it has been decided that,
..
. "In a .case where it is not . likely to cause injuslice or
w'here. it docs not take the defendant by surprise and \~here
by the amendment a plaintiff is only allowed to rely upon
a new ground of relief. it would not amoun~ t.o an alteration
of the character of rhe suit or the introduction of a new
. case and therefore amendment of the plaint aan be allowed."

The same view has been expressed in Akhil Ranjan Das


Gupta v. B. N. Biswas (5). These decisions relate to cases
where the plaintiff has sought the amendment hut the
principle of law involved therein wilT apply mutatis
mutan.dis to the defendant asking for amendme~t:.
Then )n Nrisinyh Prasad Paul v. Steel Products itd. (6)
it has been laid down that,
"Amendment of a plaint and amendment . of a .written
st.atement are not necessarily governed by exactly .the same
principles. Some impottant general principles are certainly
common tQ both, such as the applicatio.n for amendment

(.~) A.I.R. (t9SOJ Hyderabad, p. 43 (5) A.l.R. (1950) Ca{. p.4;z.


(6) A.I.R. (1953) Cal., p. 5

'.
oG
whether of a plaint or a written statement must be bona fide

-
MA DORO-
THY
0.
and must also be (or the purpose of determining ' the real
controversy between the parties and where it is just. But
the rule that the plaintiff cannot be allowed to amend his
U HAN. plaint so as to alter materially or substitute his cause of
action or the nature of his claim has necessarily no counter-.
part in the law relating to amendment of t~e defe~ce or.
the written statement. Adding a new ground of defence
or substituting or altering a defence does not raise the same
problem as adding, altering or substituting a new cause of
action. Hence the Courts are inclined to be more liberal
iR allGwing ct.mendmcnt of defence than of plaint and ques-
tions of prejudice are less likely to operate with same. rigo~r
in the former than in the latter case."

The facts of this case however do not require that


should express my opinion as to whether that decision lays
down good law 9r not. It is however a clear instance
where courts are inclined to take a rather lenient view
of the applic~tion of amendment h.v a defendant.
Another objection to the propo~ed -amendment is that
it is rather belated and that it would involve reopening
of the whole case. It must however be borne in mind
that the words" any stage of the proceedings" in Rule 17.
Order 6 of the Civil Procedure Code clearly connote that
"the amendment can be m.ade at any stage of the proceed-
ings. Thus it has been s.aid in Secretary of State for Jndta
v. 1. M. Lall (7) and Gujadhar Mahton v. Ambika Prasad
Tewari and others (8) that an amendment"can be consider~
ed even in appeals before the Federal Court or the Privy
Council.
The petitioner has by the proposed amended written.
staternenf raised two ad9itional pleas namely (a) that the
document filed as. promissory-note is in fact a bond and
(b) that the .mortgage being a simple mortgage is invalid
for want of a registered deed. Now, the construction of
a document whether it is a promissory-note or a bond is a
(7) (1945) F<C.R. p. 103. (8) A.I.R. (19as) (p.c.,) p. r69 at 170.
I

matter of law which can be raised a~ any stage of the c.c.


l6
proceedings. It will not involve the reopening of the
entire case. The two additional pleas put up by the peti- MA 'l'HY
DoRo-

tioner can be deeded on arguments alone without adduc- UHAN. .,.


ing any further evidence.
For the .aforesaid reasons the order of the lower C9un
is hereby set aside and I direct that the proposed amend-
-ed written statement of the petitioner be adJ,llitted and
that the suit shall proceed according to law. The peti-
tioner-defendant shall however pay .K 51 as costs to the
respondent-plaintiff.

'.
00

CRIMINAL APPEAL
Before U Kyaw Zan U, J,
-;~ .
tC.C.
1966 M_AUNG. TflEE .MYAING (a) LON YUN (a) KAUNG THA
Feb. j. . ... (APPELLANT)
.::
v.
. .
THE ..VNION. OF BU~MA {RESPONDENT).
. . . . .. .
Petiai Code-]ram!'rigof charge under s: 450-additional.ha7ge und" r. :1~6 Possible.
Held ; The appellant was charged only under s. 450 of the Penal Code,
anq the leamcd.Gover':lment Advocate submitted tha~ he should have also.. been
charged 'Under s. 326 of the Pc~al Code for causing grie,ous hurt. It is not
unde(stood why he was. not cha rged under s. 453 and s. 326 ofthc.Pcnal Codt"s
for committing lurking house-trespass and for causing grievcus. hurt. There is
evidence to show thar he came up the house coveripg with a longyi to con~eal
.himself. In ord(lr tQ ~c.onstitute lurking hcu~e-trespass as defined ins. 443 of
t.he Pe.n al Cod~, the offender must take scme active means to conceal'
his presence. .
Sital v. T{le State; I.L.R. (1942) 17 Lucknow 513;
In re Natesa Mu.daliar, I.L.R . (1945).'1\'ladras 896;
Makhru Dr1~adh v.' 7'hr State, l.L.R. s Pat. 464, referred t~.

- for the _appellant.

U Hnit (Government Advocate) for the respondent.


) .
U.KYAW ZAN U,j.-This is an appeal against the con-
viction under section 450 of the Penal Code for committing
house trespass in order to the committing of an offence
punishable with transportation for life and sentence of
.five years' rigorous imprisonment passed hy the 3rd Addi-
tional Magistrate (Special Power) of T:woy in his Criminal
Regular ~rial No. 4 of 1965.

Criminal Appcnl No. 175 of 1965 .


t Appcnl from the orut' r of the 3rd Addl. (Speci;d Power) Magistrate o f
Tavor, dated the Rth dn y of April 1<)65 , passed in Criminal Regular Trial /';o. l
4 of r965. F-:
I
On the First Information Report lodged by Daw Ma Pu c.c.
Jg66
(PW 1), the appellant was sent up for trial under section
MAtiNG
458 of the Penal Code for committing lurking house-tres- THEE

pass by mg ' h t, havmg


' rna de preparauon
' 10r
& .
causmg h urt. LoNYUN
MYAINC(a)
(a)
Daw Ma Pu deposed the house was well lighted when KAuNc THA
the appeUant came up with a dashe and cut U In Si (P.W 2), THE " UN JON
. oF BuRMA-
her husband aged about 55 years. The ap~llant also cut
her daughter Ma Than Mya (PW 3) on her wrists. Accord- .
ing to U In Si, the appellant is distantly related to him.
His daughter was shampooing him when the occurrence
t~ok place. U ln Si said when he tried to s!latch the
dashe from the appellant he managed to get his exhibit
lonayi as well. There is no reason to disbeUeve t;he
evidence of Daw Ma Pu, U In Si and Ma Than Mya who
corroborated one another. According to the medical
ev1dence, U In Si received one incised wound on head
fracturing the skull, one incised wound on . right hand
cutting the bone and one incised wound on left hand. The
medical officer stated that Ma Than Mya's fingers are per-
manently disabled as the result of the dah cut wound
on her wrists. The injuries on both of them were un-
doubtedly grievous injuries.
The appellant was charged only under section 450 of
the Penal Code, and the learned Government Advocate
submitted that he should have also been charged under
section 3-26 of the Penal Code for causing grievous hurt.
I do not understand why he was not charged under sec-
tion 453 and section 326 of the Penat Code for committing
lurking house-trespass and for causing grievous hurt.
There is evidence to show that he came up the house
covering with a longyi to conceal himself. In order to
constitute lurking house-trespass as defined in section 443
of the PenaJ Code, the offender must take some active
means to conceal his presence. In Sital v. The Sta,te (r)
Where it was contended that t~e .conviction under section
(1) I.L.R. (194:l) 17 Lucknow_.S IJ.
)9 .

457 and also under section 380 of the Penal Code was
illegal it was held-
MAt!NO
THIIE " The offence of lurking house-trespass or house-breaking
MYAING (a)
LoN YVN (a) is committed whether the subsequent offence is committed
KAVN~; THA or not. The section looks merely to the object wi~h which
IJ.
TBEUNlON the house-trespass or house-breaking is committed ; it does
OF BtiRMA. not take into consideration the offence, if any, committed
thereafter. There is no reason( therefore, why Section 457
should be considered ~ bar to a conviction for the offence
committed after the house-tresE__~ or house-breaking."

Bennett, J. referred to section 235 (1), Criminal Procedure


Code, which provides inter alia that if in one series of
acts so connected together as to form the same transaction,
more offences than one are committed by the same person,
he may be charged with, and tried at one trial for, every
such offence and relied upon Illustration (b} to this sub-
section which reads :
"A commits house-breaking by day with intent to commit
adultery, and commits in ~he house so entered adultery with
B's wife. A may be separately charged with, and convicted
of, offences under sections 454 and 497 of the Penal Code."

See also In re Natesa Mudaliar (2). Both these authorities


declined to follow Makhru Dusadh v. The State (3) which
was decided earlier by the Patna High Court. I thought
of remanding the case .for retrial, but in view of the sent-
ence which has partly been undergone and which appears
to be reasonable, I have decided not to do so to avoid
further delay in the disposal of the case. I do not think
the appellant was prejudiced or the trial was not fair. He
was convicted and sentenced on 8th April 1965 .and I do
not propose now to order a retrial. I do not think it will
be quite proper to do so in the circumstances of the case.
According to the appellant there is enmity between
him and the complainant and her members of the family
(2) I.L.R. (1945) Mad 896. (3) I.L.R. s Pat 464.
J:>

as they had once given evidence against him in a criminal c.c.


J6
case in which he was convicted arid sentenced to imprison-
ment, but there is no j.ust cause to disbelieve them. He ~=
did not d:ny t~e long!i to l?e his though he denied the lJ,~AfuC:.<(J>
dashe. H1s solitary w1tn~. for the defence was not help- KAUNc THA
ful at all though he is related tO him. There is practically TH vUNION
no defence. In the circumstances the appeal is dismissed. or BuRMA.

'. '. '.


CRIMINAL APPEAL '
Before U Sein Thiim, :J.

tC.C. MAUNG TIN NYO (APPELLANT)


Jl)66
Feb.u, v.
THE UNION OF BURMA (RESPONDENT).*

Right of private dlfence-"easonable apprehension of grievous hurt being caused-


d~ceased rushing forwards holding a torch.

Held: The point that remains to be considered is whether the appellant


was in such a predicament as to cause reasonable apprehension on his part
that death or grievous hurt wou ld otherwise be the cons<.-quence if he had not
exercised hisrighti n the manner he did. It is clearly in evidence that as soon as
the deceased saw the appellant the former.rushcd forward holding a torch in his
hand. The deceased was in such an agitated frame of rnincl, besides being
inebriated that it coulsi safely be presumed that he didaim a blow atthe appellant
with the torch. As both of them were face to face with each Gther the part
of the body aimed ac by the. deceased could not be other than the front part
of the head of the appellaf!t. It is common knowledge that three-cell battery
flashlight is quite a heavy article about one foot in length and nearly two inches
in diameter with a .reflector made of heavy glass at the top measuring about
six inches in girth. In the circumstances it would be safe to infer that the
appellant reasonably anticipated grievous hurt at the moment when the deceased
trained his torch at him.
The State v. Hla Maung, B.L.R. (1946), p. so;
Maung Kyaw Zan v: The State, 9 L.B.R. 191;
Aung Bwint v. The State, R.L.R. (1947) p. so, referred to.

U Hla Nyun, U Tin Maung for the appellant.

U Ba Pe (Government Advocate) for the respondent.

U SEIN THINN, J.-It appears that on the 3rd Lazan


of Tabotwe, 13.25, B.E. (23-6-63) there was a ceremony
at the house of one Ko Nyan 5ein of Ywasaik village which
Criminal Appeal No. 94 of 1965.
t Appeal against the order of the Special Judge, Sagaing, dated the 1 sth June
1965, pas~ed i n Criminal Regu lar Trial N~. 14 of 1963 . F-91
J?

was attended by the villagers of the neighbouring villages. .c~


1
Among them were the appellant Tin .Nyo, a .resident of --
Pauk Sein village, and the deceased Saw Ngwe who be- MA~;o TIN
longed .t o Gwe-gyi village: At about la~p:l~ghting time THE tJmoN
while Maung Saw Maung (P\Y 1), broth~r of the deceased, oF BuRMA.
was on sentry 'duty at the village gate the deceas.~d went
past _the kin-post accompanied- by .two -poiicemen. The
deceased told Maung Saw M.~ung that, a Gwe-gyi folk held
out a dah at him. Maung Saw Maung. then .followed up
~he .decea~ed to the ~1ouse of Pauk ._ Aye .(PV{ 7) where the
decea_sed looked .for the fellow who threatened him with
a dah. Not finding him there the tWo policemen w~nt
aw~y but 't he deceased continued his se.arch and arrived
at the house of one Ko Htwe .acco.mpanied by Ko San
Maung, Ko Tin Hla (P'vV 2) and .Ko . K~ung Kyi (PW 9).
They found so111e persons on a. cot in .(ront of Ko Htwe's
hou-se. Seeing sorne one sitting on a bench inside the house
the deceased flashed his torth-lignt .towards him and dis-
covered that he was the appellant . Tin Nyo. What
actually took place after that was rather obscure from
the evidence obtaining on the r~~ord of .the trial Court.
But it can safely- be made out that the deceased on finding
the appellant rush~ into the _house and in a " melee "
that followed he sustained a stab wound resulting in hjs
death.

In the )ower Court the appellant set up .a two pronged


defence, one of alibi " and another of ?elf~efence.' The
trial j udge overruled the plea of " alibi ''. Regarding the
plea of self-d~fence the lower Court has nothing to say
except to tonvict the appellant under section 304 of the
Penal Code on the ground that he might have acted on
provocation given by the deceased. In the course of his
argument .before me the l~arned counsel for the appellant
. has aban-doned the plea of " alibi ", but strenuously con-
tB tended that the act of the appcl.l ant fell squarely within
J9

~-~6 the ambit of section 100 of the Penal Code. The follow-
-9- ing grounds were advanced in support of the plea: .
MAUNG TlN -.
NTo . (1) The deceased was a dangerous character with
"
THE UNtoN ~en-year jail term for murder to his credit.
oF BuRMA. (2) The decea~ed was inebriated at. the time of the
incident.
(3) The deceased was desperately jn quest of the
appellant bent on doing .harm.
(4) The d.eceased. when he went up to the appellant
was holding ~ thr.ee-cell battery torch-light which, if used
as a weapon of offence, could cause grievous hurt to the
person att~cked .
'(5) The ~eceased sustained only a single stab-wound
which was the result of a random blow given by the
appellant in his fear .and excitement.
I have no doubt that the facts and circumstances
stated above are not unwarranted by ~he evidence Qbtain-
ing on the record of the trial Court. But while these
facts ' by .themselves may be sufficient to establish right
of private defence it would .be necessary to further con-
sider if they could be said ..to have occasioned such a
reasonable apprehension of either death or grievous hurt
on the p~rt of the appellant as would justify causing death
; to the de~eased. No hard and fast rules could possibly
be fixed regarding the test to be applied in such cases
arid each case must be determined according to its own
merits. But some general principles have been laid down
of which the most famous is that of the eminent jurist
Mayne, quoted with reverent approval 'in The State v.
Hla Maung (1), to the effect. ~hat when the assault has
once assumed a dangerous form every allowance should
be made for one, who, with the i.nstinct of self-preserva-
tion :strong tipon him, pursues his defence a little further
than to a perfectly cool bystander would seem absolutely
(r ) R.L.R. (1946), p . so.
J~

necessary. Also it is a trite saying that when exercising . c.c.


966
. ht o f pnvate
t hc ng . def ence It
. Is
. . d'ffi
1 cuI t to expect t he -'
person to weigh "with golden scales" what maximum MAN~o TIN
amount of force is necessary_to keep within that right. T.H (/UNioN

In the present case the appellant gave only one single oF BURMA.
blow and a random one at that. He did not do anything
further but ran away as soon as he had the chance. No
doubt the blow was with a dagger. But considering the
fact that daggers are commonly used by the village folks
he could not be expected!, in a moment of peril, to refrain
from. employing the use of such a dangerous weapon.
Therefore the only point that remains to be considered
is whether the appellant was in such a predicament as to
cause reasonable apprehension on his part that death or
grievous hurt would otherwise be the consequence if he
had not exercised his right in the manner he di~. It is
clearly .in evidence th~t- as soon as the deceased saw the
appellant the fo;:mer rushed forward holding a torch in
his hand. The deceased was in such an agitated frame
of mind, besides being _inebriated that it could safely be
presumed that 'h e did aim a blow at the appellant with
the torch. As both of them were face to face with each
other the part of _the body aimed at by the deceased could
not ~e other than the front part of the head of the appel-
lant. It is common knowledge that a three-cell battery
flash light is quite t:1 heavy article about one foot in length
and nearly two inches in diameter with a reflectors inade
of heavy glass at the top measuring about six inches in
girth. In ~e circumstances it would he safe to infer that
the appellant reasonably anticipate grievous hurt at the
moment when the deceased trained his torch at him. In
the case of Mauny Kyaw Zan v. The State (2) where the
deceased rushed at the accused, armed with a heavy
weapon and showing every intention to assault the accused
it was held that the accused might reasonably anticipate
(z) 9 L.B..R. 191.
c.c. grievous. hurt if the deceased's blow fell on him and con
1966
sequently h'e had .a right to use his spear to defend himself
MAuN;o TtN against the blow, even. to causing deceased's death, and
TR "uNroN that his act was fully justified under. section 100 of the
oF BURMA. Penal Code. No doubt there is this difference that in the
case cited above the deceased was armed with a heavy
weapon whereas . in the present case before me the
deceased was holding a _threeceil battery torchlight. But
the difference :?eem hardly material in vjew of the fact
that the nature and the size of t:he artide which the
deceased was holding was such that, if 'usCd .as weapon of .
offence, under the circumstanc~s prev.ailing' in this case
it couid surely cause grieyous . hur.t to the .victim.
On .a careful' resume of all the f~cts and circumstances :
obtaining on tl~~-. record 6 f -~he 1~\~;~r. (;ou;~ I find. that at
least it is a matter' for dotibt ir' the ~-ppdtant. had exceeded
the right of private defence: :As-: poiri.te<i put in:. .the off
quoted ruling Aung Bwint.v ., .The-St~te (3) ' the test is not
whether the acc.1,1Sed has pl_"Qyed..beyond r.easonable doubt
that he comes .\vithin a~y ~xc~pti'on to the Penal Code,
but whether in setting l.lP his defence he has established
a reasonable doubt in. the case of the ,prosecu~io~ and has
thereby earned his right of an acquitt::1t. Applying this
principle to the present case J. am of opinion that the
appellant should be given the benefit of doubt. This
appeal is therefore allowed. The findi.ng and or~er passed
by the l<?wer Court will acconfiiigfy' be' set ~aside and the
ap.,pellant will be acqu'itted so far as this c~se is concerned.
Tile case is classified _as mi$taken-..
CIVIL SECOND APPEAL
Before U Sein thimr,J.

MAUNG KHET AND TWO OTHERS (APPELLANTS) tc.c.


J966
v. Feb. 8.
MA YIN (RES~ONDENT)

Succmion-applieati6n by the Jrrand children of the fa the; of adoptee-application


by the j>Ormger sister of the 'adDptt"e-propinquity of the relationship of tl1e
riool apPliWrts to the adoptee. ;
Held : The 11dopt~ left behind a near relative in the person of the
1'ellpon4ent who is no other thin hisown ' natu~l sist~r. The. appellants on
the other hand are the grand children of the deceased Paung Pone arid as such
the deeree of propinquity between them and the d~~d is re.moter than the
;~laii~nsh.ip be~ecn the ~spondent an<iher brother. 'I)lete is also an addi-
tional reason why the respondent ought to succeed.to the estate of her brother.
It appears 'that she had all along been living witli her brother and that she hnd
attended him in his illness. .The last funeral rites of the deceased were al~o
performed by her.
Maung Pan v. !Ja Hnyi, U.B.R., vol.II (189701) p. 104;
Ma Than v. Ma Stin, L.,B.,R., Vol. V (IC;c9-10) p. 89;
Ma San Hla Ma v. Kyaw Tun and two, I Cha~.Tu~'s L.C.,p. 2.79, referred to

U Mya Sein for the the appellants.

- for the respondent.

. U SEIN THINN,. J.-Simple as are the facts out of which


the present appeal arises a law point of considerable
.interest p~esent be(ore me. Tht: applicants are the grand-
children of one Paung Pone who, during his life time, had
~opted Maung Tin; brother of the respondent, as his
Kittima son. After the death of Paung Pone his adopted
-son M~un~ T~n inherited .his estate. Mal:Jng Tin remained
.a bachelor till his death a few years ago. . The question
Civil 2nd Appenl No. 36 of 1962. .
t Against the decree of the District Court of Taunggyi, in Civil Appeal.
No. 3 of 1Q6z, dated the 18th June 1962.

'.
JO
c.c. now arises as to who should succeed to his estate, the
JQ66
contest being l,)etween the _grand-children of the adopting
MAUN{! parent Paung Pone on one .side and the younger sister of
KH!!T AND
Two oTHERs the adoptee Maung Tm
on the other. . . .
MA YIN. One of the principles governing the rules of a~9ption
is clear in that the adopted child drops out of his own
family and loses all right of inheritance therein. In
Maung Pan v. Ma Hnyi (1) it was observed that an adoptee
drops even more completely than a dece<l:sed child out of
the original family, for the deceased may leave children.
a
of. his own who are admitted to certain share, which .
does not seem t~ be the case with the chiidren of the .
adoptee. It was also. held in the case of Ma Than y. .
Ma Sein (2) that" u,nd_e r Burmese Buddhist law the right of .
inheritance of anadopted ctlild are not limited to inher-
itance. from his or her adopted parents but extend to
inheritance from collaterals in the adoptive family. Thus
the law seems quite settled in so far as the right of inher-
itance of the adopted child is concerned. But not so
certain is the law when it comes to thequestion regarding
inheritance to the estate of the adoptee . .
On the basis of the incident of adoption that the
adopted child drops out from the original family more
completely than that of a deceased person it would appear
that on his death. his natural relatives would not be entitled
to any share in his estate on the ground that they have
~ecome, in tpe eye of law, total strangers to the deceased.
But the theory t}:lat .the adopted child completely drops
out of the original fa~ily is apparently founded on the
following considcr<ition which were explained . in Maung.
Pan 's case cited above inth~ following terms:
"The adopted ~hild drops out of his. own family and is
provided for in that <Jdopting him. The expectations and
arrangements of the :members. of the family he has left are
framed accordingly, _and it '_"ould be manifestly inequitable

(1) U. B.R .. Vol. II (1897-01~, p. 104. (z) L.B.R., Vol. V. (1909-Io), p. 89 . . f .'
Je

to let the child adopted into another family come back into c.c.
his own and disappoint the reasonable calculations for the 1966
future which have been made therein. The number of MAuNO
prospective co-parceners in the inheritance of the original !~~7~
family is reduced by adoption, and the adoptee cannot be o.
permitted to come back and, as it were, to be born again." MA YIN.

Thus the legal fiction by which the adopted child


becomes a stranger to his natural relatives is meant only
to safe guard the interest of the remaining members of the
family out of which the adoptee has been dropped and it
should not therefore be extended beyond- what 'Yas
originally intend~d for. In other words the adoptee should
not be .regarded as a stranger to his natural relatives for
the purpose of determining the question as to who should
inherit his estate, although for the reasons stated above he
should justifiably be regarded as a stranger for the purpose
of shutting out all his claims in his original family.
Again, the right of an adoptee to inherit. from the
collaterals in the adopted family is based on the considera-
tion that adoptee loses all rights of inheritance in his
natural family and it seems inequitable that he should
obtain in return only a limited right of inheritance in the
famjly into which he was adopted. It is also recognised
that such right on the part of the adoptee would not cause
hardship to the relatives of the adopting parents since they
are in no respect worse off than if a natural child has been
born. Thus it seems clear to me that neither the theory
that the adoptee drops out completely from the natural
family nor the recognition of his right to inherit from the
collaterals of the adopted family could be taken to mean
that for all purposes the adoptee must be identified with
the interest of the adopted family alone.
There is dearth of direct authority on the question
whether or not the relatives of .the adopting parents would
.OA be entitled to inherit on the death of the adoptee to the
exclusion of his natural relatives. No doubt in Ma San
t>O

<;.c. Hla Ma v. Kyaw Tun and two (3) it was ruled that the
1966
mother of an adopted child succeeds to his property to the
MAuNcNo
K HET A
exclusion
of his brothers or sisters by adoption. But in
Two oTHERS that case it was not contended that the brothers and sisters

MA "vJN. by adoption had no rights of inheritance from their


adopted brother. They were excluded merely because by
Buddhist Law a parent inherit before brothers and sisters.
The only reference. so far as I am aware, to such a question
i~ to be .found in " The Leading Cases of Buddhist Law "
by May Oung where the learned a:uthor after discussing
the right of an adopted child to inherit from his collaterals
in the adopted family has this to say at page 144, " Con-
versely, the relatives of the adopting parents would be
entitled to inherit on the death of the adopted chifd without
nearer heirs" (underline is mi~:te).
;.
The learned counsel for the appellants relying on this
excerpts contends that his clients are entitled to inherit
the estate of the deceased to the exclusion of the respondent
Ma Yin. But eveR applying this principle to the present
case before me I am of opinion that the appellants' case
must fai~. For the .rule cited above only says that relatives
of adopting parents would be entitled to inherit on the
death. of the adopted child provided the adopted child did
not teave behind nearer heirs . l:n the present case before
me, the adoptee left behjnd a near relative in the person
of the respondent Ma Yin who is no other than his own
natural sister. The appellants on the other hand are the
grand children of the deceased Paung Pone and as such
tAe decree of propinquity between them and the deceased
is remoter than the relationship between the respondent
and her brother. As pointed out by the learned Judge of
the lower appellate Court there is also an additional reason
why the respondent Ma Yin ought to succeed to the estate
of her brother. It appears that she had all along been
living. with her brother and that she had attended him in
(3) I Chan .1"un's L.C. p. 279
hi$ illness. The last funeral rites of the deceased were c.c.
1966
also per-formed by her. In the circumstances. I would
hold that the lower appellate Court is justified in holding K~;m!t,
that the respondent Ma Yin is entitled to succeed to the Two oTHas
estate of her brother Maung Tin. In the result this appeal MA "YrJo:.
fails and is hereby dismi~sed with costs. Advocate fee
fixed at one gold mohur.
CIVIL REGULAR SUIT

Before U Thet Pe, J.

c.c. MESSRS. \VILLIAM JACKS AND Co. LTD. (PLAINTIFF)


1966
v.
Jan. 28.
YANGON PALLADIUM AND FIVE OTHERS (DEFENDANTS) .

Civil Procedure Code 0. VI, Rule 17-amendment of plaint under-permission


for-whether permissible.
Held: The plaintiff's suit by its original plaint was one against the Yangon
Palladium firm and its partners, whereas the suit under the proposed amended
plaint would be one against the late Daw MaMa represented by her heirs and
legal rcprcscntatiyes. The original plaint dicl not contain any allegation thnt
t.h cclaim of the plaintiff was due by either Daw Ms Ma o1 he1 e::slatc. More-
over, Daw Ma Ma was never a partner of the Yangon Palladium firm
and therefore she cannot be brought on the record through her heirs and legal
representatives without changing the nature of the suit.
Mukhi Jeramdas Jethanand and others v. Tilmmal i\1ulchand and another,
A.I.R. (1935) S ind 194;
Firm Ahmed Moosa Brothers v. Firm Lillaram Takamdas, A.I.R. (1942)
Sind 93;
Shri Nath Seth v. Nand La/ and others, A.I.R. (19~8) Oudh 44;
K. Venkatasuryanarayana v. Akuthota Ramayya and another, A.I.R. (1921)
Mad. 98, referred to.

Mr. C. A. Soorma for the plaintiff.


U Maung Maung and U Hla Sein for the defendants.

U THET PE, J .-This is -an application for amendment


of plaint under Rule 17, Order VI of the Civil Procedure
Code.
The brief facts which have given rise to the present
application are th~se :-on the 24th of December 1963,
the plaintiffs, Messrs. William Jacks and Company Limited
sued the firm known as Yangon Palladium and 5 of its
f
Civi I Regula!' Suit No. 63 of 1963.
partners, Dew Mya Thein, Daw Nyunt Wai, U Mya Han, c.c.
1966
Daw Than Nu and U San Lwin for recovery of K 63 .575
MISSaS.
72 pyas due for works done in respect of the Palladium \VILLI AM
Cinema. Then on 28th February. 1964. the plaintiffs jACKS AND
C<>., LTO.
obtained leave to bring on the record the name of another o.
YANGON
partner. Daw Ma Ma Gyi. w ho was thought to he' deod P.\LLADIUM
AND PlY.
but was in fact alive, at the time of the institution of the OTHW.
suit, as a party-defendant. The partiesthereafter proceed-
ed with the trial of the suit. during the progress of which
the plaintiffs came to realise that their cla im could only
be recovered from the late Daw Ma Ma, the owner of
the Palladium Cinema, and not from The Yangon
iPalladium firm and its partners. It appeared that the late
ID.aw Ma Ma was survived by 8 children, namely. the 6
qriginal defendants, who were the partners of the Yangon
Palladium firm, and Daw Aye Myint and U Shwe B'aw.
The plaintiffs thereupon sought to amend the cause t itle
of the plaint by striking out the name of the Yangon
Palladium and adding the names of Daw Aye Myint and
U Shwe Baw respectively to and from the array of defend-
ants. The plaintifts further proposed to sue the defend-
ants as heirs and legal representatives of the late Daw
Ma Ma. This move of the plaintiffs was, of course.
stoutly resisted by Daw Aye Myint and U Shwe Baw on
the ground that the amendment would alter the nature
of the suit and that it would take away from them a
legal right which had accrued by lapse of time. The
other defendants, on the other hand, filed a joint petition
agreeing to a decree for K 55.88o being passed against
them as heirs and legal represE'ntatives of the late Daw
MaMa .
Now, it is clear that the . plaintiffs' suit by its original
plaint was one against the.. Yangon Palladium firm and its
partners, whereas the suit under the proposed amended
plaint would be one against the late Daw MaMa represent-
ed by her heirs and legal r.eprcscntatives. There can be no
c.c. room for. doubt that the nature of the suit would be
966 altere~ if the proposed amendment were to .be allowed.
MIISSIIS.
W!LLI.\M
The original plaint did not contain any aHegation that the-
]i\CKS AND claim of the plaintiffs was due by either Daw Ma Ma or
co., LTO.
her ..estare. No doubt 6 of the 8 heirs and legal representa-
"
YANCON tives 0f Daw MaMa are partners ofthe Yangon Palladium
PALLADIUM
AND FlY.! firm bUt that does not enable the plaintiffs to sue their
OTH1111.
mother Oaw Ma Ma who had nothing to do with the
partnership.
1n Mukhi ]eramdas ]ethanand and others v. Tikamaf
Mulchand and another (1) it was held that:-
.. Under Order J, Rule JO a person may be added as a
party to a suit in the following cases:
(1) When he ought to have been joined as plaintiff or
defendant, and not so joined, or (2) when without his
presence, 'lhe question in suit cannot be completely
decided.
Where by allowing a person to be impleaded as a party
th~ ru~tureof the suit win be altered the application should
not be allowed."

In Firm Ahmed Moosa Brothers v. Firm Lilar-am Tikamdos


(2) the amendment to change the suit against the firm to
one against an individual who happened to be a partner
of the firm was reje.cted as it would alter the nature of
the suit. In the .present case, the late Daw Ma Ma was
never a partner of the Yangon Palladium fir-m and I fa if
to see how she can be brought oR the record through her
heirs and legal representathes without changing the nature
of the suit. In Shri Nath Seth v. Nand La/ and others (3)
it has also been held that : -
"A party should not ~e added so as to change the nature
of the suit. But when no new question will be raised by
the addition of a person as a party and on the other hand.

(r) A. l.R. ( 19JS) Sind 194. (~) A. l.R. (1942) Sind 93


(3) A.I.R. (1948) Oudh H F-l
the addition of the person is necessary to avoid a multiplicity c.c.
of proceedings and to protect the rights of the . defendant 966
he should be impleaded. MissAS.
Wri.uAM
JACKS AND
See also K. Venkotosuryunorayona v. Akuthoto Romayya Co., LTo.
and another (4)- YANGON "
ln the result the application for amendment of plaint PALLADIUM
AND FJVE
fails and is dismissed with costs. Advocate's fees K 34 OTHERS

.08 (4) A.Ut. hta1) Mad. ,a.


CIVIL REGULAR
B~fore U Thet Pe, ].

c.c. PEOPLES' BANK No. I I (PLAINTIFF)


IC)66
jan. r.
v.
CHEN SIN SIU A~D TEN OTHERS (DEFENDANTS) .

M9rtgage by Deposit of tit/1'-deeds-snle of one tire mortgaged prop~rties by the


rwenue authoritil'sfor arrl!ars of srzle tax due.
lleld: Under s. 48 of the Land and Revenue Act the auction purchaser at
a revenue sale obtains the auction property free from encumbrances, if the sale
is conducted under s. 46 which relates to a s11le for 2rrears ofland revenue only.
The revenue sale is in respect of arrt'.ars of sales tax due and such sale cannot
therefore attract 'the provisions of section 46 to 48 of the I.and and Revenue Act.
R.M.V.V.Af. Ch~ttyar Firm v. M. Subrllmaniam and anolfzer, I.L.R. V
R~tn. 458, followed.
Abdur Ra11j Chowdry v. N.P.L.S.P. Chettyar Firm, VII Ran. 113;
Maung Mya Din v. K.P.A.P. Ch,tty'!r Firm (1940) R.L.R. 230, referred to.

U Saw Taik Leong for the plaintiff.

U Myint Soe for the defendants No. 7. 8 and 9

U THET PE, J.-This is a suit for recovery of


K 2,04,92626 due on a mortgage by deposit of title-deeds
or jn default for sale of the properties under mortgage by
Peoples' Bank No. I I (formerly the Bank of Communica-
tions) of No.. 666, Merchant Street, Rangoon,
It is the case of the plaintiffs that on the 30th of
August 1946, at Rangoon, Defendant Nos. I to 4, namely,
Chen Sin Siu, Kyon Hock Phan, Chen Choon Yone, Kung
Hsio Tao were given overdraft facilities to the e~tent of
K 30,ooo the defendant No. 5 Chen Lan Sheng to the
extent of K 9,000 on the per~onal guarantee of defendant
No. 6 Kung Tze Fun (a) Kyon Ah Kam ; that on the same
day the defendant Nos. .I to 6 created a mortgage by
Civil Regular Suit No. 81 of 1958.
deposit of title-deeds in respect of 6 items of properties,
namely:, (i) the house and site known as No. 32, Ady Road,
Rangoon ; (11..) t he house and tts
. freehold s1te
. k nown as BANK
PE:OPLES'
No. 11
No. 105. 23rd Street, Rangoon : (iii) the house and its v.
freehold site known as No. 6o8, Dalhousie Street, s,NcsH:' AND
Rangoon; (iv) the house and site at Dalla known as No. 40. TEN oTHERs.
Pyinmagon, Dalla; (v) the house and site at Kanoungto in
Kanoungto South Circle No. 40. Dalla Kwin ; and (vi). the
house and site at Seikkyi Ywa, Rangoon; that on 31st July
I958 the total amount of the principal sum and int~rest
due on the defendant Nos. I to 5 was found to be
K 2,04.92626" pyas, that the mortgaged properties were
sold by the revenue authorities for arrears of sales tax
. due by Foke Kyan Syndicate to which the defendant No. 6
belonged as a part~er, that at ~he auction sale held by the
revenue authorities the defendant No. 7 Miss Milan Lee
purchased item No. (iii} ofthe mot:tgaged properties which
was offered by defenda~t ' No. 8, U Kam1g .Tin and
defendant No.9, Miss Cfl:in Foon Yoon and was accepted
by the defendant No. ro, the State Commercial Bank as a
subsequent mortgage, that the defendant No. I r, Daw Mya
Sein purchased items No. (iv) and (v) and that defendant
No. 12, Ko Thaung Yi bought item No. (vi) of the
mortgC\ged properties with notice of the plaintiff's
mortgage. that the defendants ,Nos. 7, 8, I I and i2 bought
those properties subject. to the plaintiff's mortgage, that
the defendants had not repaid the mortgage loans in spite
of repeated demands and that they were entitled to the
usual mortgage decree -with costs and interests a t the
usual Court rate from the date of the suit until realisation.
It appeared that subseq~ent to the in~titution of the
suit defendants Nos. 8 and 9 paid off their mortgage debt
to defendant No. ro who were, therefore, struck off from
the .proceedings by my predecessor o~ rs~ August, 196r.
Only the defendants Nos. 7, 8 and 9 appeared and contested
the suit. The other defendants failed to put any
c.c. appearance in spite of due _service of summonses and the
' 966 suit against them .accordingly proceeded in their absence.
)?OPUS'
BANK No. , , The defendants Nos. 7. 8 and 9 submitted a joint
C::~ written statement by which they pleaded that item
StN S1U AND No. (iii) of the mortgaged properties was in fact purchased
TEN OTHfJIS .
free. of encumbrances by defendant No. 8 at an auction
sale held by the Collector of Rangoon in his Revenue
Proceedings No. R-E-33F of 1952-53. that the plaintiffs
were estopped from claiming any right to the property,
that the suit was barred by time and not maintainable in
its prese~t form.
On these pleadings my predecessor joined the following
issues:
1. Were mortgages of the properties described in
paragraph 5 of the plaint effected by the
defendants Nos. 1 to s and 6 in favour of the
plaintiff as alleged in the plaint?
2. Did the Collector of Rangoon have the power to
convey title, free from all encumbrances, to
the properties sold by him in the respec~ive
Revenue Recove~ Proceedings?
~ Did the plaintiff substantiate its claim to the
property before the CoJiector of Rangoon at
the time the aforesaid Revenue Proceedings
were held ; if the plaintiff failed to do so, does
this failure estop it from making any further
claim to the property?
4 Is the suit time barred?
5 Is the suit maintainable in law?
6. To what relief, if any. is the plaintiff entitled?

Issue No. 1

In view of the testimony of Mr. Paukeit (PW 1) arid !


!
U Kauk {PW 2) which had not in any way been challenged F-li
j
i
,

by the defendants there can be no room for doubt that c.c.


1966
the defendants Nos. I to 6 had created a mortgage by
PEoPUS'
deposit of title-deeds as alleged by the plaintiffs. In fact, BAKK No. x x
. ~

there was no serious dispute about the existence of the CHEN


SJN Sn1 AND
mortgi:lge at the time of hearing. The answer to this TEN oTHERS.

issue will therefore be in the affirmative.

Issue No.2
The Collector of Rangoon has, in his Revenue Proceed-
ings No. R-E-33/34 of 1952-53 auetioned and sold item
No. (iii) of the mortgaged properties, namely, the house
and its site known as No. 6oS, Dalhousie Street, Rangoon,
to defendant No. 8 for r~covery of arrears of sales tax
due by the defendant No. 6 in respect of sales of' Iiquors
and the question that poses for consideration is whether
the defendant No. 8 as the auction purchaser acquires the
. property free of encumbrances. Under section 48 of the
Land and Revenue Act the auction purchaser at a revenue 1
sale obtains the auction property free of encumbrances,
if the sale is conducted under section 46 which relates to
a sale for .arrears of l~nd revenue only. In the instant
case the arrears of sale tax due by the defendant No. 6
cannot by any stretch of imagination be said to be arrears
of land revenue and the $ale conduct for arrears of such
sales cannot therefore attract the provisions of sections 46
to 48 of the Land and Revenue Act. It has been argued_
by th~ learned Advocate for the defendant Nos. 7 to 9
that since section I I (3) of the Sales Tax Act, 1952, enacts
that the arrears of sales tax shall be recovered as arrears
of land revenue the auction sale made in the present case
should be held to be covered by the provisions of sectiom
46 to 48 of the Land and Revenue Act. The complete
JB answer to this argument is to be found in the decision in
c.c. R.M.V.V.M. : Chettyar Firm v. M. Subramaniam and
1966
another (1) where it was held at:
PEOPLES'
BANK No. n " . . section 194 of the City of Rangoon Municipa..
v. Act empowers the Corporation to recover the arrears of its
CHEN
StN Stu AND taxes and other dues ' as if they were arrears of land revenue,
TEN 0TitRS.
but that does not mean that sections 46 to 48 of the Burma
Land and Revenue Act apply to all Municipal sales, so as to
confer on the auction purchaser in every case a title free
from incumbrances. These sections can only apply where
the dues t~ the Municipality are in the nature of land revenue
or land rate in lieu of Capitation-tax." . . .

s;nce the words, " the arrears shall be recovered as arrears


of land revenue " occur in both section . I94 of the City of
Rangoon Municipal Act and in section I I (3) of the Sales
Tax Act, I952, the pr:inciple enunciated in the decision in
R:.M.V.V.M. Chettyar Firm v. M. Subramaniam and
another (r) will apply with equal force to a recovery
proceeding under the Sales Tax Act. See also. Abdur Raul
Chowdry v. N.P.L.S.P. Chettyar Firm (2) and Maung Mya
Din v. K.P.A.P.' Chettyar Firm (3) where it was ruled that:,
"The provisions of section 46 and the following sections
of the Land and Revenue Act are available only when the
revenue officer is seeking to recover arrears of land revenue
(or analogous tax) accruing in respect of the land against
which he is proceeding under those sections: that is to say,
when he sells land under section 47 he can do so only in the
attempt to recover arrears of land revenue accruing from
that very ~nd."
For. the aforesaid reasons the answer to the issue will be
in the negative.

Issue No. 3
This issue. has not been pressed at the time of hearing
by the defendants. It must be borne in mind that the
(r } i'.L.R. V Ran. 458. (z) VII Ran. I 13.
. (3) (1 940) R.L.R. ZJO.
plaintiffs were not partie.c; to revenue proceedings opened c.c.
1966
hy the Collector of Rangoon and I do not see how they
C3n be estopped f rom rna k .mg any c la1m
. to t h e property PJ!OT'LFS'
HANK No. 11

sold in that revenue proceeding. The answer to the issue c~~


will therefore he that the plaintiffs arc not estopped from StN StuANo
'!'liN OTHiiRS.
making any claim to the property.

Issue No. S

This issue wHl be taken up before Issue No. 4 regard-


ing limitation. It has hcen said on behalf of defendants
Nos. 7 to 9 that the instant suit is not maintainable in the
present form inasmuch as the plaintiffs should. in the
first instance. set aside the revenue sale made by the
Collector. This submission, with due respect, is mis-
concched. The plaintiffs are not interested to avoid the
revenue sale outright. What they have said in the present
suit is that the auction sale made by the Collector was
subject to their mortgage. Their contention is that not-
withstanding the sale their interest in the property is not
in any way affected. No authority has heen cited and
I can find none to show that a suit to avoid the revenue
sale '"ould he necessary before a mortgage could enforce
his mortgage. The ans\ver to the issue will therefore be
in the affirmative.

Issue No.4

Since the suit is not one for setting aside the revenue
sale but one to hold that the interest of the mortgage over
the mortgaged property is not affected by the revenue sale
Article 12 of the Limitation Act will have no application
vide M. Raj v. Nanak and others (4); Fazlar Rahim v.
[(horsed A/am and others (5) and Benarsi Das v .
.OA
(4) A.T.R. (1933) Lah. p. 10. (5) A. T. R. ! 117P ) Cut . 333
c.c . Mt. Bhawoni Kauer (6) The answer to the issue ts m th~
1966 neaative.
PEOPI..S'
BANK No. n In. the result t here Wl11 be the u sua}. preliminary
c.!'iN mortgage decree forK 2,0i.926;26 pyas with costs against
Sm sw .mo the defendants. The plaintiffs wiD be entitled to further
T EN" oTitas. interest at the Court tate from the date of suit to the date

of realization.

(b) A.I.R. ( 1942) Pat. 386.


CRIMINAL APPEAL
Before U KytnD Zon U, J.

P.. YAN 500 (a). MAUNG THAUNG NYUN (APPLICANT) t c.c.


966.
v. Felt. 3
Tt-IE UNION OF BURMA (RESPONDENT).

Evidmce A'f-s. r45 tltld 155 (3)-wimess IIIIIAIOitlly of credit- -falsity of si#U-
"""' ,tnHtl by conlratlidDTY statnnmt-by estnninatirm of lntJmigiMg"
0/ficn 01 IUlmimotr of the fllilniSS statemmt liS n:ftllit.
Heltl : The pro.ecution tried to show that be was JlOt worthy of any credit
as he bad made a contradictory statement to the pollee. hut it did not prov.e his
alleged statement to the police under s. rss (3) read wi1h s. 145 of the Evid~ e
Act. He had denied making such a statement. It was the duty of the ptoo!
secution to prove the falsity of his aUeged statement ifhe was to be contradicted.
It appears that the Trfal Coun did not correctty foflow the procedure laid
down in s. 14S of the Evidence Act.
Neither the police investigating officer was questioned nor any po{ti(ln of the
witness's alleged statement to him was exhibited. The Pubtic Prosecutor
failed to impeach his character under s. ISS (J) read with s. I~S of the E\'idence
Act.
D~ Kha Lay Ma v. The Union of Burma, (1962) B.L.R. 18o (C.C.);

Balak Ram and others v. Sta~. I.L.R. (1953) 2 All. 197;


Tlu State v. Jiwan Das, l.L.R. (1939) 20 Lab. 305, referred to.

Mr. T. P. Wan for the appellant.


U Hnit (Government Advocate) for the respondent,

0 KYAW ZANU. J.-The appe11ant was convicted under


section 302 (2) of the Penal Code for causing the death
of one J(o Hla Myint (a) U Tin, the husband of Ma Ohn
Mya (PW I) with a stick and sentenced to suffer 10 years'
rigorous imprisonment. The evidence for the prosecution
is rather meagre. The occurrence took place at about
Cri minal Appe,al No. 192 o f 1965.
t Against the order of the Add itional Sessions (Special} J udge o f Rangoon,
dated the z91h day of May 1965, passed in his Crim ina l Regular T rial No.4
of t964 .

'. '.
99
c.c. noon~ The appella!lt a~d the deceased were neighbours
1
966 and were in good terms bu.t the trouble. started when their
P.)YMAN Soo two small sons quarrelled. According to Ma Ohn Mya
(a 1 1\UNC
THAUNG (P\V 1) her son aged about 3 years was beaten by the son
NruN
" of the appellant and when her husband, the deceased,_
UN:OS:..oF 2bused and asked the boy why he had beaten his son the
BcRIIu. appellant came out of his house and asked the deceased
why he had abused his child. The deceased did not deny.
The appellant then went into his house and brought the
~xhibit stick. She _ said that while .the deceased was sitting
at .the entranc.e of his house the appellant s truck him with
the stick ~n .the head twice and gave a third blow on the
shoulder. ~er evidence that the appellant struck the
dec:eased three times is without any support. The learned
tri~ll judge made a note that the exhibit stick bore two
marks like dah-cut marks; Ma Ohn Mya, however. denied
that her husband. ~he deceased, was armed at the time .
. I. must ignore the evidence of Daw Khin Sein (PW 2) as
she is not a truthful witness as i.t is shown in her own
evidence. In Daw Kha Lay Ma v. The Union of Burma
(t) I held that "if a witness is proved to have made a
statement to the police, though unsworn, in distinct con-
flict with his evidence on oath, his testimony is negligible.
The principle is that the person who makes inconsistent
statements is unreliable and his evidence should be
ignored." lt was also held in that case .that " when a
person makes a statem~nt to the police and denies same
in the witness-box such statement is inadmissible either
in favour of or against him." The prosecution stands on
the evidence of Ma Ohn Mya, the widow of the deceased.
alone. Hct evidence is bias and very much exaggerated.
According to the medical evidence. the injuries on the
deceased could have been received as the result of one
blow with a stick though they could be received by two
blows also. With the exception of the injury on the
'f.
tr) (1962) B.L.R. rSo (C.C.).
c:c.
head fracturing the skull. the other injuries were mere 1966
abrasions. It is therefore very likely that he was given P. YAN Soo
only one blow on the head with a stick. There is evidence (a) MAUNC
THAUNC
also to show that when he was struck he fell on the NYUN
v.
ground. TH'
UNION Of
The app~llant denied that he struck the deceased with BURMA,
a stick. He deposed that when the deceased went into
the house he feared that he might bring a weapon so he
picked up the exhibit stick and when the deceased came
out with a doh _and cut him he defended himself with the
stick. He said when the deceased cut him twice someone
from behind struck the deceased with a stick. This story
might be true as it is supported by Maung Sein Ngwe
(DW 5) and Maung Win Aung (DW 4). Maung Win Aung
deposed that he saw the deceased cut the appellant with a
doh and the latter defended himself with a stick. The
prosecution tried to show that he was not worthy of any
credit as he had made a contradictory statement to the
police, but it did not prove his alleged statement to the
police under section 155 (3) read with section 145 of tb_e
Evidence Act. He had denied making such a statement.
It was the duty of the prosecution to prove the falsity of
his alleged statement if he was to be contradicted. It
appears that the trial Court did not correctly follow the
procedure laid down in section 145 of the Evidence Act.
ln Balak Ram and others v. State (2) it was pointed out that
the whole of the witness's statement before the police does
not become admissible in evidence, but only that pan of it
to which his attention has been called and that, therefore,
that part alone should be accepted or admitted into
evidence. It will be us~ful to quote the relevant portion
of the judgment for guidance.
" Only those portions of the statement as ha.ve been used
to contradict that witness will form part of the judicial re-
cord. The rest of the statement cannot be relied upon by
(z) I.L.R. (1953) 2 All. 197.
c.c. ,either side in determining the guilt or innocence of the
Jg66
accused and cannot be used by the Judge. Thus if it is desired
P. YAN Soo to con~radict a witness by any statement previously made
(a) MAVNG
THAUNG
b}' him the record should show clearly that the attention
NYuN . of the witness was drawn to that part of the previous state
0.
THE
.ment which was intended to be used to contradict him, that
UNION OF' he was given an opportunity to explain the apparent discre-
BURMA.
pancy between his present statement and that part of his
previous statement to which his attention was drawn that
his explanation, if any, was duly recorded. Such part of
his previous statement, if not already proved . . .. should
lbe subsequently by evidence which, in the case of a state~
ment recorded under section 162 of the Code of Criminal
Procedure, will usualJy be the statement of the investigating
officer."

See also The State v. Jiwan Das (3) where it was held
that-
" when a witness .is confronted with a portion of his police
statement, which he repudiates. the police officer recording
his statement should be questioned specifically with regard
to that portion of the statement " and that the ' ' practice
of merely asking the police offiter perfunctorily whether a
particular document represents the .witness's statement as a
whole should be condemned'."

[n the insunt case. neither the police investigating


officer was questioned nor any portion of the witness's
alleged statement to him was exhibited. Hence the
evidence of Maung 'Win Aung (DW 4) stands as it is. The
learned Public Prosecutor failed to impeach his character
under section 155 (3) read with section 145 of the Evidence
Act. If he had successfully done so his evidence could not
haw girrn any support to the defence and would have be-
l onw worthless. The medical officer was of the opinion
that after the receipt of the injury on the head the deceased
would be incapacitated, that is to say, he would not be
able to defend 'himself and would be helpless. If this is
(3) L LR. ( 1939) zo Lab. 305.
so the appellant's defence that he acted in the exercise c.c.
of his right of private defence of the body must be true 966
looking at the dab .marks on the exhibit stick as pointed P(a)
. Y"'
" Soc
MAuNe
out by the learned trial judge. If the stick bore dah T!!Au,.;c
nYUN
marks he (appellant) must have been struck first by the tl.
nar
deceased. UNJON o ....
It is needless to p<>int out ~hat in a criminal case the suRMA.
burden is on the prosecution to prove the. guilt of the
accused beyond all re~nable doubts. In the instant
case, there is only the evidence of the widow of the
deceased that could be considered legally and I have point-
ed o~t that her evidence is not acceptable at all. On the
other hand the appellant has put up a reasonable defence
supported by evidence which cannot be sai4 .to be .false
or contradictory.
In the result. the conviction and sentence passed by
the trial Court against the appellant are set aside and he
is directed to be acquitted.

'. '. '.


CIVIL REVISION
Before U Tkt Pe, J.

u MAUNG MAUNG AND TWO OTHERS (APPLICANTS)


v.
c.c. MA TA:LOK MA {REsPONDENT)
966
Feb. :z6.
Civil P.rocedure Code's. 2.4-tramfer. of suits '!lid e:~ecrtiio.n proceedings.
lftld: The suit befo~erhe z.nd }udge is one for dcclar.ltion that the Court
auction sale being null and void did not pass title to the respondent
whereas the proceedings against the applicat)ts relate to the que.~tion of re.nt
due by them as tenant:s of the respondel\t. The question i nvolv~~ thereirl.llJ'C
not akin either inpointof law or in point of fad . Threeapplicationsare
therefore dismissed.
. A.T..K, P.L. Muthiq Che~/JI . v. L .A.R. Aruna Ch!!l~rn Clzetty, ?. ~.B.R.
1i9 at .133;
Maung Mo v. Po Min z L :B.R . .28t;
Marmg Ya v. Maung Lu Gyaw, (94~) . R.L.R7 sr.z (F. D.);'
G.M. Uajulu v. M. GOfJinda Nair, A.I.R. (1938) Mad. 745;
Vaman Vasudeo Chitalev v. Raglmnatl1 Ganesh Thal<ar: A.I.R. (1949}
Bom. :z.63;
O.S. Mohiyuddin Sahib v. Yusuf Abdul Razuh, (1951) B.L.R . 2.1 (H ..C.);
Ahamuat v. Kalu, A.f.R. (1915) Lower Burma, to, referred to.

U Khin Maung ( 4) for the applicant.

U Ba Than {I) for the respondent.

U THET PE, J .-Since this application and the Revision


Applications Nos. 52 and 53 .of 1965 have been, by
consent, heard together, the present order will form the.
common order for all the applications.
This application is filed by U Maung Maung while
Civil Revision Nos : 52 and 53 are initiated by U Kyaw
Myaing and U . Chit Maung respectively.. They are
Civil Rcvisicn Nos. 51-52-53 of 1965.
Ag3_inst the ord'!r of the Chief ]lidge, City Civil Court of ,nangoon in Civi r
M isc. Case Nos. 103-104-I05 of 1965 dated the 29th September 1965. f:l
admittedl}r-tenants .of the responden~ Ma Talok Ma, who c.c.
1966
had . obtained rent decrees against aJI of them. She had
. out execution
taken . prooeedings agamst
t hem and ha.d MAUNe
U MAUNO
.u~o
also sued, U Maung_Maung and U Kyaw ~ain~ for further Two :.THEJtS
.arrears of rent before the learned 3rd .an 4th Judges of MA TALOK
the City Civil Court. It transpired that so e six other MA.
persons instituted a suit against the responde and two
others before the learned 2nd Judge for deciara ion that
they were the real owners of the premises, which .the
present applicants are occupying as tenants, inasmuch a's
the Court auction sale from which tfte respondent de1ived
her title to the property was null and viod. The .
applicants thereupon moved the learned Chief Judge, .;b ut
without success, to transfer an the suits and execllJtlori
proceedings pending against them fr9m t~e files of ,the
3rd and 4th judges to the fiie of the 2nd judge.
The power of transfer under section 24 of the Civil
Procedure Code is a discretionary one, which must of
course be exercised under proper judicial principles.
Occasions may arise where transfer may be justified. on
ground of convenience to the parties. A .T.K.P.L. Muthia
Chetty v. L.A.R. Arunachalam Chetty (1). No such ground
of convenience to the parties or witnesses can exiSt in the
present case inasmuch as all the proceedings are pending
in the same Court although they may be in lhe files of
different judges. Transfer may sometimes be sanctioned
when a litigant is under a reasonable apprehension that
the trial .judge has a pecuniary or other interest sufficient
to create bias.. Maung Mo v. Po Min (2). There is no
suggestion by the applicants of .such an apprehension.
Then, the proceeding may rightly be transferred on growtd
of interest of justice if a party has obtained unfair
advantage by the mis-use of legal process in a particular
Court. Maung Ya v. Maung Lu Gyaw (3). The instant
(1) 7 L.B.R. 1a9 at 133 (a) a L.B.R. a81.
b) (1941) R.L.R. 512 F.B.
c.c; case is not one of this nature. Or else the transfer may
~ be necessary to avoid the possibility of conflicting decisions
u P.tAuNo by two Courts on the same question. G. M. Rojulu v.
MAUNC: AND .
"tWo arHEJts M.: Govindan Nair (4). Voman Vasud(;'o Cllitaley v .
M~-'ALoK Raghunath Ganesh Thakar (5) and 0. S. Mohiyuddin Sahib
MA. v-. Yusuf Abdul Rozak (6). The suit before the learqcd
2nd Judge is Qne for declaration that the Court auctjon
sale:llei~g nuU :afl(l void did not pass title to the respondent,
-w~reas the proceedings against the applicants relate to
the questioa of rent due by them as tenants of the
respondent. - The questions involved therein are not akin
ei~her in point of law or in point. of fact, BeSides, it must
be pointed out that the applicants as tenants are estopped
. ~nder section I 16 of the Evidence Act from denying the
title of the respondent, who is their landlady a.nd I fail to
see how. the question of title involved in the suit before
the .2nd Judge can have any relevance to the proceedings
pending against them.
Furthermore, the applic::ants as tenants are under a
statutory liability to pay the rent to the landlady in view
of the provisions of section 'Io8 (I) of the Transfer. of
Property Act, even though .the lessor may have no title to
the leased property. Ahamuat v. Kalu (7).
For the aforesaid reasons the applications fail and are
accordingly dismissed with costs. Advocate fees K 3i

(4) A.I.R. (1938) Madraa 74S (6) (1951) B.L.R. Z4 (H.C.).


(5) A. I.R. (1949) Bombay :t63. (7) A.I.R. (1915) Loer. Bunna 10.
CIVIL REVISION

Before U Tllet Pe, J.

u PYU AND ONE (APPLICANTS) tC.C .


,66
v. Frb. 16.
u NGWE TUN AND ONE (RESPONDENTS).

Court Pen Act. Article 17 Clauu VI nf Schedule 11-tvit for ejte"*"l of


licrmu-~11intiff 111 libnty to fmt ltir own Vllllllltiort-n701ftOW fre,;~ of
issue troultd fur revisi<-n.
Hefti: A auit fur ejectment against a lic;ensee is governed by Article 17,
Clau.' c (vi) of Schedule II of the Court Fees Act ..
Neither the HiJ(h Court nor the Chief Court had made any rulea undec
' 9 It therefore follows that s. 8 and 9 of the Act are inappliable to the suit
or the present nature. . In such a 5Uit the plaintiff ia at liberty to put his OWD
valuation on his plaint for the purpose of jurisdiction, although the Court can
refuse to accept such valuation if it finds that it is not boll4 fole or made with
improper motive, such as a deliberate design to gi.,e the Court ~ jurisdiction
"hich it has not.
Toe-tal Al,tttl (a) Salin oud Ollt v ..\faMt Ti11 (s96o) B.L.R. 97 (II.C.) ;
K l;,.,. Raj v. Durri R.L.R. ( r941) 49S (i-';8.), referred to.
ll ~/ l furlh!!r : It cannot be gainsaid th11t the framing of iaues ia one of the
most important aspects of a suit. It has a ''ita! bearing on the trial and deci~ion
nf the caac inasmuch as the parti6 will thereafter be guided by the i.a ues joined.
If the Court erroneously framed an i~ue which does not arise for the effectual
disposal of the suit, it must be regarded a~ having committfld a material irrcgu~
larity in the c:s:ercisc: of jurisdiction which must he amenable to the revision
pow~rs of this Court.
Prnmvlllulas v. Slulnlttrdas A.l.R. (r929) Nag. 347;
Venkubai v. IAIIJimum v~koha (t888) 12 Bom. 617 ;
Siuoprasad Ram v. Tricomdas COfJerji Bhoja (r9rs) 42 Cal. 926-27
I.e. 9' 1;
Banu-I and othtrs v. Ntruamlmal Dnt/ otlurs. A.I.R. (1921) Sind 159
(F.B.), referred to.

U Tin (Syriam). for the applicants.


U 'fin Maung for the respondent<>.

Civil Revision No. r of r965.


t Against the order of the Subdi\'i.~unal Colurt of Syriam in Civil Regular
L1B Suit Nu. t of 1964, dated r8 th November '96i
!JJ
c.c. U THET PE, J.-ln Civil Regular Suit :No. 2 of 1964.
966
of the Sub-divisional Court of. Syria~n, petitioners sued the
U PYV
AND ONJl respondents for ejectment from the premises known as.
tl.
U NcwE house No. 35. Alaungsithu Street, Thongwa, on the ground
TuN that the latter, who were their licensees, had failed to
4ND om.
vacate from the premises in spite of demands. The re-
spondents resisted petitioners' suit on various grounds
amongst whic:;h it was contended that the tri~l Court had
no pecuniary jurisdiction to entertain the suit inasmuch
as the subject-matter of the suit w~ worth more than
K 30,000. The learned Subdivisional Judge thereupon
framed a preliminary issue, namely. "What is the valu~
of the house and site for the purpose of jurisdiction?
and ordered an enquiry, although the petitioners submitted
that such an enquiry was irrelevant. Being aggrieved
with the order, petitioners instituted the present revision.
Now it has been ll;lled in Toe-wal Ahmed (a) Salin and'
one v. Maung Tin (1) that a suit for ejectment ag~inst a
licensee is governed by Article J7,. Clause (vi) of Schedule
II of the Court Fees Act which provicles as follows :
I 7 Plaint or memorandum of appeal in each of the follow-
ing suits:-

tvi) every other suit where it is not Twenty Kyats.
possible to estimate at a money-
value the subject-matter in dispute,
and which is not otherwise provid-
ed for by this Act."

As regards valuation of suit, we must look to the Suits


Valuation Act. Section 8 of the Ac~ relates to certain
suits in which court-fees are payable a.d valorem. Sec-
tion 9 deals with certain suits which do nof admit of being
satisfactorily valued and for which the High Court has
with the previous sanction of the Government made rules
(t) (tg6o) B.L.R. 94 <H.C.).
regarding valuation. Neither the High Court nor the c.c.
1966
Chief Court had made any rules under section 9 rt there-
U PYu
fore follows that sections 8 and 9 of the Act are inapplic- ANO ONK
able to the suit of the present nature. In such a suit the v.
u NCWP.
plaintiff is at liberty to put his own valuation on his plaint TltN
AND ONI~.
for the purpose of jurisdiction, although the Court can
refuse to accept such valuation if it finds that it is not
bona fide or made with improper motive, such as a delibe-
rate design to giv~ the Court a jurisdiction which it has
not. Thus in Khem Raj v. Durgi (2) it has been held
that-
"A suit for restitution of conjugal rights is one in which
the value of the subject-matter in dispute cannot be estimated
satisfactorily in terms of money : conseq_u ently it is a suit
which may he brought upon payment of the fixed fee of
ten rupees mentioned in .Art. 17 (vi). Schedule II, of the
Court-fees Act. In .such a suit the value as determinable
for the computation of court-fee and the value for the
purpose of jurisdiction are not necessarily the same. For
the purpose of framing ffis plaint, the plaintiff must, 5o far
as the case admits, insert therein a statement of the value
of the subject-matter of the suit for the purpose of jurisdic-
tion, which valuation determines the forum.
In a suit for restitution of conjugal rights the plaintiff
may. for the purpose of jurisdiction, put any value he likes
on the relief sought and thus determine the Court in which
the suit is to be instituted. provided that the valuation is
made bona fide and not in order to effect an improper
purpose."

The principle enunciated therein will apply with equal


force to the present case for ejectment of licensees which
also docs not admit of heing satisfactorily valued. Be-
sides. the copy of the sale deed filed by the petitioners
shows that the house was purchased hy them from the
respondents for a sum of K s.ooo and the valuation of
the suit at this amount must therefore he deemed to be
(:z) R.L.R. (t941) _.<}S (F.B.).
c.c. proper and reasonable. \Vhen the petJttoners had pro-
966
perly valued their suit in accordance the trial Court erred
u PYu
in fixing an issue regarding valuation and insisting upon
AND ONI

"
U Ncwm an enquiry which, in fact. is not necessary.
'1\IN
AND ONI!, It cannot be gainsaid that the framing of issues is one
of the most important aspects of a suit. It has a vital
hearing on the trial and decision of the case inasmuch
as the parties will thereafter be guided by the issues joined.
If the Court erroneously framed an issue which does not
aric;e for the effectual disposal of the suit, it must be re-
garded as having committed a material irregularity in the
exercise of jurisdiction which must be amenable to the
revision a) powers of this Court'. In Premsukhdas v.
Shankerdas (3) Jackson, A.J.C. has this to say-

" It has been contended on behalf of the plaintiff that


under Section J 15, Civil Procedure Code there can be no
revision of the order. It has. however, been held in Venkubai
v. I-11kshman Venkoba (4) that in any case where the Court,
having a mistaken and wrong apprehension of the questions
at issue, proceeds to determine an issue which does not reall)'
arise in the case and bases its decision of the c:asc on its
determination of that issue, it acts with material irregularity
in the exercise of its jurisdiction. The same view has been
taken in Sivaprasad Ram v. Tricomdas Coverji Bhoja {5) and
I am of opinion that revision of the order is possible."

In Banumal and others v. Newandmal and others (6) it has


been decided that framing of an issue on a point which
did not properly arise was a material irregularity in the
exercise of jurisdiction from which a revision lO the High
Court lay.

In the result the revision application s ucceeds and the


order of the learned Subdivisional Judge dated the 18th

(J} A.I.R. (19:&9) Nagpur 347 (5) h915) 4:1 . Cal. 926-27 I.C . 917.
(4) (a888) 12 Bom. 6r7. (6) A.I.R. ( 1921 ) Sind. 159 (F.R.)
f
Nov.ember 14 directing an enquiry over the issue regard- c.c.
966
ing valuation of the suit is hereby set aside and I direct that
UPYU
the suit shall proceed after framing proper and relvant AND ONil
issue. Petitioners are entitled to the costs of this applica- "
UNcw.
tion. Advocate fees K 34 'I'IN
ANDONI.

=-111

'.
CIVIL REVISION

Before U Thet Pe, J.

'c.c. u KYIN KHA AND ONE (APPLICANTS)


1966
Feb. 5 v.
u SEIN PAw (RESPONDENT)

Stay of execution-application by tire unluc~sful daimont filillfl a mit under


0 . zr, R. 63 C.P.C.
Htltl : It ia elementary principle of law that a sale in execution Conveya only
the right, title and interest of the judgment-debtor to the auction purchaser.
Since the unsuCcessful claimant in the proceedings under Rule s8, Order 21
of the Ci-iil Proc.e dure Code, who institutes a suit under Rule 63, Order 21 ia
not ajudgmentdebtor, or a person claiming under him, against whom executi~
ia taken, his right in the attached property will not be affected by the sale.
K.N.R.M. Cltettyar v. Ma Slrule Hla atul others 19+0 R.L.R. p. 749 ;
Mo1uimed Hajee Val~i Molulmed v. Vednath Sillflht~nd othm A.I.R. (1938)
Ran. 21 referred to.
H. S. Voadtiya v. Tire Vijaya Bank Ltd., A.I.R. (t9SI) Mad. p. (Jzr)
distinguished.

U Maung Maung Myint for the applicants.

U Than Maung for the respondent.

U THET PE, j .-In Civil Regular Suit No. 104 of 1 961


of the Rangooq City Civil Court the respondent U Sein
Paw obtained a decree against U Toe .for K ro,ooo, in the
execution of which the respondent attached the house
known as 28, Padamya Street, HJedan Quarter, Kamayut,
Rangoon. The present applicants U Kyin Kha and U Han
Sein thereupon sought to remove, but without success,
the attachment by a claim petition under Rule sB, Order 2 I.
of the Civil Procedure Code. They then filed a suit for
declaration against the respondent 'decreehoJder under
Rule 63, Order 2 I of the Civil Procedure Code and asked
Civil Revi~ion No. 47 of J96S
for stay of the e?(ecution proceedings that were pending ~-f6
9
against the judgment-debtor U Toe. The learned Chief --
Judge towh om- t h e1r
. . .
app11cat10n was rna deref used. to stay U A."''O
KYIN KHA
oNs .
. the execution. Hence this revision. u Slit~P,.w.
It is elementary prlnciple of law that a sale in execu-
tion conveys only the right, title and interest of the
judgment-debtor to the auction purchaser. - Since-. the
unsuccessful claimant in the proceedings under Rule 58,
Order -2 I of the Civil Procedure Code,_who institutes a
su'it under Rule 63, Order 21 is not a judgment-debtor, or
a person claiming under him, against whom execution is
taken, -his right in the attached property will not be
aft:ected by the sale. In K.N.R.M. Chettyar v. Ma Hla Saw
and: others (I), wqich follows the Bench decision of
Mohamed Hajee Valli Mohamed v. Vednath Singh and
others (2), it was held that:
" A claimant who has filed a declaratory suit with regard
to property which has been attached in execution proceed-
ings, to which he is not a party, cannot obtain a temporary
injunction staying the sale. Since the amendment of
Order 39. Rule r of the Civil Procedure Code by the High
Court a Court has no power to stay the sale at the instance
. o'f a third party. The sale of the property attached in the
execution proceedings cannot impair his interest in the
property, for only the right, title and interest of the judgment-
debtor are conveyed to the purchaser and if the claimant
succeeds in his suit, his own interests cannot be deemed to
be disposed of by the sale. The inherent p6wers of the
Court cannot be invoked either, for it is not necessary in
the ends of justice, or to prevent abuse of the process of the
Court to stay execution when the claimant's rights are not
affected by the sale."

I am not unmindful of the single Judge decision of


H. S. Vodayar v. The Vijaya Bank Ltd. (3) where it was
held that a sale in execution of a decree against the

-.A . (r) (19-40) R.L .R. p. 749- (z) A.LR. (1938) Ran., :u .
(J) A.l.R. (1951) Madras, P- 321.

'-
c .c. .judgment-debtor should be stayed .under section 151 of the
1966
Civil Procedure Code pending the <Jisposal of a suit under
uANn
KYIN KHA
oNt:
.
Order 21, Ru1~ 63 by a c1a1mant
. to the property. The .
u SE:'PAw. . reasons given by the learned Judge for adopting this view
which appear on page 3n are that :.
'.' A Court of justice, equity and good conscience must have
powers to pass such orders as may be neces~ary 'for t~e ends
of justice, 01 to prevent abuse of the process of the Court,
. under section 151, Civil Procedure Code. If, 'for instance, an
attach~d family heirloom, or elephant or gem .or pait:tti~g .
having :a great sentimental value for the claimant, is to be
sold while his claim suit against a claiin order is . pending,. it
may become impossible for the claimant to recover it, an<:f. .
ther~ will be great . injustice caused to the claimant if he
eventually succeeds in his suit. That will apply also to many
other cases."

With due tespect to the learned Judge, if a rare


heirloom or gem or . painting f~r which no substitute can
be found is involved, there is nothing to prevent the
exctuting Court under its inherent powers to take appro-
pria~e. steps in the interest of justice. But in a case
where immoveable property which cannot be . either
removed or ~iqde~ away is -in question it wiH not be
neces-Sary i n the interest of justice or to prevent abuse of
the process of the.Court to invoke the inherent' powers to
stay the execution when the sale would in no way affect
the right, title and interest of the claimant.
In . the result, the application for revision fails and is
dismissed wi~h cost's. Advocate fees K 34
.
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lB

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