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The Marconi Series

Covering Advances in Radio and Radar

Radio Transmitters
Seies Editor: R.F. Power Amplification
P. S. BnaNooN
M anager, Resear ch Dh: iim,
The Marconi ComPanyLimited

G. E. Beck--ly'coigation Systems:A Suntey of Modern Electronic Aids

J. A. Scarlett-.Prr'ated Cirait Boards for Mictoelectronics

J. K. Skwirzynski-Deign Theorymd Data for Electrital Filters
V. O. Stokes- Radio Transmitters:R.F. Pruer Amplifuation
R. A. Waldron-Frrites: An Introductionfor Mioouat:e Engir'eers
R. A. Waldron-Th"ory of Guided Elcctromagnctic Waves
The Marconi Company Limited
D. W. Watson and H. E. Wight-Radio Arection-Fitding


PnrracE v
Lrsr or IllustnarroNs xiii
IlmRoouctroN xvii

Panr I



t.l llnaxrxc Or HrcH Pou'En
Double-sidebandand single-sidebandtransmissions-broadcast
transmissionsin the m.f. band-long-range broadcastingin the
m.f. band-transmission in the v.l.f. band-tropical broadcast-
ing-rompatible singlesideband
1 . 2 Nllulrr-CneNxrr- Opnnarrox
Pou'erper channelin relationto peakporver.for variouscombina-
tions of telephonyand telegraphvchannels
1.3 \:alve CoxvrnsioN Errrcr r,xcr- 10
The effectof operatingvalvesin classA, B, C and D in termsof
d.c. input pos'er and I'alvc dissipation

2.1 GrxrnelClassrrrcatroN 12
2.2 Drprxrrrox Or Cless A, B, C Ar';n D OprR,trloN 12
2.3 l.tarvp CsanacrERrsrrcs IJ

Preliminaryconsiderations-constant voltageand constant-current

2.4 Cuanacrnnrsrrcs Or Powrn Tnroons 1+
A method of performance computation-examples using the
performance computer-eiliptical load lines---operation at
2.5 Cna-necrBnrsrrcsOr Powrn Tprnoops 22
Typical linear operating conditions-comparison betrveentriodes
and tetrodes

, *r"r.oitXffi
cHAprER rYPEoFoPERATIoN27 5.5 Vepour Cooltxc 79
The advantagesof vapour cooling-air and water coolant for heat
3 . 1 Grxenar. CoxsrosRAtroxs n exchanger-a typical vapour-cooling system-heat-transfer
3.2 Cuss A Alptlcettoxs ' 28
characteristics-comparison with other cooling systems .
?? Cress B Apprtcerlons
Choice of valve for linear amplifiers-linear amplification with
tetrodes*linear amplification with triodes-methods of improving
tetrode linearity-linear application for broadcasting
3.+ Cr,ess C Alpr,rcerroxs 3+
6 . 1 Opnnlfl orqer,Rrgu rnrlrrNrs d5
Transmitters in the m.f. and h'f. bands-the choice of valve for Linearity-frequency changing and reliability
class C application--setting up tetrodes.in class C for anode- 6.2 Tnr PnrNcrpr,eOr SBlr-TuNlNc 86
modulated r.f. amplifiers-iypical operation for 100 kW carrier Anode-circuit tuning-automatic loading-setting the loading
output conditions
3 . 5 Cr,essD AppLrcerroNs 38
6.3 Tsr INpur Cncurt ANo Coansp TurvrNc 89
The principle of classD operation--oPerational frequency band- 6.+ A Couprrrr SErr-TuNtt{c AnnaNcpllnxr 91
method of calculating classD performance The tuning and loading proiess-economic advantages-antenna
3 . 6 ConpanrsoN Br-rwrsN Crass D ANo Cr-assC-100 kW Ourpur 40
L2 selection
3 . 7 Class D Foa VunY Hrcn Powrn
4.L Pusn-Purl exo SrNcrn-Srono Crncurrs 45 7 . 1 Dnsrcx Fon 100 kW Cenr.rrn PowEn IN Tnr H.F. Barlo 94
affectingthe choiceandtype of circuit Reasonsfor circuit arrangement-the screensupply and modula-
46 tion-typical circuit diagram and description-spurious oscilla-
+.2 Srnclr-StonpANoor-OurpurCIRcuIrsIN Tur H'F' BaNo
Valuss Fon I/Z Crncuns 48 tions and their prevention-the cooling system-a suitable drive
4.3 A Mrrnoo Or CelcurartmcCoMPoNENT
Informationrequiredfor calculation-formulaefor derivingcom- equipment
7.2 DmrcN Or A Vrnv Hrcn Powrn M.F. TnaNsutmtn 100
ponentvalues---example of calculationsfor a 30 kW amplifier-
frequencyranges Design considerations-circuit description
52 t -J Ecoxoutcal DpsrcN Fon A 1'0 kW M.F. TnlNs'rrttrrn 104
4.4 FrxsDCapecrtoRsIN PARALLEL
CepAcrrY OF CoPPsn CoNDuctoRsAt R'F' 54 The need for an m.f. transmitter of this power-transmitter
4.5 THnCunruur-CannvrNc
54 features-the modulation system-final amplifier arrangement
+.6 IwouctonCorsrrcunetroN
4.7 Vannnrc CesecrroRs 56
4.8 Vor.recr Fr.assorrunAr.roTsr Usr Or Conoxe Rrxcs )o CHAPTIR 8 AN L.F. TRANSMITTER DESIGN 1'07
4.g HeruroNrcAccrrrtuetron Ix Axooe Clncurrs JI

60 8 . 1 Cnanacrpmsrrc FEATnREs 107

4.10 Frmr. Antpr,rrrrnINput Crncurrs
circuits Comparison betrveenl.f. and h.f. systems-choice of frequency,
Cathodesupply and r.f. connections--grounded-cathode operation and
bandwidth and power output-multi-channel
with tetrodevalvesgounded-grid circuits with triode valves
frequency stability
8 . 2 Crncurr ARRANcEMENT 110
The output circuit-the 6nal amplifier-r.f. feedback-power
Tsr Nco Fon Errlcrnm Coolnqc Svsrnus 66 gain and drive required
Tvpns Or TnensnarrrnnCooreNr 66
5.2 '* 67 I14
Air flow-pressure anddensity-coolirrg by blowing o1by suction 114
-tyPic.l io*g.-.nt for a high--power amplifier with.a srngle 9 . 1 Tnr Nrm Fon Pener,w Oprnerrox
requirements 9 . 2 Rreurnrr"mrs Fon Penar,rEr OrraetroN 114
.*iirrg ,ytt.-i- exampleof air flo*and Pressure
to 9 . 3 -pe-narur.ruc Bv MreNs Or A Capeclron-houcton Natwonr 116
5.4 W,trBn Coor.rNc
system-temP".t1*t: considerations for a The drive automatic changeoverunit-drive splitting and phasing
A typicalwater-cooling 'T'
r'r' roao networks--output combining with a bridged network
water-cooling system-water-cooled
9.4 Penerr.sI.rNcMnoruvr-ANo Hlcn-Pown H.F. Thelnurrrrns Bv CHAPTER 13 SOLID-STATE AMPLIFIERS 167
Tnr Reoremo Ftrlo Perrnw
CorvrsrrqrNc l2l
The input circuit-the output circuit 13.1 Tm Pnrsrlrr Srern Or Tnn Anr 167
13.2 Norrs Ox Norc-LtNEAR TnensrstonAvplrrrrns t67
9.5 Per.auu.rNc TneNsurtrrns Ar Low- Alro Lowrn-MsDruMPowER
lZ3 Conversionefficiency-parasiticoscillations .
Lnynr.s ,
13.3 LrxnenArrapLrrrc.trrox Wnu Tnalqsrsrons t7l
Parallelingwith two amplifiersin push-pull-parallelingwith two
Transistor linearity compared with valves-non-linearity in
amplifiersin push-push
transistors-classB transistoramplifiers-secondarybreakdown-
linear widebandr.f. amplifiers,2-30 MHz-wideband circuit
Penr 2
APPENDIX I A Gnepsrcer.Mprnoo Or [IemtoNrc Axervsls 176
BAND TECHNIQUES t28 Corouc,onsOr CrncuranCnoss-Srcrrox 180
APPENDIX III Serr- Axo Muruar- IuoucteNcr Or Tunlqs
r0.1 Tnr C,lsEFon WrorseNDCrncurm t28 Or Lancr Durvrrrnn 182
r0.2 Gexrnel Fnrrvcrplrs Or Wmmrxo Alrplrprrns 129 APPENDIX IV Vorrecr Flasuown 184
Limiting factors--distributedamplifiers APPENDIX V h.roucuNcsOn SrNcln-L,rvrnSoLsNoIos 186
1 0 . 3 I kW WrosnANDTnaxsurrrrn, 2-28 MHz 134 APPENDIX VI S.I. Uvms 187
The 6nal amplifier-anode and grid lines-the penultimate
amplifier Iuoor 189
10.4 Pnnronruer.rcr Or I kW WrossANDTnellsnrtrrn t37
10.5 Mur.rr-FnreurNcvOprnerroN 138
10.6 Fnrquwcr ExtprsroN To Cown Tsp M.F. Bello 140
t0.7 WrprneNoTneNsrorucns 141


1 1 . 1 Grrvnner,CoNsrornetrons 145
tr.2 Tsn hrpur CrRcurr 145
I 1 . 3 INrrnsrecr Coupr-rrvcWrrrr A I1 Cncutr t47
tt.4 ItrrERsrecrCepecrrerrw CotrrlrNc 148
11 . 5 INrmsracn Couplrllc Wnn A Qur,nrnn-WavENerwonr 149
1 1 . 6 Ttprcer, Exnraprns Or Qu.mrm.-WAt'BNE-TwoRK
Comonrolts 151


l2.l Powm,ConsroEmTtoNs 153
Peak power relationship betweeo d.sb. and s.s.b'-mean power
and peak power-drive power for s.s.b. operation
12.2 TYrrcer. Crncurt Dreonetrn Fon An R.F. Arvrplrrrnn Fon 200 W
p.E.p. 157
The input circuit-neutralizing and stabili;ng arrangements-the
aoode-output circuit
lL3 Dnsrcr.r Or Trra Ixpur Crncur 160
Features of the input circuit-input transformer design and cal-
culation-matching the input transformer to the feeder
12.+ Dnsrcn Or Tns AxooB-Ourpm Cncurt 162
Description of a II network--example of determination of com-
ponent values
12.5 SBwo-RrctrvB SwrrcsrI.rc 166


1 . 1 Comparisonbetweenradio-frequencyspectrumrvith d.s.b.ands.s.b. J
l.z Waveformsproducedby d.s.b.and compatibles.s.b.systems 6
2 . 1 Load lines on constant-currentcharacteristicsof triode valvestvoe
BR 1161(EnglishElectric Valvb Co.) t+
2 . 2 Interpolationof 1o from V"llogtaph IJ
2 . 3 Tube performancecomputor (Eimac) 16
2.+ Elliptical load lines on characteristicsof triode type BR I 161 19
2.5 Effectof feedermismatchon anodecurrent w"u"ior* of triode 2l
2 . 6 Anode.dissipationand power output in relation to anode voltage
excurslon 22
2.7 Load lines on constant-currentcharacteristics of tetrode valve tvpe
4C X 35 000 C (Eimac)
(a) Screenvoltage: 1000V
(6) Screenvoltage: 1500V 24
2.8 Effect of changing screen voltage and static anode feed on anode
cutrent waveform of tetrode
3.1 Circuit for improving tetrodelinearity 1'
3.2 Load line on constant-currentcharacteristicsof tetrode valve for
Iow-level modulation
3.3 Load lines on constant-current characteristicsof tetrode valve for
anodemdulation JI
+ Basiccircuit arrangement for classD operation 38
3.5 Energy transfer in classD operation 38
3.6 Comparisonbetween classi and classD waveforms 4l
3,7 Load line on constant-current characteristicsof tetrode for very high
qgwer at high efficiency in class D. Valve type VCP 2002 (English
Electric Valve Co.) +3
4.1 Tuned-anode tuned-output circuie with magnetic coupling for
grounded-grid triode tn

+ Z BasicIlI circuit for grounded-grid triode +7

4.3 (a) Circuit arrangemint for lllcalculations 48
(6) Breakdownof .IZ circuit into three Z circuits 48
4.{ Probable resonanceof capacitorsin parallel
4.5 RF. current-carrying capacity of conductors for frequenciesbelow
30 MHz 54
Exampleof tapped-inductorvariable-capacitor anodecircuit
1.9 JJ
+.7 The use of corona rings to increasebreatdown voltage 7l


Figun Figrc
4.8 Modified IIZ circuit arrangement for high power 58 9.9 Bridged 'T' paralleling network for -oie than two transmitters 720
4.9 Graphs showing liabiliry for harmonic accentuation in anode circuits 59 9.10 Block diagram for operating two medium- or high-porvtr h.f.
4.10 Grounded-grid circuit with low-capacitance heater transformer transmitten in parallel by combining the field pattern r2l
secondary at r.f. potential 62 ?.1I llp"J ry..angementwhen paralleling is required on a temporary basis 122
4.l l Grouaded-grid circuit with cathode choke of low-impedance heavy- 9.12 Block diagram of paralleling by means of wideband tiansformers 123
current coaxial cable, such as Pyrotenax 63 9.13 lhasing and drive splitting for push-pull operation 123
4.12 Grounded-grid circuit with cathode choke consisting of a busbar 9.14 Transformer combining unit for push-pull-operation r24
sandwich through ferrite rings 64 9.15, fhasing and drive splitting for push-push opiration t25
5.1 Power required to raise 1 ft3/min of air by loC 68 9.16 Transformercombiningunit for push-pushoperation - tzs
5.2 Multiplying factors for pressureand air flow to allow for reduced air 10.1 Working conditionsfor a widebandamplifier 129
density above 20'C 68 (4) at the output
5.3 Multipt;ing factorsfor pressureand air flow to allow for reduced air (D),(c) at the interstagecoupling
density abovesea-level 69 (d) at the input
5.4 Characteristics of cooling fan 70 10.2 Simplified diagram of a distributed amplifier 131
5 . 5 Cooling by blowing 7r 1 0 . 3 Circuit for r,f. cathodefeedback 134
5.6 Cooling by suction 72 10.4 Anode delay lines showing the tapering sections 136
J.l Air cooling for valveswith anodesupwards 1 0 . 5 frgguenc}l responseof two-stage distributed amplifier, in terms of
5.d Typical air-cooling system by suction 74 drive level required for I kW output 137
5 . 9 Total valve dissipation relative to air flow and air-inlet temperature 7+ 10.6 Intermodulation products between two closely spaced tones with
5 . 1 0Air flow-air pressure characteristic IJ referenceto peak envelopepower 138
5 . 1 1Closed-circuit water-cooling system (a) 1kWp.e.p.
5 . 1 2Water-cooled r.f. load 79 (r) s00W p...p.
5 . 1 3Typical vapour-phase cooling system (Eimac) 8l 10.7 Output circuit arrangement for h.f. and m.f. version of distributed
5 . 1 4Nukiyama heat-transfer curves 82 amplifier 140
6 . 1 Yector diagrams of tie phase relationship in phase discriminator 87 10.8 Method of ferrite core assemblyfor 40 kW h.f. transformer r42
6.2 Fine-tuning section of self-tuned amplifier 88 10.9 Circuit arrangementof a 40 kW wideband transformer r+2
6.3 Loading discriminator of self-tuned amplifier 88 10.10 Smith's chart presentationof iaput matching of a 40 klV wideband
6.4 Final amplifier input circuit for self-tuning 90 transformer 143
6.5 Block diagramof completeautomaticsysternfor aself-tuned amplifier 9l 1t 1 Input circuit using a wideband step-up transformer r46
7.1 Simplified circuit diagram of 100 kW h.f. modulated amplifier 96 11.2 Partial tuning of the input circuit 147
7.2 Integrated vapour- and air-cooling system 99 I L3 Interstag! co-uplingwith a I/ circuit t47
7.3 Final amplifier for 750 kW m.f. transmitter 102 11 4 Capacitativeinterstagecoupling 148
7.4 Linear amplifier for 1.0 kW m.f. transmitter with low-level modula- I l 5 Two types of quarter-wave network t49
tion 106 ll.6 Practical arrangement for interstage coupling with a quarter-wave
8 . 1 Circuit arraogement of final amplifier for lfi) kW p.e.p. in the l.f. network 150
band lll 11.7 Constant-current characteristics of tetrode type 4CX250B (Eimac) 152
9.1 Block diagram for operating two trantimitters in parallel by means l2,l Comparisonbetween the spectral cotopon.rrt d.s.b. and s.s.b. to
of a capacitor-hductor combining network 116 .. give the samepeak envelopepower 153
9.2 Drive splitting and phasing network 117 12.2 Comparison between d.s.i. and s.s.b. r.f. waveforms as seenon an
9.3 Phase change produced by each double If section of the phasing oscilloscope 154
network 117 12.3 Characteristicsof tetrode type QV08-100 with load line for 210 W
9.4 V.S.W.R. atinputof phasingnetwork with each outPut matched into p.e.p.output 156
lsOQ 118 Input circuit arangement when high-power drive is available t57
9.5 Phase control available at various frequencies with each variable l?.t Typical circuit diagram for ..f. amitiner 157
capacitor covering 5G-500 pF ,- 118 12.6 Easic If circuit for anode-ouput coupling 162 "
9.6 Bridged'T' paralleling network 119 12.7 Breakdown of the Jl orcurt 163
9.7 Breakdown of the bridged 'T' nctwork in the balanced condition 119 12.8 Method of calibrating inductor for Ir circuit 165
9.8 Brea&downof thelridged'T' net*ork with one transmitter off 119 12.9 Send-receiveswitching with relays in the receiveposition 166

1 3 . 1 Basic circuit for transistor amplifier, class C 168
t3.2 Input and output waveforms of transistor amplifiers 168
1 3 . 3 Circuit for high-efficiency operation 169
t3.+ Efiective outPut circuit at higher frequencies i69
1 3 . s Spectrum showing low-frequency parametric oscillation due to non-
linear collector-basecapacitance
1 3 . 6 Practical circuit for producing spurious parametric oscillation 170
13.7 Spectrumof frequenciesproducedby the circuit shownin Fig' 13'6 170
1 3 . 8 Gain/frequency resPonsefor constant Z" 17r
1 3 . 9 Typical contoursofiut-off frequency F1 relativeto voltage 7 " for two
tlL The essentialcharacteristic of any transmitterdesignis that the end-productshall
11) fulfil all the technicalrequirementsof its specificrtionregarding
13.10 Efiect ofincreasing frequency on transistor 1"/tr/" characteristics ierfo.-"nce,
reliabiliry. ease of operation, etc. The iniroduction of new tleciniquesand
13.11 Forward-biaseddiode for bias compensation l/J

13.12 Constant-currentmethod of bias compensation t7+ componentsis desirablenot only when they ofier operationaladvantages to the
13.13 Changein input impedancewith increasingfeedbacklevel 174 user, but also becausethe most modern equipmeni has considerable'customer
13.14 Single-stagewidebandclassB r.f. amplifier 175 appeal.However,since the commercialsuccessof a designdependsmainly on
its initial costand running expenses, innovationsshould bi treaiedwith.uuiiorr,
partly becausenew components generally have unknorvn operational retiability,
AI.1 A complex waveform with secondand third harmonic content'
and partly becausethere is a tendencytowards increasedcomplicationand cost ir,
The points identified numerically every 30o on the waveform arc
r76 striving for the perfect technical soiution. In fact, economic aspectsare of major
projected to determine the graduationson the paper strip . -
importance at all stagesof design, particularly regarding easeof manufacture,
AL2 The constituent comPonentsof Fig. AI.1 rvaveformplotted fronr
with consequentlow production cost and operation;l simllicity.
tlre information given in Table A1.1. Note: For clarity the sub-
Power amplifiers constitute that section of a radio tranimitter which orovides
divisions ,tot shown, but 10 on the linear amplitude scalc
"r" 177 amplification at the final radiated frequency, with or without modulation, but
rePresents 20 small divisions
do not include the modulator and fre(uency generating equipment. However,
AL3 The method of marking points at 30' intervalsfor curvesl, n and c,
the modulation systemwith which the amplifiei wilr be usedmlst be considerea
in accordancewith Table AI.l and using the paper strip inverted 178
ir1 relf91 to such requirements as lineariry and bandwidth. Amplifiers can be
AII.1 Self-inductance of single straight conductors of circular cross-
181 classifiedinto a number of categories,but are usually identified by the rype of
service, frequency and power.
AIII.I Self-inductance of single circular turns of circular cross-section
182 The intendedtpplication is the most imporrant considerationinitially, because
material .
183 it determines the frequenry rang to be covered and the power to be radiated
AIII.2 Mutual inductance of equal coaxial turns at various spacings
rrom.the transmltting antenna. For any particular application, the output power
AIV.1 Flashover voltage btween parallel circular conductors at Ooc at
r84 required from the final amplifier is dltirmined by the antenn" effi.i.rr"y, th.
sea-level j
propagationpath loss and the signal-to-noiseratio which will be necessaryii the
LIV.z Flashover voltage between a circular conductor, or a flat plate
185 receiving station to give an ade(uate service. The computation of these factors
with a radiused edge, and a flat plate
186 tiom published graphs cr by calculation, is not part;f this project, but the
AV.1 Inductance of single-layer solenoids
rmportance.ol-accuracy cannot be overstressedin relation to specifying
power required out of the final amplifier. If the estimate is too low, ttre sJ:vice
will inadequate, and to increasl the power output after compietion of an
lnsallatron can be a very costly business. On the other hand, a serioug
estimate will mean that both initial and running costs are higher than those of
competing manufacturers,resulting in fewer sales.
Apart from the economic aspect, excessiveradiated power is more likely to il
interfele with other radio tranimissions, yet the powei output of trarrr-itters , l. - t ,
differs considerably for different applications, evin for the same transmission ,'ii
path length in the.same frequency band. so, it is important that the reasonsfor il
this apparent discrepancy are fuily appreciated p.ioi to the commencementof j.!

any transmitter design, in order that the proposed eguipment shall meet the


optimum objective of providhg an adequateservicewit}r a minimum of radiated

power. Consequently the first chapter of this book is devoted to explaining the
rqrsorur why the power level indicated by the term 'high power' often varies
very considerably in relation to different applications.
It may appearunorthodox that the last stageof amplification is consideredfust,
but the major contributory factor to the successof a transmitter, both technicdly
and economically, is provided at the high-power stage. Further, as the driving
power reguired by the final stage cannot be known until all the operating con- Part r
ditions of this stagehave been determined, the designof an amplifier chain must
begin at the final stage.
The second chapter is mainly a recapitulation of known-art regarding the High Power
class of valve operation, but en:phasis is placed on the power consumption
becausethe major portion of the total input power to a transmitter is fed into
the final stage. Eventual running cose are mainly dependent on the power
consumption of this stage.The stagegain is alsoimportant, in that it determines
the level of driving power required.
Tfuoughout all stagesof transmitter design, consideration must be given to
the potential reliability of the equipmcnt when put into operational service.
31seLq in transmission can be annoying during entertainment broadcasting,
more serious in civil communication links, but possibly disastrous in military
communications. To cover such contingencies it is not unusual to provide
duplicate low-power equipment, with automatic changeover facilities, for
restoring service when a fault develops.With high-power equipment, fiequently
due to space limitation but also on economic grounds, duplication is the exception
rather than the rule.
It follows that a high order of operational reliability should be one of the most
essential characteristics of high-power design. This requirement is often in
conflict with cost considerations, but cheap equipment is doomed to failure if
operational breakdowns occur too frequently. The real skill of a good design
engineeris proven by his choiceof tolerancesto give the best compromise between
reliability and mst.for 4 &ar applialiot . Where tlrere is a choice between a
componeot which will initidly just comply with the required specifcation, and
one which is apparently somewhat under-rated, a good guiding principle is 'fit
and forget', ratler than 'ft and fret'.
In the prrsent stage of development, the active elemen8 for high-power
amplifiers are \ralves, so solid-state devices dre only coosidered for lower-power
applications. In cnnnection widl somorrrnii:tions, it should not be forgotten
that the transmitter is only one item of the total equipment required to form a
complete communication system. As such, 6e design must be engineered to be
fully in accordance with the qntem requirements. With the possible exception
of the antennas and feeders, the transminer is usually the most expensive item.
Consequendy, tte technical performancc and cost of the transmitter ffiuencc
potential customen towards purchasing tle whole-system equipment from the
manufacturer who can supply the best transmitters.
On the other hand, comrnunicationtransmissiongare for conveyinginformation
I betweentwo specificpoints. They are mainly used by civil and military organiza-
tions, where the prime objective is to maintain continuous communicdtion and
quality need not be so high as in broadcastsystems.Experienced operatorsare
employed, so the receiverscan be more sophisticated,enabling the useof more
Power Relationships appropriate transmissionsystems,such as the single sideband (s.s.b,).The cost
ofs.s.b.receiversis much higherthan that of d.s.b.receivers,but when considered
in relation to the overall cost of a communication network. the extra cost is

kw PE.P.
kW rneon
| 180
The power output of a radio transmitter is normally specified as the radio- I
frequencypower deliveredby the final or high-poweramplifier. I
The actual power at the output terminals varies considerably for different
applications,both in level and by definition. This meansthat the power input
and size of high-pcwer amplifiers also cover a wide range, but the foilowing Amplitude I
comparisonsshow that, in many cases,these differencesare only apparent lvhen I
consideredin terms of the effectivelevel of intelligencepo]l,erradiated.In other l2O kW corrier
casesthe differencesare substantial, particularly when comparing transmirt:rs
for operationin the v.l.f. and the h.f. bands,where attenuationof the propagation
paths also differs considerably.
It is normal practice in telecommunications to express power, voltage and 30 kW sidebonds 30 KW PE.P.
current ratios in decibels.For receiver and low-power applications,a requirement 3 O k Wm e o n
for increasingthe gain by, say,6 dB, can be met with equipment which is relatively
easy to construct and inexpensive. When comparing levels in the high-power
region, ratios expressedonly in decibelsare liable to give a falseimpressionof the fqFl^

real significancein terms of equipment size, power consumption and cost. For
example, to increasethe power output of a 100 kW amplifier by 6 dB, means 0.S-8. tsrequency S.S.g-
an extra 300 kW. Hence, it is not surprising to find that overall system gain l0oTomodulotion S i n g l el o n e
achievedby increasingtransmitter power is sometimesdescribedas 'gold plated Ftc. 1.1 Compafisonbetweenradio-frequency
spectrumwith d.s.b.and s.s.b.

In conventional d.s.b. working, the intelligence is contained in full in cach

Double-$deband and *tgle- idcband trmsmissiotts of the two sidebands,Advantageian be taken of this redundancyby transmitting
Consider a comparisonberweentransmissionsof audio-frequency programmes on one sidebandonly. After amplitude modulation at a low level, thc carricr antl
for broadcastingand for point-to-point communications in the h.f. band between one sideband are filtered out, leaving the other sideband to be amplifictl and
3 MHz and 30 MHz. Both types of transmission are used in this band for long- radiated. For s.s.b. transmitters the power output is specifiedas peaii cnu"lopc
haul circuits, with similar frequenciesfor any particular distancerangeso that a power (p.e.p.) or peak sidebandpower (p.s.p.).
direct comparisoncan be made on a system basis. feak envelopepower is the power which would be developedby a continuorrs
In the generally accepted meaning of the term, broadcast transmissions are carrier, the amplitude of which is equal to the peak amplirude oi a signal con-
aimed at providing good-quality reception by anyone within the service area. ststtngof a pilot carrier and one or more sideband components.
So to reach the largest possible audience, the radio receivers must be simple to Peaksidebandpower is the power which would be developedby a continuous
operate and relatively inexpensive.To meet this condition, the most appropriate carrter, the amplirude of which is equal to the peak amplitude of one or more
transmission system is amplitude modulation, with a high-level carrier and a srdcbandcomponents,with no pilot carrier.
pair of lower-level sidebandswhich convey the intelligence. Amplitude modula- The tw6 terms are practicallisynonymous becauseif a pilot carrier is radiated,
tion is classified as double sideband (d.s.b.) and is used for most broadcast It rs at a low level-normally -16 dB or -26
dB with reference to peak level.
applications. The power rating of d.s.b. transmitters is specified in terms of the Tlrc output power requiredfor the final amplifiersof d.s.b.and s.s.b.systems,
level of carrier power at the output terminals. Srvethe samcradiatedpower in one sideband,is shown in Fig. l.l. It will be
4 powER RELATToNSITIPs [Ch. l] T H E M E A N T N Go F E r c H p o w E R 5
seen that the total po\ryeroutput is 180 kW (120 + 30 + 30) in the d's.b. case each sideband is one-quarter of the carrier,power at 100o/omodulation, i.e.
at 100% modulation, compared with 30 kW for s.s.b. at fr-rlllevel. Taking into betweenl2'5 kW and 25 kW. Relativeto rhe power ratios being considered,the
account the power required by the modulator, a more comprehensivecomparison gain/loss characteristicsof suitable antennascan be neglected, so'the effective
between t}re two systemsis shown in Table 1.1. radiated power is also between 12.5 kW and 25 kW-considerably less than the
300kW e.r.p.of a 30 kW s.s.b.transmitter.
This, again, emphasizesthe price that has to be paid in transmitter power in
Tanrs 1.1
good-quality reception can be obtained with simple and inexpensive
d.s.b. s,s.b.
Long-rangebroa&asting in thc m.f. band
r.f. output, no signal 120kw 0 Long-rangebroadcastingis alsocarriedout in the m.f. band, using very high-
Final amplifier efficiency 809r" 66% power transmitters.These programmes are mainly for propagandapurposes,so
Final amplifier d.c. input 150kw 10kW(approx.) d.s.b. transmissionis employedin order that receptioncan be made with very
r.f. ouput, full signal 180kw 30kw simple and inexpensivereceivers.Id terms of receivedsignal strength,it is not
Power output of modulator 75kW (50ol"of negligible possible to give a general comparison with h.f. broadcasting, becauseof the
150kw) diffcrentpropagationcharacteristics in the two bands,but a comparisoncan be
Modulator efficiency s0% unimportant madein termsof e.r.p.
d.c. power input to modulators full signal 150kw negligible In the m.f. band it is a very expensivepropositionto erectdirectionalirntennas
Total d.c. input, full signal 300kw 45'5 kW and the gainachievable is small,soit is usualto employomni-directionalantennas,
Differencebetweend.c. input and one r.f. 270kw 15.5kW for which the efficiencyis about 9091.With a d.s.b. systemand an omni-direc-
sideband (300- 30) (4s.s- 30) tional antenna,a radiated power of 300 kW in one sideband,at 100% modulation
Peak voltage on anode of final amplifier H.T.V.x 4 H.T.V.x 2 necessitatesa carrier power of 1330 kW and a total output of 2000 kW at the
valve (approx.) (approx.) transmitter terminals. This is a typical power-level used for this type of service.
It is not surprisingthat the 6nal stageof such a transmitter is calleda super-power
amplifier, yet the effective power of intelligence radiated is only the sameas that
When audio programmes are being transmitted in operational service, the given by the final amplifier in a 30 kW s.s.b.system.
averagelevels of input and radiated power will be less than those given in the From thesecomparisonsit is obvious that s.s.b. transmissionsare far more
Table 1.1, by an amount depending on the type of progtamme, but the ma-ximum economicalat the transmitting station, both initially and during operation.Bur
conditions must be consideredat the design stage. this advantageis probably lessimportant than the greateruse that is madc of thc
For long-range transmission systems of any tyPe in the h.f. range, it is usua- frequencyspectmm and the less likelihood of causinginterfercncewith othcr
to employ directional antenras, which concentratethe power into a beamjn the transmissions,becausethe total power radiated is so much lorver.
desired direction. Typically, antennagain is of the order of 10 dB, so the effective
Transmision in the o.l.f. band (belou 30 hHz)
radiated power (e.r.p.) of one sideband in t}le foregoing comparison is about
300 kW for both d.s.b. and s.s.b. transmissions. Transmitters operating h the v.l.f. band are in a diffcrent catcgory for a
In the caseof communication circuits, it is usual to employ directional antennas number of reasons,so that a direct comparisonwith transmittersin othcr bantls
for reception aswell as transmission. Elementary antennas are used with broadcast canonly be madein respectof amplifieroutput and radiatedpowcr.'fhc availablc
receivers, whereas complex anteflnaa are usAd by operating organizations to bandwidth is too low for speech,limiting the traffic to telegraphy. 'I'ransmissions
enhance reception, enabling the use of muchilower $ansmitting Powers of the at v.l.f. are subject to very much less ground-wave attenuation than those at
order of I kW or so in some imtances. One of the mein advantagesof directional higher frequencies,and relatively low power need be radiated for world-wirlt:
antennas for reception is the reduced level of unvlanted signals and noise from communication.This is just as well, becauseit is not practicalto erccr rntennas
other directions lvhich improves the signal-to-noise ratio- of high efficiencyat these frequencies.A good exampie is at the G.P.O. station
at Rugby, where ttre figure-of-eight antenna, mounted on a number of tl-50lt
Broadcast transmissionsin thc n.f. batV t masts,hasan efficiencyof lessthan 20o/oat 16 kHz. This meansthat the ratliatctl
The majority of transmissions in this band are used for local services, and p<>rver is lessthan 20 kW for every 100 kW appearing at the transmitter outpur.
have, in fact, formed the backbone of most broadcastingsysterrulfor many years. bandwidth of v.l.f. ransmission is further limited by the Q factor of these
The transmitter power required is governed by the area to be servedand liniited Irrgc antennas,which is often between 200 and 300. Where bandwidth is of
to a level which will causeas little interference as possiblewith m.f. broadcastsin pri nrc inrportancein order to operatewith telegraphratesof up to fifty or sevenry
hrrrtls, it may be necessaryio add dampin! to tne anteruu circuit, thereby
other countries. In thii context, high-power transmitters fall within the range of
rc(ltrcingthe radiationefficiencyand radiatedpower for a given input.
50-100 kW carrier power. Double-sideband systems are used, so the level of
POWER RELATIONSIIIPS lch. l] M U L T r - c H A N N E oL P E R A T T o N 7
Tropical boadcastiag In its simplest form it ie not suitable for hifih-quality programmes,so is nor
The h.f. band is also used frir broadcastingin tropical regions, where atmos- applicableto high-power transmitters for broadcasting. .
pheric noiseis lessthan in the m.f. band. The radiatedpower required is relatively In efforts to improve the quality and take advantageof the power and spectrum
low, becausecornmunitiestend to be grouped in small but widely separatedareas. savingpossibilities,particularly for high power, severalmodificationsto the basic
Another power limit is imposed by the need to keep skywave radiation to a system have been proposed, notably by Kahn []. These have all been tried
minimum, and considerable attention is given to antennas designed for this experimentally by a number of operating organizations, but the performance
purpose. has not been acceptableand the system is not in general use for broadcasting.
'Typically high power' refers The reasonfor a high levelof distortionwith this systemcanbe seenin Fig. 1.2,
to carrier levelsbetween 10 kW and 20 kW, with
one-quarter of the power in each sideband. As omni-directional antennas are where the waveformsof d.s.b.and compatibles.s.b.are compared.In the com-
gene:-allyemployed, the effective radiated porver is approximately the same as patiblecasethis type of waveformis producedwhen the carrierand one sideband
at the amplifier output. are of equal amplitude.When the d.s.b. signal is rectilied,the resultantrudio-
frequencyenvelopewill be sinusoidal.On the other hand, rvhenthe compatible
Conpatible singlc sidebandin the h.f . band. s.s.b.signalis rectified,the resultantaudio-frequencyenvelopewill be a series
Compatible single sidebandis the term applied to a system in which a full-level of half waves,containingfundamentaland a high harmoniccontent.
carrier and only one sidebandare radiated. It provides a ready meansof adapting
s.s.b. transmifters to enable them to be used for communication with receiver 1.2 NIULTI.CHANNEL OPERATION
stations fitted with d.s.b. equipment only, hence the term 'comparible'. It is
It is rvell known that for many years amateurs hare achieved world-ivide
D .S . t s . Compoiible S.S.8. communicationwith onlv a few watts of r.f. power.There seemslittle doubt that
the initial professionalinterest in the h.f. band was stimulated by the results
obtainedby amateurs.So it may seemcurious that e.r.p. levelsof the order of
300 kW are considerednecessaryfor long-range communication links by civil
and military organizations, particularly bearing in mind the rnore elficient
receiving equipment which they have available,
There are two reasonsfor this apparent anomaly. First, amateurs can pick
the best time to take advantageof the existing propagation conditions, whereas
professionalorganizationsrequire their communications circuits to be 'ivailable
at any time of day, at any seasonof the year and for any year of the sunspot rycle.
R.F. woveforns Here higher power is obviously an advantagein maintaining circuits open during
marginalconditions.Second,by using s.s.b.techniques,severalspeechandior
telegraph chaniels can be radiated from a single transmitter, the total power

AA A/\
being divided betweenthe channelsso that the power on each channel is only a
fraction of the total. In considering power relationships, the importance of
radiating a number of channels within the band*'idth allocated1o a single
assignedfrequency should not be overlooked. This facility is an invaluable asiet
,", operating communications services in the h.f. spectmm,
Reciifiedoudiooulput 1l :.ry".ltions
wntch rs alreadyovercrowded.
Ftc. 1.2 Waveformsproduced by d.s.b. and compatible s.s.b. systems. In t.he caseof multi-channel operation, the signals on the two sidebandsare
quite independentof one another ixcept in relation to power level, and the systcm
limited to single-channel operation, but it is in quite general use for low-grade rs Xnown as independent sideband (i.s.b.). The power per channel must be
commercial-qualiry speechcircuits. reducedto a level which ensuresthat the peak power capabiliry of the transmitter
At full modulation, the sideband amplitude is equal to the carrier amplitude. is not exceededto such an extent as to ciuse excessivecross-ialk or out-of-band
The radiated power in the one sideband is half the total mean power aod one- Tdild9l, The amplitude of the compositesignal is the sum of the amplitudes of
quarter of the peak power. In terms of the proportion of intelligence power the.individual signalsand the amplitude ratios are the square ,oot ofih" po*er
radiated, this is obviously an improvement oD d.s.b., where the power in one' ratlosi so the total peakpower is the squareof the sum of the rootsof the individual
sideband is one-sixth ofthe total meanpower and one-sixteenthofthe peak power. Powers.fu an example, consider four frequency-division multiplex channelsof
The disadvantageis the high level of distortion, which increaseswith modula- equat_power, W, operating on a transmitter of 30 kW peak power, then
tion depth to ibout 30o/owhen the sidebandis the same,amplitudeas.the carrier. (4!y.):: 30 kW; fiom wh--ichW: (30116)kW, which ts t'b t<w per channel,
I Consequently, its use is normally limited to low-power transmitter applications. or 12 dB belowp.e.p.
8 powER RELArroNsHlps 1] M U L r r - C H A N N E oL p E R A T r o N
[Ch. 9
In the .a*e of multi-channel speech,the channel level and transmitter loading one-sixteenthof the total rated output power.,In the caseof t.d.m., the channel
cannot be clearly defined in terms ofp.e.p., since the duration ofsignals exceeding frequenciesare separatedon a pre-arrangedtime basis,only one frequency being
nominal rating is very short and not of great conselluence.G.P.O. telephony present irrespective of the number of channels. This means that dach channe-l
circuits (other than Lincompex) are operated at a speech-signallevel of -8 to can be operatedat the full output power of the transmitter. Taking four-channel
-10 dB RTP at a 0 dBm referencepoint
[2], where a 1 mW tone-signalproduces operation as an example, the permissible output power per channil on t.d.m. is
-6 dB relative to p.e.p. output at the transmitter. Speech-signallevel is measured sixteentimes that on f.d.m. for the same transmitter.
on a volume indicator in accordanceto C.C.I.F. specification(1936). Other When more than four f.d.m. channelsare being radiated, the C.C.I.R. Recom-
operating concernsoften use the American VU meter or a speechvoltmeter [3]. mendation[5] is that the power per channel can be increasedto:
Speech-channel level and transmitter loading continues to be a matter for
study and data directly relating to tests on actual transmitters is scanty. Some Total admissiblepeak power
tests have been made using speech or white-noise signals, but the difficulty 4n
remains of correlating tests with actual tramc conditions. Such tests have clearly
indicated the advantageof Lincompex circuits [4]. where z is the number of simultaneouschannels.In this way, wheneverthere are
The present G.P.O. practice for transmitters carrying Lincompex circuits is more than four channels, rather more than the theoretical channel Doiver can
(taking V : p.e.p. voltage): be radiated without exceedingthe total peak power for more than 1-292oof the
Siag Ie- chanaeI Linc ompex In the caseof one or two speechchannels(except Lincompex), and a number
of f.d.m. telegraphy channels being radiated simultaneously, tle level of each
Pilot carrier: -16 dB relativeto p.e.p. :0.158 V
speechchannelis set as for telephonyonly. Tne level of eachielegraph channelis
Speechlevel: -6 dB relativeto p.e.p.:0.500 V
reducedby a further 3 dB for one channelof speechand 6 dB loitwo, relative
Control-signallevel: -11 dB relativeto p.e.p. :0.282V
to the channellevelwithout soeech.
0.94{ V Table 1.2 gives the recommendedlevel at which each telegraph channel
frequenc-vshould be set, in relation to the number of telegraph chinnels and the
Fou.r-channeI l:iae ompex absenceor presenceof speechin one or two channels.
Pilot carrier: -16 dB relativeto p.e.p.:0.158 V
Speechlevel: 4 at -16 dB relativeto p.e.p. :0.632 V Tarrr 1.2 Freqancy latel relative to peak pouer
Control-signal level: 4 at -21 dB relativeto D.e.D.: 0.356V

V Number of No speech One speech Two speech
f.d.m. charnels channel,dB channel, dB channels.dB
i.e. *1.2 dB relativeto p.e.p.
Lincompex is the term applied to a system developedby the British Post Office I 0 _J -6
for improving h.f. radio telephonecircuits. The system employs compressionof 2 4 -9 -t2
the speech level for transmission, with expansion on reception to restore the -9.5 -12.5 -15.5
original lwel .variations by merns of a separate control signal. The name 4 -12 -15 -18
Lincompex is derived from tie expression litked, compra,sor and erpander. 6 -13.8 -16'8 -19'8
The compressor is in the audio circ,uit of the transmit side, the expander is 8 -15 -18 -21
in the audio circuit of the receive side and linking is carried out by a narrow 12 -16.8 -19.8 -22.8
band f.m. channel situated above the speech band, but within the normal 3 kHz
channel bandwidth.
With this system, tle audio input level to the transmitter is substantially It is interesting to note the level of each of the twelve telegraph channels,in
constant and the Fansmitter loading can be specified in terms of p.e.p. P^resence of rwo-speechchannels,i,e., -22.8 dB. Relative-to'300 kW e.r.g.,
For multi-channel telegraphy the power per channel depends on the type of -zz'6 dB is approrimately
1.5 kW. Allowing for an antenna gain of 10 dB, the
system employed. The two main systernsin general use are frequency-divisiqn rransmrtter output per channel is 150 W, which is the same
order of power as
multiplex (f.d.m.) and time-division multiplex (t.d.m.). Both systems use rwo that usedby amateurs.
An-important feature of multi-channel telegraphy operation is the ability
-sideband frequenciesto represntthe mark and spaceconditions, but the manner ._ to
in which they are tmnsmitted is difierent. In f.d.m., one of the sidebandfrequen- rncreasethe power per channel by reducing thi numbei
ofchannels. This ohen 'l
cies is alwaya pr$ent on each channel,so four frequencieswill be presentsimul- a complete breakdown of the circuit under abnormal conditions by
ustng only one or two channels.
"taneously in r four-channel gystem,and the power per'channel must not exceed
l0 PowER RELATToNST{IPS [ch. 1l v A L v E c o N v E R s r o NE F F T c I E N c y 11
There are two other commentson conversioneficiency which are appropriate,
1.3 VALVE CONYERSIONEFFICIENCY First, the calculationof power output and effciency for any particular valve will
When contemplating the purchase of high-power ransmitters, one of the be based on the asetagecharacteristicsfor that type, as supplied by the valve
main features considered by operating organizations is total running cost, of manufacturer. Although all valves of the same type have very similar charac-
which an appreciableportion is attributable to power consumPtion. As most of teristics (especiallyhigh-power t1pes), they will not be identical. Consequently,
the power is fed into the final stages, the d.c. to r.f. conversion eficiency of some tolerancemust be allolved to accommodateprobable diferences. This point
power-amplifier valves must be a major considerationin all high-power designs- is particularly important when testing a nerv design for performance, which
The result of obtaining the optimum conversion efficiency is a threefolc cannot be fully proven until checks have been made with a number of valves.
advantage.First, the total power consumption will be at a minimum. (This is of The secondpoint is that the calculatedoutput power is that obtainedat the
great importance where the power has to be generatedon site.) In the case of valve anode.The transmitteroutput will be lorverthan that at the valve anode,
high-power amplitude modulation, the modulator must supply sufficient audio- due to the inherentlossin the circuits associated with runing and coupling.The
frequency power to modulate the d.c. input to the r.f. amplifier. The power circuit loss may not appear to be appreciablewhen expressedin decibels,but it
input to both modulator and r.f. stagesis reduced by improving the conversion can be a seriousembarrassmentif a design rvill not quite meet a specificationin
efficiency of the r.f. valve. terms of actualpower in kilcrvatts.For example,consideran amplifier in which
Secondly, the mains power not converted into r.f. is converted into heat; so the combinedanodeand output circuits have loadedand unlbadedQ factorsof
the arrangementsfor disposing of the unwanted heat will be simplified by im- 20 and 500, respectively.The power lost in the circuits is one-twenty-fifth of the
proving conversioneficiency. valve output, corresponciing to -0.17 dB. This ratio representsa loss of 4 kW
The third advantageis the result of the first and second. The overall size and in 100kW, so the amplifieroutput would be 96 kW for 100kW at the valveanode.
cost of the equipment, including mains transformers, rectifiers and cooling
arrangements,will be lower and more attractive to prospective purchasers. REFERENCES
The conversion efficiency of a valve dependson the dynamic operating con-
ditions and theseare groupedinto three main categori$, classesA, B and C. There [1] IilttN, L. R. 'Improved compatiblesingle-sideband equipmentfor standerd
broadcastservice.'I.R.E. natn.Cona. Rec.,7,55-60 (1958).
is also a recently introduced form of classC operation, which is sometimescalled
[2] Bnev, W. J. and Monnrs, D. W. 'Single-sideband multi-channeloperationof
classD. Amplifiers of this t_vpeuse rectangular,or curved-rectangular waveforms short-wavepoint-point radio links'. P.O. elect.Engrs'J.,45, Pan 3 (October
and have higher conversion efficienciesthan classC types. 19s2).
Table 1.3 has been compiled to show the relative conversion efficiencies of [3] Sur,uvr, J. M. and RrcHelos, D. L. 'The measurementcf speechlevel'.
triode and tetrode valves in classesA, B, C and D under typical operating con- P.O. elect.Engrs'J.,45, Part 3 (October1954).
ditions, in order to emphasizethe effect of conversion efficiency in terms of [4] Warr-CanrEn, D. E. and Wnunrrn, L. K. 'The Lincompex s]-stemfor the
Power. improvement of h.f. radiotelephonecircuits', P.O. elect.Engrs'J., 59, Part 3
[5] C.C.I.R. 326,'Power of radio-transmitterrelationship
T,tBre 1.3 100kW r.f. output
betweenthe peak envelopepower, the mean power, and the carrier power of a
radio transmitter'. Docameatsof the Xth Plmaty Assembly,Vol. 1 (Geneva
Triodes Tetrodes 1963).


Typical conversion efficiency, o/o 38 66 83 89 38 6+ 82 88

Power input, hW 263 t52 l2l 113 263 156 722 114
Anode loss, kW 163 52 21 13 163 56 ?2 l4

From this table it is apparent that if conversion efficiency \f,ere to be the over-
riding factor in dl transmitter designs,then classD operation with triode valves
would be the universal choice. But this is not so. There are many applications
where other factors are equally important, or even Paramount, such as linearity,
rapid changeof frequency, availabledrive power and sititable valves.The reasons
for the choice of valve type and classof operation ?re discussedin Chapter 2 in
relation to various high-power applicatiom.

2 ClassB
By definition, the bias of a class B amflifier is adjusted so thitt the anode
current flows for 180oofthe alternating voltage, i.e., for halfthe electrical cycle,
In high-power applications,the bias voltage is rather less, allowing some anode
Amplifier Classificationand Valve current to flow in the no-signal condition (static feed). When an alternating grid
voltageis applied,the anodecurrent flows for rather more than 180o.In accordance
Characteristics with conventional definition, this is class AB operation. However, compared
rvith the peakanodecurrent at the crestof a driving rvaveform,the static anodc
current is relativelysmall and power amplifiersin this state are still said to be
in classB.
Valves operating in class B are more efficient than those in classA. The peal
and mean-poweroutput is also higher, but the peak driving voltage for full
2.1 GENERAL CLASSIFICATION output is approximately twice as high.
Valve amplifiers can be grouped into a number of categories,depending on ClassC
their power rating, application, frequency range, valve types and their dynamic
For classC operation,the bias is set at a level well above that required to
operating conditions, circuit configuration, etc. Most of these classificationsare
cut off the valve in the static condition, and anode current flows during lessthan
interdependent, that used at any one time being determined by the context of
half of the alternatingcycle,normally for about 120'.
the subject under discussion.
ClassC is more efficientthan classB in terms of d.c. to r.f. conversion.Also,
Within the context of high-power amplification, the intended application is
the required peakdriving voltageis higher for full output rnd the drive powcr
the important aspect initially, for it directly implies ttre frequency range and
I order of power level required. The frequency range is ther^a frit aecompli,but
is higher, due to the presenceof grid current.

the method of obtaining the power level is determined by the dynamic operating ClassD
I; conditions of the power valves appropriate to the application. Valve type (triode,
Class D is a modified form of class C, first used by Tyler [4] for high-power
tetrode or pentode), is determined partly by the application and partly by the
applications. The biasing condition is the same, but the applied waveform is
type available at the power level required.
rectangular instead of sinusoidal. The efficiency is higher than class C, an im-
The circuit configuration associated with the vaive (grounded cathode,
portarrt feature for high-power transmitters. The peak driving power is the
grounded grid, neutralized, etc.) is also determined by bot}r the application and
satneas for classC, but the mean driving power is much higher. In fact, available
the valve type, but the configuration of the anode-output circuits is often depen-
grid dissipation can be the factor which limits the output in class D operation.
dent on the availability of suitable components in respect of value, voltage and
At radio freqrencies, it is not practical to derive a truly rectangular rvaveform
current rating. at the powerlevelrequiredto drive a final amplifier.It hasbeenfound in practice
From the foregoing observations, it is clear that the basis of a successful that a 'squared' waveform, consisting of fundamental plus a second or third
power-amplifier design depen& on a full appreciation of the dynamic operating harmonic in the correct proportions, is sufficiently rectangular to givo efiicicncics
conditions of valves in relation to various applications. It follows that it is neces- approaching90o/o.
sary to apply the correct interpretation to valve characteristics in terms of per-
formance capability.
A number oftextbooks [1-3] give a fairly exhaustive description and analysis 2.3 VALYE CHARACTERISTICS
of classA, B and C amplifiers, together with sub-divisions, indicating the absence Prelimiaary considaat iotts
or presence of gtid current by subscripts 1 and 2, respectively. A degtee of
For many years the electrical characteristicsof power valves were plotted in
recapitulation is given, but only in sufficient detail to point out the salient features
the form of anode current ag'ainst anode voltage (In/I/n) for constant grid
affecting high-power applications. Class D operation is also included,
voltages, I/r. It is now more usual to use 'constant current'. characteristics,in
which Z^ is plotted against Zr for constant values of 1o. While the former
2.2 DEFINITION OF CLASS A, B, C AND D OPERATION mcthod enabled a fair estimate of linear performance to be obtained from a
curuory examination, the latter is acceptedas being more suitable for the com-
Class A putation of performanceunder all oprating conditions.
A valve amplifier is operating in class A when the grid bias and alternating Additional information is supplied regarding the limiting values of voltage,
voltagesare such that the anode current is flowing continuously throughout every currcnt and power dissipation which can be permitted for each electrode,when
: ustng the cooling arrangemenB recommended by the valve manufacturers.
electrical cycle.
l4 AMPLIFIER AND VALVE GROUPS Ich. 2] s F p o w E RT R t o D E s
cHARAcrERIsrIco 15

Typical operating conditions are also given for the appropriate classand applica- areasmust be avoided.The latter arealimits the minimum anode voltageat peak
tion, for which the particular yalve is suitable. These typical conditions are very current to about 1'5 kV, which will give a peak anodevoltage excursionof 6'5 kV
useful at the pre-design stagewhen scanningdata for the most appropriate valve (8- 1.s).
for the application under consideration. They not only enable a'shortlist' of If the lineariry is perfect in the operating region, the porver output will be
valves to be selected quickly, but they also provide guide lines for verifying halfthe product ofthe r.m.s. valuesofr.f. voltageand current (halfthe product
subsequentcalculationsbasedon the plotted characteristics. becausethe valveis conductingfor only half of eachcycle),i.e.,


The constant-current characteristicsof a power triode are shown in Fig. 2.1'
together with the abridged data for maximum ratingspermitted' Basedon this P V ^ > .P I ^ : 4 x 3 00 0 0
information, the r.f. performance can be derived from an analysisof the anode
- 120000
current waveform, when an alternating voltage is applied between grid and
cathode. Normally the waveform of the grid voltage is assumedto be sinusoidal. As the Ptrlo hasbeen selectedat 6500,
le A (approx')
Cur/ent in omperes "t^:
Control grid
Assuminga staticfeed of 1'0 A, the peak anodecurrent requiredis 20 A and
point l/is given by this valueat an anodevoltageof 1'5 kV. The lower end of
the load line is 1'0 A at 8 kV. The approximatepower output' when operating
on this load line is
= 6.5kYx19A
Jr rvY
I ^lz tlz x z:
o The conditions given by operating on load line lVX, is sufficiently near the
required output power for the performanceto bc examinedin greater detail.
; Beforethe load line canbe drawn,the locationof point X must be found, becausc
the 1.0 A curveis not given in this example.
To determinepoint ,Y, plot a curve of grid voltage and anode current on
either side of l.p A at 8 kV, as shown in Fig. 2.2. Interpolation shows that a

A b r i d g e dd o ' i o A n o d ev o l t o q el 5 k v P e o kg r i d v o l t o g e l ' 2 k V
Moximum v o l u e s A n o d ec u r r e n ' i l 5 A N e g o t i vger i d v o l l o q 7
Anode di$ipatron35kW
e5 O V
t, 9i., "/
Ftc. 2.1 Load lines on constant-current characteristics of triode valves type ,*-"Y
BR 1161 (English Electric Valve Co.).

When the amplifier load appears as a Pure resistance at the valve anode, i'e',
Frc. 2.2 Interpolationof .I^ from Z"i /^ grrph.
when the anode circuit is in tune, the excursion of the anode current follows a
straight line, called the operating line or load line. This line joins the point given
biasof -80 V is requiredto allow 1'0 A of static feed,so point -Y is at thc intcr-
by the bias and anode voltages at zero signal, to the peak value of anode current
section of -80 V and 8 kV. This method will also be found advantagcottsitt
reached at peak grid voltage. These points must be settled first.
determining other V"lIn points with Sreater accuracy for subsequent analysis.
The reasons for the seLction of these limiting points initially and a method
The next step is to determine the performance obtained by operating on this
of deriving the performance from the resulting load line, can be clarificd by meanr
load lirie in terms of power output at fundamental and low-order harmonics,
of a simpli example. Consider a requirement for a linear class B amplifier, Yrjh
d.c. anode curent, power input, anode dissipation, conversion efrciency, d.c.
a power output of gO tW, from a valve having the .characteristics sh.wn in Fig.
grid current and required driving power. A practicalmethod consistsoftabulating
2.i znd, an available h.t. supply of 8 kV. The obvious non-linearity nrar cut off
a list of anode current levels, correspondingto grid voltagesat regular intervals
and in the rcgion of pe4k anode qtrrent at low anode yoltage, mc:rrrs thot these
A M P L I F I E RA N D v A L v E c R o u P s [Ch' 2] c H A R A c r E R I s r I c so F P o w E R T R I o D E s 17
current amplitudesat theseinterv'als'These amplitudes are recordedas A, B,C,
of the drive waveform, tfuoughout the conducting period of the anode-cycle' D, E, F, G, and the performanceis calculatpdfrom the following fo.rmulae.
From this list the req-uired information can be obtained by 1ry-yell-$t*
method of waveform *"tyri", such as that given in Appendix I. Similar_ly' an Anode current, d.c., meter reading:
analysis of the grid currint waveform can be obtained- Intervals of 15" are
nono"lly except where there is a cusiderable departure from sinusoidal (0.5A+B+C+D+E+F)
as in class D oPeration. t2
A nertod of performance computation Grid current, d.c., as for anodecurrent, from grid characteristics.
'tube Peakfundamental(r.f.) :
A simplified method of analysis can be perf-orm-edby the use--ofthe
performance comPutor' first produced by EitelMccullough Inc' [5]' A copyof + 1'+lD+ E + 0'52F)
(A + l'938+ 1.73C
ihi, is siro*n in Fii. 2.3, although it should be realized that it must be t2
Output power:
A =O '
(peakr.f. anodecurrent x peakr.f. anodevoltage)
Driving power: grid current, d.c. x peakr.f. grid voltage
Peaksecondharmonicr.f. (approx.):
Peakthird harmonic r.f. (approx.) :
- r'+\D-28 - r'41F)
(A+ 1'+18
harmonic formulae are suitable for tetrode and pentodesonly, so anothr
method such as that describedin Appendix I must be used for triodes.

Examples rcinglhc pnformancc computer

Referring to Fig. 2.1, the performancebehaviour of the valve hasbeen worked
out for two load lines, WX aurrd, YZ to show both the use of the comPuter and
the effectsof a changein h.t. voltage for approximately the sameoutPut Power.
These resultsare shown in Table 2.1.
From Table 2.1, it will be seenthat by increasing the h.t. voltage from 8 kV
to 10'5 kV, the fundameotal output is increased slightly, but the required driving
power is reducedby more than two-and-a-half times. As the r.f. output is higher,
= 90o the anode conversionefficiency is also higher, becausethe input power is prac-
tically unafrected.
Frc. 2.3 Tube perfornunce comPutor (Eimac)' In both conditions, this valve is operating well below its maximum permissible
levels, so the factors determining which load line to use depend on the relative
merits of low h.t. voltage with high drive, or high h.t. voltage with low drive.
provided on a trarBparent sheet, so that tfie valve characteristics can be seen
This surely must be a decisionbasedon economicgrounds.
through it.
ThE computor is placed on top of the characteristics, with the guide,lines
It was mentioned earlier that the characteristicsare only typical for that type
parallel to tbe load line and with lines ol and oG passing tbrough the peak and
and {hat the calculated level of output powei does not take circuit losses into
account. It is at this early design stage that some allowance must be made for
' points, respectivelY. valve tolerance and circuit losses, in order to avoid an embarrassing shortage of
It-o Oe, OB, OC, OD, OE, OF, OG, correspond to 15o intervals of the power at a later stage.
&ive waveform, ro th"t the points where they intersect the load line arc the ..{
l8 c1
Tesrr 2.1 on valve loading is worth noting. Allowance must also be made to cater lor
the effectsof mismatch in new designs. .
Load line Load line
Elliotical load lines
Triode WX YZ
In general,a changein feeder or antenna impedancewill alter the mean slope
of the load line, as well as producing a reactive component acrossthe valve.
h.t. voltage,d.c. 8kv 10.5kv
Whether the slopeof the load line increasesor decreases,dependson the distance
Anode voltage trough 1.5kV 1.5kv
of the mismatch from the valve anode, in terms of rvavelengthat the operating
Peak r.f. voltage 6.5kV 9kv
frequency, It follows that a change of frequency will also alter the valye con-
Peak of anodecurrent 20A 15A
ditions, due to the'wavelength'distancechanging.
Static anodecurrent 1 . 0A 1 ' 0A
Anode current excursion 19A 14A
Peak fundamental r.f. current 9.6A 7.27A Curren-t irr ompe/es
Anode current, d.c. 6.0A 4.57A 13 p o r n tw ' ,
,^ C o n t r o lg r d - - - - -
Powerinput, d.c. 48 kW 47.95kW w"
Fundamental r.f. output power 3 1 . 2k W 32.75kW \.-'',"/ r.o uPoinr
(Fundamentalr.f. output power of initial assessment,
for comparison) (30.88kW) ( 3 1 . sk w )
Anode dissipation-neglectingharmonic porver 16.8kW 1 5 . 2k W =
Porverconversionefficiencv,d.c. to r.f. 65'/" 68.zo,L
Grid current, d.c. 0.7A 0.29A
Peak r.f. grid voltage 3 5 0V 320V :
Drive porverrequired, r'alveonly 2+5W 93W
Before leaving considerations of the load line, there are two other matters
which are not always apparent. First, as a plot of anode current against anode
voltage, the slope of the load line represents a resistancevalue, known as the
resistanceof the load line. This is zot the resistancevalue used when calculating A n o d ev o l t o g-e k r l o v o l l s
the anode/output circuits for matching the load to ihe valve. For this purpose
Ftc. 2.4 Elliptical load lines on characteristicsof triode t_vpeBR 1161.
the effective value of matching resistancerequired is determined by the peak
fundamental r.f. current and the output power, i.e.
In order to show the effects of mismatch. t*.o elliotical load lincs heve bcen
p: Pj'9l:ylPt't drawn on triode characteristics in Fig.2.4. The chaiactcristics arc thc sanrr as
I2 those shown in Fig.2.1. Both elliptical plots represent changcs frorn loirrl linc
}/Xof this figure, produced by a voltage standing rvave ratio (v.s.w.r.) of 1.5 on
Referring to the specimen load line WX, its Z6//a resistanceis 342 O, whilst the feeder. Load line X' W' X' shorvs a slooe decrease and X' lI'".Y" slrons ;r
the efective resistancevalue for matching purposesis 677 O. If this difference slope increase.
is not appreciated,the anode/output components selected will causethe valve Obviously the performance computor cannot be used directly, due to thc hrarl
to operateon quite a different load line from that required and the performance ..
lrne curvature, but the grid voltages recorded at l5o intervals for load linc lt'_t
will suffer in a number of respects,even though the circuits are in tune. can be used to determine the anode current on both sides of each ellipsc. 'l'lrc
The second matter is concerned with the effect on performance of the anode formulae to calculate the performance from the derived list of anode currcnrs
circuit being off-tune. In this casethe load line is elliptical instead of in a straight must also be modified. If the current levels from X' to W' are indicatctl by
line, the width of the ellipse representing the. departure from tune. Nobody B' , C-'t D' , etc., and those from W' to X' are indicated by B' C' D", etc., thc
would be likely to set up an amplifier in this condition, but the effect of wexther , ,
modified formulae are given below:
conditions on antennasand feederscan causea considerabledeparture fronr tune.'
Many modern high-power transmitters are fitted with equipment which auto- Anode current, d.c. meter reading: r'|
matically correctstuning and loading under theseconditions, in order to maintain
the optimum performance with mismatched feeders.However, a high proportion (A+ B' + B"+ c' + c' + p' _+p:t_!_+_E"
+ F; + F-)
of h.f. transmitters are not fitted rvith automatic tuning facilities, so thc elfcct 2+
20 AMPLIFIER AND VALVE GROUPS lch. 2l c H A R A c r E R r s r r c so F p o w r R T R r o D E s 2l
Grid current, d.c. meter reading; as for anode current but using the grid distorting.effectof the elliFseis reducedby the improvement obtained by operating
current characteristics. on a load line having an increasedslope. '
Pea&.fundamental r.f. : These waveformsand calcutationsare based on the assumption'that the grid
voltage remains constant in the three conditions. In practici, unless the diive
{2A+r.e3(B' + p')+(E'+ E )+o.sz(F,
+ B')+r.73(C'+C')+r'+r(p' + F,)} power avai-lableis excessive,there will be some rounding at the peak of the grid
24 voltage waveform, due to the
.rapidly increasing griJ current with voliage
amplitude. The greater the grid current, the greatei will be the reduction Tn
O-utput power and driving power are determinedas with the original formulae.
Using these formulae, the result of operating on load lirlesk,W,X, tnd,
X'I4/"X'are tabulated in Tabte 2.2,together with those for the original load
line WX, to show the significant differences.

Ttttg 2.2

Load line Load line Load line

Triode WX X ' W 'X " X'W'X'

h.t. voltage,d.c. 8kv 8kv 8hv Rsistrvelood line Ellip-ticol lood line Ellipticol lood tine
Anode voltage trough 1.5kV 0.5kv 2.5kV R e d u c e dl o o d i n g l n c r e o s e dl o o d i n g
Peak r.f. voltage 6.5kV /.5 KV 5.) KV - -- woveforms
Sinusoidol forcomporrson
Peak of anode current 204 t7.2A 2tA
Static anode current 1.0A 1 . 0A 1.0A Frc. 2.5 Effect offeeder mismatch on anode current waveform oftriode.
Anode current excursion t9A 16.2A 2AA
Peak fundamental r.f. currenr 9.6A 8.54A 10'1A' peakvoltage.The efiect of a slightly rounded waveform at the grid will be a slight
Anode current, d.c. 6.0A 5.38A 6.35A rounding at the peak of the anode current waveform. Referiing to Fig. 2,51 it
Power input, d.c. 48 kW 43 kW 50.8kw will be seen that a degree of rounding will make the anode *it"nt *la.tnefo.m
Power output, r.f. 31.2kW 32kW 27.8kW more nearly sinusoidal,in both the normal and more heavily loaded conditions,
Anode dissipation-neglecting harmonic
reducing distortion. In the lightly loaded condition, the greater demand on
Power 16.8kW 1l kw 23 kW drive power will cause the anode current waveform to depart fufther from a
Power conversion effciencv, d.c. to r.f. 6s% 74% 5+.7o/o sinewaveand n increaseddistortion will result.
Grid current, d.c. 0.7A 0.94A 0.67A
Peak r.f. grid voltage 350V 350V 350V Operation at reducedanodee*ctrion
Drive power required, valve only 2+5W 330W 235W
.Linear amplfiers are normally used for multi-channel operation, during
which the meanpower ourput is considerablylessthan the pea&power. rt followl
that the meaninput power under multi-signal conditions is lessthan that required
The main differencesfrom a power viewpointare the changesin anodedissipa- tor a-single r.f. signal giving full anode excursion. Advantage is often taien of
tion and efficiency, the change in power output being of a lower order. The this fact to economizein the design of the d.c. power supplyl In these cases,the
significant factor is the increase in anode loss in the heavier loaded conditions. power will not be adequate for a single-channel constantlevel signal, such as
This accounts for the fact that the valves used in r.i high-power classB amplifiers, tlTu:"ry. shift keying (f.s.k.), so the anode swing is reduced by reducing the
which must cater for mismatched conditions, so often appear to be well under- drive level-
rated in normal operation. In the lighdy loaded condition, the rcquired increase The power,output and anode .lissipation obtained at various percentagesof
in drive power could cause significant deterioration in performanie if the drive .,
the total anode excurcion is shown in Fig. 2.6 plotted from load line IiX on
stage *'as capable of supplying just sufficient power under normal conditions, Fig. 2.1. It will be noted that the anode-dissipationincreaseswith reductions
The anode current waveforms shown in Fig. 2.5 correspond to the conditions zu! anode swing, rising to maximum dissipation in the region of 80o/oof
given in Table 2.2. From these waveforms the relative distortion is immediately
apparent, even witiout an analysis for harmonic content. In the lighdy loaded
condition the distortion i" p*dy due to tlle dlipse and partly to running into
the anode swing for full p.e.p. output. Typically, an economically designedd.c.
powe_r_supply for 30 kW peak power, would be adequateto,supply an output of
20 kW on f.s.k. It can be senirom Fig. 2.6 that the-anodeaissiiaton is a mari-
ttre non-linear region of the'characteristics.In the heavily loaded conditioi, the mum at 20 kW, about 8/o higher than it would be at 30 kW continuous output.
22 AMPLIFIER AND VALVE GROUPS lch. 2] c H A n A c r E R r s r r c so F p o w n R T E T R o D E s 23
Adding this fact to the increased anode dissipation likely to be encountered similarly rated triodes. With power tetrodeg the higher capacitancecan be an
due to feeder mismatch, furthe4 emphasizesthe necessityof using a valve with embarrassmentwhen designing circuit componentsfor the high-frpquency end
an anode dissipation appreciably greater than that calculated for a continuous of the operating range.
signal at full excursion on a straight load line. In the caseof the specimen load It is important that the screensupply is not applied to the valve in the absence
hne, WX on Fig. 2.1, the anode dissipation of 16'8 kW calculated for a steady of the anodesupply, and interlocksmust be providedto preventthis happening,
signal output of 31.2 kW, would increaseto about 25 kW, if operated at 20 kW either when running up or during anodetrips. In making triode/tetrode decisions
with a mismatched feeder. on economicgrounds,the total costof the screensupply and associated interlock-
ing arrangementsmust be consideredin relation to the cost of the drive and
neutralizing requirements.

Typical linear operating conditiotts

In order to make a direct comparisonwith triode operating conditions,
3 explanatory examplesare given for a tetrode having the same anode dissipation
asthe triode exemplifiedin Section2.4.Typical characteristics for screensupplies
of 1'0 kV and 1.5kV are shown in Figs 2.7(a)and2.7(b),respectively.
; Consideringlinear operationand referringto Fig.2.7(a) load line Kl has the
same anode current and voltage excursionsas those on load line YZ, Fig. 2.1.
Becauseof the obvious non-lineariryat peak current in the regionof 15 A, the
anode voltagetrough is limited to 2 kV, so the d.c. anode supplv is increased
from 10.5kV to 11 kV, in order to obtain the samevoltageexcursion.
o 20 40 60 80 100 The changein characteristics and greatercapabilityofthis valve,produccdby
P e r c e n t o goef m o x i m u m o n o d e v o l + o g e e x c u r s i o n increasingthe screenvoltage from 1.0 kV to 1.5 kV, is shown by comparing
Fig.2.7(b)with Fig.2.7(a).Byoperatingthescreenat 1.5kV, with a d.c. anode
Ftc. 2.6 Anode dissipation and power. output in relation to anode voltage voltageof 20 kV, it is possibleto obtain an output of more than 100kW in a linear
excurslon. condition, at a conversion efficiency of 70o,/oand withorrt grid current. In this
condition the anodedissipationis at the upper limit of 35 kW, with no allowance
for differencesin the characteristics ofindividual valves,or for operatingtolerances
required to cover casesof feedermismatch.
The effect of a screen between the anode and grid of a valve, changes the Apart from the anode dissipationlimit of such operation,the high level of
characteristics in several ways. The two main results are an increasein porver d.c. voltage has disadvantages, both technicaland economic.From a technical
gain and a considerable reduction in the interelectrode capacitance between aspect,higher d.c. voltagesmeaDgreatervoltageclearancesand higher lossesin
anode and grid. This meansthat tetrodes can be operated in grounded cathode the anodecircuit. As the r.f. anodevoltageis approximatelyproportionalto the
circuits without the need for neutralizing, and can give considerable output d.c. voltage, at a given frequencythe r.f. current in the anode circuit is also
power for very small drive levels. In fact, for linear amplification, the tetrode proportional to the d.c. voltage;but the lossesin the anotlecircuit arc propor-
valve can be fully exploited without running into grid orrent, so the power tional to the squareofthe r.f. curfent,so the circuit losscsincrcascapprnximatcly
required from the drive is only that necessaryto overcomethe lossesof the input as the square ofthe d.c. voltage increase.
circuit. Additionally, grid current is a major factor in ceusing non-linearity, so The economicdisadvantage is more obvious,particularlyin thr: cascof solid-
its avoidanceis particularly of value in linear amplification. state rectifiers,where the number of rectifier units dependson thc voltagt:,so
Another feature of tetrodes is that the characteristicscan be optimized for any the cost is roughly proportionalto the total d.c. voltage.Currcnt rating is n()t
particular application by suitably adjusting the screensupply voltage. Also, for likely to have an appreciableeffect on cost.
amplitude modulation, the screen supply can be modulated with considerably With these considerations in mind, typical operating load lincs havc bctn
less power than that required to modulate the aaodesupply. marked on Fig. 2.7(b),for a screenvoltageof 1.5 kV. The result of using loltl
Over the normal operating portions of the characteristics,tetrodes are not' line ,!1N is designedto shorvthe greateroutput available,when comparcdrvith
quite so linear as triodes, but non-linearity increasesrapidly as the anode voltage operatingat a screenvoltageof 1.0 kV on load line KZ Fig. 2.7(a).Load lint:
approachesthat of the screen supply, limiting the trough of aoode voltage at ' .\y'Pe>5,emplifies
the lineariry improvement obtained by increasingthe static anotlc
peak anode current. The conversion efficiency 9,f tetrodes tends to be less than feed from 1.0 A to 2.0 A.
that of triodes. Using the tube performancecomputer describedin Section 2.4, tJreresults
As the screen is effectively at cathode r.f.,'potential in grounded cathode . obtainablc by operating this tetrode on load tines KI, MN and MP zretabulated
in'fablc 2.3, in order to makea direct comparisonbetrveenthe three conditions.
. circgits, the'input and output capacitanceof tetrodes is higher than that of
Comparing the resultg obtained by operating the tetrode on load line KI,
Table 2.3, with those given for atriode on load line YZ,Tzble2.l,shows remark-
ably little difrerence. The slightly better conversion efficiency of the triode is
offset by a lower grid excursion and zero driving power for the tetrode itself. Load line Load line Load line
Tetrode KL MN MP
Plote currni-omperes h.t. voltage 11kv ll kv ll kv
Grid current - ompetes Screenvoltage 1.0kv 1.5kv 1.5kV
Anode voltagetrough 2.0kv 2.0kv 2.0kv
Peak r.f. voltage 9.0kv 9.0kv 9.0kv
Peak of anodecurrent l5A 25A 25A
40 Static anodecurrent 1.0A 1.0A 2.0A
30 Anode current excursion 144 2+A 23l^
?o Pea&fundamentalr.f. current
6.88A 11.45 A 1 1 . 8A
o Anode current, d,c. 4.2L 7.0A 7.3+A
o l.o Anode power input, d.c, 46.2kW 77kW 80.74kW
! Power output, r.f. 30.95kW s1.5kW 53.24klv
o (Fundamentalr.f. output power of initial
assessmerrt, for comparison) k!v) (s4kw) (s1.7s
(31.s kw)
Anode dissipation-neglecting harmonic
Power 15'25
kW 25'5kW 27'5kW
P l o t e v o l t o g e- k i l o v o l l s Power conversionefficiencv.ci.c. to r.f. 67% 67% 66%
(c) Mean screencurrent 180rnA 210mA 225 mA
Screendissipation 180W 3 1 5W 3 3 8W
Peak r.f. driving voltage 200v 280V 250V
- Plotc current - ompercs Drive power required, valve only nil nil nil
- . - S c r c c nc u r r e n t - o m p e t c s
-:-- Grid current - omoeres

the loading on the driving amplifier will also vary with frequency, This is not a
I desirablefeature, so it is usual to swamp the loss variation by meansof a fixed
q resistor acrossthe input circuit. In the casereviewed, a resistor of 1000o would
be a rypical value, thereby limiting the total drive power variation of 2l-24 W

Plolc voltogc - lilovolts

Ftc. 2.7 Load linee on consant-curFent characteristics of tetrode valve type
,+CX 35 000 C (Eimac). (a) Screenvoltage- 1000V. (6) Screenvoltage : 150dV.

-Zero drive power is not realizablein practiie, due to the lossesin the input lSoo----l
circuit, which are higher in the case of tetrodes of high input capacitance. The F-t80.-
- *reenvottogl.Okv Screenvotioqel.skv Screen vottogel.skv
average input capacitancc of this tetrode is +65 pF,-which has a reactance of I As t o t i ct o A I A s t o r i cl . o A Ia stotic i.oA
l4 ohms at 25 MHz. With a peak voltage driveiof 200 V pealq the r.m.s. current - S i n u s o i d owt c v e t o r m fso r c o m p o r i s o n
is 10 A, giving a I/^ of 1,100.Assuming a Q factor of 350 for tle input tuned Ftc. 2.8 Effect of changing screen voltage and static anode feed on anode current
circuit, the logseswill b e 4W atZSIvIHz, As the'power loss varies with frequency,
waveform of tetrode.

over the h.f. range.This is still considerably lower than the drive power of 93 W
required for a triode under similar conditions.
The results obtained from load line MN, Eig. 2,7(b) and KL, Fig. 2.7(a),
show the greateroutput obtainable by increasingthe screenvoltage from 1'0 kV
to 1.5 kV.
Load lines MN and MP represent rypical operating conditions, bearing in Application and Typ" of Operation
mind the probable increase in anode dissipation which may be encounteredin
service. Increasingthe static anode feed from 1.0 A to 2.0 A, load lines MN and
MP, respectively,gives an increaseof 3.3o/oin output power, for a 1o/odecrease
in conversionefficiency and an increase of 8o/oin anode dissipation. However,
as linear operation is being considered, the most useful effect of increasing the
static feed is the improvement in linearity. This is shown diagrammatically in
Fig. 2.8, in which the waveform of the anode current is plotted for two static There are a number of factorsinfluencing the selectionof the most appropriate
feed conditions, compared with half sinewaves.The anode waveform at 1'0 kV circuit configurationfor a particularapplication,such as frequencyband to be
screensupply alsoindicatesthat linearity would be improved by increasingthe covered,valve type, balancedor unbalancedfeeders,etc. If the frequencyis in
static feedabove1.0A. the v.l.f., l.f. or m.f. bands,groundwavepropagationwill be usedand the trans-
mitter will operateon a singleassignedfrequencywhen in sen'ice.On the other
hand, transmissionsin the h.f. band empioy skyrvavepropagation,with the
accompanyingneed for a number of frequenciesto maintain the service.An
[1] Trnve-v, F.E. RadioEngineering.
McGraw-Hill, New York (1937). exceptionto this generalrule is the use of h.f. and groundwavepropagationfor
[2] Sexoru,tw, E. K. Radio Engineering,Vol. 1. Chapman and Hall, London local broadcasttransmissions in the tropics.
(le47). For fixed-frequency transmitters, the majoriry of components can be of fixed
[3] Gnev, L. F. and Gnenelr, R. Radio Transmitters.McGraw-Hill, New York valuewith a small number of variablecomponentsof only sufficientvalue to be
used as trimmers. The result is that the choice of circuit configuration is often
t4] TYLER,V. J.: 'A new high-efficiency high-power amplifier'. Marconi Ret:.
21, 3rd quarter(1958). governedby the most simpie and inexpensivemethod of construction,rather
'Tube performance computor'. Eitel McCullough Inc. application bulletin than by technical elegance.At an early stage in design, development effort can
No. 5. be saved by considering adequatecomponent values to cater for any frequency
likely to be used in one band, but frequency changing is not an operational
requirement.The operatingfrequencyis nominallvset up by the manufacturers,
prior to installation. This means that the fixed-value components in any one
transmittercan be limited to thoserequired for one frequencyand the value of
variable componentscan be reduced by providing pre-set tapping points on
inductors, with an arrangement of links for fixed capacitors. The adoption of
these methods of construction enablesthe cost of a fixed-frequency transmitter
to be kept at a minimum.
For transmitters operating in the h.f. band, the type of serviceis an important
factor in determining the arrangements needed for changing frequency, and
hence the circuit configuration. For broadcastingapplications, transmissionsare
permittedonly in limited sub-bandsof the h.f. spectnrm,so only that equipment
required to coverthesesub-bandsneedbe supplied; complete frequencycoverage
is not necessary.To be effective,the times of transmissionon specificfrequencies
must be pre-programmed, to enable listeners to have the information before-
hand. Also, most broadcasting organizationsallow a'certain time for changing
frequency between programmes. While changes of frequency should be of
relatively short duration, they neednot necessarilybe rapid. Wherq rapid changes
are deemedto be necessary,by adding a degreeof mechanical complexity, they
can be madeby switchingbetweenpre-setcomponentvalues.
In the h.f. band, communication transmissions are also normal! limited to
cenain sub-bands of the spectnrm, but in two major respects the transmitter
28 A p p L r c A T r o NA N D T y p E o F o p E R A T I o N [Ch. 3] clAss I APPLtcATroNs 29
requirements differ from those of broadcasting. ('Normally' is used advisedly, surfaceareaof this portion of the inductor can ensurethat the conductor tempera-
for military organizationsare liable to use any convenientfrequency in wartime, ture rise is not great and the cooling requirdment for considerablepower iissi-
regardlessof peacetime regulations, so military transmitters should cover any pation need be little more than that provided by convection. By theie meansthe
frequenry within the h.f. spectrum.) In other respects the requirements of damping is more controllable, the equipment required for the extra cooling is
communication transmitters for civil use are the same as tlose for military negligible and advantagecan be taken of the higher conversion efficiency at the
purposes. It would be uneconomical to design different transmitters for the two upper end of the band.
types of user, and so it is usual for all communication Eansmitters to be able to
radiate on any frequency in the h.f. band.
While a degreeof frequency/time planning is employedin r.f. communications,
particularly on the main traffic circuits, it is quite practical, and not uncorunon,
to changefrequency at short notice. Also, a changeof route often accompaniesa The main purposeof using valvesin classB for power amplifiers is to provide
frequency change,so the new frequency required cao be in any of the sub-bands. the linear amplification necessary for most communication circuits. Linear
For civil organizations,loss of trafnc time meansloss of revenue,especiallywhen amplification is not necessary for plain c.w., single-channel f.s.k. or multi-
multi-channel operation is in progress. The time taken to change frequency channel telegraphy using t.d.m., but for nrost other types of multi-channel
should be as short as possible, and rapid frequency changing is an economic traffic it is essential.
necessity. For two major reasons,the importance of linearity cannot be overstressedin
Loss of traffic time is probably most important to military organizationswhere connection with communicetion transmitters. The first concerns multi-channel
frequency changesare more spasmodic,and delayedrnessages could be calamitous trafFc on the systembeing operated.The distorting effectsof non-linearity cause
in dealing with high-speed aircraft and military vessels.So again,rapid frequency undesirablecross-talk betrveenchannels,which can result in a complete loss of
changing is a necessityto reduce messagedelaysto a minimum. This also applies intelligenceunder poor conditions. The secondis that the resulting intermodula-
to civil aircraft. tion products increasethe bandwidth, thereby producing out-of-band radiation
From the foregoing considerations it is clear that the circuit configrration and interferencewith other communication circuits.
depends both on the operational frequency band and the type of service within Operationally it is usual for transmitters to be set up in a linear condition all
that band. the time, leaving the type of signal, number of channelsin use and the level per
Valve type and class of operation are so closely allied to circuit confguration channelin the handsof the traffic controller. With the advent of automatic tuning,
that it is convenient to classify application in terms ofclass A, B, C and D opera- combinedwith remotecontrol of transmittersand antennaselection,it is becoming
tion. more general for the entire operation of transmitters to be also in the hands of
the traffic controller. This is much more efficient operationally and enables
transmining stations to be manned by maintenancestaff only. Not only is it an
economic advantagein reducing the number of staff required, but it overcomes
the difficulty thlt many user organizationshavein being able to obtain an adequate
Class A amplifiers are not normally considered for high-power applications, number of trained stafr at transmitting stations,due to the sites being in relatively
owing to tJreirlow conversion eficiency, but there is a v.l.f. application where the remote areag,
final amplifier conversionefficiency is not the most important comideration. All automatic systerrs are inevitably accompaniedby complexity. The greater
It is pointed out in Chapter 1, Section 1.1, that some form of antennadamping the complexity the greater the liability of something going wrong, and greater
may be necessaryat v.l.f. to increase bandwidth, by reducing the antenna Q skill is required for rapid diagnosis and fault correction. It follows that for
factor, which can be of the order of 300. It can be shown that the damping provided successfulautomatic control, both the transmitters and the controi system itself
by the low anode impedance of a final amplifier operating in class A, can give an must be as simple and reliable as possible.In t}le present context of high-power
effective improvement in bandwidth. By using this method, the damping losses amplifien for communication purposes, the circuit configuration must be as
are dissipatedat the valve anode and oo additional cooling equipment is required. simple as possible,consistentwith the capabiliry of being controlled and tuned
This is a more simple and less costly arrangement than first generating the r.f. automaticallyover the complete h.f. band, without manual intervention.
Power more efficiently in a class B stage, subsequently dissipating it in an external With simplicity and reliability as the keynotes,the number of circuits to be
resistor requiring additional cooling arrangments. Class A stagesalso require tuned, or adjustrnentsmade for di-fferentfrequencies,must be limited to those
less driving power than class B stag$. ; , absolutely essential to obtain the required performance. In this respect it is
Although this is a desirable application, it is also very limited. The amount preferable to have the same setting-up procedure as regards operational levels,
of damping provided is not controllable and the antenna Q factor reduction allowing for sufficient power lass at the highest frequencies and obtaining rather
may be reguired only at the low-frequency erld of the band. Consequently it is more output at lower frequencies.As the circuits depend on the type of valve
more general-to use class B or class AB, andito asociate the required damping used, the relative meri6 of tetrodes and triodes for linear amplification are
with that part of the inductor used for the lower {roquenciesonly. The large consideredfirst.
30 A p p L r c A T r o NA N D T y p E o F o p E R A T r o N [Ch. 3] clAss B APPLrcATroNs 31
effect is not so obvious. The rapid change of grid current with positive grid
Choiceof oalaefor linear ampliferc voltage means that the efective input resistince of the valve changesrapidly
The relative merits of tetroilesand triodesare consideredon the assumption over the positive region ofthe driving cycle; but the input capacitatife reactance
that both rypes are available at the power level required, but for power levels remains constant at any one frequency. A change of phase occurs during each
up to about l0 kW it is probable that triodes are not available,so the use of a half cycle, causinga phasechangein the modulation envelope,and producing a
tetrode is inevitable. There are also a ferv power pentodes,but they tend to be phasedistortion which is just as detrimental to linearity as amplirude distortion.
available for lower-power applications only, and in any case the circuits are The alternative arrangement of grounded-grid connection is more suitable
similar to those required for tetrodes. for triodes as linear amplifiers in the h.f. range. Neutralizing is not normally
The method of setting up both tetrodes and triodes for linear operation in required, becausethe grounded grid behavesas an effectivescreenbetweenanode
classB, basedon typical characteristics,has been given in Chapter 2. It was not and cathode.As in the caseof tetrodes,there will be occasionswhen a small
pointed out that in r,f. applicatiom the energy-storagecapaciry of the tuned amount of neutralizing will be neededto counteractuhwanted positive feedback,
anode circuit (flywheel effect) is sufncient to permit linear operation with single but again the circuit can be made sufficiently wideband to cover the whole h.f.
valves. This is distinct from the push-pull arrangement necessaryat audio band at one setting.
frequencies. On the scoreof lineariry, the perfdrmanceof triodes in grounded-gridcon-
figurationis very good.The feedbackeffectof the circuit improvesthe inherently
Linear ampliflcation with tetrodes good linearity of the valvesthemselves.On the input side, the anode-cathode
For single valvesin grounded-cathodecircuits, stableoperationof tetrodesis load presentsa substantiallvconstantresistanceover the driving half cycle,of a
quite practicable without neutralization, due to the isolating effect of the screen much lower elTective valuethan that causedby grid current.
betweenanode and grid. Even so, with the very high porvergain of tetrodes,some The variationof grid current is swampedby the steadyload and the eiTectsof
positive feedback between anode and gri<i is usually present, due either to the amplitudeand phasedistortionare redu':edto a lorv level. The actualdistortion
residual interelectrode capacitanceor to incompleteisolation betweenthe external level dependson the ratio of peak anode current to peak grid current, which
circuits. Unless this positive feedback is cancelled by neutralization, it will not dependsboth on the type civalve and the relationberweenanodevoltagetrough
be possibleto obtain the optimum linear performance.The level of the neutralizing and peakgrid voltage.This meansrhat if rhereis more than one triodeof suitable
signal required is quite small and not at all critical. In consequencethe associated rating for the applicationbeingconsidered,the type havingthe lowergrid current
circuit can be sufficiently wideband to cover the whole h.f. spectrum, without requirement should be selected.Also, as the slope of the load line affects both
the needfor adjustment during frequency changes.It is quite practicalfor tetrodes the peakgrid current and the anodevoltagetrough, for better linearitythe slope
to be used in classB for linear amplifiers in grounded-cathodecircuits, without the of the operatingload line shouldbe steeperthan that which would giveoptimum
complication of controls for neutralization. In tiis way tetrodes can be used for efficiency.
high-power output levels with very small drive levels, without grid current. It is obvious that the r.f. power required to drive grounded-grid triodes is
much greater than that neededby the samevalves in grounded-cathodecircuits,
Linear amplifuation with triodes ii but the addition{ power is not lost. The drive power into the anode-+athodeload
On the other hand, triodes must be neutralized when usedin grounded-cathode
circuits. With push-pull configuratioru neutralizing is relatively simple, although
i is in serieswith the anode output power and so appearsas part of the amplifier
output. This accounts for the anode--cathodedrive power being known as
it is unlikely that a single setting will be adequateover the h.f. band, and adjust-
ments will be required for changes of frequenry. With single valve stages, j 'throughput', and
it is interesting to note that this arrangement was known
originally as a seriesamplifier.
additional circuits are nec$slary, adding to the complexity. Even the simplest s The high level of power required to drive grounded-grid triodes comparesvery
form of neutralrzingby meansof a split grid circuit, requires arr increasein drive { unfavourably with tetrode drive power, but in general, triodes enable a better
level. Bearing in mind the need for rapid frequency changing, neutralizing by 1 linear performance to be obtained more readily, due to the inherent feedback
itself means that grounded-cathode circuits are not reco(unended for triodes in ,
7 with grounded-grid circuits. Apart from the probability of a slightly inferior
the h.f. band, but there is an additional disadvantage. ,d linear performance, the main disadvantageof tetrodes is that an additional d.c.
To obain high-power outputs from triodes, they must be operated in the power supply must be provided for the screen, with associatedinterlocking
positive grid region, with accompanying grrd current, and grid current is a
't circuits. In deciding which valve type to use, all these factors must be con-
major cause of distortion in linear amplifiers. The effect of grid current on
g sidered very carefully from both technical and economicaspects.
linearity is twofold. First, as the grid voltage gxcursion increasespositively, the ;l
rise in grid current is very rapid, particularly when the trough of anode voltage Methods of imprwing tetrode lineaity
approachesthe level of the grid voltage, i.e., when operating as efficiently as
possible within linear limits. Unless the drive power availablefrom a low-power I Probibly the most effectivemethod of obtaining better linearity from tetrodes
is to use a grounded-grid configuration.As well asgiving improved performance,
source is co.,oiderably in excessof that reqdired to drive the valve, the grid
vgltage peaks.will be depressed,witl resultant amplitude distortion. The second f,
neutralizing is quite unnecessary.However, both a high drive level and a d.c.
screensupply hasto be provideci,so it is a costly arrangement.It is not commonty
32 AppLrcATroNAND TypE oF opERATtoN
[Ch. 3] clAss B ApplrcArroNs
usedand is not readilyappticableasameansofchangingfromanexistinggrounded- 33
cathode circuit. the drive power required is about l0 w, so borh drive and modulator
can be solid_
There is another method wlich is simple to apply to existing amplifiers state devices' This means that the onry valve in the transmitter
and is the outout
grves q.ite an improvement in rinearity. In princi'pie, correctionls amplifi.er,and as it is operated under condition" ,".ft b"to*
roit moi.iir;';;;;;
long hte can.beexpected.Arthough the cost of the single varve
"pirJ which"
envelopeby mearx oi a resistancein the cathode circuit, is high, thisis a
t: very economical type of transmitter as regards initiar co.-stand
enectrvely rn circuit at audio frequenciesonly. It is sometimes runnini ;.p;;;r:
called an .i.p. It is also a transminer of high performanie.
The characteristicsof a titrode suitable for being grid modulated
The circuit diagram is shown in Fig. 3.t. Capacitor C,, and Eivins a
Wpicallv 0.01 rrf carrier power of l0 kW, are shown in Fig. 3.2. In oriJr to obt;;
njoyraes 1t^oy--impedance by-passto earth for r.f. The chot. i, r{i-*i'"ar*-"ril ;-rt_h,:;;T
o,tabout l'0 H{ *.d a d.c. resistanceof l'0 o offering a high up condidons,a load line is first selectedto give a peak power of
impedanceto audio 40 k\,,f;;li*:.
rrequencr$ and a low impedance to d.c. (a choke of high d.c.

Constont current
S c r e e nv o i t o g e =1 5 0 O v o t t s
- Plote currnt- omFEres
- --- urlo Cutrent-Omperes

I Frc. 3.1 Circuit for improving tetrode linearity.
ruin.linearity by causing cJrangesin gdd bias, in sympathy
with the audio
envelope). The resistancevalue of R, dJtermines the revei of Ploie voltoge-kilovolts
gudly of between 20 o and 100 o, andis adjusted ror opti-,r- "or...ai"", Ftc. 3.2 Load line on constant-current characteristics of tetrode 'ralve
It,ma1 be necessaryto changethe varue of the iesistor oveithe fuiio.-"n|.. for low-
h.f. band, but the level modulation.
value $ not critical, and as only audio frequenciesare involved
simple switched
rslstors are quite satisfactory.
This circuit should not beconsidered as a cure for a[ forms amplifier.p-rl ,iri, load line, the operatingconditionsarc derermined
ofdistortion, but by usins
applied after obtaining the best performance 11 the tube performancecomputer describedirich ^pter Z,S..ti,,n Z.+.;it
l::td,."*be . .,;il;;
I h:n th,e imp.rovement possible can make all the difference
"."r""i"*f conditionsobtainedby operatingon load line nS, fig. 3.2,arc givcn .f;blc
iiilit?il in i.p. in a.i
level berng a few decibels worse and a few decibets better than I nereare severalpoints to be noted from the resultsgiven in .Iablc .1.
a specification. l.
Liyar pgwt anplifu sfor broadcasting (a) The anodecurrent does_notchangewhen moduration is appricrr,
vr thc
Double sideband transmitters witlia carrier power of about anode dissipationdecreases-:ndthe efficiency increases.H"n..
r0 kw are used grii rxr.iurati,-
for l.oc1l broadcasting in both the m.f. and h.f. bands. The h.f. is a type of efficiencymodulation.
band i, *"J ir, (D) The.carrier power is d:te,rmined by selecting point ? on
legrors where the atrnospheric oois i.sless tlan at m.f. As groundwave such a position that about l0 kw outpuiis obtainid on
the loatl linc, at
propagation is u8d in both frequency bands. rapid frequency secrion ?,5 'f thc lratr
a requireoent. o--o -i" --- line.
I "rr"igi'g ""t ,
Modern transmittcrs for these services errproy grid modurated (c) Thc difference in grid voltage between points r and R
hieh-Dowcr on thc r.arr linc
grvesthc positivegrid excursionrequired to give a
fT the.final amplifier, which must operatein-a line* .onaition. ii.'qurl, peak of l(x),){,nrrtlrrlari.rr,
:T,:1Tpoy:t ncnceiltc (lflvc powerrequired.
output_ can be obtained without grid current, so both the r.f. drive
ry (d).with rhc grirl voltagedeterminedfrom (c) -rz0 v in
In fact, thcs power levels are determined by this casc,it wril lrc
urc value or the- rcsiator, which is normally fitted across the input tlrc ncgativepeal._ofgrid voftagewill not cut the valve off. .I'hc rr'rrgh
to the final ::.:li"i
olm_od.ulatio.i8 not.quite
ttage in ordqtopmvide a constarrtH fprLoth e;r" *a -"d"ilr. iydJt, lt:lN'echaractr.ristics -100%.Thjs is, of course,due to the **nt ,"rrf ti,"
'.. f '.' in the low anodecurrent region.
Tasr,B 3.1 h.f..transmitters.Although it is usual to designthe transmitters for both purposes
(Anode voltage:8 kV; sireen voltage: 1.5 kV; grid bias: -320 V; with sufficient componentsto cover their respectivefrequency bandr, the mech-
gtatic anode current: 1.0A) anical arrangementmust be governedby the easewith whlch the frequency can
be changedin the h.f. case.

Carrier 100o/oNlodulation The choiceof aaloe typefor classC amplifrers

A resumi of the valvesusedfor classC high-power amplifiers since h.f. broad-
Peak anodecurrent 13A 30A casting beganis appropriate as a meansof showing how valves have developed.
Anode voltagetrough 4.5kV 2kv Early h.f. transminers had a power output of about 15 kW, from a pair of triodes
Anode voltage excursion 3.5kV 6kv in a grounded-cathodepush-pull circuit with cross neutralizatio;. The whole
Peak r.f. power output 41.2klv circuits were well designed,but the valves were the same types as used for m.f.
Mean r.f. power output 10.4kw 16.2klv applications, with a single lead connection for the grid and having long internal
Anode current, d.c, 3.72L 3.72A connections.The single grid connectlon was inadequute to carry the higher r.f.
Powerinput, d.c. 29.8kW 29.8kW current at h.f., so iocal overheatingoccurred, resuitinq in the glass invelop
Anode dissipation 19.4kW 13.6kw cracking and a high mortality rate among valves. This was overcomeby making
Conversioneficiency i (o/ 5+.3o/L valveswith a ring sealfor the grid connection.
"" 'o
Grid voltage peak -140 V -20v The long internal connections necessitatedlcng external connections. the
Grid voltage excursion 120V relative combined effect being that the setting of the neutr-alizingcapacitorshad io be
to -140 V changedconsiderablyover the frequencyrange.At frequencieswell above the
operatingband,the combinedreactance ofthe neutralizingarmsbecameinductive
instead of capacitative,providing a ready-made circuit for spurious oscillation.
To counteract the tendency to oscillate, it was not unusual to find high-porver
(e) Becauseof the non-linearity there will inevitably be some distortion at amplifiers bristling with anti-squeggerdevices.
l00o/o modulation, so it is normal practice to specify the distortion at either A big advancetowards amplifier stability was the advent of the grounded-grid
90lo or 95o/omodulation. This is a common feature of specifications for all connection in the 1930s.This arrangement required much more drive power
methods of producing d.s.b. signals. when compared with the grounded-cathodearrangement, but not as much as
(/) As these calculations are based on typical characteristics, it will be might be expected.In order to achieve100o/o modulation,the throughpurpower
appreciated that minor adjustments will be required to obtain the optimum had to be reduced at the envelopetrough by modulating the diiving stage.
performance from individual valves, mainly in relation to the levels of the r.f. Although some complication was caused, it had the compensating .A."t ot
drive modulating voltage. increasingthe drive level at modulation peaks.
Before concluding this section on low-level nodulation for d.s.b., it should be The next steprforwardwas the produciion of triodes of almost squat construc-
pointed out that modulating the grid voltage is only one method. It is equally .
tion, in which the inductance of ihe internal connectionswas kepfquite low by
effective, and in some instances more convenient, to apply modulation to the making them short and wide. This rype was developed mainly ior use at v.h.i.
r.f. drive. But in the context of the final stagevalve the conditions are no different. and was quite effectivein reducing the tendency of neutralized iriodes to oscillate
in a grounded-catbodecircuit.
In recent years, the developmentof valve techniques has made it po*sible to
3.+ CLASS C APPLICATIONS produc_e tetrodes for very high power. The use of high-power tetrodes,operating
ctass U rn a grounded-cathodecircuit, combines the advantagesof low drive
Transnitterc for tlu nJ. aad h.f. bands power, high
The most usual application for class C amplifiers is d.s.b. transmission for :!F.. g"r" and stable operation, without the needlor neutralizing,
thereby simplifying frequency changing. In order to achieve anode modulatio-n
broadcasting in the m.f. and h.f. bands. In both bands a typical carrier power at 1009/0it does mean that the screen must also be modulated. but the screen-
level is 100 kW, although there is an increasing tendency to increasethe power modulating power required is relatively low. As a result of this development,it is
in the m.f. band to 500 kW, or even 1000kW. Thus there is an obvious advantage almost universal to use tetrodesfor.the final modulated amplifiers of high-power
in using class C to obtain a high d.c. to r.f. cop'versionefficiency, especiallyin, broadcasttransmitters.
caseswhere very high-power m.f. transmitters are installed in remote areas,or
on islands, and the power supply has to be generated locally. Saing up tetroilesin classC
fm anode-modulatedrJ. anptifas
. The main difference between transmitters foithe two frequency bands, apart There are severalfactors to be taken into account before selecting the most
from component values, is that m.f. tr:ansmitters pormally oprate on one.fre- suitable load line oi which to base the performance calculations for an enode-
::"' . quency only, whilst,'operational frequency changing is an essential featurb of modulatedr.f. am,plifier-:t: a.
36 AppLlcATroN AND TypE oF opERATroN [Ch. 3] clAss c AppLrcATroNs 37
(a) Although the d.c. anode current remains constant when the anode is valve type, there must be a compromise b,etweenefficiency and output. As a
modulated at 100o/omodulatiori, the total input power to the valve (d.c. * audio) generalguide,the angleofcurrent flow is usuallychosenbetween120. and 140o.
is increasedby 50o/o,so tlre anode dissipation increasesby 50id. In the carrier
condition, the anode dissipation must not exceed 660/oof the maximum per-
missible. It might be argued that a steady modulation at 100% is not a normal Typical opnationfor 100kW carier output
operating condition, but it is quite usual for a customer to check the performance With due considerationto paragraphs(a) to (h), operating load line MO hx
at 100% modulation, by specifying a load run at this level for 10-15 min. been drawn on a set of tetrode characteristicsin Fig. 3.3 to give a carrier output
(6) In order to obtain high eftciency, the anode voltage excursion should be of 100 kW, suitable for 100or(anodemodulation.
high, but grid current increasesrapidly as the anode voltage trough approaches A significant feature of class C operation is that the power output is more
the grid voltagelevel. Hence the grid dissipation imposesa limit on the efficiency critically dependenton the slope of the load line than it is for classB operation.
attainable. The output coupling arrangementmust be capableof being adjusted within
(c) When triodes are anode modulated, the grid must bc overdriven in the fine limits. However, aslinear operation is not required, changesin loading caused
carrier condition in order that the drive level will be adequateto sustainthe peak
anode current at 100% n'rodulation.Alternatively, the drive must be modulated.
With tetrodes the sameeffect is achieved by modulating the screen,enabling the
anode current peaks to be attained with the same drive level as that required
for the 'carrier only' condition. To some extent this easesthe grid dissipation S c r e e nv o l t o g e= 7 5 0 v o l . i s
limit mentioned earlier.
(d) It rnight appear that the limits imposed by gtid dissipation on the one I

hand and adequatedrive level on the other mean that the drive level must be
adjusted within fine limits; a very undesirable condition. Fcrtunately, this can 30
be overcome by the self-compensatingaction of automatic grid bias, ob^.ained ?o
0 to
from the voltage set up acros{ta resistor by the grid current. It follows that the 50
compensation will be proportional to the level of bias produced automatically, t.o
but there must be some steady d.c. bias to prevent excessiveanode dissipation o
in the event of drive failure.
(e) When calculating the drive power required by means of the tube perfor-
mance calculator, the value obtained is that required for the valve alone. To
obtain the total drive power required, the power dissipated in the grid resistor Plot! volfogr - kilovolt.
and bias circuit must be added, together with the grid circuit losses,which can
Ftc' 3.3 Loadlines on constant-current"characteristics
of tetrode valve for anode
be appreciablewith classO becauseofthe high level ofr.f. grid voltage.Allowance
must also be made for valves with characteristics which differ from the typical
characteristics published. Bearing in mind these additional requirements, it is
not unreasonable to allow a drive power of three times that required by the valve by feeder impedancechangesduring programmesdo not affect the performance
itself in order to avoid the embarra,ssmentof being short of drive later. as much as they do in class B amplifien, even if the load line ii somewhat
(, Limits are specified for maximum screen voltage and dissipation, so elliptical.
allowance must be made for the audio modulating voltage and screen dissipation For load lne MO, the d.c. anode voltage is higher than might be expected
^t l00o/o modulation. The peak of audio voltage on the screenwill be about 80o/o from condition (i), but it is within the valvi limitsld has beenlhosen deliber-
qf the d.c. voltage, which means an increased screen dissipation of about 30o/o ately. The characteristicsare for the same valve as used for the class B tetrode
above that calculatedfor tle carrier condition (0'8 x 0.70f'z :32%. calculations,with the screenvoltage reduced to 750 v. not becauseit is the onlv
(g) The total r.f. plus d.c. voltage on the valfe anode is another limiting factor, valve available,but to demonstratJthe versatilirv of modern varves.This feature
which meansthat the d.c. voltage must not b{too high. This is an advantagein is particularly useful during experimental tr"rrr-itt., work, for it permits the
reducing anode circuit losses,for the r.f. losseirincreaseas the square of the r.f. samevalvesto be used for severalapplications,thereby reducing the ixpenditure
voltage increase. on expensivevalves.
(l) In selectingthe bias voltage for the carrier condition, i.e., the lower-end Opcrating on load line MO, calculation by means of the tube performance
ofthe load line, considerationmust be given to the angular portion of the positive computor givesa carrier power output of 103.5kW at 83.7o/oconversionefficiency.
grid excursion during which anode current will flow. For a given peak anode rn order to avoid duplication, the full performancefigures are given
in Section
current the yalve conversi'on cftciency incrsa$es as .the angle of current flow is r.o, where they are compared with those obtained for classD opernti.n, for the
but the poweroxtput falls. Therefore, within t}le capabilitie of any samevalve, on load line l/O.
38 AppLrcATroN AND TypE oF opERATroN fch. 3] clAss D AppLrcATroNs 39
3.5 CLASS D APPLICATIONS action of the harmoniccircuit, from a funda:nentalangularpositionof 60"-120.
The prineiple oJ classD olnation, the phaseofthe harmonic energy is reversedand transferredinto the fundamental
circuit. At 120othe phaseis againreversedand for the remainderof th3 conductins
Class D is the name given to class C operation with waveforms that are more
cycle the harmoniccircuit again receivesenergy from the valve.This action i!
rectangular than sinusoidal, as a means of obtaining improved conversion
shown clearly in Fig. 3.5, the two types of cross-hatchingrepresentingthe change
efficiency. The highest efficiency is obtained by the use of truly rectangular
of phase between the fundamental and harmonic energies.This diagram alio
waveforms, but the r.f. voltagesrequired by high-power amplifiers are not readily
shows a side-effectof operating the valve with a comple.xrvaveform,,"hich is to
available in rectangular form. Worthwhile improvements can be obtained with
increase the angle of current flow, relative to using a sinewave under similar
3rd hormonic
conditions.In the diagram the increaseis from 120-'to 1400,which is rypical.

Fundomenfo I Operationalfrequencyband
R .E o u t p u t
Fundomentol The additionofthe third harmonicresonatorsdoesadd a degreeofcomprication
R F. inpul
to the tuning procedure, which although relativelv simple makes friquency
changing more difflcult. As operatiohal changesof frequency are necesJaryin
the h.f. band, classD is not recomrrrended for h.f. There is alsothe difficulw of
designingthe third harmoniccircuits for high power at frequencies.pprou"hing
90 !IHz, for use at the upper end of the h.f. band (rvith a total anodetunin[
Frc. 3.4 Basiccircuit arrangementfor classD operation, capacitance of 100 pF, the r.m.s. circulating current is likely to be in .*.... of
100A at the upper end of the h.f. band).
waveforms consistingof fundamentaland third harmonic componentsin the It would be exceptionalto requireanodemodulationin the v.l.f. and l.f. bands,
right proportion and in the correct phase relationship. so the use of classD is limited to the m.f. band. In this band it is -high
The method of deriving the input waveform from the fundamentai and of useful as a meansof savingpower consumption,becauseof the very poru.i
deriving the fundamental output from the resultant complex waveform at the often used.
anode, can best be describedby referenceto the simplified circuit diagram shown
Method of cahtlating dassD performance
in Fig. 3.4.
A third harmonic resonatorZrC2 is inserted as part ofthe input tuned circuit Owing to the complex waveform, the 15' intervals used for calculating the
I,C,, resulting in a waveform at the tetrode grid of fundamentalplus third oPeratingconditionsby meansof the tube performancecalculatorareinadequate
to obtain sufficient accuracy. It is necessaryto obtain levels of anode current
Fundomentol power and anode voltage from the load line at intervals of 10" of the drive waveform.
output clrcuit A waveform with a substantiallyflat top is obtained by adding a third harmonic
kW, 3rd hormonic circuil component at Xo/o of the fundamental level, in phase opposition at the funda-
to outpui circuii
3 mental peak. The voltage at each 10oof the positive grid excursion is calculated
on the basist}lat the two peaksof the combined waveform are of the correct value
kVA, volve to 3rd
: hoimoniccircuit to drive the anodealong the full extent ofthe load line. These voltagesare used
]o to determine the instantaneouslevels of anode current and anode voltage at l0o
Volve power outpui intervals along the load line. By subtracting the instantaneousvoltagesfrom the
d.c. voltage the anode voitage excursions are obtained, correspo;ding to the
instantaneousvaluesof anode current. Assuming that the instantaneou; values
Frc. 3.5 Energy transfer in clrs D operation. of anode current 1 and anode voltaqe excursion i at 10ointervals from 90oto 0o
are indicated by the suffi.xesA to J, rkpectively, the performancecan be calculated
harmonic, in the correct relative phase. Both fr.*o*t circuits are similarly, from the following formulae:
but lightly, loadedby tJretetrode input impedanle, so the amplitude relationship
is substantially as required. It follows that the *rode current and anode voltage 0.51A+
Anode current d.c. :
have waveformssimilar to those at the valve inolt. 18
The anode tuned circuit LrCs also incluiis a third harmonic resonator
LaCa, the purpose of which is io iestore Oe sllusoiad waveform of the funda] lh9 d.c. values of grid current and screen current are obtained similarly from
their instantaneougvalues at 10" intervals.
mental at the output of the anode circuit. This bccurs in the following manner.
The initial portion of anode power output feeils power into the fuidamental 0'5IoxV + IBVB+ IcVc+ .., + ItVl
circuit,' and wattless energy into the third halmonic circuit. By the resonant Output power, r.m.s. :
The r.m.s. power of drive required by the valve only must be calculatedin the
same manner as that used for qutput power, but using the instantaneousvalues
of grid current and voltage. T--
l Bi o s
A power output level of 100 kW carrier has been chosenas an exampleof class
D operation, in order to give a direct comparison with classC on the same valve
and under similar conditions, as in the example given in Section 3.4.
Referring again to Fig. 3.3, load line NO representsthe operating line for
class D, to give approximately the output power as class C on load lirre MO.
Details ofthe carrier perforrnanceofthe two classesofoperation on their respective
load lines are given in Table 3,2. Significant differencesare atsogiven for 100f1

ClassC ClassD

700% 1009/o
Valverype4C X 3500 Carrier Modulation Carrier IVlodulation

Anode voltage, d.c. 15kv 15kV

Screenvoltage, d.c. 750V 750V
Grid bias voltage total -s00v -500 v
Anode voltage trough 1.2kV 1.2kV
Anode voltage excursion 13.8kv 13.8kV
Anode current peak 384 22A
Anode current, d.c. 8.4A 8 . 4A 8 . 1A 8 . 1A
Power input, d.c. 126kW 121'5kW
Power output, r.f. 103.5kW 108kw
Conversion efficiency 82.2% 88.8%
Anode dissipation 22.5kW 33.7skW 13.skW 20.2skW =
Grid voltage exiursion 700v 600v o ou'tpu1
Peat of fundamental com- o
ponent of grid voltage 700v 690V L

Grid current, d.c. 0.5A 0.27A n output Meonoutput

.5 kw to8 kw
Grid drive, valve only 350W 190w
Screencurrent, d.c. 1'44 0'65A C loss C Closs D
Screen dissipation 1.05kw kw 0.49kw 0.6skw Frc. 3,6 ComparisonbtweenclassC and classD wavefotsr.

increasein output could be obtained before approachingthis limit. The driving

power3nd screendissipation are also lessin tlle cooeof clasgD, but if the output
is increasedto load the anode more fully, the grid or screendissipation will most
probably determine the upper limit.
maximum permissible anode dissipatien for this valve is 35 kW, class C is In order to give a better mental picture of the two classesof operation, their
practically on the upper limit at lfi)o/o modulation. For classD an appreciable waveforms are compared in Fig. 3.6. The reason for the high efficiency of class
42 AppLIcATIoN AND TypE oF opERATIoN [Ch. 3] clAss D FoRvERyHrcH powER +3
D is clearly shown by the fact that anode voltage remains low during the major actual power output at the valve is ZObtlV, so allowancehas been made
portion of the anode current pulre. for circuit lossesand valve differencesto enable250 kW output at thelransmitter
terminals. Although the anode dissipation is only one-third of the maximum
Conslont current choroctsrisiics
Tetrode valves are the obvious choice for very high-power applications in the Screen voltoge. O'8 KV vcP 200?
m.f. band, but there is a very limited number available from which to make a
-- -- Ie
selection. In fact, for carrier powers much in excessof 250 kW they do not exist -'-' - Jo.
and their production would be uneconomical becauseof t}te small number of
transmitters likety to be used at thesepower levels.It is also more economicalto
use the sametype of valve in the modulator asin the r.f. amplifier, thereby limiting
the spareswhich have to be stocked by the operating organization. Valves are
available for 250 kW carrier output and capableof being anode modulated at
1000/". On this basis the most economical transmitters can be produced for
carrier powers of 250 kW, 500 kW, 750 kW, 1000kW and 1500 kW, using one,
two, three, four or six valves, respectively for the r.f. amplifiers. Two valves are
necessaryfor high-power modulators, and using the same type of valve, rvould
be able to supply suftcient audio power to modulate r.f. amplifiers up to 750 k\Y
of carrier power. The capabiliry of being able to fully modulate a 750 kW carrier
stage is due to the high conversion efficiency of r.f. amplifiers in class D. For
carrier powers of 1000kW and 1500kW, four modulator valveswould be required.
By tfing advantageof the concepts outlined, it is quite practical to develop =o
transmitters with carrier powers of 250 kW, 500 kW, 750 kW, 1000 kW and I
1500 k\ry from fwo basic designs,all using the sametype ofvalve. This not only
reduces development and maintenance costs, but simplifies operational pro-
cedures,becausein all casesthe r.f, valvesoperatein the samecondition. 'a
One design is for 250 kW only, containing a single tetrode in the r.f. amplifier
and a pair of the same type in the modulator. Becauseit is being operated well
below maximum rating, the modulator valve life will be extended,and the essence
of the design will be the sameas for higher-power applications.
The other basic designis for 500kW or 750 kW. By making the initial provision
for two or three valvesto be accommodatedin the r.f. amplifier, the same design
will be suitable for both power ratings, The difference in initial cost of the d.c
power supplies will be negligible, provided that the higher current requirement
is consideredat the design stage.
Although it is not normally economical to double the power output by means
of combining two transmitters, in this caseit islso. This is becausethe demand
for tansmitters of 1N0 kW and 1500kW is very llmited indeed. For the somewhat
rare requirement of transmitters for these powei ratings, it is considered econo- P I o fe v o l l o g e - k i l o v o l i s
mical to supply two transmitters, with a circuit fqir combining the two r.f. outputs
Flc. 3.7 Load line on constant-currentcharacteristicsof tetrode for vcry hrgh
power at high efficiencyin classD. Valve type VCP 2002(Engtishlilcctric Vrlr'<.

for m.f. broadcasting. The constant current characteristicsof such a valve are
allowed,both the scrcenand controlgrids are near their limits. This is typic:rl,,f
classD operation.
'I'hc For 260 kW output from the samevalvein classC would requirean additiorul
showq in Fig. 3.7, with the preferred load line for this purpm, Pp. cal-
culated performance obtainable when operating on load line Pp is givcn in
Table 3.3, comparedwith the maximum permissibleratings of the valvc.
d.c. input of 27 kW on carrier.To this must be addedthe extra power into thc
modulator and thc a.c. nrainsto d.c. conversionefficiencv.This meansthat orl I

Tanrr 3.3


Maximum 100%
Tetrode type VCP 2002 ratings Carrier Modulation Circuit Configurationand Component
Anode voltage, d.c. ll.5 kv 1 1 . 5k v Selection
Screengrid voltage, d.c. 1.2kV 0.8kV
Control grid voltage d.c. -800 v -725y
Grid voltage excursion 900v
Mean cathodecurrent, d.c. 60 A 29.6A
Anode dissipation 180kw 42kw 63 kW 4.1 PUSH-PULL AND SINGLE-SIDED CIRCUITS
Screengrid dissipation 2.7kW 1.82kW 2.37kW
Before the advent of high-power tetrodes, the push-pull or balanced circuit
Control grid dissipation was almost universaily employed for triodes in final amplifier stages.The main
Drive power, valve only reason for this was that the balanced circuit formeci a simple and convenient
Anode current. d.c. meansof neutralizing the effect of the internal anode-grid capacitance,by cross-
Anode power input, d.c. connecting neutralizing capacitorsfrom the anodeof each side to the grid of the
Power output, r.f. other side. There were a number of other reasons.
Conversion efrciency (a) The anode-earth capacitanceof the two valves was in series, so that it
Angular width of current pulse was possible to tune to higher frequencies,with suftciently large inductors for
magnetic coupling between the anodeand output circuits.
(6) The use of magnetic coupling made it possibleto use the sameanode and
broadcast transmission,-with an average modulation depth of about 30o/o,the output cirqrit for either balancedor unbalancedfeeders. Fcr balanced feeders
saving in a.c. mains power obtained by operating the final r.f. amplifier in clasgD the output capacitor and inductor were connected in parallel, while for un-
instead of class C, is about 40 kW/h for a 250 kW carrier. As the high-power balancedor coaxialfeedersthey were connectedin series.
output levels proposedare basedon 250 kW units, the saving in mains power by (c) Even with the biggest triodes availablethere were instanceswhere power
using high-efficiency class D amplifiers in the final stages is proportional to output was required in excessofthat obtainable from a single valve. Two valves
the number of 250 kW units. The approximate saving in mains power by the in push-pull supplied double the power and it was not unknown for the power
use of classD for these high-power transmieers will be of the order of 40 kW/h to be.further intreased by using valvesin parallel on each side of the push-putl
at 250 kW, 80 kW at 500 kW, 120kW at 750 kW, 160 kW at 1000kW and 240 kW crrcurt.
at 1500kw. (d) With a balancedcircuit, the physical centre-point of the anode inductor
is at a very low r.f. potential to eanh. In consequence,the d.c. supply could be
In terms of daily running costs,it can be seenthat the real advantageof clasgD
operation is more apparent at very high power. fed in at this centre-point, with very little fundamental potential acrossthe h.t.
I choke.
I There were, of course, .lisadvantages,such as the tendency to self-oscillation
ril at frequencies above the operating band, when the neutralizing arms become
inductive. This type of oscillation could be particularly prevaleni at the second
harmonic frequenry, due to the fact that the pulsesof anode current through the
d.c. feed choke were at twice the fundamental frequency.
; With modern high-power tetrodes, internal anode-grid capacitanceis so low
that even if neutralizing is required, it can be accomplished across individual
valves, by meansof a very low external capacitance,combined with a wideband
transfomer for changing phase. The elimination of the need for highJevel
neutralizing with tetrodes is undoubtedly a major reason for the tendency of
designersto depart from push-pull in favour of single-sidedcircuits.
Triodes can also be operated without neutralizing, provided that they are
gtounded-grid circuits, so againpush-pull hasgiven way to the greatersimplicity
ADNoDE-ourpur crRcurrs 47
of unbalanced circuits. However, the high drive level required by triodes in For an amplifier in the h.f. band, the main disadvantageis that three controls
grounded-grid circuits must !e taken into account in deciding which type of must be operatedfor eachfrequencychange.Also, the indication ofogtput circuit
circuit to use. resonanceis not sufficiently simple for operational frequency changes.Output-
The type of input required by the antenna must also be considered.In the circuit tuning can only be set to predetermined positions, making the whole
v.l.f. and l.f. bands, the antennasare monopolesrequiring unbalanced or con- circuit unsuitable for completely automatic tuning systems
centric feeders.Consequently,single-sidedcircuits are preferred for applications
in these bands.
In the m.f. band, monopole antennasare also more general, though there are
applications where balanced feeders are required, for example in split-mast
radiators. In the h.f. band, dipole antennaswith balancedinputs are most usual.
Where single-sided output circuits are usedfor coupling into b:rlancedfeeders 50O leeder
it is quite a problem to obtain a well-balancedoutput over a complete frequency
band. If the output is not balanced, the twin-wire feeder behaves as a single Q, Cablocking
radiator for the unbalancedcomponent.The effect is not only a loss of power in
the antenna, but also undesirableradiation which can be detrimental to the radi- 9lgl' H.r.o.c.
ation pattern, particularly in the vicinity of the antenna.
For communication transmitters with power outputs of 30 kW or less, the Frc. 4.1 Tuned-anodetuned-outputcircuitswith magneticcouplingfor grounded-
problem has beensolvedby the use ofwideband unbalanced-to-balanced feeder grid triode.
transformers. These transformers have ferrite cores, with a substantially flat
responseover the h.f. band, and are capableof carrying 40 kW r.f. power. Wide-
The circuit shown in Fig. 4.2 is a combinationof I/ and Z circuits, with a
band baluns with similar characteristics,but capableof carrying rather more porver common shunt elementC, ; normally called a IIL circuit. With only two controls
are also available. Either of these devicesenablescoaxial feeder switching, with for tuning and loading, it is very simple to operate and particularly suitable for
obvious advantagesover balancedfeederswitching, to be used for the operational automatic tuning. The whole h.f. band can be coveredin a number of ranges,by
antenna changesrequired in the h.f. band. means of tapping points on tle tuning and loading inductors I, and 12. In
For h.f. applicatioru up to 30 kW output, singie-sided circuits are preferred addition, the required inductance value of Z1 is greater in the caseof Fig. 4.2
on all counts, with either grounded-cathodetetrodes or grounded-grid triodes.
For broadcastingapplicationsin the h.f. and m.f. bands,with antennasrequiring
a balanced input and power levels of the order of 10G-250kW, wideband trans-
formers and baluns are not available for unbalance-to-balanceconversion. For
this purpose push-pull anode-output circuits are recorlmended. It means that
balanced feeder sr*'itchingis necessaryfor antennachanging. But the problem is
less difficult than in the communications case. since the number of antenna
changes required is usually less, and more time can be allorved for frequency
and antenna changng. For theseapplications,tetrode valvesin grounded-cathode
circuits are preferred to triodes h grounded-grid becauseof the lower driving
Power necessary. =
Frc.4.2 BasicI/Z circuit for grounded-grid triode.
for the same frequency, making it more practical to constmct the low value of
The two most usual forms of single-sidedanode-output circuits are shown in inductancerequired for the upper frequencies.
Figs. 4.1 and,4.2. Both contain triodes in a grounded-grid arrangement, but the An alternative arrangement of. r IIL circuit is obtained by eliminating the
points raised in this section are just as applicapleto grounded-cathode tetrodes. variable capacitorCs, and making inductor Z, variable for anode tuning. While
The combination of a shunt-tuned anodecircirit .L, C1 and a series-tunedoutptrt
circuit.LrC2 (Fig. 4.1), has the advantagethatithe h.t., d.c- supply is fed into a
point efiectively at zero r.f. potential, with the output circuit and feedersisolated
this has some technical advantages,variable inductors for high power are not
only di$cult to constnrct but are more liable to give trouble in service and are
quite expensive.

from this supply. Loading control can be either by adjusting the mutual coupling It is for this reason that the circuit arrangement shown in Fig. 4.2 is most
generally adopted for h.f. power amplifiers and why it is used to demonstratea
between Z1 and tr2, or by adjusting the feeder inductor 23, leaving the mutual
methodof calculatingthe componentvaluesfor single-sidedcircuits.
coupling betlfeen L1 and L, in a fixed position.
5 i
48 CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION lch. 4l M E T H o Do F C A L C U L A T I NcGo M P o N E N TV A L U E S 49

(5) v.s.w.r. The likely standing wave ratioto be encounteredin service,or the
4.3 A METHOD OF CALCULATING COMPONENT VALUES FOR limits giveo in a specification,in order to determine the reactivepomponent X"
I/Z CIRCUITS of the correspondingfeeder impedance.
(6) The frequency range to be covered.
Information requhedfor caktlations
As explained in Section 4.2,nL circuits consist of II and L circuits in series (1) Detetmiaationof R1
(Fig. a.3(a)). For calculation purposes this is further divided into a series of PVAx PVA
three Z circuits (Fig, a.3(D)).By this means it can be seen that the calculations 1/2x{2Woutput
consist of a number of conversionsfrom resistanceand reactancecomponents in
shunt to equivalentseriescomponents,or vice versa. Thus, for a 31 kW output, if the d.c. voltageis 8000,the anodeswing PVA will
be about 6000 V for a linear amplifier. Then

ptr :- 6000 x 6000 :- )uu

.on 12
R, J e s o n o n c el o o d o c r o s s v o l v e 2'x 3t ooo
Co ioiol onode-eorlhccpocifonce
C, onodetuning cop0ctlonce (2) Estinate of Crn
R2 effective lood ocrcssC2
C2 looding copocilo. In a grounded-grid circuit, the internal anode-grid capacitanceof a triode,
rF resi3iive $mponenl of leederimpedonce
xF reoclive componentof feederimpedonce capableof giving 30 kW output, is likely to be of the order of 60 pF. To this must
be added the external capacitanceto earth of the valve and its mounting, say
20 pF, givingCs:80 pF.
Assurning that the minimum tunable capacitance of C, is 20 pF, then
CrN: 100pF minimum.

(3) The oaluc of R2

Rr Raaonont lood ocross volva
Co lolol onoda-aorih copooloncl An interesting point comesto light in estimating R2. It would be possibleto
Cr Anod! luning copocrlor
couple the anode resistance R, directly into the feeder impedance with a I/
R2 EtlactiYa lood octoss Cz
C2 Loodino cogocito.
circuit only. The addition of the Z circuit has two advantagesover the I/ only
t tactron L 3eion rF R.riativc componant of frld.r arrangement.First, with the I/ circuit alone, the maximum value of C2 at the
inpadonc. low-frequency end of tle band would be excessivelylarge, particularly to cover
XF Raoctiv, componanl of laada.
a v.s.rv.r. of 2 to 1. Second,the Z section reduces the harmonic content in the
feeder by prlviding attenuation at frequenciesabovethe fundamental.
,*1E"8.*,-8. As a compromise between capacitancevalue of Ct *d the peak r.f. voltage
acrossit, R2 is often selectedto be the geometric mean between R, and r" i.e.,
Rr : /(Rt x r"). For a 50 O feeder and R, of 580 O, R2: 170 O approx.

Shunl comoonanf! in copitolt, aaria! componanl! in itolict

@) aad (!) r, ond o.s.w.r.
The most usual feeder impedanceis either 50 Q or 60 O, with prov'ision for
(r) working into a mismatched feeder with a v.s.w.r. of 2 to I' For a 50 O feeder, a
Frc. 4.3 (a) Circuit arrangement for fIL calculations' (D) Breakdown of I1l- v.s.w.r. of 2 to I at 3 MHz meansthat about +150 pF must be allowed on the
circuit into three Z circuits. value of C2 calculatedfor a purely resistive50 O feeder.

(6) Thcfreyatq range

The first essentialis a knowledge or estirinte of certain basic values on which
For the explanatory example given later, the h.f. band is considered from
to base the calculations
3 IlHz to 30 MHz.
(1) Rr.Theeffectiveresonantloadacross{revalveattheoutputpowerrequired.
(2) C1N.The total internal and external capacitanceof the valve anode to earth,
including allowances for valve mounting, strays and the minimum tunable
Formulacfor derktittg compomtt oalucsfrom tlu brort?t or estimatedinformatiat I
capacitanceof C1. Although monographs are normally available for series-parallel impedance
(3) Rt. The effective resonant resistanceacross the coupling capacitor, Cr. conversion, their accuracy decreasesas the ratio .r/r increases. For upper fre-
(4) r". The nominal resistanceof the feeder. quenciesin the h.f. band, the r/r ratio is likely to be of the order of 10 to 20,
making monograph conversions too inaccurate. Consequently, conversion by TenI.p 4.1
means of basic formulae is reeommended.Desk calculators are invaluable for
this purpose.
Resistanceand reactancecomponents in shunt are expressedin capitals, with
Frequency 30 MHz 3 MHz
series components in lower case.The operator .1 has been omitted for clarity.
Crn 100pF 300pF
RR ,YC,n -53.1cJ -r77 Q
n:-, x(Lorc): t(Lorc):r1/(n-1) Rr
lOr-t, 580Q 580C)
From which: R,
!\nr- t): w- 10.92 3.28
/:-: and R: rn: Xy(n - l). t20 11.76
n l(n-l) ,,1

Incidentally, t/(n-1) is the Q factor of the circuit, and in subsequentcal- 4.83Q 49'32Q
culationsn1,n2, h1 refer to difierent parts of the circuit.
If monographsare not readily availablefor reactanceinductance, or reactance- rCtn: rrl(n, - 1) -52.7+Q -161'77Q
capacitanceconversion, the following formulae might prove useful, particularly ;r/,, : -r6"n s2.7+Q 161.77Q
as they contain units appropriate to the application R2 (selected) 170Q 170Q
X. (or xr) : 6.283.L (pH)./ (MHz) R,
f l -t : : 35.2 J.*J
xt ('or tc):
c (PF)./(MH4 \/ (n2- 1) 5'U5 1.56
xlrr:rr41or-t, 28.26Q 76.94A
Example of thc calculationsrcquired to obtaia componentualuesfor a 30 hW amplifier r/r (total): xlr, + xl, 81.00Q 238.7rQ
flppling pottet into a 50 Q feedet, ztia a IIL circtit from 3 MHz to 30 MHi D
It is assumedthat a d.c., h.t. supply of 8 kV is contemplated,and as linear xc.,: -
-29'06 Q - 1 0 8Q
t/("2 1)
operation is typical for this application, the peak anode swing is taken as 6 kV.
It is also assumedthat the correct load line hasbeenselectedto give 31 kw output tF s0Q 50Q
at the valve anode, as described in Chapter 2, Section 2.4. Component vatues
for 30 MHz and 3.0 MHz are given in Table 4.1, for the brea&.dorvniircuit shown ll:--g J'+ J.t
in Fig. 4.3(D). fF

An examination of the results in Table 4.1 indicates the large range of capaci- t/(q-r) 1.53 1.53
tance and inductance required to cover the 10 to 1 frequency rangeof 3-30 MHz.
consequendy, it is not unusual for high-power communication transmitters to R2
XC..: -111.110 -111.11Q
hays a fimilgd coverageof 4.-n.5MHz. Apart from the advantageof lower range t/(n' - l)
of component values,there are operational ressonsfor this limitation.
Transmissions between 3 MHz and 4 MHz are for short-range links, with low , :{92-I9e
xc, rtotar)
xcr, + xcD
-23.06Q -54'8 ()
propagation attenuation, so it is usual for operating organizations to use lower
Power on these frequencies. xlr: rr{(n, - l) 76.5Q 76.st)
Between 27-5 M}Jz and 30 MHz there are only two very narrow bands for
fixed communication services and they are of little value for long-range links Allowing 2 to 1 v.s.w.r.on C2,12
except at very limited periods of the sunspot clcle.
XC, -20 to -26 {) -43 k) -70(l
Frequenqt ranges r/r 36-120Q 3 6. l 2 ( )o
100pF 3{X)pl,'
While it is obviously an operational advantagefor fiequency changing to have ll 4'3 p"H 1 2 7* l l
thc smallest number of ranges po*sible, as well as the limited coveraeeon each (." 265-205pF 124{)76{)pl;
range imposed by'the capacitancerange, there is a limit due to r.f. iirculating ,
1'9-6'4pH 1 9 6 . 1/ . l l
52 CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION lch. +) F r x E Dc A P A c t r o R sI N P A R A L L E L 53
The circulating current is determined by the anode impedanceof the resistive valve. With this arrangement,an early check should be made that there are no
and reactive series components,..whichare 4'83 Q and 52'74 O, respectively,at similar resonanceswithin the band.
30 MHz (Table 4.1). With a peakr.f. voltageof 6 kV, the r.m.s. circulating current The other solution is to connect the grid directly to ground, providing the
at this frequency is: lowest possibleimpedancepath at all frequencies,without the possibility of this
type of resonanceoccurring. This solution does add a degree of complexiry to
uuA r'm's' the d.c. power supplies, but it is known scienceand by far the easier problem
7'' {$WTnn: to solve.
Returning again to Fig. 4.2, consider the reasonsfor requiring capacitors in
The use of the full three to one capacitancerange of Cr" (100-300 pF) would
parallel for Co and the lilely resonanteffect of so doing. At low frequenciesthe
make it possibleto tune from 30 MHz to (301.\/3)NIHz, i.e., 17'3 MHz. As the
reactanceshould be low, other*'isethe inductanceof I' must be increasedand
reactanceis the dominating factor in the impedance, the impedance would fall
by {3 at 17.3 MHz, and the circulating current would increaseby y'3 to 138 A
r.m.s. Also, the loss increase being proportional to the current increase, the
losseswould increaseby three times.
This means that the size of inductor material would have to be increasedto :
carry a circulating current which will not be present elsewherein the band, or
the upper frequency ranges must have a limited frequency coverage.In practice
the number of ranges is a compromise between operational simpiicit,v, current-
carrying capacity and manufacturing costs.
O 04pH
Referring to blockhg capacitorsC, and Ca, Fig. 4.2, there are reasonswhy it :
might appearto be advantageousto use two or more in parallel insteadof a single o
unit, but this is not a good principle for transmitters covering a 10 to 1 frequency I
Consider capacitor Cr, the dual purpose of which is to isolate t}le d.c. grid
supply from ground and at the sametime to provide a very low impedancepath
to r.f. To reduce further the r.f. impedance and to spread the anode circulating F r e q u e nicnyM H z
current round the valves, the grid connectionsshould be via a surrounding ring. FIc. 4.4 Probableresonance of capacitorsin parallel,
The most suitable capacitor for this purpose is formed by isolating the ring from
the ground plane with a ttrin film of iruulating material' Even with a film
having a high dielectric constant and high breakdown voltage, the capacitance the r.f. voltage acrossthe capacitor must be added to the d.c. voltage for rating
achievable is often too small to provide a sufficiently low r.f. impedance path at purposes. At high frequencies capacitor Ca has to carry the total r.f. current
the low-frequency end ofthe band. circulating in the 11 section. Replacing Ca by two capacitorsin parallel is likely
One solution is to replace the thin film with a number of fixed capacitors to causean in-band resonance,resulting in a circulating current within the loop,
distributed round the ring, but the value of ttre individual capacitors must be limited only by the loop losses,This current can be considerably greater than
selected with care. When capacitors are connected in parallel there is an inevitable that in a single capacitor of the same value @rrying the maximum circulating
inductance both in tlre inter-connecting leads and in the capacitors themselves. current of the Z section. Not infrequently such loop resonanceswill cause the
At some frequency this inductance will resonate with the caPacitance of the capacitorsto explode, combined with a short circuit. The d.c. voltage will be
individual units in seri6. applied to C2, and a flashoverin the capacitoris not improbable.
Experience indicates that typical loop inducpnces are between 0'04 pH and Two solutions are possible. First, every effort should be made to obtain a
0'08 pH, and these values have been used in Fig. 4.4 to show likely resonant single capacitor of adequatecurrent rating, even if the capacitanceis such that a
frequencies. As an example, supposethat two capacitors of 0'01 pF are used to, slight increasein I, is required.
obtain a suftciently low reactance at 3 MHz. From Fig. 4.4 it can be seen that The "othersolution is to connect the d.c. blocking capacitor in series with the
rrnnance is probable in the region of 8-12 MHz; when the grid-to-ground r.f- feeder inductor 12 and to provide a loading capacitor C2 of adequate voltage
impedances will be far too high for satisfactory operation. rating to withstand the d,c. plus r.f. voltages.
There are two practical solutions to the problem. First, a multiplicity of . These two examplesshould serveto show that paralleled capacitorsshould not
capacitorS,eachof lessthan 0'001 pF (seeFig. 4.4), can be distributed round the be used in high-power applicationswhere a rangeof frequenciesis to be covered.