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All english topics

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2017

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www.phoenixbooks.ru
373.167.1 : 811.111
81.2.-92
441
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41 . All English Topics /
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ISN 978-5-222-25907-8

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ISN 978-5-222-25907-8
373.167.1 : 811.111
81.2.-92
. ., 2017
: , 2017

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www.phoenixbooks.ru

............................................................................................ 9
Biography........................................................................................11
Family...............................................................................................13
Family and Relations..................................................................................13
Generation Gap ........................................................................................15
Sibling Rivalry ..............................................................................................17
What is family?............................................................................................18
My family.....................................................................................................21
Our Family . .................................................................................................22
My Father.....................................................................................................23
My Mother ..................................................................................................24
Home is where theheart is......................................................... 25
My Home Is My Castle ...................................................................26
My Flat..............................................................................................28
My Favourite Room ........................................................................29
My Friend.........................................................................................30
Great britain................................................................................... 35
United Kingdom..............................................................................36
The Geographical Position .
of Great Britain ...............................................................................37
Climate in Great Britain .................................................................38
Agriculture in Great Britain ............................................................39
British Art, Theatre, Music................................................................40
British Cuisine ..................................................................................41
British Homes....................................................................................42
British Traditions and Customs........................................................42
Cambridge......................................................................................44
Oxford..............................................................................................45
British Culture ..................................................................................46
Parliament. ThePalace of Westminster........................................47
Education in Britain ........................................................................48
England...........................................................................................49
Scotland .........................................................................................50
Wales ...............................................................................................51
Northern Ireland..............................................................................53
English Meals ..................................................................................55
Music in Great Britain .....................................................................56
National Emblems of theUnited Kingdom ..................................58

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4

Newspapers in Britain ....................................................................60


London.............................................................................................61
The united states of america..................................................... 65
Climate and Natural Resources .
of theUSA........................................................................................66
Animal Life in America . .................................................................67
Brief History of theUSA ...................................................................68
Political System of theUSA.............................................................69
The Constitution .............................................................................70
Congress..........................................................................................71
Statue of Liberty..............................................................................71
The US Flag.......................................................................................73
Traditional American Food . ..........................................................73
American Education......................................................................74
Higher Education ...........................................................................75
Holidays and Traditions of theUSA................................................76
Washington . ...................................................................................78
New York .........................................................................................79
Australia......................................................................................... 81
The Animals of Australia ................................................................82
The Climate of Australia ................................................................83
New zealand.................................................................................. 85
Canada........................................................................................... 87
Geography . ...................................................................................88
History of Canada . ........................................................................90
The Constitution of Canada .........................................................91
The Economy and Trade of Canada ...........................................91
The Russian federation................................................................ 93
Moscow...........................................................................................94
Saint Petersburg..............................................................................96
Rostov-on-Don................................................................................99
Russian Traditions...........................................................................100
Russian Countrylife........................................................................102
The Kremlin....................................................................................102
Holidays in Russia..........................................................................104
Vladimir Putin thePresident of Russia.....................................105
The Tretyakov Gallery....................................................................106
The Hermitage..............................................................................108
Education in Russia ......................................................................109
The republic of Belarus............................................................. 111
Minsk..............................................................................................113

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All English Topics. 5

My Native Town ............................................................................115


Famous People of Belarus............................................................117
Francisk Scorina........................................................................................117
Yanka Kupala............................................................................................118
Maxim Bogdanovich................................................................................119
Vasil Bykov.................................................................................................119
Famous people............................................................................. 121
Abraham Lincoln..........................................................................121
Agatha Christie.............................................................................122
Albert Einstein................................................................................123
Alfred Nobel .................................................................................124
Andrei Sakharov............................................................................125
Bill Gates .......................................................................................126
Daniel Defoe ................................................................................127
Edgar Allan ...........................................................................128
Ernest Hemingway........................................................................130
Fiodor Dostoyevsky ......................................................................131
George Washington.....................................................................134
Ilia Repin........................................................................................135
Isaac Newton ...............................................................................137
Jack London.................................................................................138
Johann Bach.................................................................................139
John F. Kennedy............................................................................140
John Lennon . ...............................................................................142
Martin Luther King ........................................................................143
Mikhail Lomonosov.......................................................................144
Oscar Wilde ..................................................................................145
Peter theGreat.............................................................................146
Peter Tchaikovsky..........................................................................147
Salvador Dali ................................................................................147
Sigmund Freud .............................................................................149
The Beatles....................................................................................150
Theodore Dreiser...........................................................................151
Theodore Roosevelt .....................................................................152
Thomas Gainsborough.................................................................153
Thomas Jefferson .........................................................................154
Rudyard Kipling ............................................................................156
Vincent Van Gogh .......................................................................156
Vladimir theGreat .......................................................................157
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart .......................................................158
William Faulkner............................................................................159
William Shakespeare ...................................................................161

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Winston Churchill..........................................................................162
Yury Gagarin.................................................................................163
Learning languages................................................................. 165
Learning aforeign language.............................................. 168
The History of English ....................................................................169
Varieties of English ........................................................................170
My Foreign Language Teacher ..................................................170
Why Do We Learn theEnglish Language ..................................171
Why do We Learn English ............................................................172
English-Speaking Countries . .......................................................174
Global problems and their solutions................................. 175
The Chernobyl Accident..............................................................175
Chernobyl and People................................................................177
Weapons of Mass Destruction ....................................................179
Biological Weapons .....................................................................180
Chemical Weapons . ...................................................................181
Nuclear Bomb Explosion..............................................................184
Ecological Problems ....................................................................185
Environmental Pollution ...............................................................186
The Problem of Environmental Protection .................................187
Global Warming ...........................................................................188
Water Pollution..............................................................................190
The Hole in theOzone Layer........................................................191
Overpopulation............................................................................193
Healthy Food.................................................................................194
AIDS................................................................................................195
Drugs .............................................................................................196
New Anti-Drugs Campaign for Young People...........................197
The Problem of Smoking ..............................................................199
At school..................................................................................... 201
Choice of profession............................................................... 203
My Plans for theFuture ................................................................204
My Plans for theFuture (Variant 2)...............................................205
My Future Profession ....................................................................206
Choosing aCareer ......................................................................207
Choosing an Occupation . .........................................................208
I Want to be aBusinessman.....................................................................209
I Want to be aDoctor...............................................................................209
I Want to be aJournalist ..........................................................................210
I Want to be aProgrammer ....................................................................211
I Want to be an Interpreter . ....................................................................211


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All English Topics. 7

Holidays ....................................................................................... 213


Birthday .........................................................................................213
Christmas Day ..............................................................................215
Halloween.....................................................................................217
May Day .......................................................................................218
Maslenitza . ...................................................................................219
New Year in Great Britain ............................................................219
St. Valentines Day........................................................................220
Thanksgiving .................................................................................222
The Day of Knowledge in Russia .................................................223
Holidays in Russia .........................................................................223
Holidays in theUSA ......................................................................224
International organizations ................................................ 225
Commonwealth of Independent States ...................................225
European Union............................................................................226
Interpol...........................................................................................228
OSCE Organization for Security andCo-operation in
Europe ...........................................................................................229
The NATO.......................................................................................230
United Nations ..............................................................................232
UNESCO.........................................................................................233
Travelling and tourism ........................................................... 234
Travelling........................................................................................235
Travelling by Car . .........................................................................236
Travelling by Plane .......................................................................237
Travelling by Sea . .........................................................................239
Heroism.......................................................................................... 240
Hobby.............................................................................................. 242
Leisure............................................................................................243
My Hobby My Pets ...................................................................244
My Hobby (Reading) ...................................................................245
Books..............................................................................................246
Books in Our Life............................................................................247
My Favourite Book .......................................................................248
My Favourite Writer.......................................................................249
My Favourite Book (Robinson Crusoe)........................................250
My Favourite Book (The Adventures ofSherlock Holmes).........251
My Favourite Writer (A. Marinina) ...............................................251
My Favourite English Writer . ........................................................252
My favourite American Writer andhisBook ..............................253
My favourite Russian Writer andhisBook....................................257


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Belarussian Writers and Poets. JakubKolas ...............................259


My Favourite Literary Character..................................................260
Mass media................................................................................... 263
Television in modern life . ....................................................... 267
The press......................................................................................... 269
Magazines.....................................................................................270
Newspapers .................................................................................271
Music ............................................................................................. 272
Seasons.......................................................................................... 275
School.......................................................................................... 278
My School .....................................................................................280
School Life . ...................................................................................281
My Summer Holidays ...................................................................282
School Life . ...................................................................................284
The School I Would Like ...............................................................285
The Subjects We Do at School. MyFavourite Subject...............285
Sport and healthy way of life................................................ 287
Healthy Way of Life.......................................................................287
Sport...............................................................................................288
Sport in My School . ......................................................................290
Olympic Games ...........................................................................291
My Attitude to Sports ...................................................................292
Cinema........................................................................................... 293
History of Cinema.........................................................................294
My Favourite Film .........................................................................295
My Favourite Actors .....................................................................296
The Best Film I Have Ever Seen.....................................................296
The theatre.................................................................................... 298
My working day......................................................................... 299
MY DAY OFF.................................................................................... 301
Youth and society..................................................................... 304
Art .................................................................................................. 308
Sculpture....................................................................................... 309
Painting ........................................................................................ 310
Museums . ...................................................................................... 313
Modern technologies.............................................................. 314
Computers in Our Life ..................................................................314
............................................................................. 316


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Biography

Let me introduce myself. My full name is Elena Eduardovna


Pikulik. Now Im seventeen. I was born on theseventh of November,
1980. I was born in Belarus and I have been living in Minsk for all
my life. I live in Yakubov Street in Serebryanka district. I live with
my parents in athree-room flat on theninth floor of anine-storeyed
block of flats. Now I am apupil of asecondary school. Thenumber
of my school is 153. This year Im finishing school and I want to
try to enter Minsk State Linguistic University. I hope Ill manage to
do it. In respect of school subjects I must say that theonly subject
I like is English. It seems themost interesting and useful one to
me. I havent chosen my future profession yet but Id like it to be
connected with foreign languages and computers. In general it is
arather difficult thing to choose what your future profession will be
connected with. I have so many hobbies and things I like to do...
Ifinished amusical school, I went in for needlework, rowing and
did many other things... I attended hairdressers courses and I liked
them very much. And computer takes alot of time. Now I can do
alot using it, but best of all I like computer graphics and designing.
Ialso like to go in for sports. Sometimes I go to swimming pool, to
atennis courts, but it depends on my mood, weather and company.
I have not too many friends but they are faithful people and all of
them are close to me. With some of my friends I meet not very
often but it doesnt spoil our warm relations.
Now its time to say some words about my family. It isnt too big
or too small. We are four in thefamily: my farther, my mother, my
brother and me. My farther, Eduard Nikolayevich, is thedirector of
his own firm. He is 44, tall, with black hair and rather handsome to
my mind. My mother, Svetlana Anatolyevna, is ahousewife. She is
44 too but she doesnt look her age. My brothers name is Sergey.
He is 24. He has his own family and doesnt live with us. And this
year I became an aunt. My nephew was born in June.
Ive decided to try to enter Minsk State Linguistic University.
And Id like to get theprofession of ateacher. What had influenced

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12

my choice? First of all, I think that this profession is very useful


and necessary. Nowadays it isnt well-paid, but it isnt so important
for me. I think thesituation will improve. This profession has good
and bad features. I think that there are even more good, than bad
ones. It gives you great satisfaction when you see thepupils who
are interested in English. They dont miss any your word and try
to work hard to achieve good results. Its apleasure to communi-
cate with pupils and with their parents, to establish close contacts
between you and them. Its also pleasant to make interested those
pupils who seem always bored at your lessons. So, these are only
several reasons for becoming ateacher and they are enough for me.
As I have mentioned above Id like my future profession to be
connected with English and computers. These are things what Im
interested in most of all. English was my favourite subject at school
and I can see that I have ahumanitarian kind of mind because I was
especially good in languages: English, Russian and Belorussian and
Ididnt like technical subjects. As for computer, I can say that Eng-
lish is just necessary for working with it. Of course special English
is used but I think its impossible to study only technical language.
So, my aim is to joint studying English and working with computer.
By theway sometimes I have much work to do using computer.
It may be different documents or graphics. Sometimes I type and
execute areport for school. Its always interesting to do it. Often
I have some work with office computers and it takes alot of time,
but it is interesting, so I often spend all my free time solving some
problems. I can say that its pleasant to feel that somebody needs
your knowledge and help. Just there are some questions that I can
solve rather quickly. Im aso-called specialist in text and graphic
programmes. I improve my knowledge in computers with thehelp
of special books and practice. But computer is just my serious
hobby, that is useful for me.
So you can see that my biography is not very long because Im
rather young yet. And now is ahectic time for me, but Ill try to
work hard and to achieve all I want.


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Family

Family and Relations

How could you describe theword family? First of all family


means aclose unit of parents and their children living together. But
we shouldnt forget that it is amost complex system of relationships.
Family relationships are rarely as easy as we would like, and very
often we have to work hard at keeping them peaceful.
When do people usually start afamily? This question has no
definite answer. In the18th, 19th and at thebeginning of the20th
century people used to get married at theage of 18 or even 16.
Ifagirl about 23 or more wasnt married, she was said to be an old
maid or aspinster. That might have turned out areal tragedy for her
family which usually brought up more than three children, because
in some cases asuccessful marriage was theonly chance to provide
agood life for thedaughter and to help her family. Despite thefact
that thegirl was so young, she was already able to keep thehouse,
take care of her husband and raise children. To feel thetime, its
culture and customs I advise you to read awonderful novel or see
abreathtaking film Pride and Prejudice. Though thestory takes

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14

place at theturn of the19th century, it retains fascination for


modern readers, revealing some problems which may be urgent in
the21st century.
But lifes changing as well as peoples style of life. Nowadays
we have got much more freedom in questions concerning family. It
is natural to get married at theage of 20 up to 30; however, some
people prefer to make acareer first and only after that start afamily
when they are already in their forties. Moreover, there are many
cases when people prefer to live together without being married.
There are some reasons for this phenomenon. Firstly, it is difficult
to juggle afamily life with studies at school or university. But with-
out good education it is practically impossible to find asuitable
well-paid steady job. Its amust to get ahigher education, but by
this moment you are already 2224 years old. After that you seek
for awell-paid job to live independently, which takes about 3
5 years. Now you see why people in the21st century do not hurry
to get married.
There is also another difference between old and modern fam-
ilies. Nowadays it is very unusual to find three generations living
under one roof as they used to do in thepast. Relatives, as arule,
live separately and dont often meet one another. This fact sharply
hurts an older generation. Our parents and grandparents usually
suffer from lack of attention and respect from their children and
grandchildren, although they try not to show it. They really dont
need much, just atelephone call or avisit once aweek will make
them happy.
There are two basic types of families: anuclear family atypi-
cal family consisting of parents and children; asingle-parent family
consists of one parent and children. Nowadays there are very few
people who have never divorced. Today thehighest divorce rate in
theworld has theMaldive Republic. TheUnited States of America
take thethird place. Russia is at theninth place. What are therea-
sons of great numbers of divorce? Let us name some of themost
common and serious ones.
Occurrence of adultery once or throughout themarriage. Theun-
faithful attitude towards aspouse destroys therelationships and
leads to afinal separation.
Communication breakdown. After some time of living under one
roof spouses find out that they are absolutely incompatible.
Constant clashes, brawls and squabbles cause serious problems.

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All English Topics. Family 15

Thedifferences grow as asnowball and cant be already settled


by kisses or hugs.
Physical, psychological or emotional abuses. When aperson taunts,
humiliates, hits thechildren or his spouse, it cant but end with
adivorce.
Financial problems. It sounds lamentably, but sometimes love
alone cant guarantee well-being, whereas money can solve
many of your problems. So when acouple lacks it, their re-
lations become more and more complicated, their priorities
change and therelationships end.
Boredom. Alot of couples get bored of each other after 7 or more
years of marriage. Boredom may become thereason of constant
quarrels and adultery which inevitably leads to adivorce.
However, it goes without saying, in most cases married couples
succeed in solving all theproblems and keep living in peace and
happiness.

Generation Gap

Do you know what ageneration gap is? Even if you dont know
theparticular definition, you are aware of this problem, basing on
your own experience. Generation gap is apopular term used to
describe serious differences between people of two generations.
To realize how to deal with it, you should keep in mind that
generation gap includes several aspects: children must know as
much as possible about their parents and parents about theworld
outlook of their children, about relations between brothers and
sisters, and also about theattitude to them of close relatives on
both sides fathers and mothers.
Children demand agreat deal of attention, time and patience,
so, if you are not ready to devote all that to your baby, it is better
not to hurry. There are many families where both parents keep
working after giving birth to their baby. It is similar to thesituation
with asingle-parent family, when afather or amother hardly have
enough time and neglect their childrens upbringing. In such cases
most of thetime thechild has to spend on his own or with his
friends. Due to thefact that he has not got any guidance from his

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16

parents he may be involved in some bad companies which commit


violence or even crime and become alcohol or drug addicted. When
theparents discover that, its usually too late to change anything.
On theother hand, there is adifferent situation when thepar-
ents treat their children too strict and dont give them any freedom
at all. In this case thechildren may become pariahs among their
peers. Constant bans may increase therisk that thechild will grow
up insolent and defiant. This causes another big problem lying.
Thechild is forced to lie to theparents because of thefear to be
punished. It can be anything from putting on make-up in thegirls
room at school to stealing.
Some children rebel against discipline and family values. They
listen to aloud music, wear inappropriate, to their parents mind,
clothes, dye their hair in inconceivable colours, have all their bodies
pierced and tattooed trying to show their independence and establish
their identity. They want to be treated as adults, but they are not
ready to take all thenecessary responsibilities. It doesnt mean that
your child is bad and he will become acriminal. Of course, not!
It only means that your child is in his transitional age and he is in
need of your understanding and support.
But how to handle such behaviour? Parents should become his
close friends. First of all they should learn to respect his interests.
Try to speak with him as often as possible, offer some parent-child
activities like shopping or going in for sports. It is worth involving
thechild in discussing some family questions, just to show that he
is afull member of thefamily. Moreover, children in their teens are
very vulnerable when they are criticized in public, so try to avoid
it. Parents should always be honest and sincere with their child;
otherwise it would be unfair to require thesame from him.
Too authoritarian parents cant do any good to their children
as well as parents who overindulge all thechilds caprices. Over-
indulgence may lead to thesame results as negligence. There are
parents who are afraid of hurting thechild by banning something
when it is necessary. Such parents risk becoming powerless in
thefamily and losing control over their children who may become
spoiled and capricious.
It demands to make agreat effort from both parents and
children to reach mutual understanding. There are many different
opinions on thequestion of treating children if they disobey their


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All English Topics. Family 17

parents, but every parent should decide for himself what will be
best for his child and set him on theright path.

Sibling Rivalry

Have you got abrother or asister? I have ayounger brother


and I think its wonderful! I have aperson who is very close to me
and who will always help and support me in difficult situations.
However, when children are young, there may occur jealousy,
competition and fighting between brothers and sisters. It is acon-
cern of almost all parents having two or more kids. Theproblem
usually starts when thesecond child is born.
Conflicts between brothers and sisters may be caused by thefol-
lowing reasons.
Children want to show that they are separate from their siblings.
Fearing that abrother or asister is better at anything, they try to
find out their own talents, activities and interests.
Sometimes children think that mum or dad loves their sibling
more, they feel that another child gets more attention.
Children cant share aroom, their parents, toys, etc.
There are three main skills that parents should teach their
children in order they could get along well together. They are
communication, respect and negotiation.
Communication. It means that children should learn to listen
attentively to each other. Use family meetings to talk about things
that concern everyone. At such meetings nobody should shout and
everyone should have achance to express his or her opinion.
Respect. Try to explain to your children that if they want people
to treat them nicely, they have to treat them nicely, too. People
who treat each other with respect, get along together much better
than those who are rude, loud and selfish. Parents can also give
examples of their own life so that children could understand better
thenecessity of being respectful.
Negotiation. Your child should keep in mind that whether he
is younger or older, taller or shorter than other children, it does
not give him any more rights than theothers in thefamily have.
It demands alot of time and efforts to teach thechild theskill of

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18

negotiating, but its amust for every parent. You should be fair
with your children and try to find asolution which will satisfy
each of them.
Parents should have acertain power in thefamily. However, this
power can be reached only through trusting. If your children dont
trust you, its impossible to achieve anything but fear and contempt.
Finally, its necessary to say that children shouldnt be compared
to one another at all. They are individuals and are waiting for theap-
propriate attitude. Bringing up children is ahuge responsibility, but
dont be afraid of it. Your heart will prompt you what to do.
To have abrother or asister means to be never alone. From
time to time children get sick of one another, but it is quite natural.
Themain thing is theyll have aclose person throughout their life.

What is Family?

People are searching for things in life. And people want to


have afamily, because they want some person to be around them,
somebody with whom they can be confident. Only in thefamily you
can find moral support, understanding, help or advice. People are
looking for theperson, who is easy to deal with, with whom they
have much in common. To have afamily means to have loving and
thoughtful people around you. Nothing else but thefamily can be
an emotional centre of peoples lives, can be transmitter of culture
and raising children. This process is adifficult one. It requires work,
much respect and tolerance. In happy families theparents are frank-
ly honest with their children without moralising, and children in
their turn learn how to encounter other people, how to form their
relationships among themselves.
Every family begins at marriage. Marriage is considered amat-
ter of individual responsibility and decision. In some countries
it is preceded by dating. Marriage is different from love. There
is aproverb: Love begins at home. It is short but full of sense.
Young people go out on dates. They try to look primly, be polite
and nice, they want to please each other. And when they fall in love
and decide to get married, they think that their love will be strong
at all hazards. And when they barge against domesticity, they can

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All English Topics. Family 19

understand that their love sometimes wasnt true. Marriage is agood


institution but it must be added that alot depends on theperson you
are married to. Theway of matrimonial happiness is barred to no
one. It is all amatter of choice. One shouldnt look for perfection,
because there is no person, who is perfect in all respects, everybody
has shortcomings.
So, after their marriage ayoung couple is free to decide where
to live and how to start afamily. They plan their future life and
thenumber of children. In some countries there is thepractice of
limiting thesize of families and thestate encourages increasing or
decreasing thenumber of children in families. In many families
thehusband and thewife usually share important decision making.
And if thechildren are old enough, they participate as well.
Sometimes if thecouple finds that their marriage was amistake,
they are free to get adivorce. There are many reasons for divorces,
but everyone must remember that successful marriage depends on
thequalities of both thewife and thehusband and only one of
them cant be to blame.
There is aproverb: Men make houses, women make homes.
It means that roles of women and men were determined many
ages ago. Theman built ahouse, earned money, settled important
decisions. He was always considered thehead of thefamily. And
thewoman in her turn brought up thechildren, kept thehouse,
created warm atmosphere at home. She obeyed her husband, but
she was always thehostess in their home. This counterbalanced
their rights: theman was thehead of thefamily and thewoman
was thehead in thehousehold. But thetime passed and some
problems concerning equality of men and women arose. Nowadays
many members of thewomens liberation movement believe that
equality of men and women requires changing thetraditional roles
of women and men at home. They say that men should take on
some of theresponsibilities for child care and household work. As
for me, I dont bear feminists. I think that complete independence
of women will bring nothing good. Both women and men must be
at their places. Theman must earn money and bring them home,
and thewoman must bring up thechildren and keep thehouse,
she must take care of her husband, help him to relax after his hard
working day to be fresh and full of energy next day. And only then
there will be thecomplete harmony in our society.


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There is an opinion that thefamily is not complete without


children. And for many people to have afamily means to have
children. Of course, children create alot of problems, but noth-
ing can be done with it. One says that little children create little
problems and big children create big problems. Of course, people
bear abig responsibility when they decide to have children. Parents
must take care of their children and bring up worthy members of
thesociety. They must teach their children how to live, commu-
nicate with other people and become apersonality. Many parents
say that there are many problems especially with teenagers. Young
people are often maximalists, they see only white or black, they
dont like to compromise and they are often impatient. Young
people often perceive advice of adults as moralising. To say in one
word, theconflict of parents and children was ever. And day after
day new problems between them arise, but almost all of them can
be resolved without quarrels and spoiling of relations. Theelder
thechildren are, themore responsibility they bear for their deeds.
Young people must realise that they are themembers of thesoci-
ety and must obey definite rules. So, if parents have raised good
children, they can consider their life to be asuccess.
When thechildren become self-sufficient they can decide to
have their own family. But every young family has alot of problems.
Thehousing shortage is one of them. Most of couples dont wish to
live together with their parents after they get married. I support this
opinion. If they live together with parents they have many problems.
And if ayoung couple lives apart it has more harmonious relations
with each other and with their parents, they also can build their
family independently, without interference of parents. Of course,
this can firm ayoung family, but because of housing and pecuniary
shortage many of young families have to live with their parents.
So, whats afriendly family? Understanding between people
in thefamily and consideration for theothers are very important
in thefamily relationships to make it aunit of friendly and loving
people. Tenderness and respect must always be present in thefamily.
And then there is no place for selfishness in thefamily, when you
take care of others in thefamily, show them your love, tenderness
and attention in everyday life. Members of afriendly family are
intelligent and respectful people. They do their best to take care
of each other and they always share joys and sorrows of others in
thefamily. They are always ready to come to help each other, be-

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All English Topics. Family 21

cause they are also great-hearted, supportive and thoughtful. Only


in thefriendly family you can release your tension. Members of
thefriendly family do their best to avoid conflicts and to forgive
willingly. They are tactful, loyal and tolerant people. In their family
they always share domestic chores and housework. So, people live
in harmony in thefriendly family.

My family

Now its time to say some words about my family. It isnt too big
or too small. We are four in thefamily: my farther, my mother, my
brother and me. My farther, Eduard Nikolayevich, is thedirector of
his own firm. He is 44, tall, with black hair and rather handsome to
my mind. My mother, Svetlana Anatolyevna, has been ahousewife
for several years after she had worked at theplant for 23 years. She
is 44 but she looks much younger. My brothers name is Sergey. He
is 24. He has his own family and doesnt live with us.
My parents arent very different people I think. They are both
calm and easy-going. They dont get excited because of nothings of
life. Of course if we did something wrong they talked to us firmly,
but in calm tone of voice. And I think it is more efficiently than
shouting and corporal punishment.
What concerns their attitude to me I think that my father often
spoils me. And sometimes it seems to me that he is ready to indulge
my every whim. But of course I try not to fail my parents and to
equal their confidence.
I really enjoy thehonest and open relationship in my fami-
ly but I think discipline must be used when necessary. Theres
never been adivision between us, thechildren and them, parents.
Freedom has made us close. And I try to do my best not to upset
my parents.
I think that those parents are right who try to be friends for
their children. Their philosophy is not to be strict and distant but
understanding and close.
Besides, I have many other relatives: uncles, aunts and three
cousins. Also I have grandparents on my mothers and my fathers
side. They are pensioners and they dont live with us. Besides I

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22

have agreat-grandmother, who is about 100 years old. Sometimes


we visit our grandparents and they always glad to see us. And last
year I became an aunt. My nephew was born in June.
My story about our family is not complete without mentioning
one more member of our family. I mean our dog. Her name is Ger-
da. Her breed is rottweiler. She is 5 years old and she is thelaziest
creature Ive ever known. To my mind she knows only two things
in her life: eating and sleeping. She doesnt like walks very much
and it is adifficult thing to drag her out for awalk. But sometimes
she likes to play with my farther and it seems that our flat is shaking
when they are playing.
Thats all about my family. I can only add that our family is very
united whilst we have different characters, tastes and hobbies. But
we have very much in common and we always respect each other.

Our Family

Let me introduce myself. My name is Alexander, Alec for short.


At themoment I am apupil of the10th Form. My parents are not
old at all. Father is 45 years old, and Mother is three years his junior.
My father works at abig plant as an engineer. He is agood-looking
man, tall, handsome, with dark-brown hair just beginning to go grey.
By character my father is aquite man, alittle unpractical while my
mother is energetic and talkative. She is very attractive, abeautiful
woman with large blue eyes and fair hair. My mother is ateacher of
music and plays thepiano very well. She always has alot of work
to do about thehouse, and we all help her. She manages our house
very well. My mother is kind and gentle, very practical and full of
common sense.
Besides me, my parents have two more children. Thus I have
got an older brother and ayounger sister. My brother, whose name
is Michael, is nine years my senior. He is abuilder. Michael is
married and has afamily of his own. He has awife and two chil-
dren ason and adaughter. They are twins. They are as like as
two peas. It means I have aniece and anephew.
My younger sister Helen is only eleven. She is alovely little girl
with golden hair and dark blue eyes. She is always full of joy and

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All English Topics. Family 23

gaiety. Helen does well at school and gets only good and excellent
marks. She loves music and dancing and she sings prettily. She is
like aray of sunshine in thehouse.
Our family is very united. We like to spend time together
watching TV, listening to music or just talking about theevents of
theday. Our parents dont always agree to what we say but they
listen to our opinion.
All of us like to spend our weekends out of town. We often go to
thevillage where our grandparents live. They are old-age pensioners
now but prefer to live in thecountry.
I also have many other relatives: uncles, aunts, cousins and
many friends. We are happy when we are together.

My Father

My father is thebest father in theworld. His name is Andrey.


His second name is Vasilievich and family name is Kravenko. He
is 43. My dad is an engineer. He works at an industrial plant.
In thechildhood, my dad was avery smart boy. He knew
everything. When he finished school, he entered theUniversity and
after five years of hard study he became an engineer.
Four years later, he met my future mother. They fell in love
with each other and in ayear and ahalf they married. In ayear
my elder brother was born.
As for me, I was born in four years after my father and my
mother got married or in three years after my elder brother was
born. My dad tells me that I was avery naughty boy, but thebest
one in thewhole world.
My dad does not like cooking but if he cooks, it is wonderful.
My father likes reading alot, but generally he has no time for such
hobby. He has alarge library.
Some of his books are very rare and cost much money. My mom
tells him that he does not follow fashion but he enjoys collecting
books. My dad is strict.
My dad is strict, but he never punishes us physically. He pun-
ishes us financially.
I love my dad.

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24

My Mother

My mothers name is Catherine. Her second name is


Vladimirovna and thelast name of my mom is Kruchinina. My mom
is thebest mother in theworld. She is 41. My mom is ateacher.
She works at school number 85.
In thechildhood, my mom was avery clever girl. She knew
everything. When she finished school, she entered thePedagogical
University and after five years of hard study she became ateacher.
Two years later, she met my future father. They fell in love with
each other and in ahalf ayear they married. In ayear my elder
sister was born. Then in two years appeared my elder brother, his
name is Dmitriy.
As for me, I was born in four years after my father and my
mother had married. I am theyoungest child in thefamily. My
mom tells us that we are thebest children in thewhole world.
My mom cooks very nice. My mother likes reading alot, but
generally she has no time for reading. We have alarge library. Some
of our books are very rare and cost much money. My mom is not
as strict as our dad. She is very calm, loving and beautiful. And she
never punishes us. I love my mom.


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Home is where theheart is

I personally think that home is alittle world where one lives


according to his/her own rules. Its aplace where you feel comfort,
warmth and reliability. And I believe that its not thesize of theplace
where you live that matters, but theway you feel about it. And if
your house is not just abuilding for you but aplace that you can
call home, it means that you want to stay there as long as possible
and its aplace where you always want to return to.
The importance of home is depicted in languages of all thena-
tions: we say, East or West, home is best, theEnglish say, My
home is my castle. Home is aplace that awakens themost pleasant
feelings and high emotions in soul of every person. Always after
ahard day I return home and think, At last I came home. For
me there is no place like home.
Im sure that home of aperson is as much areflection of his
personality, as theclothes he wears, thefood he eats, thebooks


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26

he reads and thefriends he spends his time with. Homes reflect


theway of life and habits of their owners.
I adore my home; I like to be there, because its always filled
with happiness and joy. Even after thefirst few minutes in our flat
you can understand all hospitality and friendliness of this place
and thefamily which lives there. Our flat is very warm and cosy, so
it makes any person feel at home. Its theplace where I wake up
every morning to therefreshing smell of coffee from thekitchen and
where every day of my life starts, thats why it is so important for me.
My home, my sweet home... Sometimes after along journey I
return home with such pleasure and happiness, that I feel myself
like ababy that returns to its mother. I love every corner and every
thing in my flat. My home is my fortress, it is my territory, my
place where I feel good and comfortable. And nobody can disturb
me here.

My Home Is My Castle

House is essential for mans life. Ahouse serves as ashelter and


aplace to satisfy all our needs: we sleep, eat, hide ourselves from
bad weather, store personal property, work and rest there. So we
want not just ahouse but ahome. So what is thedifference between
ahouse and ahome? It is considered that theplace where you live
is your home whatever type of house it is. British speakers often say
that your home is theplace where you belong and feel comfortable,
so it is more than just ahouse. Some people think of home in terms
of where they grew up or where they lived. For them it is aplace
that brings back old memories or feelings. Thestate of apersons
home can physiologically influence his or her behavior, emotions,
and mental health. Some people may become homesick when they
are separated from their home environment.
There are alot of proverbs and sayings supporting theimpor-
tance of home to aperson: East or West, home is best; There
is no place like home; My house is my fortress; Home, sweet
home; Home is where theheart is; Home is home, though it
be never so homely; Dry bread at home is better than roast meat
abroad and many others. Such sayings exist in any language and in
any culture. Houses differ from one culture to another, depending

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All English Topics. Home Is Where the Heart Is 27

on theworld outlook of acertain community, which has its roots in


thereligion of anation, its traditions and historic heritage. That is
why there are so many types of houses and ways of life in theworld.
There are certain cultures in which members lack permanent homes,
such as with nomadic people.
A persons home can tell us what culture he belongs to, because
consciously or unconsciously, one usually keeps to ones native tra-
ditions, though it is rather difficult to do so in themodern world,
especially in thecity.
An Englishmans motto is My home is my castle. Ahouse
doesnt only ensure privacy or give asense of stability and security,
but it is also astatus symbol. Abig and expensive house means
that its owner is avery successful person. There are different types
of houses in Britain. For example, aterraced house is ahouse
joined to arow of other houses. Asemi-detached house is joined
to another house. TheBritish dream of living in adetached house
(which means aseparate building) though having adetached house
is much more expensive than asemi-detached or aterraced one.
Acottage is asmall, usually old house, typically in arural, or
semi-rural location. Abungalow is afairly modern house built on
only one level. Most people dont like blocks of flats, because they
dont suit British attitudes and dont give people enough privacy.
Besides many blocks of flats are badly built and are associated with
poverty and crime.
Nowadays some people prefer living in ahouseboat. It is aboat
designed to be used as ahuman dwelling. In theUnited Kingdom,
canal narrowboats are used as homes and also as mobile, rented,
holiday accommodation. Over 15,000 people live afloat in Great
Britain. They are found throughout thecanals, rivers and coasts;
in cities, in thecountry and in harbours. Some cruise continuously,
some are permanently moored and theothers mix cruising and
mooring. Many people find houseboats very attractive because
they can stay in one area for afew weeks or months and than move
somewhere else. It helps them feel closer to Nature and escape from
everyday problems of life ashore.
While travelling many people use atravel trailer or acaravan
which is towed behind aroad vehicle. It is much more comfortable
than atent and it gives travellers theopportunity not to spend their
money on amotel or hotel. There are travel trailers and caravans
of various types. They may be little more than atent on wheels

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Seasons

We must know from our geography lessons that climate is


theaverage weather conditions of aplace. It is made up of theav-
erage summer and winter temperature, theamount of sunshine,
thedirections of thewinds, theaverage rainfall and so on. Climate
may be cold, dry, wet, mild, tropical, subtropical and continental.
Weather is thecondition of theatmosphere at acertain time or
over acertain short period. Weather is connected with atmospheric
pressure, temperature, rainfall, cloudiness and wind. Weather can
be good, bad, fine, excellent, rainy, snowy, dry, hot, cold, cool,
warm, pleasant.
In Britain they have weather from each season all in one day.
Because English weather changes so often, there is always something
to talk about. Even poets talk about weather. For example, Lord
Byron once said, I like weather, when its not raining. That is, I
like two months of theyear.
There are four seasons in theyear: spring, summer, autumn and
winter. And every season is beautiful in its own way.

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276

March, April and May are spring months. When spring comes,
thenature awakens after along winter sleep, everything is full of
life and joy. Thesun shines brightly and thedays are warmer and
longer. Thesnow begins to melt and there are alot of merry streams
everywhere. Thefirst green leaves and fresh grass appear. Many
trees burst into acloud of blossom in spring time, cherry trees are
especially beautiful in May. Thefirst spring flowers appear. There
are crowds of white snowdrops in theforests. Then forget-me-nots,
violets, tulips and daffodils make their appearance. And this smell
of jasmine is really beautiful. Birds come back from theSouth,
build their nests, hatch and rear their chicks. You can enjoy their
twittering and singing among the trees. Everything is so fresh and
beautiful, even people look younger.
In June summer sets in. June, July and August are summer
months. By theend of June theweather becomes much warmer and
July is thewarmest month of theyear. Now its time to put off these
heavy and thick coats and hats and put on light clothes. Summer
is full of beauty. Thesky is blue, thesun is bright and hot. When
it rains in summer therain is warm and doesnt last long. When
its over theflowers smell sweet, thesun shines brightly, theair is
clear and there is arainbow in thesky. There are alot of berries and
mushrooms in theforest. People enjoy summer very much, its time
to have their vacation and spend alot of time in theopen air. Its
just thetime for going hiking. Its such apleasure to put up tents
in theforest, to make up afire, to cook fish-soup. Theres nothing
better than sitting around thefire, chatting, singing songs. Its so
romantic. But theonly thing that can spoil your holiday is ahorde
of mosquitoes. Some tourists dont care for thenature, they drop
litter everywhere, damage forest and when they go away, theforest
looks like adust-hole. Many people like to spend summer days near
theriver or at thesea. There is alot of sunshine and sometimes it
is so hot, that our skin might get burnt, so its necessary to take
precautions not to have burns. What can compare with awonder-
ful sensation of watching sunrise and sunset! Sometimes, when
thenights are especially warm, you can even sleep in theopen air
or talk with your friends all night. It is astriking scene when you
see thesky full of stars, when thenight is silent and windless.
Towards to theend of August we notice that autumn is slowly
approaching. Thedays become shorter and cooler. Theweather is
very changeable: it is bitterly cold at times, apiercing wind blows,

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