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OpenFOAM step by step tutorial

Technical Report December 2016

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OpenFOAM tutorial

OpenFOAM tutorial
Discover it, tame it, use it

by Victor Pozzobon
(victor.pozzobon@centralesupelec.fr)

26th December 2016 Version 1.03


Disclaimer

This offering is not approved or endorsed by


OpenCFD Limited, the producer of the
OpenFOAM software and owner of the
OPENFOAM and OpenCFD trade marks.

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 2


Introduction

This tutorial is a brief introduction to


OpenFOAM
This document is a step by step guide
It was done to be used on its own, there should
be no need for a presenter (myself)
It was designed for OpenFOAM 3.0.1 and
validated with 16.06+ version (changes may
appear in superior versions)

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 3


OpenFOAM

OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation And


Manipulation) is a versatile equations solver
Why do I use OpenFOAM ?
- free
- powerful
- opensource
- allows a lot of freedom
- no GUI (helps to focus on the equations)

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 4


How to use this tutorial

Almost every command will passed through the


terminal. For example, when you see:
gedit system/controlDict
you type it in the terminal
As OpenFOAM has no GUI, we will modify files.
For example, when you see this kind of picture:
modify the file so that
its content is the same
before you save it

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 5


Battle plan

Ex. 1: Cavity Ex. 6: Tubular reactor


- getting started - solver modifying (1/2)
Ex. 2: Square tube Ex. 7: Tubular reactor
- mesh manipulation - solver modifying (2/2)
- steady state
Ex. 8: Heating pipe
Ex. 3: 1D beam - custom boundary
- 1D problem condition
- transient
Ex. 9: Cake backing
Ex. 4: 2D flat plate - field affectation
- 2D problem
Ex. 10: Tank filling
Ex. 5: 2D pipe - importing a mesh
- axisymmetric problem - run in parallel
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 6
Ex. 1: Cavity - Objectives

Accessing your work directory


Accessing OpenFOAM tutorials
Understanding case architecture
Running your first OpenFOAM case
Postprocessing with ParaFoam (Paraview with
OpenFOAM reader module): data modifying,
line date / point data extraction

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 7


Ex. 1: Cavity - Run

To access your directory type in a terminal:


run
To get the full path type:
pwd
You will see:
/home/YourName/OpenFOAM/YourName-OpenFOAMVersion/run

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 8


Ex. 1: Cavity - Tutorials

To copy official tutorials to your run:


cp -r $FOAM_TUTORIALS Tutorials
Go to the case directory:
cd Tutorials/incompressible/icoFoam/cavity/cavity

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 9


Ex. 1: Cavity - Architecture
Case directory
Initial conditions directory
Pressure / Velocity initial conditions

Mesh directory

Physical properties values


Solving parameters directory
Mesh instructions

Parameters file
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 10
Ex. 1: Cavity Run the case

Once in 'cavity' directory, create the mesh:


blockMesh
Call the solver:
icoFoam
(you can note that the solver created several
directories e.g. '0.1'. These directories contain
data for a given time)
Watch the results:
paraFoam

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 11


Ex. 1: Cavity Postprocessing

Data analysis pipeline

Load the case

Load geometric fields

Load the fields


26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 12
Ex. 1: Cavity Postprocessing
Current
time
step

Plotted Observation tools


data
Plot Rescale
legend legend Time
step
tool
Legend

Scene

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 13


Ex. 1: Cavity Postprocessing

Make it look shinier:


Filters / Alphabetical / Cell data to point data
Calculate something:
Filters / Common / Calculator OR
Extract profiles:
Filters / Data Analysis / Plot Over Line
Extract histories:
Filters / Data Analysis / Plot Selection Over Time

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 14


Battle plan

From Ex. 2 to Ex. 5, we are going to learn how


to use existing solvers in different
configurations.
We are going to set 3D, 2D planar, 2D
axisymmetrical and 1D cases
We are going to explore postprocessor basic
functions

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 15


Ex. 2: Square tube - Objectives

Creating your own case


Creating a mesh
Specifying initial / boundary conditions
Specifying physical properties values
Solving a steady state problem
Postprocessing with ParaFoam: integrating
variable / checking mass conservation

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 16


Ex. 2: Square tube Case setup

Solving steady state incompressible


Navier-Stokes equation, in a fourth of a square
pipe

dU p 2

+ U . U = + U
dt

2 cm 20 cm

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 17


Ex. 2: Square tube A new case

Go to your 'run' directory:


run
Copy an existing case:
cp -r
$FOAM_TUTORIALS/incompressible/simpleFoam/pitzDaily/ Ex2
Move to the case directory:
cd Ex2
Open the mesh file:
gedit system/blockMeshDict

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 18


Ex. 2: Square tube A new mesh

A fourth of a square tube with symmetry plane


Points have to be prescribed in order to bluid a
mesh (consider doing a sketch) 5 6 x

Wall 2
7 1
4
Inlet Outlet
y
Symmetry
0 3
26th December 2016 plane Pozzobon Victor 19
Ex. 2: Square tube A new mesh

Beware, the
points are to be Scaling
prescribed in factor
order not to
back cross a line Block division
Do (0 4 7 3) along axis
Points
locations Division grading
4 7

0 3 Points needed to
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor build a block 20
Ex. 2: Square tube A new mesh
Face
Avoid (0 3 4 7) name
4 7

Face
type

0 3 Point sequence
delimiting the
face
Wall
Inlet Outlet

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 21


Ex. 2: Square tube A new mesh

Compile your mesh:


blockMesh
Check its quality:
checkMesh

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 22


Ex. 2: Square tube Turbulence
model and parameters
Choose the turbulence
model. In this case, there
is no turbulence:
gedit constant/turbulenceProperties
Because we disabled the
turbulence, there will
be no need to specify:
epsilon, k, nut and nuTilda
fields:
rm 0/epsilon 0/k 0/nut 0/nuTilda
0/f 0/omega 0/v2

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 23


Ex. 2: Square tube IC / BC

Open initial / boundary conditions files in the


'0' directory:
gedit 0/p
gedit 0/U
Physical field

Physical field unit


[ kg m s K mol A Cd]
Initial condition

Boundary condition
on 'inlet' patch
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 24
Ex. 2: Square tube IC / BC, p

Open initial / boundary


conditions for the pressure
field

Field type, here


scalar

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 25


Ex. 2: Square tube IC / BC, U

Open initial / boundary


conditions for the velocity
field

Field type, here


vector

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 26


Ex. 2: Square tube Setting values

Open transportProperties
file, this is where physical
properties value (e.g.
viscosity) are specified:
gedit constant/transportProperties

Property name
Property dimension
[ kg m s K mol A Cd]
Property value
Subdictionaries for some viscosity laws,
can be removed in our case
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 27
Ex. 2: Square tube Control values

Open case control file:


gedit system/controlDict

Erase the functions and
below

End time = maximum


number of iteration

Constant time step


equals to 1

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 28


Ex. 2: Square tube Control values

In steady state, the maximum number of


iteration is prescribed using endTime. Yet, there
is no variation in time. It is a trick, nothing
more

Data are extracted every


5 iterations

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 29


Ex. 2: Square tube Run the case

The mesh has already been built, so let's run


the case:
simpleFoam
(it should converge in about 20 iterations)
Have a look at the results:
paraFoam

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 30


Ex. 2: Square tube Postprocessing

Check mass conservation:


Filters / Common / Slice
Filters / Data Analysis / Integrate Variables
Check velocity profile:
Filters / Data Analysis / Plot Over Line

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 31


Ex. 3: 1D beam - Objectives

Setting a 1D case
Solving a transient problem
Postprocessing with ParaFOAM: importing
variables (other than p and U)

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 32


Ex. 3: 1D beam Case setup

Solving transient heat conduction in a 1D beam


dT 2
= T
dt Symmetry
planes

Hot side Cold side

20 cm

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 33


Ex. 3: 1D beam Case creation

Reach 'run' directory:


run
Copy an existing heat transfer case:
cp -r $FOAM_TUTORIALS/basic/laplacianFoam/flange Ex3
cd Ex3
Clean the case directory:
rm Allclean Allrun flange.ans
Copy Ex2 mesh:
cp ../Ex2/system/blockMeshDict system/.

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 34


Ex. 3: 1D beam Modifying mesh

Modify file:
gedit system/blockMeshDict
Build mesh:
blockMesh

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 35


Ex. 3: 1D beam IC / BC

Modify temperature file:


gedit 0/T

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 36


Ex. 3: 1D beam Diffusivity

Modify transport property file:


gedit constant/transportProperties

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 37


Ex. 3: 1D beam Control value

Modify control dictionary:


gedit system/controlDict
Run the case:
laplacianFoam
Postprocess the case:
paraFoam

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 38


Ex. 3: 1D beam Postprocessing

Check T, as a 'Volume field' when loading data

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 39


Ex. 4: 2D flat plate - Objectives

Setting a 2D case
Building a 2 block mesh
Changing convergence criterion
Postprocessing with ParaFoam: plotting
streamlines

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 40


Ex. 4: 2D flat plate Case setup

Solving incompressible air flow above a flat


plate, in steady state

dU p 2

+ U . U = + U
dt
30 cm

20 cm

20 cm
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 41
Ex. 4: 2D flat plate Case creation

Reach 'run' directory:


run
Copy an existing case:
cp -r Ex2 Ex4
cd Ex4
Clean the case directory:
foamListTimes -rm
(this command removes time/iteration folders
except the 0 folder)

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 42


Ex. 4: 2D flat plate Mesh

We will create a mesh made of two blocks.



Modify file: gedit system/blockMeshDict
Top

Inlet Outlet

Symmetry
wall
Block 1
Down Plate
Block 2
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 43
Ex. 4: 2D flat plate Creating mesh

Create the two blocks



blockMesh will
merge them

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 44


Ex. 4: 2D flat plate Creating mesh

Set the faces


Build mesh:
blockMesh

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 45


Ex. 4: 2D flat plate IC / BC

Modify velocity file:


gedit 0/U

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 46


Ex. 4: 2D flat plate IC / BC

Modify pressure file:


gedit 0/p

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 47


Ex. 4: 2D flat plate Viscosity

Modify the kinematic viscosity:


gedit constant/transportProperties

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 48


Ex. 4: 2D flat plate Convergence

Modify pressure / velocity convergence criteria:


gedit system/fvSolution
In this case, there are a
lot of options. Some
solvers are much
simpler

Solver
Solved type and
field options
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 49
Ex. 4: 2D flat plate Convergence

Simulations can be stopped automatically once


residues values have been reached
For 2D cases, the unsolved
component of the velocity
vector prevents the solver from
reaching the tolerance most of
time. Therefore, a number of
iterations has to be
prescribed

Residues values
set for convergence
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 50
Ex. 4: 2D flat plate Run the case

The mesh has already been built



The controlDict has not changed from Ex2. The solver
will run for 100 iterations. It is enough to get the
residues below 10-6
gedit system/controlDict
Run the case:
simpleFoam
Have a look at the results:
paraFoam

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 51


Ex. 4: 2D flat plate Postprocessing

Lower the first scene opacity:


'Click on the filter' / Display / Styling / Opacity
Plot the streamline from the inlet:
Filters / Common / Stream Tracer
Set streamlines' sources as a line, not a point:
'Click on stream tracer' / Properties / Seeds / Seed type =>
High resolution line source
Set the line you want using the coordinates

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 52


Ex. 4: 2D flat plate Postprocessing

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 53


Ex. 5: 2D pipe - Objectives

Creating a 2D axisymmetrical mesh


Nothing fancy ...

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 54


Ex. 5: 2D pipe Case setup

Solving incompressible flow in a 2D


axisymmetrical pipe, in steady state

dU p 2

+ U . U = + U
dt 10 cm

1 cm

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 55


Ex. 5: 2D pipe Case creation

Reach 'run' directory:


run
Copy an existing case:
cp -r Ex2 Ex5
Go to the new case directory:
cd Ex5
Clean the case directory:
foamListTimes -rm

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 56


Ex. 5: 2D pipe Mesh

Modify file: gedit system/blockMeshDict

Axis
Outlet

Inlet
5
Front and
Back
Wall
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 57
Ex. 5: 2D pipe Block creation

Draw a wegde,
with a 5 angle
(twice 2.5)
Points 1, 2 and 3 are
not used to build the cos(2.5)
geometry. OpenFOAM
uses them to define sin(2.5)
x, y and z directions :
- point 0 to point 1 = x
- point 1 to point 2 = y
- point 0 to point 4 = z
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 58
Ex. 5: 2D pipe Patches creation

In order to do things
by the book, create
two 'wedge' patches
(here, 'front' and
'back')
It would have worked
with only one, but
checkMesh would have
returned an error

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 59


Ex. 5: 2D pipe IC / BC p

Set pressure boundary /


initial conditions:
gedit 0/p

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 60


Ex. 5: 2D pipe IC / BC U

Set veolicty boundary /


initial conditions:
gedit 0/U

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 61


Ex. 5: 2D pipe Run the case

(As usual now) The mesh has already been built,


the controlDict has not changed from Ex2. As for
Ex4, we have to set the desired number of
iterations:
gedit system/controlDict
So let's run the case:
simpleFoam
Have a look at the results:
paraFoam

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 62


Ex. 5: 2D pipe Postprocessing

E.g. check velocity profile

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 63


Battle plan

We have used two different builtin solvers


(icoFoam, simpleFoam and laplacianFoam)
We have set cases in 3D, 2D planar, 2D
axisymmetrical and 1D configurations
We have learnt how to process data with
Paraview (paraFoam)
We are going to learn how to solve our own
equations and set fancy cases

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 64


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Objectives

Create our own solver


Use basic operators
Create the associated case

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 65


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Case setup

1D tubular reactor with heterogeneous catalysis


on porous media without chemical reaction in
steady state / hydrodynamics only

=0
.U =
U p 2 p=0

Symmetry
planes
Inlet Outlet

100 cm
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 66
Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Solver
directory creation
Reach 'run' directory:
run
Create a solver directory:
mkdir solvers
Copy an existing solver:
cp -r $FOAM_APP/solvers/basic/laplacianFoam solvers/.
Rename the solver directory:
mv solvers/laplacianFoam solvers/tubeFoam

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 67


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Solver
cleaning up
Move to solver directory:
cd solvers/tubeFoam
Clean the directory:
wclean
rm write.H
Rename the file:
mv laplacianFoam.C tubeFoam.C

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 68


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Solver
modification
Modify compilation file:
gedit Make/files
You can specify compilation options:
gedit Make/options
(None need to be applied here)

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 69


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Solver
modification / createFields.H
Modify createFields.H to
create the new fields:
gedit createFields.H

Pressure field
(scalar field)

Velocity field
(vector field)

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 70


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Solver
modification / createFields.H
Modify createFields.H to
read the physical
properties:
gedit createFields.H

Physical property
called 'Mu'

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 71


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Solver
modification / tubeFoam.C
Modify tubeFoam.C
to specify the
equations that will
be solved:
gedit tubeFoam.C
Time loop
Correction loop
(not mandatory)

Solved equations
(implicit '=0')

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 72


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Solver
compilation
Clean the directory and compile:
wclean; wmake
If you get an error, here is what to do:
1. Read the expection message
2. Get error file and line number

Error file
and line number

3. Take care of it

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 73


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Case
creation
Now that the solver has been compiled, let's
create the case we are going to solve. Since it
is a 1D case, copy Ex3 (1D thermal beam) case
directory:
run
cp -r Ex3 Ex6
Go to the case directory, clean it:
cd Ex6
foamListTimes -rm

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 74


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Mesh
creation
Create the mesh:
gedit system
/blockMeshDict

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 75


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor IC / BC

Build the mesh:


blockMesh
Create IC / BC files:
mv 0/T 0/p
cp 0/p 0/U
gedit 0/p 0/U

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 76


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor IC / BC
Pressure field Velocity field
(scalar field) (vector field)

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 77


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Physical
properties
Modify physical properties file:
gedit constant/transportProperties

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 78


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Numerical
schemes
Modify numerical schemes in order to specify a
steady state resolution:
gedit system/fvSchemes

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 79


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Solver
parameters
Modify solver parameters:
gedit system/fvSolution
Specify tolerance on pressure equation
as single iteration stopping criterion

Number of correction
iteration (used for non
orthogonal meshes)

Specify tolerance on pressure equation


as simulation stopping criterion

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 80


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Control
parameters
Modify solver parameters:
gedit system/controlDict
In this case, the solver is
only calculating a Laplacian
operator, Thus, a 10-6 residue
is reached quite fast
(2 iterations)

Changing it is not
mandatory

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 81


Ex. 6: Tubular reactor Run it

Let's run the case:


tubeFoam
Process it:
paraFoam

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 82


Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Objectives

Create our own solver with more complex


equations
Use common operators
Evolving a case

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 83


Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Case setup

1D tubular reactor with chemical reaction, in


transient state A +B=C
dA 2
=v AB
+ .( U A)= D A
dt
dB 2
=0 2
+ .( U B)=D B .U p=0
dt
dC =
U p
2

+ .( U C)=D C + Symmetry
dt planes
Inlet Outlet

100 cm
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 84
Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Solver
directory creation
Reach 'run' directory:
run
Move to solver directory:
cd solvers
Copy the existing solver:
cp -r tubeFoam tubeChemFoam
Move to and clean the directory:
cd tubeChemFoam
wclean

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 85


Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Solver
modification
Rename the file:
mv tubeFoam.C tubeChemFoam.C
Modify compilation file:
gedit Make/files

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 86


Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Solver
modification / createFields.H
Modify createFields.H to create the species fields:
gedit createFields.H

Defined in
the source
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor code 87
Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Solver
modification / createFields.H
Modify createFields.H to
read the physical
properties:
gedit createFields.H

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 88


Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Solver
modification / tubeChemFoam.C
Modify
tubeChemFoam.C
to add species fields:
gedit tubeChemFoam.C

Interpolates the
velocity field on the
mesh in order to
later calculate the
divergence operator

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 89


Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Solver
compilation / Case creation
Clean the directory and compile:
wclean; wmake
Move to cases directory:
run
Copy Ex6 directory:
cp -r Ex6 Ex7
Move to the case directory:
cd Ex7

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 90


Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Case
creation
Clean the directory:
foamListTimes -rm
Build the mesh:
blockMesh

Modify physical
properties:
gedit constant/transportPropeties

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 91


Ex. 7: Tubular reactor IC / BC

Create file for the species fields: A field


cp 0/p 0/A
cp 0/p 0/B
cp 0/p 0/C
Keep the existing files
for pressure and velocity
Modify species files:
gedit 0/A
gedit 0/B
gedit 0/C
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 92
Ex. 7: Tubular reactor IC / BC
B field C field

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 93


Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Numerical
schemes
Set numerical schemes:
gedit system/fvSchemes

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 94


Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Solver
parameters
Add solvers:
gedit system/fvSolution
Due to the use of the
divergence, we need to
use asymmetric solvers
for the species fields

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 95


Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Control
parameters
Add solvers:
gedit system/controlDict
Run the case:
tubeChemFoam
Process it:
paraFoam

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 96


Ex. 7: Tubular reactor Nice pics

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 97


Ex. 8: Heating pipe Objectives

Modify an existing solver


Create a variating boundary condition
Evolve a case

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 98


Ex. 8: Heating pipe Case setup

Solving incompressible flow in a 2D


axisymmetrical pipe with heat transfer , in
steady state
10 cm

1 cm

dU p 2

+ U . U = + U
dt
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 99
Ex. 8: Heating pipe Case setup

Solving incompressible flow in a 2D


axisymmetrical pipe with heat transfer, in
steady state
dT T = .(k T )
Cp + Cp . U
dt

T inlet = 20 C

T surrounding = 80 C
k T . n =h(T T sur )
26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 100
Ex. 8: Heating pipe Solver
creation
Reach 'run' directory:
run
Move to solver directory:
cd solvers

Copy simpleFoam:
cp -r $FOAM_APP/solvers/incompressible/simpleFoam .
mv simpleFoam simpleThermFoam
Move to the new solver directory:
cd simpleThermFoam

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 101


Ex. 8: Heating pipe Solver
creation / modification
Clean the directory:
rm -r porousSimpleFoam/ SRFSimpleFoam/ simpleFoam.dep
Clean the directory:
wclean
Rename simpleFoam:
mv simpleFoam.C simpleThermFoam.C
Change compilation file:
gedit Make/files

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 102


Ex. 8: Heating pipe Solver
modification / createFields.H
Add temperature field
and related physical
properties to createFields.H:
gedit createFields.H

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 103


Ex. 8: Heating pipe Solver
modification / createFields.H
Carry on ...

Loading turbulence
model (we do not
use it in this case)

Add temperature
field

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 104


Ex. 8: Heating pipe Solver
modification / createFields.H
Carry on ...

Loading
transportProperties
dictionary

Loading physical values

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 105


Ex. 8: Heating pipe Solver
modification / simpleThermFoam.C
Modify solver to add temperature equation:
gedit simpleThermFoam.C

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 106


Ex. 8: Heating pipe Solver
compilation / boundary condition
Clean the directory and compile:
wclean; wmake
Move to cases directory:
run
Create a directory to store boundary condition:
mkdir boundaryConditions
Move to this directory:
cd boundaryConditions

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 107


Ex. 8: Heating pipe Create
boundary condition
Copy an existing boundary condition:
cp -r
$FOAM_SRC/finiteVolume/fields/fvPatchFields/derived/tot
alTemperature convectiveHeatFlux
Move to the convectiveHeatFlux directory and
clean it (if need be):
cd convectiveHeatFlux
rm totalTemperatureFvPatchScalarField.dep

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 108


Ex. 8: Heating pipe Modify
boundary condition
Renane the boundary condition files:
mv totalTemperatureFvPatchScalarField.C
convectiveHeatFluxFvPatchScalarField.C
mv totalTemperatureFvPatchScalarField.H
convectiveHeatFluxFvPatchScalarField.H

26th December 2016 Pozzobon Victor 109


Ex. 8: Heating pipe Compilation
rules
Create Make folder:
mkdir Make
Create rule files:
gedit Make/files Make/options

files

options

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Modify
boundary condition .H file
Modify convectiveHeatFluxFvPatchScalarField.H:
gedit convectiveHeatFluxFvPatchScalarField.H

Replace all totalTemperature occurences by
convectiveHeatFlux (consider using ctrl + H)

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Modify
boundary condition .H file

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Modify
boundary condition .H file

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Modify
boundary condition .C file
Modify convectiveHeatFluxFvPatchScalarField.C:
gedit convectiveHeatFluxFvPatchScalarField.C

Replace all totalTemperature occurences by
convectiveHeatFlux (consider using ctrl + H)
Change scalar affection to a gradient
affectation
Set thermal gradient equation

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Modify
boundary condition .C file

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Modify
boundary condition .C file

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Modify
boundary condition .C file

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Modify
boundary condition .C file

Compile the boundary condition:


wclean; wmake OR wclean; wmake libso

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Create case
directory
Move to cases directory:
run
Copy Ex5 directory:
cp -r Ex5 Ex8
Move to the case directory:
cd Ex8

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Create case
directory
Clean the case directory:
foamListTimes -rm
Modify physical properties:
gedit constant/transportPropeties

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe IC / BC

Create temperature field:


cp 0/p 0/T
Edit the field:
gedit 0/T

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Solver

Pick a solver for the temperature field:


gedit system/fvSolution
Deliberately high to
prevent the problem
with the unsolved
component of the
velocity field (cf. Ex 4)

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Schemes

Choose numerical scheme for temperature


divergence:
gedit system/fvSchemes
Keep the default
Laplacian scheme

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Specify library
use
Modify controlDict to specify
the use of convectiveHeatFlux
boundary condition:
gedit system/controlDict
1000 iterations maximum
should be enough
(mine converged after
402 iterations)

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Run the case

Create the mesh:


blockMesh
Run the case:
simpleThermFoam
Open paraFoam:
paraFoam

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Ex. 8: Heating pipe Process the
case
Have a look at the temperature field:

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Objectives

Modify an existing solver


Set a field that depend on another field
Set custom field
Use an existing case as initial condition
We are going to simulate the backing of a cake:
- heating up with chocolate melting (20 min, 180C)
- cooling down with chocolate solidification (1 hour)

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Case setup

2D cake backing, with chocolate phase change


dT 1 dC dLC
Cp = .(k T )+Q Q= ( ) H
dt 2 dt dt
Ea 1
dC RT Ea T T surrounding = 180 C
= A 1 e C + A2 e LC 2

dt k T . n =h(T T sur )
Ea
d LC
1
Ea T
=A 2 e LC + A 1 e RT C
2

dt

Chocolate
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Ex. 9: Cake baking Solver
directory creation
Reach 'run' directory:
run
Move to solver directory:
cd solvers
Copy the existing solver:
cp -r tubeFoam cakeFoam
Move to and clean the directory:
cd cakeFoam
wclean

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Set
compilation rules
Rename tubeFoam:
mv tubeFoam.C cakeFoam.C
Change compilation file:
gedit Make/files

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Modiy
createFields.H
Modify fields and physical properties:
gedit createFields.H

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Modiy
createFields.H

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Modify the
solver
Rename tubeFoam:
gedit cakeFoam.C

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Compile the
solver / create case
Compile the solver:
wclean; wmake
Move to 'run':
run
Create the case directory:
cp -r Ex4 Ex9
Move to the case directory:
cd Ex9

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Prepare case

Clean the case:


foamListTimes -rm
rm 0/U
Create fields files:
cp 0/p 0/C
cp 0/p 0/LC
mv 0/p 0/T

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Create mesh

Boundary name and location:

Top

Left

Down Right
SymmetryWall

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Create mesh

Modify the mesh:


gedit system/blochMeshDict

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Ex. 9: Cake baking IC / BC

Modify the mesh:


gedit 0/T

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Ex. 9: Cake baking IC / BC

Modify the mesh:


gedit 0/C

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Ex. 9: Cake baking IC / BC

Modify the mesh:


gedit 0/LC

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Chocolate

We have to specify the position of every


chocolate chip. In this case, only three pieces
will be set. First, copy an existing dictionary:
cp
$FOAM_TUTORIALS/multiphase/interFoam/ras/damBrea
k/system/setFieldsDict system/.

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Chocolate

Set the chips location


and shape:
gedit system/setFieldsDict

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Set properties
for the heating phase
Set the physical properties for the heating
phase
Chocolate solidification parameter are set to 0:
gedit constant/transportProperties

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Set properties
for the heating phase
Set the case to transient
and specify solver features:
gedit system/fvSchemes
gedit system/fvSolution

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Set control
parameters
The heating phase
lasts 20 min (1800 s):
gedit system/controlDict

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Run the case

Create the mesh:


blockMesh
Set chocolate field:
setFields
Solve the case:
cakeFoam

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Modify the
case
Now that the heating phase has been run,
modify physical properties value:
gedit constant/transportProperties
This time, chocolate melting is disabled and
chocolate solidification is enabled

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Reset control
parameters
The cooling phase
lasts 60 min (3600 s):
gedit system/controlDict

The last iteration will be


used as initialization

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Rerun the
case
Solve the last part of the case:
cakeFoam
Process the case:
paraFoam

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Ex. 9: Cake baking Process the
case

Temperature during the


Chocolate chips cooldown
location

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Ex. 10: Tank filling - Objectives

This case is really basic. Its purpose is only to


discuss topics that were left uncovered
Import a mesh created with an external tool
Run a case in parallel
Exporting an animation

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Case setup

Transient filling of a tank. Initially, it is full of air,


then, we are going to fill it using the two phases
flow solver interFoam
Air outlet

Water inlet

Tank walls

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Ex. 10: Tank filling A new case

Go to your 'run' directory:


run
Copy 'damBreak':
cp -r
$FOAM_TUTORIALS/multiphase/interFoam/laminar/dam
Break/damBreak/ Ex10
Move to the case directory:
cd Ex10

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Importing the
mesh

The mesh is called 'Tank.unv'. It was drawn using
salome. It should have already been provided to
you, if this is not the case, you can find it here:
http://perso.mines-albi.fr/~vpozzobo/dl/Tank.unv
Move the mesh file to the case directory:
mv 'somewhere'/Tank.unv Ex10/.
Import the mesh:
ideasUnvToFoam Tank.unv

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Importing the
mesh
There is no need to build the mesh using
blockMesh, is has already been done when
importing it. Yet, it has to be resized: atmosphere
transformPoints -scale '(0.001 0.001 0.001)'
You can check the
mesh using paraFoam: inlet
paraFoam
fixedWalls

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Ex. 10: Tank filling IC / BC

Modify velocity
boundary conditions
according to the case
setup:
gedit 0/U

Negative because of
axis orientation

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Ex. 10: Tank filling IC / BC

Modify the pressure


boundary conditions:
gedit 0/p_rgh

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Ex. 10: Tank filling IC / BC

Copy the water phase file:


cp 0/alpha.water.org 0/alpha.water

Keep the '.org' file. It is used as a backup in
case you would have modified the initial
condition using setFields

To prevent any problem, move the '.org' file to
the case root
mv 0/alpha.water.org .

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Ex. 10: Tank filling IC / BC

Modify the water


boundary conditions:
gedit 0/alpha.water

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Setting gravity

Modify gravity orientation, so that the tank will


be vertical:
gedit constant/g

Negative because of
axis orientation

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Running
parallel
OpenFOAM runs in parallel using a decomposition of
mesh and fields. You can specify the cut yourself or ask
scotch to do it for you (our call here). As a good rule of
thumb, each processor should at least have 30000 cells
to compute, if you want to see an increase in
computational speed.
Copy the decomposition dictionary from an existing case:
cp
$FOAM_TUTORIALS/multiphase/interDyMFoam/ras/damBreakWithO
bstacle/system/decomposeParDict system/.

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Running
parallel
Modify the decomposition dictionary:
gedit system/decomposeParDict
Once it is done, decompose the case:
decomposePar

Number of processors
that are going to be
used

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Control values

Open case control file:


gedit system/controlDict
The tank takes about 40s to
fill up, which represented a
cpu time of 2 days for me.
So set endTime according to
your liking. I would advice
0.30s. It still requires
30 minutes to run

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Control values

Note that interFoam uses an


adaptive time step

Maximum Courant
number

Maximum time step


(in second)

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Run the case

The mesh has already been built. The case has


been split between processors, so let's run the
case:
mpirun -np 2 interFoam

Number of processors
you want to use (has to
be in agreement with
decomposeParDict)

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Post
processing the case
The case can then be processed. First, create a
new directory to store the pictures that we will
use to build the animation:
mkdir Extraction
Then launch the post processor:
paraFoam

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Postprocessing

Load all the fields, then set opacity of the base


filter to 0.1:
Ex10.OpenFOAM / Style / Opacity

Add a contour filter, on alpha.water field, with a
threshold of 0.1:
Filters / Common / Contour
Change the background color to white:
Edit / View Settings ... / Choose color

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Postprocessing

Set the camera angle to your liking by using the


mouse or the 'Adjust Camera' tool:

Adjust Camera
button

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Postprocessing

Save the individual picture:


File / Save Animation ...
Click 'Save Animation' on the prompted form
(the settings do not matter here)
Pick 'Extraction' folder and choose a name for
the pictures (I chose 'Water')

Now paraFoam is filling 'Extraction' directory with
frames of the animation

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Ex. 10: Tank filling Postprocessing

Close paraFoam and go 'Extraction' folder:


cd Extraction
Create your .gif file:
convert -delay 10 -loop 0 Water.*.png Your.gif

Time between two


frames in milliseconds

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It's over

This tutorial is over, thank you for your attention


I hope you enjoyed it
It was just a brief and partial overview of
OpenFOAM possibilities
Please feel free to contact me:
Victor.pozzobon@centralesupelec.fr

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The extra mile

The open source software, I use to draw and


mesh complex geometries:
SALOME: www.salome-platform.org
Another open source software which can be
used to process high volume results:
VisIt: https://visit.llnl.gov
Where I ask for help:
CFD Online: www.cfd-online.com/Forums/openfoam

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It's over

Again, thank you for your attention.

26th December 2016


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