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Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Coded MIMO-

Constant Envelop Modulation System with IF

sampled 1-bit ADC
Ahmed S. Mubarak1, Amr Amrallah2, Hany S. Hussein3, Ehab M. Mohamed4
Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Aswan University
Aswan, Egypt,,,

Abstract MIMO-Constant Envelop Modulation (CEM) is a However, the MIMO-CEM was used to deal with the
very power and complexity efficient system, which is introduced MIMO-OFDM drawbacks [1]. The key idea of MIMO-CEM
as alternative candidate to the currently used MIMO-Orthogonal is based upon adopting phase (constant envelope) modulation
Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). CEM system enables on the transmitter and 1 bit ADC sampled at Intermediate
to use high efficient nonlinear power amplifier on the transmitter
side and 1 bit (low resolution) analog to digital converter (ADC)
Frequency (IF) at the receiver side. On the MIMO-CEM
on the receiver side. Due to adopting the low resolution at the transmitter side due to CEM a power efficient nonlinear PA
receiver side a great reduction in hardware complexity and can be used, thus a significant power improvement can be
power consumption can be achieved. However, there will be a obtained as compared with OFDM based system. Although an
noticeable degradation on the performance of bit error rate advanced digital signal processing (DSP) techniques on the
(BER) on the receiver side due to sever quantization error receiver side are required to compensate high-nonlinearity
introduced by the low resolution ADC, so a forward error introduced by 1 bit ADC, there will be a great enhancement in
correction coding is essential to enhance the BER. In this paper a hardware complexity and power consumption due to omitting
LDPC coded MIMO-CEM system was used as a replacement for of more than analog stages on the receiver i.e. the Automatic
MIMO-OFDM to deal with the BER degradation problem of the
CEM system. The performance of the LDPC coded MIMO-CEM
Gain Control (AGC). Due to the low complexity of CEM
with Gaussian Minimum Phase Shift Keying (GMSK) system, the employing of more MIMO branches is expected
modulation is evaluated over a multi-path Rayleigh fading than OFDM system [7]-[8] and accordingly a spectral
channel. It showed that LDPC codes are effective to improve the efficiency enhancement will be achieved. On the other hand,
BER performance of CEM on Rayleigh fading channels. there are many challenges still existing to practically use CEM
According to the simulation results, the MIMO-CEM system system due to the application of the IF based 1 bit ADC.
provides a significant improvement in BER performance and Considerable work been done on overcoming the CEM
outperforms the un-coded and the original convolutional coder drawbacks and many efficient techniques for channel
based CEM systems. estimations and equalization have been proposed [9]-[11].
Keywords MIMO; Constant Envelop Modulation; 1 bit ADC,
Moreover, due to the extreme effect of 1 bit ADC on BER
LDPC; Channel Coding;Fading Channel . performance of the system, a proper channel coding
techniques need to be proposed for MIMO-CEM to extremely
I. INTRODUCTION enhance its BER performance.
MIMO-CEM is an efficient and promising alternative Forward Error Correction (FEC) scheme [12] is introduced
candidate to the MIMO-OFDM [1]. One of the main problems to protect the data prior transmission and to increase the
in OFDM based system is the high Peak to Average Power transmitted data rate and. Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC)
Ratio (PAPR) of transmitted signals which causes nonlinear codes are one of the FEC scheme firstly introduced by
distortion so nonlinear power efficient power amplifier (PA) Gallager [13]. LDPC codes rediscovered by Mackay [14] and
like class C cannot be used for OFDM transmission. Instead, considered one of the most powerful error protection codes
linear power inefficient PA should be used like class A and that allow the transmission rate of data close to the theoretical
class A/B [2] and this consequently degrades the power Shannons limit. Moreover, LDPC codes are employed in
efficiency of system. Many efforts have been made so far to many standards i.e. DVB-S2 and also has been included in the
solve this major problem in OFDM systems [3]-[5]. Moreover, IEEE 802.16e mobile WiMAX as an alternative error-
on the OFDM receiver a high resolution ADC must be correcting scheme. Soft, hard or hybrid decision schemes can
adopted [6], which consequently increases the power be adopting for LDPC decoding [15]. Soft decoding
consumption. Therefore, the complexity and the high power algorithms have better performance while require much higher
requirements prevent the design of high branches MIMO- decoding complexity.
OFDM. In this paper, an efficient LDPC based MIMO (SISO)-
CEM is proposed. The proposed system employed LDPC with

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soft decoding algorithm as a channel coder MIMO-CEM sum-product decoding and this happened when representing
system. The BER performance of the proposed LDPC based probability values in form of log likelihood ratios, and then
MIMO-CEM is evaluated under Rayleigh Fading channel using these values for calculations at the bit and check node
scenarios and conditions. The performance of the proposed using both sum and product operations.
system is compared to the performance of the conventional Both of parity and reliability information are needed for
MIMO-CEM in [8] and [9]. LDPC soft decision decoding. Reliability information is
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 considered extra information and requires more bits to be
presents a theoretical background on LDPC codes. Section 3, generated for each message or edge in the Tanner graph.
introduces the proposed LDPC coded MIMO-CEM. Reliability update is performed at check nodes in the same
Simulation results and performance evaluation is presented in time with the parity update to merge the reliability of the other
section 4. Finally, section 5 introduces the conclusions. incoming messages and generate a calculated reliability for
each outgoing message. Actually, this reliability information is
II. LOW-DENISTY PARITY-CHECK (LDPC) considered the log likelihood ratios for each message and the
update operation includes the hyperbolic tangent function
Low density parity check codes belong to linear block
similar to MAP decoding algorithm introduced by Bahl et. al
codes family. Therefore, all the codewords, X, spread all over
[17]. In the hard decision decoder, the same updating
the null space of parity check matrix H:
operation for decoded value and the message values at each
node is done as in soft decoder. The change is in the reliability
values of the received bit and the messages are considered as a
scaling value for their associated weighting in a majority
The (H) matrix for LDPC codes is a binary spares matrix
function or adder.
which every group of row and column elements are selected to
achieve a desired weight characteristic. Moreover, the
elements group in the graph are restricted to minimize the III. THE PROPOSED LDPC CODED MIMO-CEM SYSTEM
overlapping of rows and columns. These restrictions in
constructing the parity check matrix (H) lead to a robust code The block diagram of the LDPC coded 2x2 MIMO-CEM
in addition to have efficient algorithms for decoding. For transceiver is shown in Fig. 1. In the transmitter side the input
encoding block of bits, N, there will be redundant parity bits, binary data from the source is encoded using the LDPC
M, so that the code rate can be calculated by: channel encoder in order to improve the BER performance
especially with the existence of 1 bit ADC. The encoded data
   is then interleaved to disperse a large burst of errors over the
fading channel. The interleaved data is then split into number
The major difference between the traditional block codes of streams equal to the number of transmitted antennas. After
and LDPC codes is in the decoding process. Traditional block that a differential encoding followed by a Gaussian Minimum
codes are decoded with Maximum Likelihood decoding Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation are applied to data streams
algorithms. So, they are usually short and designed to construct a constant envelop phase (CEM) modulated
mathematically to simplify this process. On the other hand, signals. These signals are transmitted over MIMO Rayleigh
LDPC codes are decoded iteratively using a graphical multipath fading channel.
representation of their parity check matrix. So they are At the received side an analog BPF is used in the IF band to
designed according to the parity check matrix characteristics. improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) the received signal.
The group of decoding algorithms used in decoding LDPC After that the signal is converted into the digital domain using
codes are together called message passing algorithms [16]. IF sampling 1 bit ADC. Then the received signal is digitally
The operation can be explained by using the Tanner graph. converted into baseband (IF-BB) and filtered using low pass
When messages passing along edges of a Tanner graph, each filter (LPF). Then the nonlinear quantization error due to 1 bit
Tanner graph node works in isolation, so only edges ADC will be compensated using maximum likelihood
connected to message have access to the information sequence estimation (MLSE). Finally the MLSE output is
contained in it. Iterative decoding algorithms also considered softly decoded using sum-product algorithm (SPA) decoder to
another name for the message passing algorithms as the generate the decoded output binary bit stream.
messages pass back and forward between the bit and check As shown in Fig.1, due to using the 1 bit ADC at the IF
nodes through iterations until a desired result is achieved or band in the receiver the analog processing is mostly eliminated
the process is stopped. Different message passing algorithms and consequently the system complexity is significantly
are classified according to the type of messages passed or decreased.
according to the type of operation performed at the nodes. In
some decoding algorithms, such as bit-flipping decoding, the IV. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
messages are binary and in other algorithms, such as belief A. Simulation parameters
propagation decoding, the messages are probabilities which
In this part, the performance evaluation of the proposed
represent a level of belief about the actual value of the LDPC based SISO (MIMO) CEM system is presented under
codeword bits. Belief propagation decoding is usually called the simulation parameters listed in Table I.

2 2016 Fourth International Japan-Egypt Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (JEC-ECC)
Fig.1 The block diagram of the proposed LDPC coded 2x2 MIMO-CEM system

system achieves a coding gain of about 1 dB over the soft

TABLE I. SIMULATION PARAMETERS Viterbi decoding original system and about 6 dB over the hard
Parameters Values decoding based one. Also from these figures, it is observed
GMSK-Normalized 3 dB-bandwidth of that as the BT value decreases the BER performance is
Gaussian filter: with BT=0.3 and 1. degraded because ISI is increased.
ADC Sampling rate: 16 with: 1 bit ADC.
LDPC Encoder: Rate=1/2, Codword
Proposed length =384.
CEM Decoder: SPA soft decoder,
Channel Iterations=20.
Convolutional Encoder: Rate=1/2,
constraint length=7.
Decoder: Soft and Hard Viterbi decoder.
SISO model: Rayleigh fading channel, 7-
MIMO model: 4-path Rayleigh fading
Fading channel
channel, 4-path.
Fig. 2: The BER performances of the proposed and original SISO-
RMS delay spread of t=
CEM system with BT=.3
: Symbol duration.

B. Performance of the proposed LDPC based SISO-CEM


The BER performance of the proposed GMSK LDPC

based SISO-CEM is evaluated under Rayleigh fading channel
and GMSK modulation for BT=1 and BT=0.3. The input
random binary data was protected by the LDPC scheme and
transmitted over the fading channel.
The quality of reception is measured by observing BER
Fig. 4: The BER performances of the proposed and original SISO-
over a set of Eb/N0 values. For the purpose, comparison the
CEM system with BT=0.1
performance of the proposed system is compared to the
performance of the convolutional code based original CEM
system [10] and [11].
Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 show the BER performance of the
proposed system as a function of Eb/N0 for BT=0.3 and BT=1,
respectively. The BER performance in case of uncoded and
original SISO-CEM systems is also shown. As can be
observed from the figures the BER performance of the
proposed LDPC coded system outperforms the uncoded and
the original convolutional based CEM systems.
For example in Fig. 2 with BT=0.3 it can be seen that the
zero error decoding becomes possible with the LDPC based
system after an Eb/N0 of 12 dB, which is about 2 dB less than Fig. 4: The BER performances of the proposed and original
the original one based on soft Viterbi decoding. Also with MIMO-CEM system with BT=0.3
BT=1 Fig. 3 shows that for a target BER of the proposed

2016 Fourth International Japan-Egypt Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (JEC-ECC) 3
trading off between the BER performance and the complexity
will be needed.

This work is sponsored by Egyptian Science and
Technology Development Funds (STDF) under STDF project
# 5147. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or
recommendations expressed in this material are those of the
author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the
funding agencies.
Fig. 5: BER performance of the proposed and original MIMO- References
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