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d1 125 kN B

d2 PROBLEM 1.1

C

A

Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are

60 kN welded together at B and loaded as shown.

Knowing that d1 30 mm and d 2 50 mm,

125 kN

find the average normal stress at the

0.9 m 1.2 m midsection of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC.

SOLUTION

Area: A d12 (30 103 ) 2 706.86 106 m 2

4 4

P 60 103

Normal stress: AB 84.882 106 Pa AB 84.9 MPa

A 706.86 106

(b) Rod BC:

Area: A d 22 (50 103 )2 1.96350 103 m 2

4 4

P 190 103

Normal stress: BC 96.766 106 Pa

A 1.96350 103

BC 96.8 MPa

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

3

d1 125 kN B

d2 PROBLEM 1.2

C

A

Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are

60 kN

welded together at B and loaded as shown.

Knowing that the average normal stress must

125 kN not exceed 150 MPa in either rod, determine

the smallest allowable values of the diameters

0.9 m 1.2 m

d1 and d2.

SOLUTION

Force: P 60 103 N

Stress: AB 150 106 Pa

2

Area: A d1

4

P P

AB A

A AB

P

d12

4 AB

4P (4)(60 103 )

d12 509.30 106 m 2

AB (150 106 )

d1 22.568 103 m d1 22.6 mm

(b) Rod BC:

Stress: BC 150 106 Pa

2

Area: A d2

4

P 4P

BC

A d 22

4P (4)(190 103 )

d 22 1.61277 103 m 2

BC (150 106 )

d 2 40.159 103 m d 2 40.2 mm

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

4

PROBLEM 1.3

A

Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as

shown. Knowing that P = 10 kips, find the average normal stress at the

30 in. midsection of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC.

1.25 in.

12 kips

25 in.

0.75 in.

SOLUTION

P 12 10 22 kips

A d12 (1.25) 2 1.22718 in 2

4 4

P 22

AB 17.927 ksi AB 17.93 ksi

A 1.22718

(b) Rod BC:

P 10 kips

A d 22

(0.75)2 0.44179 in 2

4 4

P 10

AB 22.635 ksi AB 22.6 ksi

A 0.44179

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

5

PROBLEM 1.4

A

Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as

shown. Determine the magnitude of the force P for which the tensile stresses in

30 in. rods AB and BC are equal.

1.25 in.

12 kips

25 in.

0.75 in.

SOLUTION

P P 12 kips

d2

A (1.25 in.)2

4 4

A 1.22718 in 2

P 12 kips

AB

1.22718 in 2

(b) Rod BC:

P P

A d2 (0.75 in.)2

4 4

A 0.44179 in 2

P

BC

0.44179 in 2

AB BC

P 12 kips P

2

1.22718 in 0.44179 in 2

5.3015 0.78539 P P 6.75 kips

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on a website, in whole or part.

6

1200 N PROBLEM 1.5

A strain gage located at C on the surface of bone AB indicates that the average normal stress

A in the bone is 3.80 MPa when the bone is subjected to two 1200-N forces as shown.

Assuming the cross section of the bone at C to be annular and knowing that its outer diameter

is 25 mm, determine the inner diameter of the bones cross section at C.

1200 N

SOLUTION

P P

A

A

Geometry: A (d12 d 22 )

4

4A 4P

d 22 d12 d12

(4)(1200)

d 22 (25 103 )2

(3.80 106 )

222.92 106 m 2

d 2 14.93 103 m d 2 14.93 mm

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on a website, in whole or part.

7

A PROBLEM 1.6

a

Two brass rods AB and BC, each of uniform diameter, will be brazed together

15 mm at B to form a nonuniform rod of total length 100 m, which will be suspended

B from a support at A as shown. Knowing that the density of brass is 8470 kg/m3,

determine (a) the length of rod AB for which the maximum normal stress in

100 m ABC is minimum, (b) the corresponding value of the maximum normal stress.

b

10 mm

SOLUTION

Areas: AAB (15 mm) 2 176.715 mm 2 176.715 106 m 2

4

ABC (10 mm)2 78.54 mm 2 78.54 106 m 2

4

From geometry, b 100 a

Weights: WAB g AAB AB (8470)(9.81)(176.715 106 ) a 14.683 a

WBC g ABC BC (8470)(9.81)(78.54 106 )(100 a) 652.59 6.526 a

Normal stresses:

At A, PA WAB WBC 652.59 8.157a (1)

PA

A 3.6930 106 46.160 103a

AAB

At B, PB WBC 652.59 6.526a (2)

PB

B 8.3090 106 83.090 103a

ABC

(a) Length of rod AB. The maximum stress in ABC is minimum when A B or

a 35.71 m AB a 35.7 m

B 8.3090 106 (83.090 103 )(35.71)

A B 5.34 106 Pa 5.34 MPa

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8

PROBLEM 1.7

0.4 m

C Each of the four vertical links has an 8 36-mm uniform rectangular

0.25 m cross section and each of the four pins has a 16-mm diameter. Determine

0.2 m the maximum value of the average normal stress in the links connecting

B (a) points B and D, (b) points C and E.

20 kN E

D

A

SOLUTION

FBD 32.5 103 N Link BD is in tension.

3

M B 0 : (0.040) FCE (0.025)(20 10 ) 0

FCE 12.5 103 N Link CE is in compression.

Net area of one link for tension (0.008)(0.036 0.016) 160 106 m 2

FBD 32.5 103

(a) BD 6

101.563 106 BD 101.6 MPa

Anet 320 10

Area for one link in compression (0.008)(0.036) 288 106 m 2

FCE 12.5 103

(b) CE 6

21.701 106 CE 21.7 MPa

A 576 10

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on a website, in whole or part.

9

PROBLEM 1.8

B 2 in.

1

Link AC has a uniform rectangular cross section 8

in. thick and 1 in. wide.

12 in.

Determine the normal stress in the central portion of the link.

120 lb

4 in. 120 lb

A

30 C

10 in. 8 in.

SOLUTION

Use the plate together with two pulleys as a free body. Note that the cable tension causes at 1200 lb-in.

clockwise couple to act on the body.

M B 0: (12 4)( FAC cos 30) (10)( FAC sin 30) 1200 lb 0

1200 lb

FAC 135.500 lb

16 cos 30 10 sin 30

1

Area of link AC: in. 0.125 in 2

A 1 in.

8

F 135.50

Stress in link AC: AC AC 1084 psi 1.084 ksi

A 0.125

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on a website, in whole or part.

10

0.100 m

PROBLEM 1.9

E

P P P Three forces, each of magnitude P 4 kN, are applied to the mechanism

shown. Determine the cross-sectional area of the uniform portion of rod

D BE for which the normal stress in that portion is 100 MPa.

A B C

SOLUTION

C 0.6 P

Free Body AC: M A 0: 0.150 FBE 0.350 P 0.450 P 0.450C 0

1.07

FBE P 7.1333 P (7.133)(4 kN) 28.533 kN

0.150

FBE

Required area of BE: BE

ABE

FBE 28.533 103

ABE 285.33 106 m 2

BE 100 106

ABE 285 mm 2

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on a website, in whole or part.

11

4 kips PROBLEM 1.10

C

u

in.

6 Link BD consists of a single bar 1 in. wide and

1

2

in. thick. Knowing that each pin has a 83 -in.

B

diameter, determine the maximum value of the

.

12 in average normal stress in link BD if (a) = 0,

(b) = 90.

A 308

D

SOLUTION

(a) 0.

M A 0: (18 sin 30)(4) (12 cos30) FBD 0

FBD 3.4641 kips (tension)

3 1

Area for tension loading: A (b d )t 1 0.31250 in 2

8 2

F 3.4641 kips

Stress: BD 11.09 ksi

A 0.31250 in 2

(b) 90.

M A 0: (18 cos30)(4) (12 cos 30) FBD 0

FBD 6 kips i.e. compression.

1

Area for compression loading: A bt (1) 0.5 in 2

2

F 6 kips

Stress: BD 12.00 ksi

A 0.5 in 2

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on a website, in whole or part.

12

B D F PROBLEM 1.11

12 ft

For the Pratt bridge truss and loading shown, determine the

average normal stress in member BE, knowing that the cross-

A

H sectional area of that member is 5.87 in2.

C E G

9 ft 9 ft 9 ft 9 ft

SOLUTION

M H 0: (9)(80) (18)(80) (27)(80) 36 Ay 0

Ay 120 kips

BD, BE, and CE.

12

Fy 0: 120 80 FBE 0 FBE 50 kips

15

FBE 50 kips

BE

A 5.87 in 2

BE 8.52 ksi

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on a website, in whole or part.

13

45 in. 30 in.

PROBLEM 1.12

A

B C

The frame shown consists of four wooden members, ABC,

480 lb

DEF, BE, and CF. Knowing that each member has a 2 4-in.

4 in. 4 in.

rectangular cross section and that each pin has a 12 -in.

40 in. diameter, determine the maximum value of the average

normal stress (a) in member BE, (b) in member CF.

E F

D 15 in. 30 in.

SOLUTION

Using entire frame as free body,

M A 0: 40Dx (45 30)(480) 0

Dx 900 lb

Use member DEF as free body.

Reaction at D must be parallel to FBE and FCF .

4

Dy Dx 1200 lb

3

4

M F 0: (30) FBE (30 15) DY 0

5

FBE 2250 lb

4

M E 0: (30) FCE (15) DY 0

5

FCE 750 lb

Stress in compression member BE:

Area: A 2 in. 4 in. 8 in 2

FBE 2250

(a) BE BE 281 psi

A 8

Minimum section area occurs at pin.

FCF 750

Stress in tension member CF: (b) CF CF 107.1 psi

Amin 7.0

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14

Dimensions in mm PROBLEM 1.13

1150 D

100 An aircraft tow bar is positioned by means of a single

G C 450 hydraulic cylinder connected by a 25-mm-diameter steel

A B rod to two identical arm-and-wheel units DEF. The mass

F

E 250 of the entire tow bar is 200 kg, and its center of gravity

is located at G. For the position shown, determine the

850 500 675 825 normal stress in the rod.

SOLUTION

M A 0: 850R 1150(1962.00 N) 0

R 2654.5 N

FREE BODY BOTH ARM & WHEEL UNITS:

100

tan 8.4270

675

M E 0: ( FCD cos )(550) R(500) 0

500

FCD (2654.5 N)

550 cos 8.4270

2439.5 N (comp.)

FCD 2439.5 N

CD

ACD (0.0125 m)2

4.9697 106 Pa CD 4.97 MPa

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on a website, in whole or part.

15

150 mm PROBLEM 1.14

800 N

300 mm 600 mm

A C Two hydraulic cylinders are used to control the position

B

of the robotic arm ABC. Knowing that the control rods

attached at A and D each have a 20-mm diameter and

400 mm D happen to be parallel in the position shown, determine the

average normal stress in (a) member AE, (b) member DG.

E F G

150 mm 200 mm

SOLUTION

4

M B 0: (0.150) FAE (0.600)(800) 0

5

FAE 4 103 N

Area of rod in member AE is A d2 (20 103 ) 2 314.16 106 m 2

4 4

FAE 4 103

Stress in rod AE: AE 6

12.7324 106 Pa

A 314.16 10

(a) AE 12.73 MPa

Use combined members ABC and BFD as free body.

4 4

M F 0: (0.150) FAE (0.200) FDG (1.050 0.350)(800) 0

5 5

FDG 1500 N

Area of rod DG: A d2 (20 103 ) 2 314.16 106 m 2

4 4

FDG 1500

Stress in rod DG: DG 4.7746 106 Pa

A 3.1416 106

(b) DG 4.77 MPa

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on a website, in whole or part.

16

PROBLEM 1.15

Determine the diameter of the largest circular hole that can be punched into a sheet of polystyrene 6 mm

thick, knowing that the force exerted by the punch is 45 kN and that a 55-MPa average shearing stress is

required to cause the material to fail.

SOLUTION

P P

Shearing stress: or A

A

P

Therefore, dt

P

Finally, d

t

45 103 N

(0.006 m)(55 106 Pa)

43.406 103 m

d 43.4 mm

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on a website, in whole or part.

17

5

8

in. PROBLEM 1.16

5

8

in.

Two wooden planks, each 12 in. thick and 9 in.

wide, are joined by the dry mortise joint shown.

1 in. 2 in. Knowing that the wood used shears off along its

P' P

2 in. 1 in. 9 in. grain when the average shearing stress reaches

1.20 ksi, determine the magnitude P of the axial

load that will cause the joint to fail.

SOLUTION

Six areas must be sheared off when the joint fails. Each of these areas has dimensions 5

8

in. 1

2

in., its area

being

5 1 5 2

A in 0.3125 in 2

8 2 16

At failure, the force carried by each area is

Since there are six failure areas,

P 6 F (6)(0.375) P 2.25 kips

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on a website, in whole or part.

18

0.6 in. PROBLEM 1.17

P' P When the force P reached 1600 lb, the wooden specimen shown failed

in shear along the surface indicated by the dashed line. Determine the

average shearing stress along that surface at the time of failure.

Steel 3 in. Wood

SOLUTION

Force: P 1600 lb

P 1600 lb

Shearing stress: 2

8.8889 102 psi 889 psi

A 1.8 in

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on a website, in whole or part.

19

40 mm PROBLEM 1.18

10 mm

A load P is applied to a steel rod supported as shown by an aluminum

8 mm

plate into which a 12-mm-diameter hole has been drilled. Knowing that

12 mm the shearing stress must not exceed 180 MPa in the steel rod and 70 MPa

in the aluminum plate, determine the largest load P that can be applied to

the rod.

P

SOLUTION

376.99 106 m 2

P

1 P A11 (376.99 106 m 2 )(180 106 Pa)

A

67.858 103 N

For aluminum: A2 dt (0.040 m)(0.008 m) 1.00531 103 m 2

P

2 P A2 2 (1.00531 103 m 2 )(70 106 Pa) 70.372 103 N

A2

Limiting value of P is the smaller value, so P 67.9 kN

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on a website, in whole or part.

20

PROBLEM 1.19

L The axial force in the column supporting the timber beam shown is

P 20 kips. Determine the smallest allowable length L of the bearing

plate if the bearing stress in the timber is not to exceed 400 psi.

6 in.

SOLUTION

Bearing area: Ab Lw

P P

b

Ab Lw

P 20 103 lb

L 8.33 in. L 8.33 in.

b w (400 psi)(6 in.)

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on a website, in whole or part.

21

PROBLEM 1.20

12 mm Three wooden planks are fastened together by a series of bolts to form

d

of each washer is 16 mm, which is slightly larger than the diameter of

the holes in the planks. Determine the smallest allowable outer

diameter d of the washers, knowing that the average normal stress in

the bolts is 36 MPa and that the bearing stress between the washers

and the planks must not exceed 8.5 MPa.

SOLUTION

d2 (0.012 m)2

Bolt: ABolt 1.13097 104 m 2

4 4

P

Tensile force in bolt: P A

A

(36 106 Pa)(1.13097 104 m 2 )

4.0715 103 N

Bearing area for washer: Aw

4

d 2

o di2

P

and Aw

BRG

Therefore, equating the two expressions for Aw gives

4

d 2

o

di2

P

BRG

4P

d o2 di2

BRG

4 (4.0715 103 N)

d o2 (0.016 m) 2

(8.5 106 Pa)

d o2 8.6588 104 m 2

d o 29.426 103 m

d o 29.4 mm

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22

P 5 40 kN PROBLEM 1.21

120 mm 100 mm

A 40-kN axial load is applied to a short wooden post that is

supported by a concrete footing resting on undisturbed soil.

Determine (a) the maximum bearing stress on the concrete

footing, (b) the size of the footing for which the average bearing

stress in the soil is 145 kPa.

b b

SOLUTION

P 40 kN 40 103 N

A (100)(120) 12 103 mm 2 12 103 m 2

P 40 103

3.3333 106 Pa 3.33 MPa

A 12 103

(b) Footing area. P 40 103 N 145 kPa 45 103 Pa

P P 40 103

A 0.27586 m 2

A 145 10 3

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23

PROBLEM 1.22

a P a

An axial load P is supported by a short W8 40 column of cross-

sectional area A 11.7 in 2 and is distributed to a concrete foundation

by a square plate as shown. Knowing that the average normal stress in

the column must not exceed 30 ksi and that the bearing stress on the

concrete foundation must not exceed 3.0 ksi, determine the side a of

the plate that will provide the most economical and safe design.

SOLUTION

P

For the column, or

A

P A (30)(11.7) 351 kips

P 351

A 117 in 2

3.0

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on a website, in whole or part.

24

PROBLEM 1.23

Link AB, of width b = 2 in. and thickness t = 14 in., is used to support the end of a

A

horizontal beam. Knowing that the average normal stress in the link is 20 ksi and

that the average shearing stress in each of the two pins is 12 ksi, determine (a) the

d diameter d of the pins, (b) the average bearing stress in the link.

b t

B

d

SOLUTION

Rod AB is in compression.

1

A bt where b 2 in. and t in.

4

1

P A (20)(2) 10 kips

4

P

Pin: P

AP

and AP d2

4

4 AP 4P (4)(10)

(a) d 1.03006 in.

P (12)

d 1.030 in.

P 10

(b) b 38.833 ksi

dt (1.03006)(0.25)

b 38.8 ksi

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on a website, in whole or part.

25

P PROBLEM 1.24

750 mm

60, knowing that the average shearing stress in the 10-mm-

diameter pin at B must not exceed 120 MPa and that the average

750 mm bearing stress in member AB and in the bracket at B must not

50 mm

exceed 90 MPa.

B

C

12 mm

SOLUTION

P FAB FAC

sin 30 sin 120 sin 30

FAB sin 30

P 0.57735FAB

sin 120

FAC sin 30

P FAC

sin 30

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on a website, in whole or part.

26

PROBLEM 1.24 (Continued)

A d2 (0.010) 2 78.54 106 m 2

4 4

FAB 2 A (2)(78.54 106 )(120 106 ) 18.850 103 N

If bearing stress in member AB at bracket at A is critical,

Ab td (0.016)(0.010) 160 106 m 2

FAB Ab b (160 106 )(90 106 ) 14.40 103 N

If bearing stress in the bracket at B is critical,

Ab 2td (2)(0.012)(0.010) 240 106 m 2

FAB Ab b (240 106 )(90 106 ) 21.6 103 N

Allowable FAB is the smallest, i.e., 14.40 103 N

8.31 103 N 8.31 kN

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on a website, in whole or part.

27

P PROBLEM 1.25

750 mm

allowable diameter of the pin at B if the average shearing stress in

the pin is not to exceed 120 MPa, (b) the corresponding average

750 mm bearing stress in member AB at B, (c) the corresponding average

50 mm

bearing stress in each of the support brackets at B.

B

C

12 mm

SOLUTION

P FAB FAC

sin 20 sin110 sin 50

P sin110

FAB

sin 20

(9)sin110

24.727 kN

sin 20

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on a website, in whole or part.

28

PROBLEM 1.25 (Continued)

FAB F 2FAB

AB 2 2

where FAB 24.727 103 N

2 AP 24d d

d2 131.181 106 m 2

(120 106 )

d 11.4534 103 m 11.45 mm

(b) Bearing stress in AB at A.

Ab td (0.016)(11.4534 103 ) 183.254 106 m 2

FAB 24.727 103

b 134.933 106 Pa 134.9 MPa

Ab 183.254 106

(c) Bearing stress in support brackets at B.

A td (0.012)(11.4534 103 ) 137.441 106 m 2

1 FAB (0.5)(24.727 103 )

b 2

89.955 106 Pa 90.0 MPa

A 137.441 106

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on a website, in whole or part.

29

100 mm 175 mm PROBLEM 1.26

D

The hydraulic cylinder CF, which partially controls the position of rod

u

B 208

DE, has been locked in the position shown. Member BD is 15 mm

C

E thick and is connected at C to the vertical rod by a 9-mm-diameter

bolt. Knowing that P 2 kN and 75, determine (a) the average

200 mm shearing stress in the bolt, (b) the bearing stress at C in member BD.

P

A

F

45 mm

SOLUTION

40 9

M c 0: FAB (100 cos 20) FAB (100 sin 20)

41 4

(2 kN) cos 75(175sin 20) (2 kN)sin 75(175cos 20) 0

100

FAB (40 cos 20 9sin 20) (2 kN)(175)sin(75 20)

41

FAB 4.1424 kN

9

Fx 0: C x (4.1424 kN) (2 kN) cos 75 0

41

C x 0.39167 kN

40

Fy 0: C y (4.1424 kN) (2 kN)sin 75 0

41

C y 5.9732 kN

C 5.9860 kN 86.2

C 5.9860 103 N

(a) ave 94.1 106 Pa 94.1 MPa

A (0.0045 m) 2

C 5.9860 103 N

(b) b 44.3 106 Pa 44.3 MPa

td (0.015 m)(0.009 m)

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30

PROBLEM 1.27

0.4 m

C For the assembly and loading of Prob. 1.7, determine (a) the average

0.25 m shearing stress in the pin at B, (b) the average bearing stress at B in

0.2 m member BD, (c) the average bearing stress at B in member ABC,

B knowing that this member has a 10 50-mm uniform rectangular cross

section.

20 kN E

D

PROBLEM 1.7 Each of the four vertical links has an 8 36-mm

A

uniform rectangular cross section and each of the four pins has a 16-mm

diameter. Determine the maximum value of the average normal stress in

the links connecting (a) points B and D, (b) points C and E.

SOLUTION

FBD 32.5 103 N

FBD

(a) Shear pin at B. for double shear

2A

where A d2 (0.016) 2 201.06 10 6 m 2

4 4

32.5 103

80.822 106 Pa 80.8 MPa

(2)(201.06 106 )

1 FBD (0.5)(32.5 103 )

b 2

6

126.95 106 Pa b 127.0 MPa

A 128 10

(c) Bearing in ABC at B. A dt (0.016)(0.010) 160 106 m 2

b 6

203.12 106 Pa b 203 MPa

A 160 10

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31

PROBLEM 1.28

position of the forks of a fork-lift truck. The load supported by the one

12 in.

system shown is 1500 lb. Knowing that the thickness of member BD is

5

C

12 in. 8

in., determine (a) the average shearing stress in the 12 -in.-diameter

pin at B, (b) the bearing stress at B in member BD.

D E 1500 lb

15 in.

SOLUTION

M B 0: 24 E (20)(1500) 0

E 1250 lb

Fx 0: E Bx 0

Bx E

Bx 1250 lb

Fy 0: By 1500 0 By 1500 lb

2

2 1 2

Apin d pin 0.196350 in

4 4 2

B 1952.56

9.94 103 psi 9.94 ksi

Apin 0.196350

(b) Bearing stress at B.

B 1952.56

6.25 103 psi 6.25 ksi

dt 12 85

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32

P' PROBLEM 1.29

150 mm

Two wooden members of uniform rectangular cross section are joined

by the simple glued scarf splice shown. Knowing that P 11 kN,

45

45 determine the normal and shearing stresses in the glued splice.

P

75 mm

SOLUTION

90 45 45

P 11 kN 11 103 N

A0 (150)(75) 11.25 103 mm 2 11.25 103 m 2

P cos 2 (11 103 ) cos 2 45

489 103 Pa 489 kPa

A0 11.25 103

P sin 2 (11 103 )(sin 90)

489 103 Pa 489 kPa

2 A0 (2)(11.25 103 )

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33

P' PROBLEM 1.30

150 mm

Two wooden members of uniform rectangular cross section are joined

by the simple glued scarf splice shown. Knowing that the maximum

45

45 allowable shearing stress in the glued splice is 620 kPa, determine

P

(a) the largest load P that can be safely applied, (b) the corresponding

75 mm

tensile stress in the splice.

SOLUTION

90 45 45

A0 (150)(75) 11.25 103 mm 2 11.25 103 m 2

620 kPa 620 103 Pa

P sin 2

2 A0

(a) P

sin2 sin 90

13.95 103 N P 13.95 kN

(b)

A0 11.25 103

620 103 Pa 620 kPa

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34

P PROBLEM 1.31

5.0 in.

3.0 in. The 1.4-kip load P is supported by two wooden members of uniform cross section

that are joined by the simple glued scarf splice shown. Determine the normal and

shearing stresses in the glued splice.

608

P'

SOLUTION

P 1400 lb 90 60 30

A0 (5.0)(3.0) 15 in 2

P cos 2 (1400)(cos30) 2

70.0 psi

A0 15

P sin 2 (1400)sin 60

40.4 psi

2 A0 (2)(15)

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35

P PROBLEM 1.32

5.0

3.0 in. Two wooden members of uniform cross section are joined by the simple scarf splice

shown. Knowing that the maximum allowable tensile stress in the glued splice is 75 psi,

determine (a) the largest load P that can be safely supported, (b) the corresponding

shearing stress in the splice.

608

P'

SOLUTION

A0 (5.0)(3.0) 15 in 2

90 60 30

P cos 2

A0

A0 (75)(15)

(a) P 1500 lb P 1.500 kips

cos

2

cos 2 30

P sin 2 (1500)sin 60

(b) 43.3 psi

2 A0 (2)(15)

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36

P PROBLEM 1.33

A centric load P is applied to the granite block shown. Knowing that the

resulting maximum value of the shearing stress in the block is 2.5 ksi, determine

(a) the magnitude of P, (b) the orientation of the surface on which the maximum

shearing stress occurs, (c) the normal stress exerted on that surface, (d ) the

maximum value of the normal stress in the block.

6 in.

6 in.

SOLUTION

A0 (6)(6) 36 in 2

max 2.5 ksi

45 for plane of max

| P|

(a) max | P | 2 A0 max (2)(36)(2.5) P 180.0 kips

2 A0

(b) sin 2 1 2 90 45.0

P P 180

(c) 45 cos 2 45 45 2.50 ksi

A0 2 A0 (2)(36)

P 180

(d ) max max 5.00 ksi

A0 36

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37

P PROBLEM 1.34

A 240-kip load P is applied to the granite block shown. Determine the resulting

maximum value of (a) the normal stress, (b) the shearing stress. Specify the

orientation of the plane on which each of these maximum values occurs.

6 in.

6 in.

SOLUTION

A0 (6)(6) 36 in 2

P 240

cos 2 cos 2 6.67 cos 2

A0 36

(a) max tensile stress 0 at 90.0

max. compressive stress 6.67 ksi at 0

P 240

(b) max

2 A0 (2)(36)

max 3.33 ksi

at 45

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38

P PROBLEM 1.35

10 mm

plate by welding along a helix that forms an angle of 20 with a plane

perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Knowing that a 300-kN axial

force P is applied to the pipe, determine the normal and shearing

stresses in directions respectively normal and tangential to the weld.

Weld

208

SOLUTION

d o 0.400 m

1

ro d o 0.200 m

2

ri ro t 0.200 0.010 0.190 m

Ao (ro2 ri2 ) (0.2002 0.1902 )

12.2522 103 m 2

20

P 300 103 cos 2 20

cos 2 21.621 106 Pa 21.6 MPa

Ao 12.2522 103

P 300 103 sin 40

sin 2 7.8695 106 Pa 7.87 MPa

2 A0 (2)(12.2522 103 )

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39

P PROBLEM 1.36

10 mm

thick plate by welding along a helix that forms an angle of 20 with a

plane perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Knowing that the

maximum allowable normal and shearing stresses in the directions

respectively normal and tangential to the weld are 60 MPa and

Weld 36 MPa, determine the magnitude P of the largest axial force that

208 can be applied to the pipe.

SOLUTION

d o 0.400 m

1

ro d o 0.200 m

2

ri ro t 0.200 0.010 0.190 m

Ao (ro2 ri2 ) (0.2002 0.1902 )

12.2522 103 m 2

20

P

Based on | | 60 MPa: cos 2

A0

P 832.52 103 N

cos 2 cos 2 20

P

Based on | | 30 MPa: sin 2

2 Ao

2 Ao (2)(12.2522 103 )(36 106 )

P 1372.39 103 N

sin 2 sin 40

Smaller value is the allowable value of P. P 833 kN

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40

Q PROBLEM 1.37

12 in. 12 in.

E A steel loop ABCD of length 5 ft and of 83 -in. diameter is placed as

B shown around a 1-in.-diameter aluminum rod AC. Cables BE and DF,

each of 12 -in. diameter, are used to apply the load Q. Knowing that the

9 in. ultimate strength of the steel used for the loop and the cables is 70 ksi,

1 in.

and that the ultimate strength of the aluminum used for the rod is 38 ksi,

A

C determine the largest load Q that can be applied if an overall factor of

safety of 3 is desired.

9 in.

3

8

in.

D

1

2

in.

F

Q'

SOLUTION

3 6

2 FAB Q 0 Q FAB

5 5

Using joint A as a free body and considering symmetry,

4

2 FAB FAC 0

5

8 5 3

Q FAC 0 Q FAC

5 6 4

Based on strength of cable BE,

2

1

QU U A U d 2 (70) 13.7445 kips

4 4 2

Based on strength of steel loop,

6 6 6

QU FAB, U U A U d 2

5 5 5 4

2

6 3

(70) 9.2775 kips

5 4 8

Based on strength of rod AC,

3 3 3 3

QU FAC , U U A U d 2 (38) (1.0)2 22.384 kips

4 4 4 4 4 4

Actual ultimate load QU is the smallest, QU 9.2775 kips

QU 9.2775

Allowable load: Q 3.0925 kips Q 3.09 kips

F.S . 3

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41

PROBLEM 1.38

A B

w

908 Link BC is 6 mm thick, has a width w 25 mm, and is made of a steel with

480 mm a 480-MPa ultimate strength in tension. What was the safety factor used if the

structure shown was designed to support a 16-kN load P?

C

D

SOLUTION

Use bar ACD as a free body and note that member BC is a two-force member.

M A 0:

(480) FBC (600) P 0

600 (600)(16 103 )

FBC P 20 103 N

480 480

Ultimate load for member BC: FU U A

FU 72 103

Factor of safety: F.S. F.S. 3.60

FBC 20 103

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42

PROBLEM 1.39

A B

w

908 Link BC is 6 mm thick and is made of a steel with a 450-MPa ultimate strength in

480 mm tension. What should be its width w if the structure shown is being designed to

support a 20-kN load P with a factor of safety of 3?

C

D

SOLUTION

Use bar ACD as a free body and note that member BC is a two-force member.

M A 0:

(480) FBC 600P 0

600P (600)(20 103 )

FBC 25 103 N

480 480

For a factor of safety F.S. 3, the ultimate load of member BC is

FU (F.S.)( FBC ) (3)(25 103 ) 75 103 N

FU 75 103

But FU U A A 166.667 106 m 2

U 450 10 6

A 166.667 106

For a rectangular section, A wt or w 27.778 103 m

t 0.006

w 27.8 mm

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43

0.75 m PROBLEM 1.40

A

0.4 m Members AB and BC of the truss shown are made of the same alloy. It is known

that a 20-mm-square bar of the same alloy was tested to failure and that an

B ultimate load of 120 kN was recorded. If a factor of safety of 3.2 is to be

1.4 m achieved for both bars, determine the required cross-sectional area of (a) bar

AB, (b) bar AC.

SOLUTION

M c 0: 1.4 Ax (0.75)(28) 0

Ax 15 kN

Fy 0: Ay 28 0

Ay 28 kN

0.75

Fx 0: FAB Ax 0

0.85

(0.85)(15)

FAB 17 kN

0.75

0.4

Fy 0: Ay FAC FAB 0

0.85

(0.4)(17)

FAC 28 20 kN

0.85

PU 120 103

For the material, U 300 106 Pa

A 400 106

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44

PROBLEM 1.40 (Continued)

PU A

(a) For member AB: F.S. U AB

FAB FAB

(F.S.) FAB (3.2)(17 103 )

AAB 181.333 106 m 2 AAB 181.3 mm 2

U 300 106

PU A

(b) For member AC: F.S. U AC

FAC FAC

(F.S.) FAC (3.2)(20 103 )

AAC 213.33 106 m 2 AAC 213 mm 2

U 300 106

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45

0.75 m PROBLEM 1.41

A

0.4 m Members AB and BC of the truss shown are made of the same alloy. It is known

that a 20-mm-square bar of the same alloy was tested to failure and that an

B ultimate load of 120 kN was recorded. If bar AB has a cross-sectional area of

1.4 m 225 mm2, determine (a) the factor of safety for bar AB and (b) the cross-

sectional area of bar AC if it is to have the same factor of safety as bar AB.

SOLUTION

M c 0: 1.4 Ax (0.75)(28) 0

Ax 15 kN

Fy 0: Ay 28 0

Ay 28 kN

0.75

Fx 0: FAB Ax 0

0.85

(0.85)(15)

FAB 17 kN

0.75

0.4

Fy 0: Ay FAC FAB 0

0.85

(0.4)(17)

FAC 28 20 kN

0.85

PU 120 103

For the material, U 300 106 Pa

A 400 106

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46

PROBLEM 1.41 (Continued)

(a) For bar AB: F.S. U AB

FAB FAB 17 103

F.S. 3.97

FU A

(b) For bar AC: F.S. U AC

FAC FAC

(F.S.) FAC (3.97)(20 103 )

AAC 264.67 106 m 2 AAC 265 mm 2

U 300 106

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47

A

PROBLEM 1.42

600 lb/ft

35 Link AB is to be made of a steel for which the ultimate normal stress is

E

B C D 65 ksi. Determine the cross-sectional area of AB for which the factor

of safety will be 3.20. Assume that the link will be adequately

5 kips reinforced around the pins at A and B.

1.4 ft 1.4 ft 1.4 ft

SOLUTION

M D 0 : (2.8)( FAB sin 35)

(0.7)(2.52) (1.4)(5) 0

FAB

AB ult

AAB F. S .

( F. S .) FAB (3.20)(5.4570 kips)

AAB

ult 65 ksi

0.26854 in 2 AAB 0.268 in 2

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48

16 kN PROBLEM 1.43

Two wooden members are joined by plywood splice plates that are fully glued on

the contact surfaces. Knowing that the clearance between the ends of the members

is 6 mm and that the ultimate shearing stress in the glued joint is 2.5 MPa,

determine the length L for which the factor of safety is 2.75 for the loading shown.

L

6 mm

125 mm

16 kN

SOLUTION

2.5 MPa

all 0.90909 MPa

2.75

On one face of the upper contact surface,

L 0.006 m

A (0.125 m)

2

Since there are 2 contact surfaces,

P

all

2A

16 103

0.90909 106

( L 0.006)(0.125)

L 0.14680 m 146.8 mm

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49

16 kN PROBLEM 1.44

For the joint and loading of Prob. 1.43, determine the factor of safety when

L = 180 mm.

PROBLEM 1.43 Two wooden members are joined by plywood splice plates that

L

6 mm are fully glued on the contact surfaces. Knowing that the clearance between the

ends of the members is 6 mm and that the ultimate shearing stress in the glued

joint is 2.5 MPa, determine the length L for which the factor of safety is 2.75 for

the loading shown.

125 mm

16 kN

SOLUTION

0.180 m 0.006 m

A (0.125 m)

2

A 10.8750 103 m 2

Since there are two surfaces,

P 16 103 N

all

2 A 2(10.8750 103 m 2 )

all 0.73563 MPa

u 2.5 MPa

F.S. 3.40

all 0.73563 MPa

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50

PROBLEM 1.45

Three 34 -in.-diameter steel bolts are to be used to attach the steel plate shown to

a wooden beam. Knowing that the plate will support a load P = 24 kips and that

the ultimate shearing stress for the steel used is 52 ksi, determine the factor of

safety for this design.

SOLUTION

2

3

For each bolt, A d2 0.44179 in

2

4 44

PU A U (0.44179)(52)

22.973 kips

Factor of safety:

PU 68.919

F. S . F. S . 2.87

P 24

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51

PROBLEM 1.46

Three steel bolts are to be used to attach the steel plate shown to a wooden beam.

Knowing that the plate will support a load P = 28 kips, that the ultimate shearing

stress for the steel used is 52 ksi, and that a factor of safety of 3.25 is desired,

determine the required diameter of the bolts.

SOLUTION

24

For each bolt, P 8 kips

3

PU P 4P

U U 2 U2

A 4

d d

4 PU (4)(26.0)

d 0.79789 in. d 0.798 in.

U (52)

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52

PROBLEM 1.47

short wooden member hanging from the ceiling. The ultimate strength of

the wood used is 60 MPa in tension and 7.5 MPa in shear, while the

ultimate strength of the steel is 145 MPa in shear. Knowing that

b 40 mm, c 55 mm, and d 12 mm, determine the load P if an

d

overall factor of safety of 3.2 is desired.

1

2 P

1

2 P

c

b

40 mm

SOLUTION

PU 2 A U 2 d 2 U

4

(2)(0.012) 2 (145 106 ) 32.80 103 N

4

Based on tension in wood,

PU A U w (b d ) U

(0.040)(0.040 0.012)(60 106 )

67.2 103 N

Based on double shear in the wood,

PU 2 AU 2wc U (2)(0.040)(0.055)(7.5 106 )

33.0 103 N

Use smallest PU 32.8 103 N

PU 32.8 103

Allowable: P 10.25 103 N 10.25 kN

F .S. 3.2

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on a website, in whole or part.

53

PROBLEM 1.48

For the support of Prob. 1.47, knowing that the diameter of the pin is

d 16 mm and that the magnitude of the load is P 20 kN, determine

(a) the factor of safety for the pin, (b) the required values of b and c if the

factor of safety for the wooden members is the same as that found in part a

for the pin.

d

1

2 P PROBLEM 1.47 A load P is supported as shown by a steel pin that has

been inserted in a short wooden member hanging from the ceiling. The

1 ultimate strength of the wood used is 60 MPa in tension and 7.5 MPa in

P

c 2

shear, while the ultimate strength of the steel is 145 MPa in shear.

Knowing that b 40 mm, c 55 mm, and d 12 mm, determine the

b load P if an overall factor of safety of 3.2 is desired.

40 mm

SOLUTION

P 20 kN 20 103 N

(a) Pin: A d2 (0.016) 2 2.01.06 106 m 2

4 4

P P

Double shear: U U

2A 2A

PU 2 A U (2)(201.16 106 )(145 106 ) 58.336 103 N

PU 58.336 103

F .S. F .S. 2.92

P 20 103

(b) Tension in wood: PU 58.336 103 N for same F.S.

PU PU

U where w 40 mm 0.040 m

A w(b d )

PU 58.336 103

bd 0.016 40.3 103 m b 40.3 mm

w U (0.040)(60 106 )

Shear in wood: PU 58.336 103 N for same F.S.

PU P

Double shear: each area is A wc U U

2 A 2wc

PU 58.336 103

c 97.2 103 m c 97.2 mm

2w U (2)(0.040)(7.5 106 )

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54

PROBLEM 1.49

concrete wall to anchor a high-strength cable

as shown. The diameter of the hole in the plate

is 34 in., the ultimate strength of the steel used is

a

36 ksi, and the ultimate bonding stress between

3

4

in. plate and concrete is 300 psi. Knowing that a

1 in. factor of safety of 3.60 is desired when

4

P = 2.5 kips, determine (a) the required width a

b

of the plate, (b) the minimum depth b to which a

P

plate of that width should be embedded in the

concrete slab. (Neglect the normal stresses

between the concrete and the end of the plate.)

SOLUTION

A (a d )t

PU U A

PU (a d )t

F .S. U

P P

Solving for a,

( F .S .) P 3 (3.60)(2.5)

ad

U t 4 (36) 14

Based on shear between plate and concrete slab,

A perimeter depth 2(a t )b U 0.300 ksi

PU

PU U A 2 U (a t )b F .S.

P

( F .S .) P (3.6)(2.5)

Solving for b, b

2(a t ) U (2) 1.75 14 (0.300)

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on a website, in whole or part.

55

PROBLEM 1.50

anchor in Prob. 1.49 when P 2.5 kips, knowing

that a 2 in. and b 6 in.

a embedded in a concrete wall to anchor a high-

3

strength cable as shown. The diameter of the hole

in.

4

1

in the plate is 34 in., the ultimate strength of the

in.

4 steel used is 36 ksi, and the ultimate bonding

stress between plate and concrete is 300 psi.

b

Knowing that a factor of safety of 3.60 is desired

P

when P = 2.5 kips, determine (a) the required

width a of the plate, (b) the minimum depth b to

which a plate of that width should be embedded

in the concrete slab. (Neglect the normal stresses

between the concrete and the end of the plate.)

SOLUTION

A (a d )t

3 1

2 0.31250 in 2

4 4

PU U A

(36)(0.31250) 11.2500 kips

PU 11.2500

F .S . 4.50

P 3.5

1

A perimeter depth 2(a t )b 2 2 (6.0)

4

A 27.0 in 2 U 0.300 ksi

PU U A (0.300)(27.0) 8.10 kips

PU 8.10

F .S . 3.240

P 2.5

Actual factor of safety is the smaller value. F .S . 3.24

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on a website, in whole or part.

56

A PROBLEM 1.51

1

2

in. Link AC is made of a steel with a 65-ksi ultimate normal stress and has

a 14 12 -in. uniform rectangular cross section. It is connected to a

8 in.

support at A and to member BCD at C by 34 -in.-diameter pins, while

member BCD is connected to its support at B by a 165 -in.-diameter pin.

B C D All of the pins are made of a steel with a 25-ksi ultimate shearing stress

and are in single shear. Knowing that a factor of safety of 3.25 is

6 in. 4 in. desired, determine the largest load P that can be applied at D. Note that

P link AC is not reinforced around the pin holes.

SOLUTION

8

M B 0 : (6) FAC 10 P 0

10

P 0.48 FAC (1)

6

Fx 0 : Bx FAC 0

10

6

Bx FAC 1.25P

10

M C 0 : 6By 4P 0

2 2

By P i.e. By P

3 3

2

2

B Bx2 By2 1.252 P 1.41667 P P 0.70588B (2)

3

Shear in pins at A and C.

2

U 25 3

FAC Apin d2 0.84959 kips

F. S . 4 3.25 4 8

Tension on net section of A and C.

U 65 1 1 3

FAC Anet Anet 0.625 kips

F. S . 3.25 4 2 8

Smaller value of FAC is 0.625 kips.

From (1), P (0.48)(0.625) 0.300 kips

2

U 25 5

Shear in pin at B. B Apin d2 0.58999 kips

F. S. 4 3.25 4 16

From (2), P (0.70588)(0.58999) 0.416 kips

Allowable value of P is the smaller value. P 0.300 kips or P 300 lb

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on a website, in whole or part.

57

PROBLEM 1.52

A Solve Prob. 1.51, assuming that the structure has been redesigned to use

5

16

-in-diameter pins at A and C as well as at B and that no other changes

1

2

in. have been made.

8 in.

PROBLEM 1.51 Link AC is made of a steel with a 65-ksi ultimate

normal stress and has a 14 12 -in. uniform rectangular cross section. It is

B C D connected to a support at A and to member BCD at C by 34 -in.-diameter

pins, while member BCD is connected to its support at B by a 165 -in.-

6 in. 4 in. diameter pin. All of the pins are made of a steel with a 25-ksi ultimate

P shearing stress and are in single shear. Knowing that a factor of safety of

3.25 is desired, determine the largest load P that can be applied at D.

Note that link AC is not reinforced around the pin holes.

SOLUTION

8

M B 0 : (6) FAC 10 P 0

10

P 0.48 FAC (1)

6

Fy 0 : Bx FAC 0

10

6

Bx FAC 1.25P

10

M C 0 : 6By 4 P 0

2 2

By P i.e. By P

3 3

2

2

B Bx2 By2 2

1.25 P 1.41667 P P 0.70583 B (2)

3

Shear in pins at A and C.

2

U 25 5

FAC Apin d2 0.58999 kips

F. S . 4 3.25 4 16

Tension on net section of A and C.

U 65 1 1 5

FAC Anet Anet 0.9375 kips

F. S . 3.25 4 2 16

Smaller value of FAC is 0.58999 kips.

From (1), P (0.48)(0.58999) 0.283 kips

2

U 25 5

Shear in pin at B. B Apin d2 0.58999 kips

F. S. 4 3.25 4 16

From (2), P (0.70588)(0.58999) 0.416 kips

Allowable value of P is the smaller value. P 0.283 kips or P 283 lb

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58

250 mm PROBLEM 1.53

400 mm

Each of the two vertical links CF connecting the two horizontal

A

B

250 mm members AD and EG has a 10 40-mm uniform rectangular cross

section and is made of a steel with an ultimate strength in tension of

C 400 MPa, while each of the pins at C and F has a 20-mm diameter and

D are made of a steel with an ultimate strength in shear of 150 MPa.

E

Determine the overall factor of safety for the links CF and the pins

F G

connecting them to the horizontal members.

24 kN

SOLUTION

FCF 39 103 N

A (b d ) t (0.040 0.02)(0.010) 200 106 m 2 (one link)

6

FU 2 U A (2)(400 10 )(200 10 ) 160.0 10 N

6 3

A d2 (0.020) 2 314.16 106 m 2

4 4

FU 2 U A (2)(150 106 )(314.16 106 ) 94.248 103 N

FU 94.248 103

Factor of safety: F. S . F. S . 2.42

FCF 39 103

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59

250 mm PROBLEM 1.54

400 mm

Solve Prob. 1.53, assuming that the pins at C and F have been replaced

A

B

250 mm by pins with a 30-mm diameter.

C PROBLEM 1.53 Each of the two vertical links CF connecting the two

D horizontal members AD and EG has a 10 40-mm uniform rectangular

E cross section and is made of a steel with an ultimate strength in tension of

F 400 MPa, while each of the pins at C and F has a 20-mm diameter and

G

are made of a steel with an ultimate strength in shear of 150 MPa.

Determine the overall factor of safety for the links CF and the pins

24 kN connecting them to the horizontal members.

SOLUTION

FCF 39 103 N

Based on tension in links CF,

6

6

FU 2 U A (2)(400 10 )(100 10 ) 80.0 10 N 3

A d2 (0.030) 2 706.86 106 m 2

4 4

FU 2 U A (2)(150 106 )(706.86 106 ) 212.06 103 N

FU 80.0 103

Factor of safety: F. S . F. S . 2.05

FCF 39 103

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60

Top view PROBLEM 1.55

200 mm 180 mm

12 mm

In the structure shown, an 8-mm-diameter pin

8 mm is used at A, and 12-mm-diameter pins are

A B C used at B and D. Knowing that the ultimate

shearing stress is 100 MPa at all connections

and that the ultimate normal stress is 250 MPa

A

B

C in each of the two links joining B and D,

B determine the allowable load P if an overall

factor of safety of 3.0 is desired.

20 mm P 8 mm

8 mm

D D

Front view 12 mm

Side view

SOLUTION

10

M B 0 : 0.20 FA 0.18P 0 P FA

9

10

M A 0 : 0.20FBD 0.38P 0 P FBD

19

Based on double shear in pin A, A d2 (0.008)2 50.266 106 m 2

4 4

2 U A (2)(100 106 )(50.266 106 )

FA 3.351 103 N

F .S . 3.0

10

P FA 3.72 103 N

9

Based on double shear in pins at B and D, A d2 (0.012) 2 113.10 106 m 2

4 4

2 U A (2)(100 106 )(113.10 106 )

FBD 7.54 103 N

F .S. 3.0

10

P FBD 3.97 103 N

19

Based on compression in links BD, for one link, A (0.020)(0.008) 160 106 m 2

2 U A (2)(250 106 )(160 106 )

FBD 26.7 103 N

F .S . 3.0

10

P FBD 14.04 103 N

19

Allowable value of P is smallest, P 3.72 103 N P 3.72 kN

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61

PROBLEM 1.56

Top view

200 mm 180 mm

12 mm In an alternative design for the structure of

Prob. 1.55, a pin of 10-mm-diameter is to be

8 mm used at A. Assuming that all other

A B C specifications remain unchanged, determine

the allowable load P if an overall factor of

safety of 3.0 is desired.

B

A C

B PROBLEM 1.55 In the structure shown, an 8-

mm-diameter pin is used at A, and 12-mm-

20 mm P diameter pins are used at B and D. Knowing

8 mm

8 mm that the ultimate shearing stress is 100 MPa at

D D all connections and that the ultimate normal

stress is 250 MPa in each of the two links

Front view 12 mm joining B and D, determine the allowable load

Side view P if an overall factor of safety of 3.0 is

desired.

SOLUTION

10

M B 0: 0.20 FA 0.18P 0 P FA

9

10

M A 0: 0.20 FBD 0.38P 0 P FBD

19

Based on double shear in pin A, A d2 (0.010) 2 78.54 106 m 2

4 4

2 U A (2)(100 106 )(78.54 106 )

FA 5.236 103 N

F .S . 3.0

10

P FA 5.82 103 N

9

Based on double shear in pins at B and D, A d2 (0.012) 2 113.10 106 m 2

4 4

2 U A (2)(100 106 )(113.10 106 )

FBD 7.54 103 N

F .S . 3.0

10

P FBD 3.97 103 N

19

Based on compression in links BD, for one link, A (0.020)(0.008) 160 106 m 2

2 U A (2)(250 106 )(160 106 )

FBD 26.7 103 N

F .S. 3.0

10

P FBD 14.04 103 N

19

Allowable value of P is smallest, P 3.97 103 N P 3.97 kN

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62

C PROBLEM 1.57

1.8 m which is supported as shown by a pin at A and by a slender steel rod BC

A B

with a 12-kN ultimate load. (a) Using the Load and Resistance Factor

Design method with a resistance factor 0.90 and load factors

D 1.25 and L 1.6, determine the largest load that can be safely

2.4 m

placed on the platform. (b) What is the corresponding conventional

factor of safety for rod BC?

SOLUTION

3

M A 0 : (2.4) P 2.4W1 1.2W2

5

5 5

P W1 W2

3 6

5 5

PD (392.4) (490.5) 1.0628 103 N

3 6

5

For live loading, W1 mg W2 0 PL mg

3

3 PL

From which m

5 g

Design criterion: D PD L PL PU

PU D PD (0.90)(12 103 ) (1.25)(1.0628 103 )

PL

L 1.6

5.920 103 N

3 5.92 103

(a) Allowable load. m m 362 kg

5 9.81

Conventional factor of safety:

P PD PL 1.0628 103 5.920 103 6.983 103 N

PU 12 103

(b) F. S. F. S. 1.718

P 6.983 103

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63

P P PROBLEM 1.58

the two cables that will raise and lower a platform supporting two

window washers. The platform weighs 160 lb and each of the window

washers is assumed to weigh 195 lb with equipment. Since these

workers are free to move on the platform, 75% of their total weight and

the weight of their equipment will be used as the design live load of each

cable. (a) Assuming a resistance factor 0.85 and load factors

D 1.2 and L 1.5, determine the required minimum ultimate load of

one cable. (b) What is the corresponding conventional factor of safety

for the selected cables?

SOLUTION

D PD L PL PU

D PD L PL

(a) PU

1 3

(1.2) 160 (1.5) 2 195

2 4 PU 629 lb

0.85

Conventional factor of safety:

1

P PD PL 160 0.75 2 195 372.5 lb

2

PU 629

(b) F. S. F. S. 1.689

P 372.5

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64

15 m 25 m 3m PROBLEM 1.59

B

In the marine crane shown, link CD is known to have a

uniform cross section of 50 150 mm. For the loading

shown, determine`` the normal stress in the central portion

35 m of that link.

C 80 Mg

15 m

D

A

SOLUTION

Free Body: Portion ABC.

28 28

FCD W (784.8 kN)

15 15

FCD 1465 kN

CD 195.3 106 Pa CD 195.3 MPa

A (0.050 m)(0.150 m)

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65

0.5 in. PROBLEM 1.60

Two horizontal 5-kip forces are applied to pin B of the assembly shown.

B Knowing that a pin of 0.8-in. diameter is used at each connection,

1.8 in. determine the maximum value of the average normal stress (a) in link

5 kips

5 kips

AB, (b) in link BC.

0.5 in.

A 60

45 1.8 in.

SOLUTION

Law of Sines:

FAB FBC 10

sin 45 sin 60 sin 95

FAB 7.3205 kips

Link AB is a tension member.

FAB 7.3205

(a) Stress in AB : AB AB 14.64 ksi

Anet 0.5

FBC 8.9658

(b) Stress in BC: BC BC 9.96 ksi

A 0.9

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66

0.5 in. PROBLEM 1.61

For the assembly and loading of Prob. 1.60, determine (a) the average

B shearing stress in the pin at C, (b) the average bearing stress at C in

1.8 in.

member BC, (c) the average bearing stress at B in member BC.

5 kips

5 kips

PROBLEM 1.60 Two horizontal 5-kip forces are applied to pin B of the

0.5 in.

60 assembly shown. Knowing that a pin of 0.8-in. diameter is used at each

A

45 1.8 in. connection, determine the maximum value of the average normal stress

(a) in link AB, (b) in link BC.

SOLUTION

Law of Sines:

FAB FBC 10

FBC 8.9658 kips

sin 45 sin 60 sin 95

FBC

(a) Shearing stress in pin at C.

2 AP

AP d2

(0.8)2 0.5026 in 2

4 4

8.9658

8.92 8.92 ksi

(2)(0.5026)

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67

PROBLEM 1.61 (Continued)

FBC

(b) Bearing stress at C in member BC. b

A

A td (0.5)(0.8) 0.4 in 2

8.9658

b 22.4 b 22.4 ksi

0.4

FBC

(c) Bearing stress at B in member BC. b

A

8.9658

b 11.21 b 11.21 ksi

0.8

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68

PROBLEM 1.62

diameter high-strength steel bolts fitting snugly inside cylindrical

brass spacers. Knowing that the average normal stress must not

exceed 200 MPa in the bolts and 130 MPa in the spacers,

determine the outer diameter of the spacers that yields the most

economical and safe design.

SOLUTION

At each bolt location the upper plate is pulled down by the tensile force Pb of the bolt. At the same time, the

spacer pushes that plate upward with a compressive force Ps in order to maintain equilibrium.

Pb Ps

Fb 4 Pb

For the bolt, b or Pb b db2

Ab db2 4

Ps 4 Ps

For the spacer, s or Ps s (d s2 db2 )

As (d s db2 )

2

4

Equating Pb and Ps ,

b db2 s (d s2 db2 )

4 4

b 200

ds 1 d 1 (16) d s 25.2 mm

s b 130

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69

P PROBLEM 1.63

position shown, determine (a) the force P required to hold the engine system in

C equilibrium, (b) the average normal stress in the connecting rod BC, which has a

450-mm2 uniform cross section.

200 mm

B

80 mm

M

A

60 mm

SOLUTION

Use piston, rod, and crank together as free body. Add wall reaction H

and bearing reactions Ax and Ay.

M A 0 : (0.280 m) H 1500 N m 0

H 5.3571 103 N

Use piston alone as free body. Note that rod is a two-force member;

hence the direction of force FBC is known. Draw the force triangle

and solve for P and FBE by proportions.

P 200

P 17.86 103 N

H 60

(a) P 17.86 kN

FBC 208.81

FBC 18.6436 103 N

H 60

Rod BC is a compression member. Its area is

Stress:

FBC 18.6436 103

BC 41.430 106 Pa

A 450 106

(b) BC 41.4 MPa

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70

4 in.

12 in.

4 in. PROBLEM 1.64

E

2 in. B D Knowing that the link DE is 18 in. thick and 1 in. wide, determine

C J D

the normal stress in the central portion of that link when

6 in. (a) 0, (b) 90.

8 in.

A

F

60 lb

SOLUTION

FDE 40 sin 80 cos lb

1

ADE (1) 0.125 in 2

8

F

DE DE

ADE

(a) 0: FDE 80 lb

80

DE DE 640 psi

0.125

40

DE DE 320 psi

0.125

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71

1 in. 1500 lb PROBLEM 1.65

750 lb

A 85 -in.-diameter steel rod AB is fitted to a round hole near end C of

A 4 in.

D the wooden member CD. For the loading shown, determine (a) the

750 lb maximum average normal stress in the wood, (b) the distance b for

B which the average shearing stress is 100 psi on the surfaces indicated

C by the dashed lines, (c) the average bearing stress on the wood.

b

SOLUTION

5 2

Anet (1) 4 3.375 in

8

P 1500

444 psi 444 psi

Anet 3.375

For sheared area see dotted lines.

P P

A 2bt

P 1500

b 7.50 in. b 7.50 in.

2t (2)(1)(100)

(c) Average bearing stress on the wood.

P P 1500

b 2400 psi b 2400 psi

Ab dt 5

(1)

8

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72

PROBLEM 1.66

D D

Front view In the steel structure shown, a 6-mm-

diameter pin is used at C and 10-mm-

18 mm 6 mm diameter pins are used at B and D. The

ultimate shearing stress is 150 MPa at all

connections, and the ultimate normal

A B stress is 400 MPa in link BD. Knowing

B C

that a factor of safety of 3.0 is desired,

Side view

160 mm 120 mm determine the largest load P that can be

P applied at A. Note that link BD is not

reinforced around the pin holes.

A

B

Top view C

SOLUTION

3

P FBD (1)

7

M B 0 : 0.160 P 0.120 C 0

3

P C (2)

4

Tension on net section of link BD:

U 400 106 3 3

FBD Anet Anet 3

(6 10 )(18 10)(10 ) 6.40 10 N

F. S. 3

Shear in pins at B and D:

U 150 106 3 2

FBD Apin d 2 3

(10 10 ) 3.9270 10 N

F. S. 4 3 4

Smaller value of FBD is 3.9270 103 N.

3

From (1), P (3.9270 103 ) 1.683 103 N

7

U 150 106 3 2

Shear in pin at C: C 2 Apin 2 d 2 (2) 3

(6 10 ) 2.8274 10 N

F. S . 4 3 4

3

From (2), P (2.8274 103 ) 2.12 103 N

4

Smaller value of P is allowable value. P 1.683 103 N P 1.683 kN

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73

D

PROBLEM 1.67

40 P

A 30 Member ABC, which is supported by a pin and bracket at C and a cable

BD, was designed to support the 16-kN load P as shown. Knowing that

B

the ultimate load for cable BD is 100 kN, determine the factor of safety

0.6 m with respect to cable failure.

C

0.8 m 0.4 m

SOLUTION

Use member ABC as a free body, and note that member BD is a two-force member.

M c 0 : ( P cos 40)(1.2) ( P sin 40)(0.6)

( FBD cos 30)(0.6)

( FBD sin 30)(0.4) 0

1.30493P 0.71962FBD 0

FU 100 103 N

FU 100 103

F. S . F. S. 3.45

FBD 29.014 103

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74

PROBLEM 1.68

been embedded in a block of concrete. Determine the smallest

length L for which the full allowable normal stress in the bar can be

developed. Express the result in terms of the diameter d of the bar,

L d the allowable normal stress all in the steel, and the average

P allowable bond stress all between the concrete and the cylindrical

surface of the bar. (Neglect the normal stresses between the

concrete and the end of the bar.)

SOLUTION

For shear, A dL

P all A all dL

For tension, A d2

4

P all A all d 2

4

Equating, all dL all d2

4

Solving for L, Lmin alld/4 all

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75

2.4 kips PROBLEM 1.69

A forming an angle with the horizontal. Knowing that the ultimate stress

for the glued joint is 2.5 ksi in tension and 1.3 ksi in shear, determine

(a) the value of for which the factor of safety of the member is

maximum, (b) the corresponding value of the factor of safety. (Hint:

B

Equate the expressions obtained for the factors of safety with respect to the

normal and shearing stresses.)

1.25 in.

2.0 in.

SOLUTION

A0 (2.0)(1.25) 2.50 in 2

P U A0

Normal stress: cos 2 PU ,

A0 cos 2

PU , U A0

( F. S .)

P P cos 2

P U A0

Shearing stress: sin cos PU ,

A0 sin cos

PU , U A0

( F. S.)

P P sin cos

U A0 U A0

Equating,

P cos 2

P sin cos

sin 1.3

Solving, tan U 0.520 (a) opt 27.5

cos U 2.5

U A0 (12.5)(2.50)

(b) PU 7.94 kips

cos

2

cos 2 27.5

PU 7.94

F. S. F. S. 3.31

P 2.4

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76

2.4 kips PROBLEM 1.70

A forming an angle with the horizontal. Knowing that the ultimate stress

for the glued joint is 2.5 ksi in tension and 1.3 ksi in shear, determine

the range of values of for which the factor of safety of the members is

at least 3.0.

B

1.25 in.

2.0 in.

SOLUTION

P 2.4 kips

PU ( F. S.) P 7.2 kips

PU

U cos 2

A0

U A0 (2.5)(2.50)

cos 2 0.86806

PU 7.2

cos 0.93169 21.3 21.3

PU P

Based on shearing stress, U sin cos U sin 2

A0 2 A0

2 A0U (2)(2.50)(1.3)

sin 2 0.90278

PU 7.2

Hence, 21.3 32.3

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77

PROBLEM 1.C1

Element n A solid steel rod consisting of n cylindrical elements welded together is subjected to the

Pn

loading shown. The diameter of element i is denoted by di and the load applied to its

lower end by Pi with the magnitude Pi of this load being assumed positive if Pi is

directed downward as shown and negative otherwise. (a) Write a computer program

that can be used with either SI or U.S. customary units to determine the average stress

in each element of the rod. (b) Use this program to solve Problems 1.1 and 1.3.

Element 1

P1

SOLUTION

Force in element i:

It is the sum of the forces applied to that element and all lower ones:

i

Fi P

k 1

k

1

Area Ai di2

4

Fi

Ave. stress

Ai

Program outputs:

Element Stress (MPa) Element Stress (ksi)

1 84.883 1 22.635

2 96.766 2 17.927

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78

PROBLEM 1.C2

Member ABC has a 10 50-mm uniform rectangular cross section

0.4 m and is supported by four vertical links, each of 8 36-mm uniform

C

rectangular cross section. Each of the four pins at A, B, C, and D has the

same diameter d and is in double shear. (a) Write a computer program

0.25 m

0.2 m to calculate for values of d from 10 to 30 mm, using 1-mm increments,

B

(i) the maximum value of the average normal stress in the links

connecting pins B and D, (ii) the average normal stress in the links

20 kN E connecting pins C and E, (iii) the average shearing stress in pin B,

(iv) the average shearing stress in pin C, (v) the average bearing stress

D

at B in member ABC, and (vi) the average bearing stress at C in member

A

ABC. (b) Check your program by comparing the values obtained for

d 16 mm with the answers given for Probs. 1.7 and 1.27. (c) Use this

program to find the permissible values of the diameter d of the pins,

knowing that the allowable values of the normal, shearing, and bearing

stresses for the steel used are, respectively, 150 MPa, 90 MPa, and

230 MPa. (d) Solve Part c, assuming that the thickness of member ABC

has been reduced from 10 to 8 mm.

SOLUTION

P = 20 kN

Forces in links.

F.B. diagram of ABC:

M C 0: 2FBD ( BC ) P( AC ) 0

FBD P( AC )/2( BC ) (tension)

M B 0: 2FCE ( BC ) P( AB) 0

FCE P( AB)/2( BC ) (comp.)

(i) Link BD. (ii) Link CE.

Thickness t L Thickness t L

ABD t L ( wL d ) ACE tL wL

BD FBD / ABD CE FCE / ACE

(iii) Pin B. (iv) Pin C.

B FBD /( d 2 /4) C FCE /( d 2 /4)

(v) Bearing stress at B. Shearing stress in ABC under Pin B.

Thickness of member AC t AC FB AC t AC ( wAC /2)

Fy 0: 2FB 2 FBD

Sig Bear B FBD /(dt AC )

(vi) Bearing stress at C. 2 FBD

AC

Sig Bear C FCE /( dt AC ) AC wAC

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79

PROBLEM 1.C2 (Continued)

Program Outputs

Input data for Parts (a), (b), (c):

P 20 kN, AB 0.25 m, BC 0.40 m, AC 0.65 m,

TL 8 mm, WL 36 mm, TAC 10 mm, WAC 50 mm

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80

PROBLEM 1.C2 (Continued)

AB = 0.25 m, BC = 0.40 m,

AC = 0.65 m, TL = 8 mm, WL = 36 mm,

TAC 8 mm, WAC 50 mm

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81

PROBLEM 1.C3

0.5 in.

Two horizontal 5-kip forces are applied to Pin B of the assembly

shown. Each of the three pins at A, B, and C has the same diameter d

and is double shear. (a) Write a computer program to calculate for

B values of d from 0.50 to 1.50 in., using 0.05-in. increments, (i) the

1.8 in.

5 kips maximum value of the average normal stress in member AB, (ii) the

5 kips average normal stress in member BC, (iii) the average shearing stress

0.5 in. in pin A, (iv) the average shearing stress in pin C, (v) the average

60

A bearing stress at A in member AB, (vi) the average bearing stress at C

1.8 in.

45 in member BC, and (vii) the average bearing stress at B in member BC.

(b) Check your program by comparing the values obtained for

d 0.8 in. with the answers given for Problems 1.60 and 1.61. (c) Use

C

this program to find the permissible values of the diameter d of the

pins, knowing that the allowable values of the normal, shearing, and

bearing stresses for the steel used are, respectively, 22 ksi, 13 ksi, and

36 ksi. (d) Solve Part c, assuming that a new design is being

investigated in which the thickness and width of the two members are

changed, respectively, from 0.5 to 0.3 in. and from 1.8 to 2.4 in.

SOLUTION

Free body: Pin B.

From force triangle:

FAB F 2P

BC

sin 45 sin 60 sin 75

FAB 2 P (sin 45/sin 75)

FBC 2 P (sin 60/sin 75)

(i) Max. ave. stress in AB. (ii) Ave. stress in BC.

Width w ABC wt

Thickness t BC FBC / ABC

AAB ( w d ) t

AB FAB / AAB

(iii) Pin A. (iv) Pin C.

(v) Bearing stress at A. (vi) Bearing stress at C.

Sig Bear A FAB /dt Sig Bear C FBC /dt

(vii) Bearing stress at B in member BC.

Sig Bear B FBC /2dt

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

82

PROBLEM 1.C3 (Continued)

Program Outputs

P = 5 kips, w = 1.8 in., t = 0.5 in.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

83

PROBLEM 1.C3 (Continued)

P = 5 kips, w 2.4 in., t 0.3 in.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

84

PROBLEM 1.C4

b shown to member ABC, which is supported by a pin and bracket at C

A

and by a cable BD forming an angle with the horizontal. (a) Knowing

B that the ultimate load of the cable is 25 kips, write a computer program

15 in. to construct a table of the values of the factor of safety of the cable for

values of and from 0 to 45, using increments in and

C corresponding to 0.1 increments in tan and tan . (b) Check that

for any given value of , the maximum value of the factor of safety is

obtained for 38.66 and explain why. (c) Determine the smallest

18 in. 12 in. possible value of the factor of safety for 38.66, as well as the

corresponding value of , and explain the result obtained.

SOLUTION

M C 0 : (P sin )(1.5 in.) ( P cos )(30 in.)

( F cos )(15 in.) ( F sin )(12 in.) 0

15 sin 30 cos

FP

15 cos 12 sin

F .S . Fult /F

Output for P 4 kips and Fult 20 kips:

(b) When 38.66, tan 0.8 and cable BD is perpendicular to the lever arm BC.

(c) F .S . 3.579 for 26.6; P is perpendicular to the lever arm AC.

Note: The value F . S . 3.579 is the smallest of the values of F.S. corresponding to 38.66 and the

largest of those corresponding to 26.6. The point 26.6, 38.66 is a saddle point, or

minimax of the function F .S . ( , ).

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

85

P

a PROBLEM 1.C5

b

A load P is supported as shown by two wooden members of uniform rectangular cross

section that are joined by a simple glued scarf splice. (a) Denoting by U and U ,

respectively, the ultimate strength of the joint in tension and in shear, write a

computer program which, for given values of a, b, P, U and U , expressed in either

SI or U.S. customary units, and for values of from 5 to 85 at 5 intervals, can be

used to calculate (i) the normal stress in the joint, (ii) the shearing stress in the joint,

a

(iii) the factor of safety relative to failure in tension, (iv) the factor of safety relative

to failure in shear, and (v) the overall factor of safety for the glued joint. (b) Apply

this program, using the dimensions and loading of the members of Probs. 1.29 and

1.31, knowing that U 150 psi and U 214 psi for the glue used in Prob. 1.29, and

that U 1.26 MPa and U 1.50 MPa for the glue used in Prob. 1.31. (c) Verify in

each of these two cases that the shearing stress is maximum for a 45.

P'

SOLUTION

Fx 0: V P cos 0 V P cos

Fy 0: F P sin 0 F P sin

Area ab/sin

F

Normal stress: ( P/ab) sin 2

Area

V

Shearing stress: ( P/ab) sin cos

Area

(iii) F.S. for tension (normal stresses):

FSN U /

FSS U /

F.S. The smaller of FSN and FSS.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

86

PROBLEM 1.C5 (Continued)

Program Outputs

Problem 1.29

a 150 mm

b 75 mm

P 11 kN

U 1.26 MPa

U 1.50 MPa

5 0.007 0.085 169.644 17.669 17.669

10 0.029 0.167 42.736 8.971 8.971

15 0.065 0.244 19.237 6.136 6.136

20 0.114 0.314 11.016 4.773 4.773

25 0.175 0.375 7.215 4.005 4.005

30 0.244 0.423 5.155 3.543 3.543

35 0.322 0.459 3.917 3.265 3.265

40 0.404 0.481 3.119 3.116 3.116

45 0.489 0.489 2.577 3.068 2.577 (b), (c)

50 0.574 0.481 2.196 3.116 2.196

55 0.656 0.459 1.920 3.265 1.920

60 0.733 0.423 1.718 3.543 1.718

65 0.803 0.375 1.569 4.005 1.569

70 0.863 0.314 1.459 4.773 1.459

75 0.912 0.244 1.381 6.136 1.381

80 0.948 0.167 1.329 8.971 1.329

85 0.970 0.085 1.298 17.669 1.298

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

87

PROBLEM 1.C5 (Continued)

Problem 1.31

a 5 in.

b 3 in.

P 1400 lb

U 150 psi

U 214 psi

5 0.709 8.104 211.574 26.408 26.408

10 2.814 15.961 53.298 13.408 13.408

15 6.252 23.333 23.992 9.171 9.171

20 10.918 29.997 13.739 7.134 7.134

25 16.670 35.749 8.998 5.986 5.986

30 23.333 40.415 6.429 5.295 5.295

35 30.706 43.852 4.885 4.880 4.880

40 38.563 45.958 3.890 4.656 3.890

45 46.667 46.667 3.214 4.586 3.214 (c)

50 54.770 45.958 2.739 4.656 2.739

55 62.628 43.852 2.395 4.880 2.395

60 70.000 40.415 2.143 5.295 2.143 (b)

65 76.663 35.749 1.957 5.986 1.957

70 82.415 29.997 1.820 7.134 1.820

75 87.081 23.333 1.723 9.171 1.723

80 90.519 15.961 1.657 13.408 1.657

85 92.624 8.104 1.619 26.408 1.619

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

88

PROBLEM 1.C6

bracket at A and by two links, which are pin-

Top view

connected to the member at B and to a fixed

support at D. (a) Write a computer program to

200 mm 180 mm calculate the allowable load Pall for any given

12 mm

values of (i) the diameter d1 of the pin at A,

8 mm

(ii) the common diameter d2 of the pins at B

A B C and D, (iii) the ultimate normal stress U in

each of the two links, (iv) the ultimate shearing

B

stress U in each of the three pins, and (v) the

A C desired overall factor of safety F.S. (b) Your

B

program should also indicate which of the

following three stresses is critical: the normal

20 mm P 8 mm stress in the links, the shearing stress in the pin

8 mm at A, or the shearing stress in the pins at B and

D D D. (c) Check your program by using the data

of Probs. 1.55 and 1.56, respectively, and

Front view 12 mm comparing the answers obtained for Pall with

Side view

those given in the text. (d) Use your program to

determine the allowable load Pall, as well as

which of the stresses is critical, when d1

d 2 15 mm, U 110 MPa for aluminum links,

U 100 MPa for steel pins, and F.S. 3.2.

SOLUTION

200

M A 0: P FBD

380

200

M B 0: P FA

180

200

(i) For given d1 of Pin A: FA 2( U /FS )( d12 /4), P1 FA

180

200

(ii) For given d 2 of Pins B and D : FBD 2( U /FS )( d 22 /4), P2 FBD

380

200

(iii) For ultimate stress in links BD: FBD 2 ( U /FS )(0.02)(0.008), P3 FBD

380

(iv) For ultimate shearing stress in pins: P4 is the smaller of P1 andP2 .

If P4 < P3 and P1 < P2 , stress is critical in Pin A.

If P4 P3 and P2 P1 , stress is critical in Pins B and D.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

89

PROBLEM 1.C6 (Continued)

Program Outputs

(b) Problem 1.55. Data: d1 8 mm, d 2 12 mm, U , 250 MPa, U 100 MPa, F .S . 3.0

Pall 3.72 kN. Stress in Pin A is critical.

(c) Problem 1.56. Data: d1 10 mm, d 2 12 mm, U 250 MPa, U 100 MPa, F .S . 3.0

Pall 3.97 kN. Stress in Pins B and D is critical.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted

on a website, in whole or part.

90

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