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Unbalanced Distribution Power Flow with

Distributed Generation

Sarika Khushalani, Student Member, IEEE, and Noel Schulz, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractRecently the number of distributed generators (DG) constant power, current or impedance requirements. Results of

being integrated in to the distribution system has increased. The load flow analysis include steady state voltages at all buses in

distribution system is no longer a single source system. Thus the system, real and reactive power flows in cables,

there has to be a change in strategy for distribution analysis. This transformers and loads, power losses and reactive power

would require a fast power flow solution with DG. This paper generated or absorbed on voltage controlled buses. The load

presents the developed three phase unbalanced power flow

flow equations are non linear equations and therefore iterative

algorithm with the choice of modeling DG as PQ or PV node.

This gives flexibility in modeling various types of DGs. The methods must be utilized in solving the equations.

distribution system model includes modeling of lines, cables, The techniques for three phase power flow analysis cannot

transformers, switches, capacitors, loads and DGs. IEEE test be developed by simply extending the balanced methods to

cases are designed for testing the three phase unbalanced three phases. A three phase method has to address issues like

algorithm for single source systems. A DG was introduced in the modeling different types of component connections,

IEEE 13-node test case and the results demonstrate the effect the determining starting point for three phase power flow solution

DG has on voltage profile and currents. Some of the results were as there are shifts and transformation ratios for each phase and

verified using Radial Distribution Analysis Package (RDAP). different nodes. For untransposed lines and cables the

balanced models are no longer useful. The symmetric

Index Terms Distributed Generation, RDAP, Distribution component transform cannot decouple the three phases. Thus

System Analysis, IEEE 13-node a fully coupled impedance matrix in three phases is needed.

M.S. Srinivas [1] gives a brief review of distribution load

flows. There are several power flow methods based on

I. INTRODUCTION backward/forward technique. They may be classified as

1. Current summation methods

P ower Flow analysis is very important and basic tool for the

2. Power Summation methods

3. Admittance summation methods

analysis of any power system as it is used in the planning and The current summation method is more convenient and faster

design stages as well as during the operations. Some than the power summation method because it uses only V and

applications in distribution automation and distribution I instead of P and Q. A lot of work has been done for radial

management like VAR planning, switching, state estimation power flow solution [2-11].

and especially optimization need repeated fast power flow The propagation of DG in distribution systems will have

solutions. In these applications it is imperative that power major effects on distribution studies. The impact of DG on

flow be calculated as efficiently as possible. Typically, a the existing system must be studied because of its significant

distribution system originates at a substation and continues to contribution in the power flow and short circuit studies. There

a lower voltage for delivery to the customers. Unlike a are currently less contributions to study the impact DG will

transmission system, a distribution system typically has a have on distribution systems, especially unbalanced

radial topological structure. The radial structure, along with distribution systems. Handling of PV nodes for three-phase

the higher resistance/reactance (R/X) ratio of the lines, means unbalanced system has been proposed by Cheng and

distribution systems are ill conditioned and hence the Fast- Shirmohammadi [12]. While reference [12] provided some

Decoupled Newton method is unsuitable for most distribution initial discussions on a PV node concept in unbalanced power

power flow problems. Most of the conventional power flow flow, our work provides a detailed description of the PV node

methods consider power demands as specified constant model integration into the unbalanced distribution power flow.

values. This should not be assumed because in distribution Our work extends the concept comparing the results from the

PQ versus PV node models.

This work was supported in part by NSF Career under Grant ECS The results are shown for an IEEE distribution system test

0196559 and the Office of Naval Research under Grants N00014-02-1-0623 case. This test case was developed for radial distribution

and N00014-03-1-0744

system analysis with one source node and hence there are no

Sarika Khushalani is with Mississippi State University, MS 39762 USA

(e-mail: sk139@ece.misstate.edu). distributed generators. Thus, DG was added into the system

Noel Schulz is with the Department of Electrical and Computer and its effect on the test case system is illustrated. Section II

Engineering, Mississippi State University, MS 39762 USA (e-mail: presents the iterative technique used to develop the power

schulz@ece.msstate.edu).

flow. Component models are shown in Section III. IEEE test The forward sweep starts at the source bus using the

case is shown in Section IV. Finally Section V presents the specified voltage and solves the network to the end most buses

results for original feeder power flow solution and power flow calculating voltages using the currents calculated from the

solution with DG for the test case. backward sweep.

The flow chart of the algorithm is shown in Fig.1. It

contains node renumbering, the method involved and

component modeling.

Read data

Node Renumbering

Converge?

The voltages from the forward sweep are used for the next

Yes iteration in the backward sweep calculations.

PV node PV No Calculate

PV node

or

converge? injections III. COMPONENT MODELS

PQ node? using eqn.1-3

In any problem where mathematics and numerical

PQ algorithms are used to analyze a physical system, the results

Yes

highly depend on the accuracy of mathematical models used.

exit

It is therefore important for the power flow analysis to model

Fig. 1. Flow Chart of the Load Flow Algorithm each component of the system as accurately as possible.

Models, which are very detailed, become unusable due to

A. Node Renumbering unavailability of parameter data. Components can be

The number of equations and unknowns in this algorithm categorized as in-branch components and node components.

depends not on the number of nodes but on number of laterals. The first three components given below belong to the former

So proper node numbering can reduce the number of category and the rest components belong to later category.

equations and variables. A radial system can be thought of as

A. Distribution System Line Model

a main feeder with laterals. These laterals may also have sub-

laterals, which may have sub-laterals, etc. The numbering is The impedance of overhead lines and underground cables is

done in a breadth first order. Whenever a lateral branches off calculated. Tables 2 and 3 in [13] are used to calculate the

of the main feeder the lateral is indexed before returning to the impedance of overhead lines from the given phasing, space

main feeder as shown in Fig. 2. ID, material and stranding. Tables 4, 5 and 6 in the same

reference are used to calculate the impedance of underground

concentric or tape shield cables. The developed impedance

matrices are used for developing models of lines. The phase

admittance matrix does not have a significant contribution and

Fig. 2. Node renumbering hence they are neglected.

B. Method Description Forward Sweep

This method involves two sweeps of calculations. In the Vi = Vi +1 + ZI i +1 (1)

backward sweep shown in Fig. 3, the end voltages are

initialized for the first iteration and currents are calculated I i = I i +1

starting at the end most buses and solved up to the source bus

by applying the current summation method. These currents are Backward Sweep

stored and used in Forward Sweep calculations. The

calculated source voltage ( Vc ) is compared with the specified Vinew = V spec ZI i for the first node calculation

voltage at the source node ( Vs ) to determine if the termination (2)

Vi +1 = Vinew ZI i +1

criterion is satisfied.

V = max | V si Vci | B. Three Phase Transformer Model

i ph

Transformers are modeled as in [11] and only the update

equations are given here. Four different types of transformers

have been modeled viz., Delta-Wye, Wye-Delta, Wye-Wye TABLE I

LOAD MODELS

and Delta-Delta.

Load Model Equation

Type Wye Delta

Forward Sweep Const *

ph n ph ph *

Vi = a t Vi +1 + bt I i +1 (3)

PQ

ph S i ph S i

ILi = ILi =

V ph n V ph ph

I i = d t I i +1 i i

Const Z

ph n 2 ph ph 2

Vi Vi

Backward Sweep ph n ph ph

Zi = , Zi = ,

ph n * ph ph *

(4) Si Si

Vi +1 = At Vinew Bt I i +1

ph n ph ph

ph n Vi ph ph Vi

C. Switch Model ILi = ILi =

ph n ph ph

Zi Zi

Switches are modeled as branches with zero impedance

Const I ph n ph n ph ph ph ph

Forward Sweep ILi = ILi * ILi = ILi *

Vi = K *Vi +1 ph n ph n ph ph ph ph

(5) i i i i

I i = K * I i +1

Backward Sweep F. Distributed Load Model

Vinew = K *V spec Sometimes the primary feeder supplies loads through

(6)

Vi +1 = K *Vinew distribution transformers tapped at various locations along line

section. If every load point is modeled as a node then there are

where K (0/1) is the switch status.

a large number of nodes in the system. So these loads are

D. Capacitor Model represented as lumped loads

The capacitor is modeled as a constant impedance matrix. 1. At one-fourth length of line from sending node where

The current injection into node i from a capacitor is two thirds of the load is connected. For this a dummy

2 node is created.

ph n phn 2. One-third load is connected at the receiving node.

Vi

phn ph n Vi

Zi = , IC i = if the capacitor G. DG model

phn * phn

Si Z i Generators are modeled in single-phase power flow

bank is Wye connected programs by specifying voltage-angle (V), real power-

2 (7) voltage (PV) or real and reactive power (PQ) constraints at the

ph ph ph ph

Vi generator buses. For three-phase analysis just extending these

ph ph ph ph Vi

Zi = , ICi = if the constraints to each phase of a generator bus may lead to

ph ph * ph ph incorrect results. The generator connections can be wye or

Si Z i

delta. Depending on its particular control parameters a DG

capacitor bank is Delta connected may be set to output power at either constant power factor for

limited reactive power DG or small DG, or constant voltage

E. Load Model for large DG. In other words some DG are modeled as

One, two or three phase loads with wye or delta connections constant PQ loads with currents injecting into the node and

can exist. Also the loads can be categorized into three others are modeled as PV nodes. The second type of DG

categories depending on the load characteristics. A brief cannot be handled directly by a radial power flow program.

description is given below and the models are as shown in the The power flow solution determines the machines

Table I. terminal voltages, and the currents injected by the machine

Constant Power: Real and reactive power injections at the will be a function of the terminal voltages when modeled as

bus are kept constant. This load corresponds to the traditional PV bus. Considered in this form, the DG is looked upon as a

PQ approximation in single-phase analysis. But it is defined voltage-dependent current source. Since the terminal voltages

between any two nodes and not from node-to-ground as in may be unbalanced, the injected currents may also be

traditional techniques. unbalanced as shown in Fig.4. If there is a large imbalance in

Constant Impedance: These types of loads are useful to the injected currents the machine may be shut down by its

model large industrial loads. The impedance of the load is protection system. Generator terminal voltage is typically

calculated by the specified real and reactive power at nominal controlled by the specification of positive sequence

voltage and is kept constant. component. Thus, injected power of each phase, under an

Constant Current: The magnitude of the load current is unbalanced terminal voltage condition, can be calculated.

calculated by the specified real and reactive power at nominal Below is the necessary calculation for incorporating the PV

voltage and is kept constant. node.

I qaj = I qaj + I qaj

I qbj = I qbj + I qbj

I qcj = I qcj + I qcj

IEEE 13-node feeder was analyzed for which the data was

obtained from IEEE test case archive for Distribution Feeders

[14]. The diagram of the Feeder is shown in Fig.5. The

regulator was removed in order to clearly see the effect of the

Fig. 4. Effect of unbalance of the system on DG injection DG on the system. The data is characterized by

Loads Spot loads and distributed loads, single phase and

1. Initially the generator real power and positive sequence

three phase balanced and unbalanced loads, wye and delta

voltage is specified. The reactive power is initialized to

connected, constant KW, KVAR, constant Z and constant I

zero. After a load flow has converged a check is

performed to verify that the voltage magnitude mismatch type.

at the PV node is below a specified tolerance. For this the 650

sequence representation of the voltage is used.

646 645 632 633 634

V1 j = V1sp

j j

V1cal (8)

671

the PV node voltage has converged to the specified

value. If a voltage mismatch at the PV node is not less 652 680

than the specified tolerance then reactive power Fig. 5. IEEE 13 Node Feeder

compensation Q generated by that PV node in order to

maintain the voltage at specified value needs to be Overhead and Underground Lines Three-phase and

calculated. single-phase lines with different spacings of phases.

Y connection and inline transformer is a grounded Y

where Z1PV is the sequence sensitivity impedance matrix grounded Y connection.

whose size is n pv n pv . The diagonal elements of this

Capacitor - Balanced three-phase capacitor and single-phase

matrix are the absolute value of the positive sequence of capacitor.

sum of series line impedances between each PV node and

the source node. The off diagonal elements are calculated V. RESULTS

from the shared path between two PV nodes and source

node. V1 pv is n pv 1 . Thus I q is n pv 1 and is the The unbalanced load flow program was developed in

MATLAB. The power flow analysis of the radial IEEE

magnitude of reactive current injection. distribution feeders has been obtained using Radial

Distribution Analysis Package (RDAP) [15] by the

3. The reactive current injection is then distribution system subcommittee.

0

+ v aj )

I qaj = I qj * e j (90

j (90 0 + v bj )

1. The results of the original feeder (without DG)

I qbj = I qj * e obtained by the developed program and those

0

+ v cj ) obtained by RDAP (actual) are compared. As seen

I qcj = I qj * e j (90 from Tables 2 and 3 the results obtained from the

where Vaj , Vbj and Vc j are the angles of the developed program closely match the results obtained

from RDAP for the original feeder. The load flow

converged voltage at the jth PV node.

took three iterations to converge. It is seen that there

are voltage violations at many nodes whereas it is

4. Now these currents are added to the original injected

desired that voltage should be in the range of 0.95

currents if any at the jth node.

and 1.05 pu.

TABLE II

ORIGINAL FEEDER ANALYSIS (VOLTAGES)

Node Calculated Actual Calculated Actual Calculated Actual

3. The DG node is now modeled as PV node. The

ID Van Van Van Van Vbn Vbn Vbn Vbn Vcn Vcn Vcn Vcn specified positive sequence voltage at this node is 1.0

650 1 0 1 0 1 -120 1 -120 1 120 1 120

632 0.9566 -2.75 0.9559 -2.79 0.9907 -121.85 0.9909 -121.83 0.9443 117.61 0.9441 117.6 pu. The total three phase Q injected in this case was

645

646

0.9811 -122.05

0.9793 -122.13

0.9815 -122.01

0.9799 -122.09

0.9424 117.64

0.9403 117.69

0.9424 117.62

0.9405 117.67

1.437 MW. The load flow converged in three

633 0.9533 -2.82 0.9528 -2.86 0.9887 -121.91 0.9889 -121.88 0.9417 117.62 0.9413 117.6 iterations after the injection. RDAP does not have the

634 0.9277 -3.59 0.9271 -3.64 0.9694 -122.41 0.9696 -122.38 0.9214 117.067 0.921 117.04

671 0.9237 -5.89 0.9232 -5.95 1.0011 -122.52 1.0015 -122.49 0.9009 115.61 0.9003 115.58

capability to model DG as PV node. The results

692 0.924 -5.88 0.9232 -5.95 1.0011 -122.52 1.0015 -122.49 0.9009 115.61 0.9003 115.58 obtained are shown in Tables 6 and 7. The positive

675 0.9168 -6.16 0.9161 -6.22 1.0035 -122.71 1.0039 -122.68 0.8986 115.64 0.898 115.61

684 0.9219 -5.91 0.9214 -5.97 0.8988 115.50 0.8981 115.47 sequence voltage at node 671 is maintained at 1.00

611

652 0.916 -5.83 0.9154 -5.9

0.8967 115.35 0.896 115.32

pu. Also due to DG the node voltages at all other

680 0.9238 -5.88 0.9232 -5.95 1.0011 -122.52 1.0015 -122.49 0.9009 115.61 0.9003 115.58 nodes have improved.

TABLE III

TABLE VI

ORIGINAL FEEDER ANALYSIS (CURRENTS)

FEEDER ANALYSIS WITH PV NODE (VOLTAGES)

From To Calculated Actual Calculated Actual Calculated Actual

Node

Node |Ia| Ia |Ia| Ia |Ib| Ib |Ib| Ib |Ic| Ic |Ic| Ic ID Van Van Vbn Vbn Vcn Vcn

650-632 591.76 -29.63 592.02 -29.68 440.44 -142.51 435.62 -142.72 626.22 91.75 622.39 91.98 650 1 0 1 -120 1 120

632-633 87.14 -38.1 87.2 -38.14 64.43 -159.28 64.41 -159.25 67.78 80.2 67.81 80.17 632 0.9888 -1.81 1.0136 -120.55 0.9789 118.74

632-645 148.59 -143.3 143.83 -143.97 66.35 57.26 61.29 57.26 645 1.0043 -120.73 0.977 118.77

632-671 505.72 -28.18 505.94 -28.23 231.1 -137.39 231.07 -137.39 507.71 97.53 507.98 97.49 646 1.0025 -120.81 0.975 118.81

645-646 61.25 -122.74 61.29 -122.74 61.25 57.26 61.29 57.26 633 0.9857 -1.88 1.0116 -120.60 0.9762 118.74

633-634 755.25 -38.1 755.73 -38.15 558.37 -159.28 558.22 -159.25 587.45 80.2 587.7 80.17 634 0.9609 -2.60 0.9928 -121.08 0.9566 118.22

671-692 246.55 -20.57 246.76 -20.65 65.1 -58.39 65.16 -58.33 191.02 105.16 191.14 105.1 671 0.9872 -3.79 1.046 -119.96 0.9685 118.02

671-684 58.81 -39.73 58.76 -39.77 70.9 118.61 70.89 118.56 692 0.9872 -3.79 1.046 -119.96 0.9685 118.02

671-680 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 675 0.9807 -4.05 1.0484 -120.14 0.9666 118.04

692-675 220.49 -8.74 220.67 -8.84 65.1 -58.39 65.16 -58.33 136.39 105.77 136.5 105.7 684 0.9852 -3.82 0.9665 117.92

684-611 70.9 118.61 70.89 118.55 611 0.9645 117.77

684-652 58.81 -39.73 58.76 -39.77 652 0.9789 -3.75

680 0.9872 -3.80 1.046 -119.96 0.9685 118.02

and the node was treated as PQ node with constant TABLE VII

power factor of 0.9. The capacity of the installed DG FEEDER ANALYSIS WITH PV NODE (CURRENTS)

was P=630 and Q=305 for each phase. The load flow From-To Node |Ia| Ia |Ib| Ib |Ic| Ic

650-632 249.34 -9.22 153.99 -98.08 273.22 111.51

converged in three iterations. The results were 632-633 84.13 -37.11 62.91 -157.96 65.29 81.35

compared with RDAP. As seen from Tables 4 and 5 632-645 144.68 -142 64.35 58.69

the results obtained from the developed program 632-671 179.35 3.46 155.83 -14.79 196.75 136.8

645-646 62.35 -121.31 62.35 58.69

closely match the results obtained from RDAP when 633-634 729.11 -37.11 545.2 -157.96 565.8 81.35

the DG node is modeled as PQ node. 671-692 230.06 -16.71 68.98 -53.19 179.74 110.87

671-684 62.85 -37.64 71.11 123.3

671-680 0 0 0 0 0 0

TABLE IV 692-675 205.91 -3.77 68.98 -53.19 125.4 113.08

FEEDER ANALYSIS WITH PQ NODE (VOLTAGES) 684-611 71.11 123.3

Node Calculated Actual Calculated Actual Calculated Actual 684-652 62.85 -37.64

ID Van Van Van Van Vbn Vbn Vbn Vbn Vcn Vcn Vcn Vcn

650 1 0 1 0 1 -120 1 -120 1 120 1 120

632 0.9817 -1.66 0.9815 -1.68 1.008 -120.48 1.0081 -120.47 0.9707 118.84 0.9707 118.84 VI. CONCLUSIONS

645 0.9986 -120.67 0.9988 -120.65 0.9688 118.86 0.969 118.86

646 0.9968 -120.74 0.9971 -120.72 0.9668 118.91 0.967 118.91 A generalized three phase unbalanced power flow was

633 0.9785 -1.73 0.9784 -1.75 1.006 -120.53 1.0062 -120.52 0.968 118.83 0.968 118.83 developed. This program can handle multiple source nodes.

634 0.9536 -2.47 0.9534 -2.48 0.987 -121.02 0.9872 -121 0.9483 118.31 0.9483 118.31

671 0.9725 -3.53 0.9725 -3.55 1.035 -119.81 1.0351 -119.8 0.9522 118.21 0.9522 118.21

IEEE13-node feeder analysis was done and its results were

692 0.9727 -3.53 0.9725 -3.55 1.035 -119.81 1.0351 -119.8 0.9522 118.21 0.9522 118.21 compared with RDAP. A DG was introduced at one of the

675 0.966 -3.78 0.9659 -3.8 1.0374 -119.99 1.0375 -119.98 0.9501 118.23 0.9501 118.23

684 0.9707 -3.55 0.9706 -3.57 0.9501 118.11 0.9501 118.11

junction nodes. This DG node was represented as PQ node

611 0.9481 117.96 0.9481 117.96 and the results obtained were verified using RDAP. This

652 0.9645 -3.48 0.9644 -3.5 DG node was then represented as PV node in the power

680 0.9726 -3.53 0.9725 -3.54 1.035 -119.81 1.0351 -119.8 0.9522 118.21 0.9522 118.21

flow program. RDAP does not have the capability to model

TABLE V DG as PV node. Future work includes the application of

FEEDER ANALYSIS WITH PQ NODE (CURRENTS) this analysis tool for Shipboard distribution system analysis.

From Calculated Actual Calculated Actual Calculated Actual

To Node |Ia| Ia |Ia| Ia |Ib| Ib |Ib| Ib |Ic| Ic |Ic| Ic

650-632 273.95 -26.45 273.97 -26.45 137.03 -123.18 134.94 -123.15 304.15 97.39 302.55 97.63 VII. REFERENCES

632-633 84.78 -36.98 84.79 -36.99 63.28 -157.89 63.26 -157.87 65.86 81.44 65.86 81.44

[1] M.S.Srinivas, "Distribution Load Flows: A brief review," Proceedings of

632-645 145.6 -141.93 143.63 -142.21 64.81 58.73 62.72 58.74

632-671 191.23 -21.8 191.24 -21.8 98.26 -0.64 98.31 -0.65 199.04 114.51 199.05 114.49

IEEE PES Winter Meeting, Jan. 2000, Vol. 2, pp.942 945.

645-646 62.71 -121.27 62.72 -121.26 62.81 58.73 62.72 58.74 [2] Tsai-Hsiang Chen et al, Distribution System Power Flow Analysis-A

633-634 734.75 -36.98 734.86 -36.99 548.4 -157.89 548.29 -157.87 570.77 81.44 570.78 81.44 Rigid Approach IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 6, No. 3,

671-692 233.67 -16.86 233.69 -16.88 68.02 -53.65 68.05 -53.62 182.28 110.25 182.27 110.26 pp.1146 1152, July 1991.

671-684 61.92 -37.38 61.9 -37.36 71.05 122.94 71.05 122.94 [3] Ray D. Zimmerman and H.D.Chiang, Fast Decoupled Power Flow for

671-680 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems IEEE Transactions on Power

692-675 209.05 -4.19 209.07 -4.2 68.02 -53.65 68.05 -53.62 127.83 112.04 127.82 112.05

Systems, Vol.10, No.4, Nov. 1995, pp. 2045-2052.

684-611 71.05 122.94 71.05 122.94

684-652 61.92 -37.38 61.9 -37.36

[4] Jen-Hao Teng, A direct Approach for Distribution System Load Flow

Solutions IEEE transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.18, No.3, July [14] Radial Distribution Test Feeders,

2003. http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/dsacom/testfeeders.html

[5] W. M. Lin et al, Three-Phase Unbalanced Distribution Power Flow [15] RDAP User Manual, Version 3.0, September 1999, WH Power

Solutions with Minimum Data Preparation IEEE Transactions on Consultants, Las Cruces, NM. http://www.zianet.com/whpower

Power Systems, Vol.14, No.3, August 1999.

[6] Y. J. Jang and J. K. Park, Three-Phase Power Flow Method based on

Fast-decoupled Method for Unbalanced Radial Distribution System

VIII. BIOGRAPHIES

http://eeserver.korea.ac.kr/~bk21/arch/bk21conf/54.pdf

[7] Jen-Hao Teng, A Network-Topology-based Three-phase Load Flow for Sarika Khushalani is currently pursuing a Ph.D. degree from Electrical and

Distribution Systems Proceedings of National Science Council, Vol.24, Computer Engineering Department of Mississippi State University. She

No.4, pp.259-264, 2000. received her B.E. degree from Nagpur University and M.E. degree from

[8] Xu Wilsun et al, A Generalized Three-Phase Power Flow Method for Mumbai University, India in 1998 and 2000 respectively. She was involved in

the Initialization of EMTP Simulations Proceedings of International research activities at IIT Bombay, India. Her research interests are computer

Conference on Power System Technology, Vol. 2, pp. 875 - 879, 1998. applications in power system analysis and power system control. She was also

[9] H.M. Mok, S. Elangovan, M. M. A. Salama et al, Power Flow Analysis a Honda Fellowship Award recipient at MSU.

for Balanced and Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems

http://www.itee.uq.edu.au/~aupec/aupec99/mok99.pdf

Noel N. Schulz received her B.S.E.E. and M.S.E.E. degrees from Virginia

[10] M.A. Laughton Analysis of unbalanced polyphase networks by method

Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1988 and 1990, respectively. She

of phase co-ordinates Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 15, No.8, August

received her Ph.D. in EE from the University of Minnesota in 1995. She has

1968

been an associate professor in the ECE department at Mississippi State

[11] William H. Kersting, Distribution System Modeling and Analysis, CRC

University since July 2001. Prior to that she spent six years on the faculty of

Press, New York, 2002.

Michigan Tech. Her research interests are in computer applications in power

[12] Carol S. Cheng and Dariush Shirmohammadi, A Three-Phase Power

system operations including artificial intelligence techniques. She is a NSF

Flow Method for Real-Time Distribution System Analysis IEEE

CAREER award recipient. She has been active in the IEEE Power

Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.10, No.2, May. 1995.

Engineering Society and is serving as Secretary for 2004-2005. She was the

[13] Kersting, W.H., Radial distribution test feeders, Proceedings of IEEE

2002 recipient of the IEEE/PES Walter Fee Outstanding Young Power

PES Winter Meeting, Vol.2, pp. 908 912, 2001

Engineer Award. Dr. Schulz is a member of Eta Kappa Nu and Tau Beta Pi.

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