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Summary Introduction to Offshore Engineering Oe4606 Complete Lecture 1 16

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Summary Introduction to Offshore Engineering (OE4606):

complete (lecture 1-16)

Introduction to Offshore Engineering (Technische Universiteit Delft)

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Introduction to Offshore Engineering

Lecture 1: Introduction to Offshore Engineering - Kraminski

- In general, the oil temperature and pressure in an reservoir is
o 200 and 100 bar
! The deeper the hole, the closer to the centre of the earth " higher temp and
higher pressure
- What is flowing from an oil reservoir
o Oil, gas, water and sand
- What are the modules on a deck for
o Prepare oil for transportation
! Reducing pressure
! Lowering temp
! Separating gas from oil
! Drying
Removing sand
Biological Origin
- Originally small marine animals that died and were buried under sediment on the (then) sea bed
- Transformed to hydrocarbons (oil and gas) by temperature and pressure in the earth
- Hydrocarbons float on water; they seep slowly upward
o Until trapped by an impervious boundary
o Most have seeped all the way to the surface
- Oil and gas are stored in place of pore water in more or less porous and permeable (sand)stones
- The tops of reservoirs are obviously capped by impervious stone layers (otherwise the oil and
gas would continue to migrate upward)
How do we find it?

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- The reservoir is present but it must be found first in order to develop it

- History: wildcat drilling (in the hope of finding something good)
- Present: seismic surveys localize earth formations amenable to providing hydrocarbon storage
and prove presence of hydrocarbons with exploration drilling
Exploration drilling
- Drill vertically into the top of the reservoir (usually)
- Greatest chance of hitting something useful
- Measure distance down; this calibrates the seismic map
o Drill hole to verify seismic profile, not to find oil
! Pressure constant: oil well is very big
! Pressure drops: bubble of water
- Measurements from hole to get reservoir quality
- Drill through the bottom of the reservoir to learn as much as possible about reservoir size
Production test (of discovered well)
- Short duration a few hours
- Measure flow rates and pressures
- Determines
o Quality of the hydrocarbons
o Estimate the ease of hydrocarbon recovery
Rough estimate of volumes
! Data for reservoir engineers
Reservoir Engineering
- Make a well plan which will optimally drain the reservoir
- Various well types:
o Vertical or deviated or even horizontal
- Various well purposes
o Oil or gas production
o Gas injection
o Water injection
What comes out of a well
- Oil
- Gas
o Dissolved in the oil in the reservoir. This comes out of solution as pressure decreases
while the oil gets higher in the production well)
- Water
o Sometimes even more than 95%
- Small amounts of solids
Not all gas is good
- Hydrocarbons, such as methane CH4 (good)
- Carbon dioxide, CO2
- CO2 mixes with water and produces carbonic acid H2CO3 which corrodes pipelines
- Hydrogen sulphide, H2S poisonous
Heavier oil components
Heavier oil components
- Asphaltines
o Produce asphalt and can make a rather stable emulsion when mixed with water. Hard to
separate and to pump. Can solidify if temperature gets below its pour point
- Parafines

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