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Tugas

Bahasa Inggris

Structure TOEFL

Disusun Untuk Memenuhi Tugas Mata Kuliah Bahasa Inggris

Disusun Oleh :

Patricia Anna Maria (201550269)

Restu Indah Rahayu (201550271)

Yuliana (201550282)
Skill 45 Check Pronoun Reference for Agreement

A pronoun must agree with the noun to witch it refers (the pronouns referent). Most
agreement errors with personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns and demonstrarive pronouns
consist of a singular pronoun referring to a singular noun.
Agreement errors with relative pronouns usually involve the use of who to refer to things
or witch to refer to persons.
(Note: the relative pronoun that can be used in certain sentences to refer to both persons and
things.)
Another error involves the use of this or those in place of that and those. (this and
these are used to refer to things that are perceived as close in time or space, that and those are
used to refer to things that are perceived as in time or space.)

Examples:
1. Herman Meluille gathered material for him novels, including moby dick, during his years
at sea. (Incorrect)
This example is not correct because him is shows Herman Meluille so we must change it
with his. (Incorrect)
2. Papers are due today at 5:00 p.m be sure to turn it in one time.
This example is not correct because it shows papers so we must change it with
Them because papers is plural.
3. The best way for children to learn science is for them to perform experiments himself.
(Incorrect)
himself leads to children so because children is plural so we use Themselves.
4. Block island in long island sound it is surrounded by cold, dangerous waters. (Incorrect)
This incorrect because double subject thats block island and it.
Skill 53 Distinguish A and AN

The article A is used before singular, countable nouns which begin with consonant sounds.
The article AN is used before singular, countable nouns which begin with vowel sounds.
Remember that A (AN) means "one" or "a single". You cannot use A (AN) with plural nouns. If
there is an adjective or an adverb-adjective combination before the noun, A (AN) should agree
with the first sound in the adjective or the adverb-adjective combination. In English, some nouns
are considered uncountable such as: information, air, advice, salt and fun. We do not
use A(AN) with these uncountable nouns.

Examples:

1. I saw a bear at the zoo. (Correct)

this example is correct because bear is singular so we use A.

2. She didnt get an invitation (Correct)

This example is correct bcause invitation begin with vowel sound.

3. I saw a bears in Yellowstone National Park (Incorrect)

This example is not correct because in this example bears is plural so we cant use A for
this example.

4. I saw a really beautiful eagel at the zoo. (Correct)

This example is correct because really is begin with consonant sound.

Skill 21 Make Verbs Agree After Expressions of Quantity

A particular agreement problem occurs when the subject is an expression of quantity such
asall, most, or some followed by the preposition of. In this situation, the subject (all, most, or
some) can be singular or plural, depending on what follows the preposition of
Most (of the meal) was delicious.
SINGULAR

Most (of the meals) were delicious.


PLURAL

Most (of the food) was delicious.


UNCOUNTABLE

In the first example, the subject most refers to the singular noun meal, so the correct verb is
therefore the singular verb was. In the second example, the subject most refers to the plural noun
meals, so the correct verb is the plural verb were. In the third example, the subject most refers to
the uncountable noun food, so the correct verb is therefore the singular verb was.

These sentences contain examples of the types of problems that are common on the TOEFL test.

All (of the book) were* interesting.

Half (of the students) is* late to class.

In the first example, the plural verb were should be the singular verb was because the subject all
refers to the singular noun book. In the second example, the singular verb is should be the plural
verb are because the subject half refers to the plural noun students.

The following chart outlines the key information that you should understand about subject/verb
agreement after expressions of quantity.

Examples:

1. Half of the students in the class arrive early. (Correct)

Analysis:
Object is Students (plural) and Verb is arrive (plural Verb), so the sentence is correct
2. Some of the fruit are rotten. (Incorrect)

Analysis:
Fruit and are (Verb) are not match. It should be ".....fruit is ...

3. All of the next chapter contains very important information. (Correct)

Analysis:
The next chapter (singular noun) and contains (singular verb) are match. (correct)

4. Most of the people in the room is paying attention. (Incorrect)

Analysis:
The people (plural noun) and is (singular verb) are not match. It should be".....of the people
......are ..."

Skill 20:make verb agree after propositional phrases

Subject/verb agreement is simple: if the subject of a sentence is singular, then the verb must be
singular; if the subject of the sentence is plural, then the verb must be plural. An s on a verb
usually indicates that a verb is singular, while an s on a noun usually indicates that the noun is
plural. (Do not forget irregular plurals of nounssuch as women, children, and people.)

The dog barks at night.

The dogs bark at night.

In the first example, the singular subject dog requires a singular verb, barks. In the second
example, the plural subject dogs requires a plural verb, bark.
Sometimes prepositional phrases can come between the subject and the verb on the TOEFL test,
and this can cause confusion. If the object of the preposition is singular and the subject is plural,
or if the object of thepreposition is plural and the subject is singular, there can be a problem in
making the subject and verb agree.

In the first example, you might think that rooms is the subject because it comes directly in front
of the verb are. However, rooms is not the subject because it is the object of the preposition to.
The subject of the sentence isdoor, so the verb should be is. In the second example, you might
think that room is the subject because it comes directly in front of the verb is. You should
recognize in this example that room is not the subject because it is the object of
the preposition to. Because the subject of the sentence is doors, the verb should be are.

The following chart outlines the key information that you should understand about subject/verb
agreement with prepositional phrases

1. The subject (of the lectures) was quite interesting. (Correct)

Analysis:
The subject is SUBJECT and was is VERB. (Correct)
"Lectures" is not SUBJECT, it is object after preposition "OF".

2. The supplies (for the camping trip) needs to be packed. (Incorrect)

Analysis:
SUBJECT is The supplies and VERB is needs.( incorrect).
Needs should be Need because The supplies is plural
"the camping trip" is only object after prepositional "FOR".
3. The chairs under the table in the dining room is quite comfortable. (Incorrect)

Analysis:

SUBJECT is "The chairs" and VERB is "is". (Incorrect).


"is" should be "are" because "The chairs" is plural.
"the dining room" is only object after prepepostion
4. The players on the winning team in the competition were very talented. (Correct)

Analysis:

SUBJECT is The players and VERB is were. (correct)

Skill 52 : Use Article With Singular Noun.

Singular noun is a noun that indicates that the object is a single or only one . In general, the
singular noun is always preceded by a or an article , especially for objects that can be counted
and not known with certainty .

Which is included in all the singular noun is a noun that does not change or no increase s / ice .

Example:
book ; car ; house ; pencil; umbrella; cat and others .

If the singular noun is used in conjunction with a verb , the verb used is a singular verb , ie by
adding s / es on the verb . Or can be used helpers is and was .
A singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea, while a plural noun names more than
one person, place, thing, or idea. There are a few basic rules to remember when it comes to
turning a singular noun into a plural noun. A singular noun must have an article (a, an, the) or
some other determiner such as my or each.
1. Most singular nouns need an 's' at the end to become plural. These are the easy ones. You can
just add an 's' to alien, taco, or skateboard, for example, and you instantly have aliens, tacos, and
skateboards.

There's a second rule for nouns that end with certain letters.

2. Singular nouns ending in 's,' 'ss,' 'sh,' 'ch,' 'x,' or 'z' need an 'es' at the end to become plural.

So, if you have a secretive, alcoholic octopus drinking wine from a glass behind a bush, and you
decide that one of those just isn't enough, you'd have two octopuses drinking from glasses behind
bushes.

The same would be true for a crutch, a box, and a blintz, which would become crutches, boxes,
and blintzes.

Note that some singular nouns ending in 's' or 'z' require that you double the 's' or 'z' before
adding an 'es.' For example, a really bad day might involve you having not one pop quiz, but two
pop quizzes.

Examples :
1. The child and his friends are having milk and cookies. (Correct)

Because the teacher says it is necessary to show the addition of a single

2. She wrote book when she was twenty. (the book ) (Incorrect)

Because the word book should use the definite article (the)
3. Can you lend me a magazine? (Correct)

Singular countable noun need to use the indefinite article (a / an)

4. The dog under the chair eat meat. (eats). (Incorrect)

Eat because the word is a verb that is used is a singular verb, by adding s.