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This manual has been prepared keeping in view the basic requirements of concrete technology. This
is to be used up to the beginners level in concrete materials study. This manual contains the basic
theoretical information extracted from books, the apparatus required for an experiment, the procedure
and calculation of the experiments. Various books and research papers have been consulted while
preparing this manual. If some errors are found then kindly inform the author.

A.Ahmed, Z.A.Siddiqi, A.U.Qazi

Table of contents

Job No. 1 1
Job No. 2 13
Job No. 3 17
Job No. 4 21
Job No. 5 24
Job No. 6 34
Job No. 7 37
Job No. 8 43
Job No. 9 46
Job No. 10 59
Job No. 11 62
Job No. 12 65
Job No. 13 69
Job No. 14 72
Job No. 15 76
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 1

1 JOB NO. 1


Concrete is the most commonly used construction material these days. This is a plastic material
that possesses transit properties (properties that change with time) i.e. strength, hardness,
ductility, fluidity etc.

1.1 Definition:

Concrete is a mixture of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate/fillers, cement and water

Being more specific,

Concrete is a transient material comprised of coarse aggregates, matrix and ITZ (Interfacial
transition zone)

Let us discuss the individual items,

i. Coarse Aggregates:

Coarse aggregates constitute the largest portion of the concrete. The main purpose of coarse
aggregates is to provide strength. In normal strength concrete compressive strength is mainly
contributed by the coarse aggregates.

These are the particles retained on sieve # 4 (with an opening of 5mm). There is no set upper
limit on the size of particles but usually an upper limit of 50mm (2in) is considered.

b. Matrix

In simple words we can say that matrix is a mixture of all constituents of concrete other than
the coarse aggregates. This contains the binding material, fillers, water, admixtures and
additives etc. Each of these have been explained below,

i. Binding Material:

This is the component that holds primarily the coarse aggregate particles together. All
the particles in concrete are held together by this component. The function of binding
material can be defined as it provides confinement to coarse and fine aggregate

In case of concrete confinement is of utmost importance. It can be understood by the

following example,

If we place coarse aggregate particles in a mold (form work) and test that in a
machine, it will provide some strength. But if the aggregates are tried to be tested
without the mold, it would be very difficult to hold them at their location. Before the

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 1

machine can apply the load the coarse aggregate particles will drop down. Hence, for
testing coarse aggregates these should be put in some mold. The mold provides
confinement to the aggregates.

The most commonly used binding material in concrete is Portland cement (ordinary
cement) and the resulting concrete is called, ordinary Portland cement (OPC)

There are different types of cement,

Type-I (Normal strength cement)

Type-II (Moderate sulfate resistant cement)

Type-III (High early strength cement)

Type-IV (Low heat of hydration cement)

Type-V (Sulfate resistant cement)

ii. Fillers:

Fillers are mainly used to fill the gaps between the coarse aggregate particles. These
provide better packing and economize the concrete production by reducing the amount
of cement required.

The most commonly used filler is sand/fine aggregate. In road construction stone dust
is also used. In high strength concrete, where binders and fillers are equally important
in achieving strength as the coarse aggregates, some other types of filler material like
quartz sand is used to fill in the gaps between the fine aggregate particles.

iii. Water:

Water is a very important constituent of concrete. It is provided for two main reasons,
first one is the hydration process and second one is the workability of concrete.

Water is required for the hydration process. It reacts with cement and forms calcium
hydrate silicate gel that provides the binding property. Further it acts as a lubricant
between different particles present in concrete and allows them to move while in fresh
state. This makes it possible to pour concrete in the form work.

Workability and hydration processes have been explained later.

iv. Admixtures:

Admixtures are the ingredients that are used to change properties like workability,
flow, setting time etc.

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 1

These are mostly mixed with water and added to concrete at a later stage of mixing (in
high strength concrete these are usually added in the second step to form a paste with
powdered substances)

Some common types of admixtures are,

a. Water Reducing Admixtures (plasticizers and super plasticizers):

These are used for increasing workability with constant amount of water. The
excessive amount of water can render the concrete weak as after the
evaporation of extra water voids are left behind that cause serious reduction in
strength by two main processes. First one is the direct effect on compressive
strength due to reduction in area of concrete available at a section. Secondly
the voids allow the entrance of harmful chemicals that can either affect the
cement or aggregates or cause corrosion of steel present in form of tensile

b. Retarding admixtures:

Retarding admixtures are used to delay the setting time of cement. This
provides extra time to use concrete especially in those construction projects
where concrete batching plants are installed at a large distance from the site. In
such projects transportation takes a lot of time. Concrete cannot be used after
the initial setting time of cement. So in order to delay this initial setting time of
cement retarders are used.

c. Accelerating Admixtures:

Accelerators are used to reduce the setting time of cement. This type of
admixtures is usually used while concreting in cold regions where the setting
of cement occurs at a slow rate. This may also be used to speed up the
construction process in order to use the same formwork on upper stories or to
open a project earlier for public (e.g. repair or new construction of a bridge)

d. Corrosion inhibiting admixtures:

Corrosion inhibiting admixtures are added to avoid the corrosion of steel.

Corrosion of steel affects the strength of reinforced cement concrete in two
ways. By reducing the area of steel required to resist the applied tensile
stresses and by reducing the grip of concrete over steel that ensures the transfer
of tensile stresses from concrete to steel.

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 1

v. Additives:

These are the substances used to increase the strength of concrete. These can be
pozzolanic materials like silica fumes, fly ash or other materials like matakaolin or
even powdered fillers like quartz powder that fill in the gaps between binder particles.

These are usually added in dry state along with the other binding materials like

c. Interfacial transition zone:

This is the boundary zone between the matrix and coarse aggregates. The study of this
boundary is very important especially in high strength concrete where the function of matrix
is equally important as that of coarse aggregates.

1.2 Proportioning of concrete materials:

Proportioning of different materials is very important to achieve a material with desired

strength and properties. For example a concrete with less amount of coarse aggregate particles
will provide less strength. Similarly a concrete with less amount of matrix will not be able to
move in the form work and settle properly.

Knowing the properties of each of the constituents of concrete, the amount of all components is
decided. The process is call concrete mix design covered in experiment number 7.

1.3 Hydration of cement:

Hydration process is the one in which cement reacts with water to form a paste known as
calcium hydrate silicate gel responsible for providing the binding property.

The hydration process begins as soon as the water is added to cement. The main components of
cement and their role in hydration has been briefly explained below,

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 1

a. C3S : 4.07(CaO)-7.6(SiO2)-6.72(Al2O3)-1.43(Fe2O3)-2.85(SO3)
b. C2S : 2.87(SiO2)-0.754(3CaO.SiO2)
c. C3A : 2.65(Al2O3)-1.69(Fe2O3)
d. C4AF : 3.04 (Fe2O3)


(a & b) Ca & Si reacts first & start the hydration process

(c & d) Reacts to give hydration & give final setting time

1.4 Workability of concrete:

This can be defined as,

Glanville, et al. (1947),

The amount of work needed to produce full compaction

ACI, 1990

That property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar which determines the ease and homogeneity
with which it can be mixed, placed, consolidated and finished.

ASTM, 1993

That property determining the effort required to manipulate a freshly mixed quantity of
concrete with minimum loss of homogeneity.

a. Measurement of Workability:

Workability can be by different techniques such as,

i. Slump Test.
ii. Compacting Factor Test.
iii. VB Test.
iv. Flow Table Test.
v. Slump Flow Test.
vi. Degree of compactability test.

These tests have been briefly explained below along with the supporting figures and calculation

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 1

i. Slump test.
Concrete is filled in a cone with proper compaction. The cone is removed and the drop
in height of concrete is noted down.
For further explanation go to experiment number 8

Fig from Concrete Properties by John Newman

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 1

ii. Compacting factor test.

Concrete is filled in the first bucket out of the two or three in series. The concrete is
allowed to drop from the first bucket to second and then to the mold. This is called
partially compacted concrete. The weight of concrete in this partially compacted state
is compared with the fully compacted weight in form of a ratio called compacting
factor value.
For further explanation go to experiment number 9

Fig from Concrete Properties by John Newman

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 1

iii. VB test.
In this test the concrete is place in a mold with a plate at the top. Vibrations are
provided until the concrete gets fully settled. The time is noted down.

Fig from Concrete Properties by John Newman

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 1

iv. Flow table test.

The concrete is placed on a table by using a cone. Then top surface of table is lifted
and dropped for specific number of times and the spread of concrete is noted down.

Fig from Concrete Properties by John Newman

v. Slump flow test.

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 1

In this test the concrete slump test is performed but instead of determining the drop in
height, spread of concrete is measured.

Fig from Concrete Properties by John Newman

vi. Degree of compactability test.

In this test concrete is filled in a mold which is provided vibrations for a specific time.
Then the drop in height of concrete is noted down.

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 1

Fig from Concrete Properties by John Newman

The workability is lost due to the following reasons,

vii. Mix water being absorbed by the aggregate if this not in a saturated state before
Evaporation of the mix water
Early hydration reactions (but this should not be confused with cement setting)
Interactions between admixtures (particularly plasticizers and superplasticizers) and
the cementitious constituents of the mix.

1.5 Placing and Finishing concrete:

By placing and finishing we mean how to put concrete in the mold and how to get the final
shape and finish. The basic process is that concrete is poured in the form work by concrete
pump of buckets. Then it is consolidated (vibrations are provided by external or internal
vibraters i.e. vibrating table & pokers/niddle vibraters)

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 1

There are a few things to be considered while working with concrete,

The concrete should be discharged as close as possible to its final position, preferably straight into the
A substantial free-fall distance will encourage segregation and should therefore be avoided
With deep pours, the rate of placing should be such that the layer of concrete below that being placed should
not have set; this will ensure full continuity between layers, and avoid cold joints and planes of weakness in
the hardened concrete
Once the concrete is in place, vibration, either internal or external, should be applied to mold the concrete
around embedments e.g. reinforcement, and to eliminate pockets of entrapped air, but the vibration should
not be used to move the concrete into place
High-workability mixes should not be over vibrated this may cause segregation.

1.6 Curing of concrete:

As we know that water is added for workability and hydration. So if water is not available for
hydration, strength will be compromised. We also studied that water is lost (loss of workability)
is due to water absorption and evaporation. This loss of water is to be compensated by either
adding extra amount of water or preventing the already present amount of water from
evaporating. This process is called curing.

Different techniques used in curing are,

Adding extra water by spraying and covering the concrete by gunny bags etc.
By allowing water to stand on the roofs
By covering concrete by polythene sheets in order to prevent water from escaping by

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 2

2 JOB NO. 2

Standard Test Method for The Determination of the Normal Consistency of the Hydraulic

Code: ASTM C 187-04

2.1 Scope and Significance:

It is used to find out the percentage of water at which the standard consistency is achieved. This
known amount of water is then used in making the cement paste for other tests like;

i. Initial setting time

ii. Final setting time
iii. Soundness test

2.2 Apparatus:

Weighing Balance
VICAT Apparatus (contains)
Plunger with end of 10mm diameter and 50mm length
Conical ring with lower diameter of 70mm, upper diameter of
60mm and 40mm height.
Glass graduates (200mL or 250mL capacity)
Glass plate trowel

2.3 Related theory:

a. Consistency

The thickness or the viscosity of the cement paste is called consistency.

b. Cement paste

The viscous mass obtained by mixing cement with water is known as

cement paste.

c. Standard paste

It is the cement paste for which the 10mm diameter plunger in a standard
VICAT test penetrates by around 10mm.

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 2

d. Standard/Normal consistency

It is the thickness or the viscosity of the standard paste and is expressed

as the percentage of weight of water.

e. VICAT apparatus

The Vicat apparatus consists of a frame A

(Fig.) bearing a movable rod B, weighing 300
g, one end C, the plunger end, being 10 mm
in diameter for a distance of at least 50 mm,
and the other end have a removable needle
D, 1 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length.
The rod B is reversible, and can be held in
any desired position by a set screw E, and
has an adjustable indicator F, which moves
over a scale (graduated in millimeters)
attached to the frame A. The paste is held in
a rigid conical ring G, resting on a plane non-
absorptive square base plate H, about 100
mm on each side.

The rod B is made of stainless steel having a hardness of not less than
35 HRC, and shall be straight with the plunger end which is perpendicular
to the rod axis. The ring is made of a non-corroding, nonabsorbent material,
and have an inside diameter of 70 mm at the base and 60 mm at the top,
and a height of 40 mm. In addition to the above, the Vicat apparatus shall
conform to the following requirements:

Weight of moveable rod = 3005 gm

Diameter of the plunger end of the rod = 100.05 mm

Diameter of the needle = 10.05 mm

Inside diameter of the ring at the bottom = 703 mm

Inside diameter of the ring at the top = 603 mm

Height of the ring = 403 mm

2.4 Test specifications:

a. Temperature & humidity

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 2

The temperature of the air in the vicinity should be between 20-27.5 C.

The temperature of the mixing water should be 232 C.

The relative humidity of the laboratory should not be less than 50%.

b. Amount of cement

Amount of cement required for the test according to various

specifications are mentioned below.

ASTM = 650gm

c. Mixing time

The cement paste must be properly mixed and placed in the test specimen
within a maximum time of 41/4 min from the instant when cement and
water were initially brought in contact.

2.5 Procedure:

Mix 650gm of cement with a measured quantity of water and make a

cement paste as per the standard procedure. Put the cement paste in the
ring of the vicat apparatus and remove the excess paste with the help of a
trowel. Center the paste confined in the ring, resting on the plate, under
the rod B and bring the plunger end C of in contact with the surface of the
paste, and tighten the set-screw E. Then set the movable indicator F to
the upper zero mark of the scale, or take an initial reading, and release
the rod immediately. This must not exceed 30 seconds after completion of
mixing. The apparatus shall be free of all vibrations during the test.

The paste of normal consistency is achieved when the rod settles to a

point such that it is 10mm from the top surface in 30 seconds after being
released. Make trial pastes with varying percentages of water until the
normal consistency is obtained. Make each trial with fresh cement.

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 2

2.6 Observations & Calculations:

Type of cement: _______________

Source of cement: _______________

Manufacturer of cement: _______________

Sampling Person: _______________

Quantity of cement (W1) gm: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Observation No 1 2 3 4

Weight of water added (W2) gm

Penetration of plunger (mm)

% water by weight = W2/W1



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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 3

3 JOB NO. 3

Standard Test Method for The Determination of the Initial and Final Setting Time of the
Hydraulic Cement By VICAT Needle Apparatus.

Code: ASTM C 191-04b

3.1 Scope & significance:

This test method is used to determine the time of setting of the hydraulic
cement by Vicat needle apparatus.

The knowledge of the setting time of the cement is always helpful in

deciding the time duration to mix, transport, place and compact the concrete

We always prefer a larger initial setting time so that we can mix,

transport and place the concrete easily. According to ASTM specifications,
the initial setting time shall not be less than 45 minutes and not more than
375 minutes.

A smaller value of the final setting time is always preferred in order to

avoid large expenditures on the formwork. According to most of the
specifications, the final setting time shall not be greater than 10hrs and shall
not be less than ( 90 + 1.2 (initial setting time) ) min.

i.e. ( 90 + 1.2 (initial setting time) ) min < final setting time < 10hrs

3.2 Apparatus:

Vicat apparatus
Needle of 1mm2 cross-section and 50mm
length (for initial setting time)
Flat trowel
Reference Masses and Devices for
Determining Mass
Graduated cylinders

3.3 Related theory:

a. Setting

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 3

In the setting process very little chemical reaction takes place. It only
includes the shape acquisition due to evaporation of water. During the
setting process the cement remains in the fluid or the semi-fluid state and
there is very little or no gain in strength. Finer the cement particles more
will be the hydration and therefore it will lead to quick settlement.

b. Hardening

Hardening is the rate of gain of strength due to the chemical reaction.

It also refers to the strength of the concrete after a specified interval of

c. Initial setting time

The time elapsed between the initial contact of cement and water and the
time when a 1mm2 cross-section needle gives a penetration of 25mm in a
standard Vicat apparatus is known as initial setting time of that particular
cement paste.

d. Final setting time

It is the time elapsed between the initial contact of cement and water and
the time when the needle does not show considerable penetration.

According to specifications;

Maximum final setting time = 10hrs

Minimum final setting time = [90 + 1.2 (initial setting time)] min

3.4 Test specifications:

a. Needle sizes

1- For Initial Setting Time and Final Setting Time

1mm x 1mm cross-section (1mm2 cross section required)

50mm length

b. Mixing water

Potable water is satisfactory for the routine tests.

i. Temperature & humidity

The temperature of the air in the vicinity should be between 233 C.

The temperature of the mixing water should be 232 C.

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 3

The relative humidity of the laboratory should not be less than 50%.

ii. Amount of cement

Amount of cement required for the test according to various

specifications are mentioned below.

ASTM = 650gm

3.5 Procedure:

Prepare a cement paste of standard consistency and put it in the ring of

the Vicat apparatus within the allowable time of 41/4 min. Clear and level
any extra paste by means of a trowel.

1- Initial Setting Time

Determine the penetration of the 1-mm needle at

the start. If a penetration reading of 10mm is
obtained then note down the time as the initial
setting time otherwise keep checking the
penetration reading after every 15min thereafter
until a penetration reading of 25 mm is obtained
which will be the initial setting time of the cement.

Make each penetration test at least inches

away from any previous penetration and at least 25
mm away from the inner side of the mold.

2- Final Setting Time

Keep on performing the same experiment until there is no considerable

penetration shown by the needle. Note down the time as final setting time.

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 3

3.6 Observations & Calculations:

Type of cement: _______________

Source of cement: _______________

Manufacturer of cement: _______________

Sampling Person: _______________

Observation In minutes In Hours

Initial setting time

Final setting time


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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 4

4 JOB NO. 4



Code: ASTM C-109

4.1 Scope & significance:

The following covers only that portion of ASTM Designation: C 109 that is
required to determine the compressive strength of 50-mm (2-in.) portland
cement mortar cubes.

4.2 Apparatus:

Two-kg scale accurate to 0.1 gram

Six 50 mm (2 in.) cube molds
Hard rubber tampers 13 25 mm (1/2 1 in.) cross section and 12 to
15 cm (5 to 6 in.) in height
Small steel trowels
500 grams of portland cement
1375 grams of Ottawa Sand
242 cc of water

4.3 Procedure:

A. Preparation of Mortar:
i. Weigh (300) gm of cement and Prepare the corresponding weights
of standard sand and water.
ii. Place the dry paddle and the dry bowl in the mixing position in the
mixer. Then introduce the materials for a batch into the bowl and
mix in the following manner:
Place all the mixing water in the bowl.
Add the cement to the water, then start the mixer and mix at the
low speed (140 5 r/ min) for (30 s).
Add the entire quantity of sand slowly over a (30 s) period, while
mixing at slow speed.
Stop the mixer, change to medium speed (285 +10 r/min) and
mix for 30 s.
Stop the mixer and let the mortar stand for 1.5 min. During the
first (15 s) of this interval, quickly scrape down into the batch
any mortar that may have collected on the side of the bowl.
Finish by mixing for (1min) at medium speed.

B. Molding Test Specimens:

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 4

i. Thinly cover the interior faces of the specimen molds with oil.
ii. Start molding the specimens within a total time of not more than
2.5 min after completion of mixing.
iii. Place a layer of mortar about 25 mm (half the depth of the mold) in
all the cube specimens.
iv. Tamp the mortar in each cube 32 times (4x8), about 4 rounds, each
round to be at right angles to the other.

v. The tamping pressure shall be just sufficient to insure uniform

filling of the molds.
vi. The 4 rounds of taming shall be completed in one cube before going
to the next.
vii. When the tamping of the first layer in all cubes is completed, fill the
molds with the remaining mortar and tamp as specified for the first
viii. Cut off the mortar to a plane surface with a straight edge.
ix. Keep the molds in a moist room for 20-24 hours then open them and
keep the specimens in a water basin for a week.

C. Testing Specimens:

i. After 7 days (+ 3 hours), take the specimens out of the basin, dry
them with a clean cloth, put them one after the other in the testing
ii. The cubes must be put on one side, using extra steel plates up and
down the specimen.
iii. Start loading in a speed of 1.4 kN /sec or (350 kg /cm2 ) in a minute
iv. When failure, record load and the compressive strength.

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 4

4.4 Observations & Calculations:

Type of cement: _______________

Source of cement: _______________

Manufacturer of cement: _______________

Sampling Person: _______________

Cube No. Load (kN) Compressive Strength



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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 5

5 JOB NO. 5

Determination of the Fineness Modulus of The Coarse And Fine Aggregate From Different

Code: ASTM C-136-05, for coarse materials (i.e. > 15m)

ASTM C-117-05, for fine materials (i.e. < 15m)

5.1 Scope & significance:

This test method is used to determine the fineness modulus of the given
fine grained specimen.

The information obtained from fineness modulus is helpful in the

following ways;

1- Fineness modulus tells us directly whether the material is well-

graded or gap-graded.
2- Fineness modulus gives us an overall idea whether the material is
fine or coarse.
3- It also indicates the surface area of the particles.

Lower the surface area of the aggregate, the required amount of

fresh cement paste to cover the aggregate particles will be less and
thus less water is required.

4- Larger value of FM is preferred for

fine aggregates. For a good fine
aggregate, the FM should be between
2.3 and 3.1 (ASTM Range for fine

5.2 Apparatus:

Standard set of sieves

Sieve shaker
Aggregate samples
Weighting balance
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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 5

5.3 Related theory:

a. Fineness modulus

It is the cumulative percentage retained on standard sieve 150m and

above divided by 100.

It is a single factor or an empirical number which we get from the results

of sieve analysis. The value of FM will not change if we add sieves above.

b. Sieve analysis

It is the operation of dividing the aggregate into various fractions, each

consisting of particles of same size.


It is the operation of determining the particle size distribution of the

given specimen.

The standard approach is to designate the sieve sizes by nominal

aperture sizes in mm or m (micron).

1 mm = 1000 m (micron)


i- 5 mm is the dividing line between coarse and fine aggregate.

ii- Well graded coarse aggregates of large size will reduce shrinkage of
concrete by 50%.

c. Functions of sieve analysis

Sieve analysis is performed on coarse and fine aggregates in order to

check their gradation. This gradation gives an indirect measure if the
workability and average particle size.

d. Set of sieves

The set of sieves used for the process of sieve analysis can be categorized

A. Coarse Aggregates:

Standard Non-Standard
75mm (3 )

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 5

37.5mm (1 )
19mm (3/4 )
9.5mm (3/8 )
4.75mm (3/16 )
2.36mm (3/32 )
Note: For sieves with openings 4.75mm & larger, the
quantity retained in kg shall not exceed the product of
2.5 x sieve opening (mm) x effective sieving area

B. Fine Aggregates:

ASTM Sieves British Standard Sieves

(mm) (inches)
4.75mm 3/16 (#4)
2.36mm 3/32 (#8)
1.18mm 3/64 (#16)
600m 3/128 (#30)
300m 1/88 (#50)
150m 1/176 (#100)
Pan Pan
Note: For the sieves with openings smaller than 4.75mm,
the quantity retained on any sieve at the completion of
sieving shall not exceed 7 kg/m2 of sieving area.

e. Quality of a good sample

There are some limiting values for every sieve provided by ASTM or BS,
we use these limiting values to get our final answer by the method explained

Take the minimum and the maximum values provided by ASTM and plot
them on the grading curve. Now take these minimum and maximum value
lines as your reference and if the curve of our own data lies inside these two
lines then the quality of our sample is OK but if your curve lies outside these
two lines of maximum and minimum range then the sample is not according
to specifications.

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 5

Maximum limit according to


Cumulative % Passing
Plot of tested specimen

Minimum limit according to


Sieve Size (Log Scale)

f. ASTM grading requirements for fine aggregates

Percentage Passing
Sieve Size
Minimum Maximum
9.5mm 100 100
4.75mm 95 100
2.36mm 80 100
1.18mm 50 85
600m 25 60
300m 10 30
150m 2 10

g. ASTM grading requirements for coarse aggregates

Percentage Passing
Sieve Size
37.5mm Down 19.0mm Down 12.5mm Down
Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum
50 100 100 - - - -
37.5 95 100 - - - -
25 - - 100 100 - -
19 35 70 90 100 100 100
12.5 - - - - 90 100
9.5 10 30 20 55 40 70
4.75 0 5 0 10 0 15
2.38 - - 0 5 0 5

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 5

5.4 Procedure:

Take 2 kg of the oven-dried sample. The sample should be perfectly dry

because if there is some moisture content present then the particles will
stick together and will not pass through the sieves.

Temperature of the oven = 1105 C

Place the set of standard and non-standard sieves

one above another with the smallest aperture opening
at the bottom. The pan is placed at the bottom-most
position. This experiment can be performed manually or
with the aid of a machine called sieve shaker.

The manual method should be performed in a proper

sequence which is as follows;
Mechanical Sieve
i- forward and backward motion Shaker
ii- left and right motion
iii- clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) motion
iv- Frequent jolting.
Time elapsed for the sieving process is 3-5 minutes.

Weigh the mass retained on each sieve and calculate the percentage
passing through each sieve. Then the FM can be calculated by using the

(Cumulative% Retained on Standard Sievesof 150
m or above

Following points must be kept in mind while calculating the FM;

i- Only sum up the values of standard sieves and do not include

the values of the non-standard sieves.
ii- Only add the sieves of 150m and above sizes.
iii- If any standard sieve is missing, we may use the value of next
higher sieve.
iv- Adding extra sieves does not change the result of FM.

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 5

5.5 Observations & Calculations:

Source of sample: _______________

Sampling Person: _______________

Fine Aggregate

Sieve # Sieve # Wt. Retained %age Wt. Commulative

(grams) Retained Wt. Retaind
75 mm (3") 75 mm (3")
37.5mm(1.5") 37.5mm(1.5")
19mm (3/4") 19mm (3/4")
9.5mm (3/8 ") 9.5mm (3/8 ")
4 4.75mm(3/16")
8 2.63mm
16 1.18mm
30 600 m
50 300 m
100 150 m
pan pan

Sum of commulative %age weight retained on sieve # 100

Fineness Modulus

Page | 29
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 5

Source of sample: _______________

Sampling Person: _______________

Coarse Aggregate

Sieve # Sieve # Wt. Retained %age Wt. Commulative

(grams) Retained Wt. Retaind
75 mm (3") 75 mm (3")
37.5mm(1.5") 37.5mm(1.5")
19mm (3/4") 19mm (3/4")
9.5mm (3/8 ") 9.5mm (3/8 ")
4 4.75mm(3/16")
8 2.63mm
16 1.18mm
30 600 m
50 300 m
100 150 m
pan pan

Sum of commulative %age weight retained on sieve # 100

Fineness Modulus

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 5

Gradation Curve of Fine Aggregate

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 5

Gradation Curve of Coarse Aggregate

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 5

Page | 33
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 5

Page | 34
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 6

6 JOB NO. 6

Standard Test Method for The Determination of Bulk Density (i.e. Unit Weight and the
Voids in Aggregates)

Code: ASTM C-29/C-29M

6.1 Scope & significance:

This test method is used to determine the bulk density of the given fine
grained specimen.

During the concrete mix design, when the aggregate is to be batched by

volume or by weight, then it becomes necessary to know the mass of the
aggregates that will fill the container of unit volume. If we know the bulk
density of the aggregate material then we can easily determine the mass
required to fill a unit volume container.

Bulk density also indicates the percentage of voids present in the

aggregate material. This percentage of voids affects the grading of the
aggregates which is important in high strength concrete.

Bulk density also indicates the compactive effort required to compact

the concrete.

6.2 Apparatus: Temping End

d=225mm d=16mm
Temping rod
Measuring Cylinder V 278mm
Shovel or Scoop
Temping Rod
6.3 Related theory: 1
a. Bulk density m

It is the mass of the unit volume of bulk aggregate material.

The term volume includes the volume of the individual particles and the
volume of the voids between the particles.

Bulk density is used in weight and volume batching.

b. Voids

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 6

It is the space between the individual particles in a unit volume of the

aggregate mass and is not occupied by the solid mineral matter.

Voids within the particles, either permeable or impermeable are not

included in the voids for the determination of bulk density by this method.

c. Absolute density

It is the mass per unit volume of the individual particles only.

d. Facts about bulk density

Bulk density depends upon how densely the aggregate is packed. It also
depends upon the size, distribution and shape of the particles. If the
particles are of the same size, then it can be packed to a limited extent but
when the smaller particles are added, the voids get filled with them and thus
the bulk density increases.

For a coarse aggregate, a higher bulk density means that there are few
voids which are to be filled by the fine aggregate and cement. Thus bulk
density also depends upon the degree of packing.

6.4 Procedure:

Note down the dimensions and empty weight of the measuring container
and compute its volume. For the determination of the loose bulk density, fill
the container with the aggregate material by means of a shovel and level its
top surface. Weigh the container filled with the aggregate and note down its
reading. Then the loose bulk density of the aggregate material can be
computed by using the relation;

(Weight of container Loose aggregate ) (Weight of empty container )

Loose Bulk Density ( M loose )
Volume of the container

Now for the determination of the

compacted bulk density, the only difference is
in filling the container. In this case, the
container is filled in three equal layers. Fill the
container about one-third full and level the
surface with the fingers. Rod the layer of the
aggregate with 25 strokes of the temping rod
evenly distributed over the surface. Next fill
the container two-third full and again rod it

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 6

with 25 strokes of the temping rod. Finally, fill the container to overflowing
and rod again in the manner previously mentioned.

Now level the top surface and weigh the container. Calculate the
compacted bulk density by using the relation;

(Weight of container Compacted aggregate ) (Weight of empty cont

Compacted Bulk Density ( M comp )
Volume of the container

Page | 37
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 6

6.5 Observations & Calculations:

Wt. of
Wt. of Wt. of Volume of Bulk
Sample State cylinder +
cylinder aggregate cylinder Density
(kg) (kg) (kg) (m3) (kg/m3)
Coarse Compacted
Aggregate Loose
Fine Compacted
Aggregate Loose


Page | 38
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 7

7 JOB NO. 7

Standard Test Method for The Determination of Relative Density (Specific Gravity) And
Water Absorption of Different Aggregates.

Code: ASTM C-127/128

7.1 Scope & significance:

In this test method we determine the relative density (i.e. specific gravity)
and the water absorption of the coarse aggregates.

The information obtained from specific gravity is helpful in the following


1- The knowledge of the specific gravity is important for the concrete

technologist to determine the properties of concrete made from
such aggregates.
2- It is used for the calculation of the volume occupied by the
aggregates in various mixtures.
3- The pores at the surface of the particles affect the bond between
the aggregate and the cement paste and thus influence the
concrete strength.
4- Normally it is assumed that at the time of setting of concrete, the
aggregate is in the saturated and surface dry condition. If the
aggregate is to be batched in the dry condition, then it is assumed
that sufficient amount of water will be absorbed from the mix to
bring the aggregate in the saturated condition. If an additional
amount of water is not added as a cover for the absorbed water, the
loss of workability is resulted.

The limitation of the test is that, it cannot be used for the light weight

7.2 Apparatus:

Sample container
Water tank

7.3 Related theory:

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 7

a. Aggregates

Aggregates may be classified as;

i- Coarse Aggregates
ii- Fine Aggregates

b. Coarse aggregates

Any material which is retained on ASTM sieve 4.75mm is known as

coarse aggregate.

c. Fine aggregates

Any material which is passing ASTM sieve 4.75mm is known as fine


iii. Types of crush available in Pakistan


Sargodha crush possess the following properties;

Greener in color
High strength
Usually elongated particles


Marghalla crush possess the following


Grayish in color
Low in strength


Sakhi Sarwar crush possess the following properties;

Whitish in color

iv. Absorption

It is the increase in the mass of the aggregate due to the penetration of

water into the pores of the particles during a prescribed period of time.

The term absorption does not include the amount of water adhering to
the surface of the particles. Water absorption is expressed as percentage of
the dry mass.
Page | 40
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 7

v. Saturated surface dry (s.s.d.) condition

It is the condition related with the aggregate particles in which the

permeable pores of the aggregate particles are filled with water but without
free water on the surface of the particles.

vi. Oven dry density

It is the mass of the oven dried aggregate per unit volume of the
aggregate particles.

The term volume includes the volume of the permeable and the
impermeable pores and does not include the volume of the voids between
the particles.

vii. Saturated surface dry (s.s.d) density

It is the mass of the saturated surface dry aggregate per unit volume of
the aggregate particles.

The term volume includes the volume of the permeable and the
impermeable pores which are filled with water and does not include the
volume of the voids between the particles.

viii. Apparent density

It is the mass per unit volume of the impermeable portion of the

aggregate particles.


It is the mass per unit volume of the solid portion of the particles
excluding the voids.

ix. Specific gravity/relative density

It is the ratio of the density of the aggregate material to the density of the
gas free distilled water at a standard temperature (i.e. 4 oC).

The relative density is a dimensionless quantity and is expressed as oven

dried, saturated surface dry and apparent

x. Oven dried specific gravity

It is the ratio of the oven dried density of the aggregate to the density of
the gas free distilled water at a standard temperature (i.e. 4 oC).

xi. Saturated surface dry specific gravity

It is the ratio of the saturated surface dry density of the aggregate to the
density of the gas free distilled water at a standard temperature (i.e. 4 oC).
Page | 41
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 7

xii. Apparent specific gravity

It is the ratio of the apparent density of the aggregate to the density of

the gas free distilled water at a standard temperature (i.e. 4 oC).

7.4 Procedure:

A. Coarse Aggregate
i. Select by quartering or use of a sample splitter approximately 5 kg of
aggregate. Reject all material passing a 4.75mm sieve.
ii. Thoroughly wash the sample to remove all dust or other coatings from
the particles.
iii. Dry the sample to a constant weight at a temperature of 100 to 110C
(212 to 230F). Cool at room temperature for about 15 min. and then
immerse in water at room temperature for approximately 30 min.
iv. Remove sample from water and wipe the particles until all surface
films are removed. Weigh the sample in this saturated surface dry
condition to the nearest 0.5 g.
v. Immediately after weighing, place the sample in a wire basket,
suspend in water, and obtain the buoyant weight.
vi. Dry the sample to a constant weight at a temperature of 100 to 110C
(212 to 230F), cool in room temperature for at least 30 min. and
vii. Computations;

B. Fine Aggregate
i. Obtain by sample splitting or quartering 3000 grams of aggregate,
including equal quantities of all fractions.
ii. Dry to a constant weight at a temperature of 100 to 110C (212 to
iii. Allow to cool and cover with water for about 30 min.
iv. Remove excess water and spread on a flat surface. Expose to a gentle
moving flame until test sample approaches a free-flowing condition.
Page | 42
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 7

v. Place a portion of the fine aggregate sample loosely into the mold.
Tamp lightly 25 times and lift the mold vertically. If surface moisture
is present, the fine aggregate will maintain its molded shape.
Continue drying and testing until upon removal of the mold, the
aggregate slumps slightly. This indicates that the saturated, surface-
dry condition has been reached.
vi. Immediately introduce into the pycnometer 500.0 g of the fine
aggregate. Fill the pycnometer almost to capacity and eliminate the
air bubbles by agitation. Add water until the bottom of the meniscus is
at the 500 cc line, etched on the pycnometer. Determine the total
weight of the flask, including the sample, and the water.
vii. Carefully remove the fine aggregate and dry to a constant weight of
100 to 110C (212 to 230F) and cool for at least 30 min. and weigh.

viii. Computations;

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 7

7.5 Observations & Calculations:

Coarse Aggregates ASTM Designation: C 127

Passing on ________ Sieve Sample Sample Sample 3 Sample
Retained on ________ Sieve 1 2 4
(A) Wt. oven-dry sample (g)
(B) Wt. SSD sample (g)
(C) Wt. saturated sample in water (g)
Bulk specific gravity
Apparent specific gravity
Effective specific gravity
Absorption (%)
Average values:
Bulk sp. gravity = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ; Apparent sp. gravity = _ _ _ _ _ _
Effective sp. gravity = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ; Absorption = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Fine Aggregates ASTM Designation: C 128

Sample Sample Sample 3 Sample
1 2 4
(A) Wt. oven-dry sample (g)
(B) Wt. pycnometer + water to
calibration mark (g)
(C) Pycnometer + water + sample to
calibration mark (g)
Bulk specific gravity
Apparent specific gravity
Effective specific gravity
Absorption (%)
Average values:
Bulk sp. gravity = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ; Apparent sp. gravity = _ _ _ _ _ _
Effective sp. gravity = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ; Absorption = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


Page | 44
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 8

8 JOB NO. 8

Determination of The Aggregate Impact Value of Different Coarse Aggregate Samples.

8.1 Scope & significance:

The aggregate impact value gives a relative measure of the toughness or

the resistance of aggregate sudden shock or impact is not proportional to the
resistance to a slowly applied compressive load.

8.2 Apparatus:

Coarse aggregate from various sources

Impact testing machine

8.3 Test specifications:

The test sample shall consist of aggregates the whole of which passes
through inch (12.7mm) sieve and is retained on a 3/8 inch (9.51mm) sieve.
The aggregate comprising the test sample shall be dried in an oven for a period
of four hours at a temperature of 100-110 C and cooled.
The measure (cup) shall be filled about one-third full with the aggregate and
gives 25 blows of tamping rod. A further similar quantity of aggregate shall be
added and a further 25 blows of tamping rod should be given to the second
layer and on the last layer 25 tamping rod blows should again be given and the
surplus aggregate struck off using the tamping rod as a straight-edge. The net
weight of aggregate in the measure shall be determined to the nearest gram
(weight A) and this weight shall be used for the duplicate test on the same

8.4 Procedure:

The impact machine shall test without wedging or packing upon the level
plate, block or floor, so that it is rigid and hammer guide columns are vertical.
The cup shall be fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the
whole of the test sample placed in it and compacted by 25 strokes of the
tamping rod.
The hammer shall be raised until its lower face is 15 in (381mm) above
from the upper surface of the aggregate in the cup, and allowed to fall freely on
the aggregate. The test sample shall be subjected to a total 15 such blows each
being delivered at an interval of not less than one second.
The crushed aggregate shall then be removed from the cup and the whole of it
sieved on No. 7 (2.83mm) sieve until no further significant amount passes in

Page | 45
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 8

one minute. The fraction passing the sieve shall be weighted to an accuracy of
0.1 gram (weight B). Te fraction retained on the sieve shall also be weighed
(weight C), and if the total weight B + C is less than the initial weight (weight
A) by more than 1 gm the result shall be discarded and a fresh test made. Two
tests shall be made.


The ratio of the weight of fines formed to the total sample weight in each
test shall be expressed as a percentage, the result being recorded to the first
decimal place.
Aggregate Impact Value = 100.

A = weight of oven dried sample

B = weight of fraction passing 2.83mm sieve

Page | 46
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 8

8.5 Observations & Calculations:

A = Total Wt. of the Sample

B = Fraction passing 2.83mm sieve after crushing
C = Fraction retained on 2.83mm sieve after crushing
Aggregate Impact Value = 100.

Sampl Sample Type A B C Impact

e No. Value
(gm) (gm) (gm) (%)


Page | 47
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 9

9 JOB NO. 9

Preparing A Concrete-Mix And Casting Various Samples Required For Different Tests.

Code: ACI 211.1 91

9.1 Scope & significance:

This purpose of this experiment is to simulate the actual formation of

concrete mix, its design and production. In this experiment certain number of
samples will be prepared which will then be tested for the verification of
concrete mix design process.

9.2 Apparatus:

Concrete Mixer
o Cement
o Sand/Fine Aggregate
o Crush/Coarse Aggregate
o Water
Molds for samples to be prepared
o Cylinders 300mm x 150mm (10+2), compressive strength & split
cylinder test
o Cylinders 150mm x 150mm (2), double punch test
o Cubes 150mm (10), compressive strength
o Beams 76mm x 153mm x 1370mm (4), study of flexure behavior

9.3 Plain Cement Concrete:

PCC consists of three basic ingredients: aggregate, water and portland cement. According to the
Portland Cement Association (PCA, 1988):

"The objective in designing concrete mixtures is to determine the most economical and
practical combination of readily available materials to produce a concrete that will satisfy the
performance requirements under particular conditions of use."

PCC mix design has evolved chiefly through experience and well-documented empirical
relationships. Normally, the mix design procedure involves two basic steps:

i. Mix proportioning. This step uses the desired PCC properties as inputs then determines
the required materials and proportions based on a combination of empirical relationships
and local experience. There are many different PCC proportioning methods of varying
complexity that work reasonably well.
ii. Mix testing. Trial mixes are then evaluated and characterized by subjecting them to
several laboratory tests. Although these characterizations are not comprehensive, they can

Page | 48
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 9

give the mix designer a good understanding of how a particular mix will perform in the
field during construction and under subsequent traffic loading.

This section covers mix design fundamentals common to all PCC mix design methods. First, two
basic concepts (mix design as a simulation and weight-volume terms and relationships) are
discussed to set a framework for subsequent discussion. Second, the variables that mix design
may manipulate are presented. Third, the fundamental objectives of mix design are presented.
Finally, a generic mix design procedure is presented.

a. Basic Concepts

Before discussing any mix design specifics, it is important to understand a couple of basic mix
design concepts:

Mix design is a simulation

Weight-volume terms and relationships
vii. Mix Design is a Simulation

First, and foremost, mix design is a laboratory simulation. Mix design is meant to simulate actual
PCC manufacturing, construction and performance. Then, from this simulation we can predict
(with reasonable certainty) what type of mix design is best for the particular application in
question and how it will perform.

Being a simulation, mix design has its limitations. Specifically, there are substantial differences
between laboratory and field conditions. For instance, mix testing is generally done on small
samples that are cured in carefully controlled conditions. These values are then used to draw
conclusions about how a mix will behave under field conditions. Despite such limitations mix
design procedures can provide a cost effective and reasonably accurate simulation that is useful in
making mix design decisions.

viii. Weight-Volume Terms and Relationships

The more accurate mix design methods are volumetric in nature. That is, they seek to combine
the PCC constituents on a volume basis (as opposed to a weight basis). Volume measurements
are usually made indirectly by determining a material's weight and specific gravity and then
calculating its volume. Therefore, mix design involves several key aggregate specific gravity

i. Variables

PCC is a complex material formed from some very basic ingredients. When used in pavement,
this material has several desired performance characteristics - some of which are in direct conflict
with one another. PCC pavements must resist deformation, crack in a controlled manner, be
durable over time, resist water damage, provide a good tractive surface, and yet be inexpensive,
readily made and easily placed. In order to meet these demands, mix design can manipulate the
following variables:

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 9

i. Aggregate. Items such as type (source), amount, gradation and size, toughness and
abrasion resistance, durability and soundness, shape and texture as well as cleanliness can
be measured, judged and altered to some degree.
ii. Portland cement. Items such as type, amount, fineness, soundness, hydration rate and
additives can be measured, judged and altered to some degree.
iii. Water. Typically the volume and cleanliness of water are of concern. Specifically, the
volume of water in relation to the volume of portland cement, called the water-cement
ratio, is of primary concern. Usually expressed as a decimal (e.g., 0.35), the water-cement
ratio has a major effect on PCC strength and durability.
iv. Admixtures. Items added to PCC other than portland cement, water and aggregate.
Admixtures can be added before, during or after mixing and are used to alter basic PCC
properties such as air content, water-cement ratio, workability, set time, bonding ability,
coloring and strength.
ii. Objectives

By manipulating the mixture variables of aggregate, portland cement, water and admixtures, mix
design seeks to achieve the following qualities in the final PCC product (Mindess and Young,

i. Strength. PCC should be strong enough to support expected traffic loading. In

pavement applications, flexural strength is typically more important than compressive
strength (although both are important) since the controlling PCC slab stresses are caused
by bending and not compression. In its most basic sense, strength is related to the degree
to which the portland cement has hydrated. This degree of hydration is, in turn, related to
one or more of the following:

Water-cement ratio. The strength of PCC is most directly related to its

capillary porosity. The capillary porosity of a properly compacted PCC is determined
by its water-cement ratio (Mindess and Young, 1981). Thus, the water-cement ratio is
an easily measurable PCC property that gives a good estimate of capillary porosity and
thus, strength. The lower the water-cement ratio, the fewer capillary pores and thus,
the higher the strength. Specifications typically include a maximum water-cement
ratio as a strength control measure.
Entrained air (air voids). At a constant water-cement ratio, as the amount of
entrained air (by volume of the total mixture) increases, the voids-cement ratio (voids
= air + water) decreases. This generally results in a strength reduction. However, air-
entrained PCC can have a lower water-cement ratio than non-air-entrained PCC and
still provide adequate workability. Thus, the strength reduction associated with a
higher air content can be offset by using a lower water-cement ratio. For moderate-
strength concrete (as is used in rigid pavements) each percentile of entrained air can
reduce the compressive strength by about 2 - 6 percent (PCA, 1988).
Cement properties. Properties of the portland cement such as fineness and
chemical composition can affect strength and the rate of strength gain. Typically, the
type of portland cement is specified in order to control its properties.

ii. Controlled shrinkage cracking. Shrinkage cracking should occur in a controlled

manner. Although construction techniques such as joints and reinforcing steel help control
shrinkage cracking, some mix design elements influence the amount of PCC shrinkage.
Chiefly, the amount of moisture and the rate of its use/loss will affect shrinkage and
Page | 50
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 9

shrinkage cracking. Therefore, factors such as high water-cement ratios and the use of
high early strength portland cement types and admixtures can result in excessive and/or
uncontrolled shrinkage cracking.
iii. Durability. PCC should not suffer excessive damage due to chemical or physical
attacks during its service life. As opposed to HMA durability, which is mainly concerned
with aging effects, PCC durability is mainly concerned with specific chemical and
environmental conditions that can potentially degrade PCC performance. Durability is
related to:

Porosity (water-cement ratio). As the porosity of PCC decreases it becomes

more impermeable. Permeability determines a PCC's susceptibility to any number of
durability problems because it controls the rate and entry of moisture that may contain
aggressive chemicals and the movement of water during heating or freezing (Mindess
and Young, 1981). The water-cement ratio is the single most determining factor in a
PCC's porosity. The higher the water-cement ratio, the higher the porosity. In order to
limit PCC porosity, many agencies specify a maximum allowable water-cement ratio.
Entrained Air (Air voids). Related to porosity, entrained air is important in
controlling the effects of freeze-thaw cycles. Upon freezing, water expands by about 9
percent. Therefore, if the small capillaries within PCC are more than 91 percent filled
with water, freezing will cause hydraulic pressures that may rupture the surrounding
PCC. Additionally, freezing water will attract other unfrozen water through osmosis
(PCA, 1988). Entrained air voids act as expansion chambers for freezing and
migrating water and thus, specifying a minimum entrained air content can minimize
freeze-thaw damage.
Chemical environment. Certain chemicals such as sulfates, acids, bases and
chloride salts are especially damaging to PCC. Mix design can mitigate their
damaging effects through such things as choosing a more resistant cement type.

iv. Skid resistance. PCC placed as a surface course should provide sufficient friction
when in contact with a vehicle's tire. In mix design, low skid resistance is generally
related to aggregate characteristics such as texture, shape, size and resistance to polish.
Smooth, rounded or polish-susceptible aggregates are less skid resistant. Tests for particle
shape and texture can identify problem aggregate sources. These sources can be avoided,
or at a minimum, aggregate with good surface and abrasion characteristics can be blended
in to provide better overall characteristics.
v. Workability. PCC must be capable of being placed, compacted and finished with
reasonable effort. The slump test, a relative measurement of concrete consistency, is the
most common method used to quantify workability. Workability is generally related to
one or more of the following:

Water content. Water works as a lubricant between the particles within PCC.
Therefore, low water content reduces this lubrication and makes for a less workable
mix. Note that a higher water content is generally good for workability but generally
bad for strength and durability, and may cause segregation and bleeding. Where
necessary, workability should be improved by redesigning the mix to increase the
paste content (water + portland cement) rather than by simply adding more water or
fine material (Mindess and Young, 1981).
Aggregate proportion. Large amounts of aggregate in relation to the cement
paste will decrease workability. Essentially, if the aggregate portion is large then the
Page | 51
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 9

corresponding water and cement portions must be small. Thus, the same problems and
remedies for "water content" above apply.
Aggregate texture, shape and size. Flat, elongated or angular particles tend to
interlock rather than slip by one another making placement and compaction more
difficult. Tests for particle shape and texture can identify possible workability
Aggregate gradation. Gradations deficient in fines make for less workable
mixes. In general, fine aggregates act as lubricating "ball bearings" in the mix.
Gradation specifications are used to ensure acceptable aggregate gradation.
Aggregate porosity. Highly porous aggregate will absorb a high amount of
water leaving less available for lubrication. Thus, mix design usually corrects for the
anticipated amount of absorbed water by the aggregate.
Air content. Air also works as a lubricant between aggregate particles.
Therefore, low air content reduces this lubrication and makes for a less workable mix.
A volume of air-entrained PCC requires less water than an equal volume of non-air-
entrained PCC of the same slump and maximum aggregate size (PCA, 1988).
Cement properties. Portland cements with higher amounts of C3S and C3A will
hydrate quicker and lose workability faster.

Knowing these objectives, the challenge in mix design is then to develop a relatively simple
procedure with a minimal amount of tests and samples that will produce a mix with all the
qualities discussed above.

iii. Basic Procedure

In order to meet the requirements established by the preceding desirable PCC properties, all mix
design processes involve four basic processes:

i. Aggregate selection. No matter the specific method, the overall mix design procedure
begins with evaluation and selection of aggregate and asphalt binder sources. Different
authorities specify different methods of aggregate acceptance. Typically, a battery of
aggregate physical tests is run periodically on each particular aggregate source. Then, for
each mix design, gradation and size requirements are checked. Normally, aggregate from
more than one source is required to meet gradation requirements.
ii. Portland cement selection. Typically, a type and amount of portland cement is selected
based on past experience and empirical relationships with such factors as compressive
strength (at a given age), water-cement ratio and chemical susceptibility.
iii. Mix proportioning. A PCC mixture can be proportioned using experience or a generic
procedure (such as ACI 211.1).
iv. Testing. Run laboratory tests on properly prepared samples to determine key mixture
characteristics. It is important to understand that these tests are not comprehensive nor are
they exact reproductions of actual field conditions.

The selected PCC mixture should be the one that, based on test results, best satisfies the mix
design objectives.

9.4 Concrete Mix Design:

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Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 9

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) mix design method is but one of many basic concrete mix
design methods available today. This section summarizes the ACI absolute volume method
because it is widely accepted in the U.S. and continually updated by the ACI. Keep in mind that
this summary and most methods designated as "mix design" methods are really just mixture
proportioning methods. Mix design includes trial mixture proportioning (covered here) plus
performance tests.

This section is a general outline of the ACI proportioning method with specific emphasis on PCC
for pavements. It emphasizes general concepts and rationale over specific procedures. Typical
procedures are available in the following documents:

The American Concrete Institute's (ACI) Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for
Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete (ACI 211.1-91) as found in their ACI Manual of
Concrete Practice 2000, Part 1: Materials and General Properties of Concrete.
The Portland Cement Association's (PCA) Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, 14th
edition (2002) or any earlier edition.

The standard ACI mix design procedure can be divided up into 8 basic steps:

a. Choice of slump
b. Maximum aggregate size selection
c. Mixing water and air content selection
d. Water-cement ratio
e. Cement content
f. Coarse aggregate content
g. Fine aggregate content
h. Adjustments for aggregate moisture

a. Slump

The choice of slump is actually a choice of mix workability. Workability can be described as a
combination of several different, but related, PCC properties related to its rheology:

Ease of mixing
Ease of placing
Ease of compaction
Ease of finishing

Generally, mixes of the stiffest consistency that can still be placed adequately should be used
(ACI, 2000). Typically slump is specified, but Table 5.14 shows general slump ranges for
specific applications. Slump specifications are different for fixed form paving and slip form
paving. Table 5.15 shows typical and extreme state DOT slump ranges.

Table 5.14: Slump Ranges for Specific Applications (after ACI, 2000)

Page | 53
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 9

Type of Construction Slump

(mm) (inches)
Reinforced foundation walls 25 - 75 1-3
and footings
Plain footings, caissons and 25 - 75 1-3
substructure walls
Beams and reinforced walls 25 - 100 1-4
Building columns 25 - 100 1-4
Pavements and slabs 25 - 75 1-3
Mass concrete 25 - 50 1-2

Table 5.15: Typical State DOT Slump Specifications (data taken from ACPA, 2001)

Specifications Fixed Form Slip Form

(mm) (inches) (mm) (inches)
Typical 25 - 75 1-3 0 - 75 0-3
Extremes as low as 25 as low as 1 as low as 0 as low as 0
as high as 175 as high as 7 as high as 125 as high as 5

iv. Maximum Aggregate Size

Maximum aggregate size will affect such PCC parameters as amount of cement paste, workability
and strength. In general, ACI recommends that maximum aggregate size be limited to 1/3 of the
slab depth and 3/4 of the minimum clear space between reinforcing bars. Aggregate larger than
these dimensions may be difficult to consolidate and compact resulting in a honeycombed
structure or large air pockets. Pavement PCC maximum aggregate sizes are on the order of 25
mm (1 inch) to 37.5 mm (1.5 inches) (ACPA, 2001).

v. Mixing Water and Air Content Estimation

Slump is dependent upon nominal maximum aggregate size, particle shape, aggregate gradation,
PCC temperature, the amount of entrained air and certain chemical admixtures. It is not generally
affected by the amount of cementitious material. Therefore, ACI provides a table relating
nominal maximum aggregate size, air entrainment and desired slump to the desired mixing water
quantity. Table 5.16 is a partial reproduction of ACI Table 6.3.3 (keep in mind that pavement
PCC is almost always air-entrained so air-entrained values are most appropriate). Typically, state
agencies specify between about 4 and 8 percent air by total volume (based on data from ACPA,

Note that the use of water-reducing and/or set-controlling admixtures can substantially reduce the
amount of mixing water required to achieve a given slump.

Table 5.16: Approximate Mixing Water and Air Content Requirements

for Different Slumps and Maximum Aggregate Sizes (adapted from ACI, 2000)

Mixing Water Quantity in kg/m3 (lb/yd3) for the listed Nominal Maximum Aggregate
Page | 54
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 9

9.5 mm 12.5 mm 19 mm 25 mm 37.5 mm 50 mm 75 mm 100 mm

(0.375 in) (0.5 in.) (0.75 in.) (1 in.) (1.5 in.) (2 in.) (3 in.) (4 in.)
Non-Air-Entrained PCC

25-50 (1 - 2) 207 199 190 179 166 154 130 113

(350) (335) (315) (300) (275) (260) (220) (190)

75-100 (3 - 4) 228 216 205 193 181 169 145 124

(385) (365) (340) (325) (300) (285) (245) (210)

150-175 (6 - 7) 243 228 216 202 190 178 160

(410) (385) (360) (340) (315) (300) (270)
Typical entrapped air
3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0.3 0.2
Air-Entrained PCC

25-50 (1 - 2) 181 175 168 160 148 142 122 107

(305) (295) (280) (270) (250) (240) (205) (180)

75-100 (3 - 4) 202 193 184 175 165 157 133 119

(340) (325) (305) (295) (275) (265) (225) (200)

150-175 (6 - 7) 216 205 197 184 174 166 154

(365) (345) (325) (310) (290) (280) (260)
Recommended Air Content (percent)
Mild Exposure 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0
Moderate Exposure 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0
Severe Exposure 7.5 7.0 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0

vi. Water-Cement Ratio

The water-cement ratio is a convenient measurement whose value is well correlated with PCC
strength and durability. In general, lower water-cement ratios produce stronger, more durable
PCC. If natural pozzolans are used in the mix (such as fly ash) then the ratio becomes a water-
cementitious material ratio (cementitious material = portland cement + pozzolonic material). The
ACI method bases the water-cement ratio selection on desired compressive strength and then
calculates the required cement content based on the selected water-cement ratio. Table 5.17 is a
general estimate of 28-day compressive strength vs. water-cement ratio (or water-cementitious
ratio). Values in this table tend to be conservative (ACI, 2000). Most state DOTs tend to set a
maximum water-cement ratio between 0.40 - 0.50 (based on data from ACPA, 2001).

Table 5.17: Water-Cement Ratio and Compressive Strength Relationship

(after ACI, 2000)

28-Day Compressive Water-cement ratio by weight

Strength in MPa Non-Air-
(psi) Entrained
41.4 (6000) 0.41 -
34.5 (5000) 0.48 0.40
Page | 55
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 9

27.6 (4000) 0.57 0.48

20.7 (3000) 0.68 0.59
13.8 (2000) 0.82 0.74

vii. Cement Content

Cement content is determined by comparing the following two items:

The calculated amount based on the selected mixing water content and water-cement ratio.
The specified minimum cement content, if applicable. Most state DOTs specify minimum
cement contents in the range of 300 - 360 kg/m3 (500 - 600 lbs/yd3).

An older practice used to be to specify the cement content in terms of the number of 94 lb. sacks
of portland cement per cubic yard of PCC. This resulted in specifications such as a "6 sack mix"
or a "5 sack mix". While these specifications are quite logical to a small contractor or individual
who buys portland cement in 94 lb. sacks, they do not have much meaning to the typical
pavement contractor or batching plant who buys portland cement in bulk. As such, specifying
cement content by the number of sacks should be avoided.

viii. Coarse Aggregate Content

Selection of coarse aggregate content is empirically based on mixture workability. ACI

recommends the percentage (by unit volume) of coarse aggregate based on nominal maximum
aggregate size and fine aggregate fineness modulus. This recommendation is based on empirical
relationships to produce PCC with a degree of workability suitable for usual reinforced
construction (ACI, 2000). Since pavement PCC should, in general, be more stiff and less
workable, ACI allows increasing their recommended values by up to about 10 percent. Table 5.18
shows ACI recommended values.

Table 5.18: Volume of Coarse Aggregate per Unit Volume of PCC

for Different Fine aggregate Fineness Moduli for Pavement PCC (after ACI, 2000)

Nominal Maximum Fine Aggregate Fineness Modulus

Aggregate Size 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00
9.5 mm (0.375 inches) 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.44
12.5 mm (0.5 inches) 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.53
19 mm (0.75 inches) 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.60
25 mm (1 inches) 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65
37.5 mm (1.5 inches) 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69
50 mm (2 inches) 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72

1. These values can be increased by up to about 10 percent for

pavement applications.

2. Coarse aggregate volumes are based on oven-dry-rodded weights

obtained in accordance with ASTM C 29.

Page | 56
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 9

ix. Fine Aggregate Content

At this point, all other constituent volumes have been specified (water, portland cement, air and
coarse aggregate). Thus, the fine aggregate volume is just the remaining volume:

Volume of fine aggregate = Unit volume (1 m 3 or yd3) (Volume of mixing water + Volume of air
+ Volume of portland cement + Volume of coarse aggregate)

x. Adjustments for Aggregate Moisture

Unlike HMA, PCC batching does not require dried aggregate. Therefore, aggregate moisture
content must be accounted for. Aggregate moisture affects the following parameters:

Aggregate weights. Aggregate volumes are calculated based on oven dry unit weights, but
aggregate is typically batched based on actual weight. Therefore, any moisture in the aggregate
will increase its weight and stockpiled aggregates almost always contain some moisture. Without
correcting for this, the batched aggregate volumes will be incorrect.

Amount of mixing water. If the batched aggregate is anything but saturated surface dry it will
absorb water (if oven dry or air dry) or give up water (if wet) to the cement paste. This causes a
net change in the amount of water available in the mix and must be compensated for by adjusting
the amount of mixing water added.

9.5 Concrete Mix Design and Material Calculation Example:

i. Required Data:

fc' = 30 Mpa
Concrete type = Non air entrained
Maximum aggregate size = 20 mm
Slump required = 30-80 mm
Fineness Modulus of Fine aggregate = 2.82
Bulk density of coarse aggregate = 1555 kg/m3
Bulk density of fine aggregate = 1070.16 kg/m3
Specific gravity of cement = 3.15
Specific gravity of coarse aggregate = 2.6
Specific gravity of fine aggregate = 2.63
Water absorption of coarse aggregate = 0.9 %
Water absorption of fine aggregate = 1.2 %

ii. Calculations:
a. Calculation for target strength:

Fcr' = 38.3

xi. Selection of type of cement:

Page | 57
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 9

Use ordinary Portland Cement

xii. Durability check:

Use ordinary Portland Cement

xiii. Relative water content:

Water content = 92 %
xiv. Water amount: 2

Water suggested = 200 kg/m3

Air content = 2 %
Water content = 184 kg/m3
xv. Calculation of water/cement ratio:

w/c = 0.437
xvi. Cement content:

Cement content = 421.053 kg/m3

xvii. Bulk volume of aggregate:

Bulk vol.of agg. = 0.618

xviii. Weight of coarse aggregate:

Wt. of coarse agg. = 960.99 kg/m3

xix. Weight of fine aggregate:

Wt. of fine agg. = 769.856 kg/m3

xx. Water after considering water absorption:

Water absorbed by C.A= 8.64891 kg/m3

Water absorbed by F.A= 9.23827 kg/m3
Water content required = 202 kg/m3
xxi. Weight of ingredients (kgs):

Cement: 421.053
Coarse Agg.: 960.99
Fine Agg.: 769.856
Water: 202
xxii. Concrete Mix:

Cement Fine Agg. Coarse Agg.

421.053 769.856 960.99
1 1.83 2.28

W/C = 0.53

Concrete weight = 2353.9 kg/m3

Page | 58
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 9

9.6 Observations & Calculations:

Calculation of materials required

Volume of Total Weight

Sample Quantity Concrete of Concrete
(m3) (kgs)
Beam 4 75 150 1350
Cylinder 12 150 300
Cylinder 2 150 150
Cube 10 150 150 150

Total concrete required = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg

Allowance for wastage (10%) = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg
Maximum capacity of the mixer = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg
Number of batches =________
Quantity required per batch = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg
Weight of the concrete constituents:
1. Cement = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg
2. Fine Aggregate = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg
3. Coarse Aggregate = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg
4. Water = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg


Page | 59
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 10

10 JOB NO. 10

Standard Test Method for The Slump Of Hydraulic Cement Concrete.

Code: ASTM C-143/C-143 M-03

10.1 Scope & significance:

This test method is used in lab and in field for finding out the slump
(decrease in the height of concrete when we lift up the mould). This test is
used extensively in site works all over the world. The slump test does not
measure the workability of concrete directly but it co-relates the workability
with some physical measurement.

The main significance of this test is as follows;

1- This test method is used to determine the slump of plastic hydraulic

cement concrete.

Slump<15mm (Non-Plastic)

Slump>15 (Plastic)

2- This test method is applicable to plastic concrete having coarse

aggregate upto 37.5mm in size. If the coarse aggregate is larger than the
37.5mm then this test method is not applicable.

3- This test method is not applicable to non-plastic and non-cohesive

concrete (due to larger amount of water presence).

10.2 Apparatus:

1- Metal mould, thickness is 1.15mm, it is in cone form with the base

200mm diameter and 300mm height with the top diameter 100mm. the
top and base of cylindrical mould is open and parallel to each other. The
mould is provided with foot pieces and handles.
2- Temping rod, 16mm diameter and 600mm in length having temping ends.

10.3 Related theory:

a. Slump

The decrease in the height of concrete when the mould of standard

dimensions is lifted.

xxiii. Types of slump

There are three types of slump.

Page | 60
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 10

1- True Slump
2- Shear Slump
3- Collapse slump



We discard the collapse slump due to the very high value of slump
Shear slump occurs due to the lack of cohesion in mix.
We often use the term 100% compaction but actually in 100%
compaction we have percentage of air voids less than 3% by volume of

xxiv. Relation between workability and slump

Workability Compacting Factor Slump (mm)

Very Low 0.78 0-25
Low 0.85 25-50
Medium 0.92 50-100
High 0.95 100-175

Note: More is the slump value more will be the workability.

10.4 Procedure:

The mold is placed on a flat moist non-absorb surface with the smaller
opening at the top. It is then held firmly in place during filling of concrete by
the operator standing on two foot pieces. The mould is filled to a depth of
70mm and 2/3 of volume fills to a depth of 160mm. Each layer is given 25
strokes with the help of temping rod uniformly distributed over the cross-
section of each layer. Rod the 2nd and 3rd layer throughout its depth so that
strokes just penetrates into the under lying layer. After the top layer is
rodded strike off the surface of the concrete by means of rolling motion of
temping rod.
Page | 61

True Shear Collapse

Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 10

Complete the entire test with an elapsed time of 2.5minutes. After filling,
the cone is slowly lifted and the unsupported concrete slumps. The decrease
in the height of concrete is called slump.

It is measured with the nearest 5mm. at the beginning of every test,

before lifting the mould the area immediately around the base of the cone
should be cleaned off of concrete which may be dropped accidentally.

10.5 Observations & Calculations:

Slump Value = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ inches, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ mm


Page | 62
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 11

11 JOB NO. 11

To Perform The Compacting Factor Test.

11.1 Scope & significance:

This test also gives the workability of concrete indirectly. This test is
appropriate for concrete with the maximum aggregate size of 40mm.

11.2 Apparatus:
Apparatus consists of 0m
two hoppers each in the
shape of frustum of a Upper 27
Hopper 5m
cone and one cylinder. m
The hoppers have hinge 5m Same
Lower m dimension
door at the bottom and all
Hopper s
the surfaces are polished to
reduce friction. 20
m 150m
m dia


11.3 Related theory:

a. Compacting factor

The degree of compaction is also called the compacting factor and is

measured with the help of density ratio that is the ratio of density actually
achieved in the test to the density of same concrete when it is fully

Its maximum answer is 1 but practically it is lesser than 1.


Workability Compacting Factor Slump(mm)

Very Low 0.78 0-25

Low 0.85 25-50
Medium 0.92 50-100
High 0.95 100-175

Page | 63
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 11

Note: More is the compacting factor more will be the workability.

11.4 Procedure:

First the concrete is placed gently at the upper hopper so that no work
is done on concrete to produce compaction. The bottom door of the upper
hopper is then released and the concrete falls into the lower hopper. The
bottom door of the lower hopper is then released and the concrete falls into
the cylinder. Excess concrete is then removed from the cylinder.

The density of concrete in now calculated and this density divided by the
density of fully compacted concrete is known as compacting factor.

More is the compacting factor more will be the workability.

Page | 64
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 11

11.5 Observations & Calculations:

Partially Compacted Density PC kg m 3
Fully Compacted Density FC kg m 3

Compactive Factor PC


Page | 65
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 12

12 JOB NO. 12

Test Method for The Compressive Strength of Cylindrical & Cubical Concrete Specimens.

Code: ASTM C 39 (Only for cylinders)

12.1 Scope & significance:

The purpose is to determine the compressive strength of cylindrical

specimens, either molded or drilled cores. The method is limited to concrete
having a density of at least 800 kg/m3 (50 lb/ft3 ). The 28-day compressive
strength (fc) of molded cylinders is normally used in design.

12.2 Apparatus:

Universal Testing Machine

Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
Cubical Concrete Specimens

12.3 Procedure:

i. Preparation of cylindrical specimens.

Prepare and cure the specimens in accordance with ASTM
Designation: C 192.
Perform air content, slump, and penetration tests on the fresh
concrete prior to casting the specimens in accordance with ASTM
Designations: C 143, C 231, and C 360.
Fill the cylinders with three lifts of freshly mixed concrete, tamping
each lift 25 times with the tamping rod. Also tap each lift lightly
with a mallet 10 to 15 times.
Strike off the excess concrete with the tamping rod and finish to a
smooth surface with a steel trowel.
It is recommended that specimens be prepared and tested in
groups of three.
ii. Curing of the concrete specimens.
Allow the specimens to set for about 24 hours at normal room
temperature, with the top surface covered to prevent loss of
Strip the mold from the specimens and place in the curing facility
until ready for testing.
iii. Compression testing procedure.
Remove the specimen from the curing facility just prior to testing.
Specimens shall be tested while still in a moist condition.

Page | 66
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 12

Measure the diameter of the specimen, determined at right angles

to each other about mid-height of the specimen. Average the two
values to the nearest 0.25 mm (0.01 in.).
Center the capped specimens in the testing machine and load them.
Load to failure.
Record the ultimate load, the angle of fracture, and any other
pertinent aspects of failure such as voids.

Use the same procedure for testing cubes.

12.4 Observations & Calculations:

Mix Proportion

Load Are Strengt Avg.


Date of Casting
w/c Ratio

Ag a h Strength
Samp Weig
le ht (ton) (lb.) (in2) (psi) (psi) (Mpa)
No. (kg)







Page | 67
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 12

Page | 68
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 12

Curve showing rate of gain of strength (Strength Vs Days) of both cyliners and cubes

Page | 69
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 12


Page | 70
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 13

13 JOB NO. 13

Test Method for The Flexural Strength of Concrete Using Simple Beam With Third-Point

Code: ASTM C 78 - 02

13.1 Scope & significance:

This test method is used to determine the flexural strength of specimens

prepared and cured in accordance with the specifications. Results are
calculated and reported as the modulus of rupture.
The strength determined will vary where there are differences in
specimen size, preparation, moisture condition, curing, or where the
beam has been molded or swayed to size.
The results of this test method may be used to determine compliance
with specifications or as a basis for proportioning, mixing and placement
operations. It is used in testing concrete for the construction of slabs and
The modulus of rupture is also used as an indirect measure of the tensile
strength of concrete.

13.2 Apparatus:

Universal Testing Machine

Supporting Beam and Roller/hinge supports
Third point loading arrangement

13.3 Procedure:

i. Preparation: Make the specimens in accordance with the concrete batch

procedure. Test the concrete for slump and air content. Fill the beam
forms with three lifts of concrete, tamping each lift 25 times with the 16
mm (5/8 in.) tamping rod or fill the form in one lift and consolidate the
concrete with a mechanical vibrating table. Be careful not to over vibrate
since that would cause segregation.
ii. Curing: Allow the specimens to remain in the steel forms with the top
properly covered for about 24 hours at normal room temperature. Strip
the forms and place the specimens in the curing facility until ready for
iii. Testing: Remove the specimens from the curing facility and mark the
beam where it will be in contact with the supports and at the opposite
side where it will be in contact with the third-point loading. Remember
that none of these contact points should be on the top or hand-finished
surface of the specimen. In other words, the beam should be tested 90 to
its casting position.
iv. Record the ultimate load, the exact location of fracture, and the type of failure.
Page | 71
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 13

Beams Cross Sections:

Four beams are casted of size 75mm 150mm 1350mm

The reinforcement detailing is shown below.

Page | 72
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 13

Singly Reinforced Singly reinforced

2#10 bars 2 #10 & 2 #6 bars
#6 @ 65mm C/C


Singly Over Reinforced Doubly Reinforced beam

2#19 & 2#10 bars 2#13 & 2#10 bars
#6 @ 65mm C/C stirrups #6 @ 65mm C/C stirrups

#2 #2

Page | 73
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 13

13.4 Observations & Calculations:

Load Theoretical Load Practical Percentage

No. Type of beam
(kN) (kN) Difference

Explain the mode of failure for each beam in the space below,











Page | 74
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 14

14 JOB NO. 14

Standard Test Method for The Determination of the

Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete
Code: ASTM C 496/C 496 M-04

14.1 Scope & significance:

This test method is used for the determination of splitting tensile strength
of cylindrical concrete specimen.

Splitting tensile strength is helpful for the following purposes;

1- Splitting tensile strength is generally greater than the direct

tensile strength and lower than the flexural strength (modulus of

2- Splitting tensile strength is used in the design of structural

light weight concrete members to evaluate the shear resistance
provided by concrete and to determine the development length of
the reinforcement.



T = Splitting tensile strength (to be reported in 0.05 MPa


P = Applied load

l = length of the specimen (mm)

d = Diameter of the specimen (mm)

14.2 Apparatus:

Testing Machine
Supplementary Bearing Bar Or Plates (If the diameter or the largest dimension
of the upper bearing face or the lower bearing block
is less than the length of the cylinder to be tested, a
supplementary bearing bar or plate of machined
steel shall be used. The bar or plate shall be manner
that the load will be applied over the specimen.)
Bearing Strips (Two bearing strips of nominal 1 /8 in [3.2
mm] thick plywood, free of imperfections,
approximately 1 in. [25 mm] wide, and of a length
Page | 75
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 14

equal to, or slightly longer than, that of the

specimen shall be provided for each specimen. The
bearing strips shall be placed between the specimen
and both the upper and lower bearing blocks of the
testing machine or between the specimen and
supplemental bars or plates, when used (see 5.2).
Bearing strips shall not be reused.)

14.3 Test specifications:

a. Size of the specimen

The specimen is a cylinder of 150mm

diameter and 300mm height.

Determine the diameter to the nearest 0.25mm by averaging the three

diameters. Determine the length to the nearest 2mm by averaging at least
two lengths.
xxvi. Size of bearing strips

According to ASTM specifications, the bearing strips should be 3.2mm

thick and 25mm wide. There is no restriction on their length.
xxvii. Rate of loading

The rate of loading should be such that a stress of 0.7 1.4 MPa/min is

14.4 Procedure:

Page | 76
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 14

This test method consists of applying a diametrical force along the

length of a cylindrical concrete at a rate that is within a prescribed range
until failure. This loading induces tensile stresses on the plane containing
the applied load and relatively high compressive stresses in the area
immediately around the applied load.

Although we are applying a compressive load but due to Poissons

effect, tension is produced and the specimen fails in tension. Tensile failure
occurs rather than compressive failure because the areas of load application
are in a state of tri axial compression, thereby allowing them to withstand
much higher compressive stresses than would be indicated by a uniaxial
compressive strength test result.

Thin, plywood bearing strips are used to distribute the load applied
along the length of the cylinder.

The maximum load sustained by the specimen is divided by

appropriate geometrical factors to obtain the splitting tensile strength.

14.5 Calculations

Calculate the splitting tensile strength of the specimen as follows:



T = splitting tensile strength,

(Psi or MPa),

P = maximum applied load

indicated by the testing machine,
(lbf or N),

l = length, (in. or mm), and

d = diameter, (in. or mm).

Page | 77
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 14

14.6 Observations & Calculations:

Dia of Splitting
Max. Applied of
Specim Tensile Mean
Sr.# Load Specim
en Strength
(Tons) (N) (mm) (mm) (MPa) (MPa)


Page | 78
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 15

15 JOB NO. 15

Determination of The Tensile Strength of Concrete by

Double Punch Test. (Non-Standard Test)

15.1 Apparatus:

Testing Machine
Testing Samples
Punches (2 in number, to be placed at the top and bottom of the sample)

15.2 Test specifications:

a. Size of the specimen

The specimen is a cylinder of 150mm diameter and 150mm height.

15.3 Procedure:

It is an indirect method in which we determine the tensile strength of

concrete based on the theory of perfect plasticity.

In this test a concrete cylinder is placed vertically between the loading

platens of the machine and is compressed by two steel punches placed
parallel to the top and bottom end surfaces.

The sample splits across many vertical diametrical planes radiating from
central axis.

Samples should be placed under wet conditions for 24 hours and later
on in a curing tank for 28 days.

Page | 79
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 15

15.4 Calculation

The tensile strength can be computed as;

ft = Q / [ (1.2 b H - a2)]


Q = Crushing Load

Page | 80
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 1 Job No. 15

15.5 Observations & Calculations:

Max. applied
b a H Mean
Specimen load
(Tons) (N) (mm) (mm) (mm) (MPa)


Page | 81