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GEORGIA DlVlSlOW

JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1958 -
THIS P U B L I C A ~ I V ~ 'OR P L A N N ~ N G A N D I N F O R M A T I O N A L P U R P O S E S O N L Y A N D 15 N O T T O BE C O N S T R U E D A S A U T H O R I T Y FOR M A K I N G
C H A N G E S O N AIRCF O R E Q U I P M E N T , O R AS S U P E R S E D I N G A N Y E S T A B L I S H E D O P E R A T I O N A L O R M A I N T E N A N C E PROCEDURES O R P O L I C I E S .

) ENGINE FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM .. . . . . . . . .3

) PANELOCFASTENERS. = . =. . =
lless you know better, you certainly might assume that they
#ebleed plugs. And for a very good reason. They were
Iginally put there to be bleed plugs. However, it was found
that the cylinder needs no bleed points. Actuation of the cylin-
der will force anv trau~edair out throuah the return lines to
roir.

:pende on tolerances
e plug sticks nut ini
nerefort

nu anotner tning. uonTtreplace me Y ~ . Y D Z Jplug wxm an


N814-2Lplug. You would be right back where you started.
-
subject as it sounds.
TEM
and use slf b;lee Electronic

et that title frighten you It's not as Wryua

We were priviledged to overhear a conversation be-


tween a field service representative and a newly
assigned T-56 engine mechanic recently. The rep
Test Seg.)
was covering a lot of ground concerning the engine
fuel control system. He had a good listener. (Al-
though, I suspect the engine man knew a lot more
than he let on. ) Anyway, we learned a lot; and you
may too in the next few pages. The engine mechanic
is asking all the questions a s you start off:

"WHAT IS THE NEED FOR ALL THIS FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM, ANYHOW? WHY NOT JUST L E ~ E
..
THROTTLE DIRECTLY CONTROL FUEL FLOW?. IN OTHER WORDS, THE MORE THROTTLE, THE
INE. "

That's an easy one.


Sure, the engine fuel control system could be sim-
Like any other engine, you a r e interested in the
output (torque) that this T56-A-lA Prop-jet
.
~ l i f i e d .but onlv~t the expense of the pilot. There
-

a r e s o many variables which affect engine opera-


can deliver. To get the high power perfor-
mance which this engine can furnish, it requires
tion- a i r densitv " . a i r t e m ~ e r a t u r e .fuel heat out-
put, power acceleration and deceleration, starting,
engine operation in a range of high engine rpm and taxiing, and ever-changing flight power require-
($%
j; "a?:.
high engine temperatures. These high speeds and ments to name a few-that the pilot would have to
- "' temperatures muat be closely monitored So that they be continually jockeying the throttles to maintain
won't go over into the area where material failure correct power settings. The fuel control system
I of the engine will occur o r where engine Service does this for him automatically, and much better
r-- : 1 life will be drastically reduced. than he could ever hope to do manually.
January - February 1958
.. ..."_
. ./' ,
I.. ' . . , .~.
,
....>

"OK. SO THE FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM DOES PERFORM QUITE A JOB. GIVE ME A SHORT COURSE
ON WHAT IS IN THE SYSTEM AND WHAT IT DOES. "

Gladly. Look at the diagram of the engine fuel con- lual flow requirements to regulate
trol system. One thing should be noted immedi- changes in engine speed when the pro-
ately: The fuel is metered by only two units be- peller is not controlling this speed;
fore being sprayed out of the fuel nozzles into the
engine combustion section. These two units a r e maximum engine speed, limiting the rpm
the fuel control and the temperature datum valve. in the event of propeller governor failure
(The temperature datum valve is commonly re- and overspeed results.
f e r r e d to a s the "TD valveM. We will call i t by
that name from h e r e on. ) The TD valve through its control system has the
job of overseeing the fuel control's operation to
The fuel controlls job is to meter the correct make sure that engine temperature limits a r e not
amount of fuel to the engine (plus an additional exceeded. The TD control system measures the
amount which we will talk about later) to fulfill actual temperature of the burned fuel-air mixture
the power requirements asked for by the pilot when a s it enters the engine turbine section. (This is
he moves the throttle. Besides metering fuel in called the turbine inlet temperature, o r just,
accordance with throttle movement, the fuel con- "T-I-Tn.) If the temperature s t a r t s to get too
trol takes care of; high, the TD control system signals the TD valve
differences in inlet a i r temperature and to reduce fuel flow and thereby lower the engine
pressure which have an effect on engine temperature.
power output (torque) ;
The TD control system does one more thing that
fuel flow requirements during engine i s just a s important a s limiting TIT. It controls
starting to control engine speed and pre- engine temperatures in a certain range of throttle
vent stalling of the compressor; settings s o that TIT does not go above or below a
given value.

Now l e t ' s s e e what these throttle settings are.


Notice from the sketch of the throttle quadrant
that the throttle travels through an a r c of 90" in
moving from "maximum reversew to "take off and
Military" power. From 0 " to 64" the TD control
system limits turbine inlet temperature to keep
it from exceeding a given value. This is known
a s "temperature limiting". From 64" through 90 "
the TD control system controls TIT to keep it with-
in a prescribed value. This is known a s "temper-
ature controllingw.
Engine

E
But m o r e about this later. While we a r e on the
Coordi- subject of throttle quadrants, there a r e one or two
natnr
more points that should be covered. Notice from
the drawing that the throttle operates in "taxi
-Electrical Leads to the rangeu o r "flight rangeu. In flight range, from
Electronic Temperature 34" to 90" of throttle movement, the throttle has no
Datum Control System control over the propeller. One of the propeller
system components, the propeller governor has
Bypass Lines
Back to Pumps
tains
the task
a constant
of controlling
engine speed
propeller
by continually main-
pitch. Itsending
Fuel Nozzles signals to the propeller pitch change mechanism to
ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM increase o r decrease pitch,
Lockheed Senice News
lrottle Quadrant

ENGINE COO1 :NATOR


(Note: Set throttle from Coordinator
Protractor. )
Retarding the throttle below 34" places tne tnrattle
in taxi range. The quadrant has a positive stop a t One more thing; we said that the propeller keeps
349 The pilot has to manually lift the throttle the engine a t constant speed in the flight range of
l e v e r to r e t a r d the throttle past this 3 4 9 This operation. In the taxi range, the fuel control per-
movement of the throttle places i t in direct me- forms this task. The throttle mechanically posi-
chanical control of the propeller pitch. For every tions the fuel control to meter the required amount
setting of the throttle in taxi range, there is an of fuel to maintain an approximately constant engine
established blade angle setting for the propeller. speed.
For example, propeller pitch is reduced (the pro-
peller takes smaller and smaller bites of air) when AU engine coordinator ties all this mechanical link-
the throttle is retarded from 34" to GROUND IDLE. age together. It transmits throttle movement to
There is a detent at GROUND IDLE which the pilot the propeller and to the fuel control, Throttle po-
can feel. Moving the throttle past this detent sition is s e t from a protractor on the face of the
moves the propeller towards r e v e r s e pitch. coordinator.

"WAIT A MINUTE NOW. WHY NOT HAVE THE PROPELLER MAINTAW CONSTANT ENGINE SPEED
THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE RANGE FROM GROUND IDLE TO TAKE-OFF POWER? AND, SECONDLY,
WHY THE NEED FOR HAVING A CONSTANT SPEED ENGINE?"

This is sort of straying from our subject. But throttle forward, the propeller pitch changes im-
anyway, h e r e , briefly, a r e the answers. They mediately. If flight-range-propellergovernor
both relate to pilot control of the airplane. type of controlling w e r e used, the engine would
have to operate a t increased power settings,
Directly linking propeller pitcb to throttle posi- greater fuel flow and higher TIT., to get the same
tion for taxiing gives the pilot a quicker and more amount of quick, positive thrust.
definite throttle response. When he moves the
, .
-; -
- +
." q*-,,*y +p-*
&Taw<

.xi\ us
2- -

Now to your second question. Having a constant felt a s soon a s the throttles a r e advanced. If the
speed engine simplifies fuel control requirements. engines were operating at reduced speed during the
In addition, constant speed operation provides rap- approach, there would be a lag in power response
esponse to the pilot. In a landing ap-
round, for example, airplane
while they accelerated to take-off rpm. d
"IN SUMMARY THEN, THE PROPELLER AND FUEL CONTROL REGULATE ENGINE SPEED AND
DELIVERED HORSEPOWER; THE TD SYSTEM LIMITS OR CONTROLS ENGINE TEMPERATURE.
GIVE ME SOME DETAILS OF THE TD SYSTEM. "

eady covered, in general, the temper- When the engine speed is below 93% during the
ng and controlling functions of the TD initial acceleration in an engine start, the TD
. Here a r e the temperature limits: valve operates to limit TIT to 871 "C.

At all other times in temperature limiting, the


From 64" through 90" of throttle setting the TD TD valve operates to limit TIT to 974" (h 3")C.
system controls the engine temperature to an

#
.
.g t"r
ib
P
established schedule. At 64 ", the scheduled
temperature is 760" (* 20)C. This gradually
s 967 " (* 3" )C a t the 90" setting.
i n ~ m a s e to
As a matter of interest, the TD system performs
another duty which goes along with its controlling
-,.. When the temperature is above the scheduled and limiting temperature functions. It compen-
y-,7, value, the TD valve meters less fuel to the en- sates for fuels which vary in their heat content.
gine; when the temperature goes below the For example, a given volume of JP-4 may give out
$++j schedule, more fuel is metered by the TD valve. more heat in burning than will a like amount of
4
.I$-
J F 4 some other grade fuel. L e s s power would ordi-

.tb
- -a
2 Below 64' throttle setting, the fuel control es-
tablishes the fuel flow schedule. The TD con-
narily be obtained from an engine burning the
lower heat content fuel than from an engine burning
JP-4. The fuel control does not compensate for 0
$$i
-34
t r o l system monitors TIT to limit fuel flow if
temperatures exceed a given value. Not to just
these fuel differences. The TD system takes care
.-i":: of this problem very nicely, though, by metering
one prescribed value, however. It depends UP- more fuel if fuel heat content (and TIT) is low; less
on engine speed: fuel if heat content is above the average.

"SO THE TD VALVE EITHER CONTROLS OR LIMITS TIT; TELL ME THEN HOW DOES IT DO THIS?"

First let me ask you a question. How


P-b TD System LIMITS TIT lD System
good a r e you at percentages ? Always
play them, huh? Well, then, you
shouldn't have any trouble understand-
DURING ENGINE ing this electronic temperature datum
START BELOW
+ 93% OF ENGINE SPEED control system.
Remember the diagram of the fuel
control system? The TD valve re-
ceives fuel from the fuel control and
meters it, passing some on to the fuel
nozzles and sending the rest back to
the dual fuel pump.
Metering is accomplished by a ta-
pered needle moving either in o r out
of an orifice. A reversible motor in
E the valve assembly controls needle
Throttle Position movement.

Lockheed Servica News , &


When the needle moves into the orifice, more fuel it. Take, for example, an average engine which
is 'putHinto the engine; less of it is bypassed back requires 100 units of fuel for proper operation.
to the pumps. When the needle moves out of the (For the purposes of this example, these units can
orifice, the bypass "takesn m o r e of the fuel and stand for molecules of fuel p e r second, gallons of
less is sent on to the engine. When the motor is fuel p e r minute, o r buckets of fuel p e r hour. It
not operating, the needle is held in the center Po- makes no difference.) The fuel control is designed
sition by a spring. This is called the NULL po- to m e t e r these 100 units to the TD valveplus an
sition. additional 20%.
Now let's see how much fuel the fuel control sends
on to the TD valve and what the TD valve does with

"YOU MEAN TO SAY THAT AFTER ALL THE WORK THE FUEL CONTROL DOES TO GET THE
CORRECT AMOUNT OF FUEL TO THE TD VALVE, IT ARBITRARILY SENDS ON AN EXTRA 20%
OF FUEL?"

Yes, part of that 20% may be needed by the TD sys- tration). If the fuel is l e s s than average in heat
tem in order to compensate for differences in fuel content and/or if the fuel control meters less fuel
heat content. Then too, fuel controls may vary than average, the TD valve won't bypass the entire
slightly in their fuel metering. With an average 20% of fuel. Instead, it will 'putw some of this
fuel control, fuel of average heat content, and the extra 20% into the engine to bring the engine up to
TD valve in NULL position, the whole 20% will be the required temperature.
bypassed back to the engine pumps (see the illus-

.**.

PUMP FUEL CONTROL TD VALVE ENGINE

"PUT" CONDITION (TIT LOW)

PUMP TD VALVE ENGINE

NULL CONDITION

PUMP FUEL CONTROL TD VALVE


(We a r e speaking now of the TD system in the tem- On the other hand, suppose the engine is exceeding
perature controlling range of operation. ) The TD the scheduled temperature values. The TD valve
valve is capable of "puttingH a total of 15% extra is capable of taking the 20% of extra fuel plus an
fuel into the engine. Design engineers say that additional 50% of the 100 units when i t i s in full
"taketf positioa This leaves 50% of the 100 units
ments. going to the engine.

ENGINE PUMPS
and FILTERS

18 THERMO-
COUPLES

RELAY BOX

i
# Reference Temperature
Signals Compared With
I
DATUM MOTOR Engine Temperature
Signal
-I
VALVE
TEMPERATURE
DATUM AMPLIFIER
I

POWER SUPPLY
115 VOLTS AC, 400 CYCLE
ENG1NE FUEL SYSTEM SCHEDULE

Lockheed Service News


"THIS IS A N ELECTROlDjS TSWPERATURE
DAT+JM CWROL S ~ W90 . FARI WT
HEARD &&ki ABOUT THE ELECTROMCSln
;iVz-*.~% .-

f- ?...
?i'. k-.%?** .i I>*, >f$3'
That's where the TD control amplifier comes into
. the picture. The amplifier is the source of power
and control f o r the TD valve motor. It decides
I'D Amplifier
when the valve should operate and sends an elec-
trical signal to the valve motor to make it operate.

The amplifier receives temperature signals from


two sources. One source is the engine thermo-
couples which give the actual TIT reading. Eight-
een of these thermocouples a r e located in the en-
gine's hot gas area just forward of the first turbine
stage. They are heat sensitive probes. They pro-
duce a very weak electrical voltage when subjected
to heat. The greater the heat is on the probe, the -

stronger the electrical voltage that will be pro- Relay Box


duc e d.

The second source i s the engine relay box. It The position of these wipers on the five potentio-
sends a reference signal to the amplifier. This m e t e r s in the TD control system determine the
signal tells the amplifier what the TIT should be reference temperature signal sent to the TD am-
for the given throttle setting. plifier.
f 1- <
The amplifier compares the signal received from One potentiometer in the engine relay box estab-
0 the thermocouples with the reference signal from
the engine relay box. If the two signals do not
lishes the limit of 871C when the engine is just
starting and below 93% speed. The wiper on this
agree, the amplifier drives the TD valve motor to potentiometer is adjusted by turning the START
correct the difference. screw on the relay box to either "increasew o r "de-
creasen temperature.
What establishes the reference signal in the relay
ox? Actually, the reference is established by the A second potentiometer in the relay box provides
etting of five potentiometers. the 974C limit when the engine speed is above 93%
and the TD valve is not in temperature controlling.
Don't let the term "potentiometer" scare you. The This potentiometer is adjusted by the screw on the
lectrical symbol for a potentiometer (or variable relay box marked NORMAL.
resistor a s it is otherwise called) will tip you off.
A third potentiometer is located inside the engine

1
b
coordinator. Throttle movement positions its wip-
er. Its signal establishes the reference t e m p e r
1 atures in the temperature controlling range of the
*< TD system (64" through 90" throttle setting). It
I It is a resistor in an electrical circuit which has does not have a screw adjustment. Rather, it
I
I ,. a movable or adjustable wiper. The position of the feeds i t s signal to two other potentiometers lo-
wiper along the resistance coil determines the cated in the engine relay box. One of these, the '

e in the circuit. This, in turn, BIAS potentiometer, establishes the lower t e m p e r


e of the circuit. If the wiper ature setting in the controlling range.
moves along the resistance coil to increase the
circuit's resistance, the voltage also increases: This BIAS potentiometer is adjusted with the throt-
0 or if the wiper is moved to give less circuit resis-
tance, the voltage i s decreased.
tle in the FLIGHT IDLE (34") position. Don't,
however, get the mistaken idea that this places the
January - February 1958 .
% &

, ..
TD system in temperature controlling from 34" and lishes the upper limit in temperature controlling,
up. Temperature controlling still s t a r t s at 64". The SLOPE screw is adjusted t o give 967C tem-
The throttle actuates a switch when it moves past perature a t the 90' throttle position.
64" which places the TD system in temperature
controlling. The BIAS potentiometer is adjusted
to give a 582C temperature at the 34" throttle set- Setting the BIAS and SLOPE automatically estab-
ting, which in itself, has no effect on temperature lishes all the other temperatures in the controlling
controlling until the throttle advances to 64". range. For example, if BIAS is set a t 582C and
SLOPE at 967"C, the reference temperature a t the
The SLOPE potentiometer in the relay box estab- 64" throttle position should be approximately 760 "C.

"SUPP(36E THE TD SYSTEM FAILS TO CONTROL TIT WITHIN THE ESTABLISHED TEMPERATURE
SCHEDULE. DOES THE PILOT HAVE ANY MEANS OF TAKING OVER THE CONTROL?"

The pilot has two switches which enable him either This returns the TD valve to NULL and turns off all
to effectively remove the TD iralve control from the electrical power to the TD amplifier. In NULL po-
system or to lock the TD valve in its metering posi- sition the fuel control establishes the engine's fuel
tion while it is in temperature controlling. flow requirements. (The TD valve receives this
fuel requirement from the fuel control, plus an
The temperature datum control valve switches a r e extra 20%. The TD valve, in NULL position, de-
located at the aft end of the flight control pedestal. livers t o the engine all the fuel it receives from
There a r e four of them; one for each w i n e . These the fuel control except the extra 20% which is by-
switches a r e normally in AUTO position, permitting passed back to the engine pump.
automatic operation of the TD control, b3 the event
temperature control is erratic, the pilot can po- The pilot will not have overtemperature protection
sition the switch on the discrepant engine to NULL.
I,
when the switch is in NULL.
CJ
An electronic fuel correction switch is located on
the lower left side of the copilot's instrument panel.
$lectra&e Fuel It has two positions, CONTROLLED and LOCKED.
C3mm&un Switches The CONTROLLED position permits the TD system
to operate normally. The LOCKED position locks
the TD valves on all four engines in their last me-
tering positions. The TD system must be in the
temperature controlling range and above 67" throttle
setting before this switch will lock the TD valves.

The TD valves may be locked before the throttles


a r e retarded during the airplane landing approach. I

TD (2un&rol (It is recommended that the switch be placed in


Valve Switches LOCK with TIT at 800C and aircraft altitude with-
in 5000 feet of the field.) This gives more equal
power distribution on all engines and insures pos-
itive TD system control i n the event of airplane
go-around.
Four electronic fuel correction lights (one for each
engine) are located on the copilot's instrument panel
just below the c o r r e c t h e switch. These warning
lights a r e ON when the TD system is not in tem-
perature controlling; OFF when the TD system is
controlling.
Lockheed Service News
1 Y 9.-

Test Set Assembly

Test Set Cable


I

Cable Carrying Bag


4

ELECTRONIC CONTROL TEST SET

locked condition. The TD valve will correct for


locked in temperature controlling and the throt- the overtemperature and then go to NULL. The

condition occurs after the TD valves have been ture controlling range before the TD valve c
locked, the lights will go ON, signifying an un- again be locked.

'SUPPOSE A TD SYSTEM IS NOT CONTROLLING OR LIMITING AS IT SHOULD. HOW CAN I CHECK


IT OUT?"
7+

Td fully answer your question would ;equire com- increases while TIT decreases (or vice versa) pro
plete instructions for checking the propeller mech- peller governing is probably erratic.
anical system, the engine fuel control mechanical
system (throttle, coordinator, and fuel control), If placing the TD control in NULL corrects the
and the TD system. Very briefly, the usual pro- trouble, the TD system is probably a t fault. The
cedure is t o remove the electronic TD controls cause of the trouble might be the TD amplifier,

trouble still exists, you know that it is in either the tiometers is usually checked first and in the ma-
., propeller o r fuel control mechanical systems. jority of times will be the source of the trouble. "-
Check these potentiometer adjustments with an
"THIS 'ELECTRONIC CONTROL TEST SET'. IS THAT THE BLACK BOX I'VE SEEN BEING USED IN
CHECKING OUT THE ENGINE?

That is correct. This test set is used quite fre- ET-A series TD controls). You will find several ,
quently in running down TD Control System troubles switch positions on the test set which a r e for these &'c,.
and in checking out control system components other engine applications. Don't get worried be-
which have been replaced in the engine. It sim- cause all the test set controls a r e not used in
ulates an operating engine's TIT and will give in- checking out the T-56 system.
dications of what the TD system is doing.
The principal cable assembly used with this set
Bendix Aviation Corporation manufactures this set looks like a nine legged octopus; there a r e nine in-
and i t s accessories. They a r e available in Air dividual cables and connectors. h e cable of these
Force Supply under the following Stock Number nine is never used, It is marked with an identify-
and Bendix P a r t Number: ing sleeve on which is printed, "Throttle Input
Model ET-A1 Electronic Controlt1. This control
NAME AIR FORCE BENDM is no longer in service.
STOCK NO. PART NO.
The remaining eight cables a r e also marked with
Electronic Control 7CBP-177275 177275 identifying sleeves. Four of these cables a r e
Test Set Assembly marked for connections on the 'I'D amplifier in each
nacelle, and the other four a r e marked for the en-
Electronics Control 7CBP-177085 177085 gine cables which have been removed from the TD
Test Set Adapter, amplifier.
Test Set Cables, and
Canvas Carrying Bag The large connector end of this cable assembly con-
nects to the adapter.
The t e s t s e t was designed to be used with three
different Allison engines: the T-40, 5-71, and the The adapter cable assembly connects the adapter
T-56. C h r 0 1 3 0 airplanes have T-56 engines (with to the test set.

"WHEN SHOULD THE TEST SET BE USED?"

The test s e t is used for checking the operation of like they a r e in error. Remember earlier, we
the TD amplifier, for adjusting the potentiometers, said the TD valve operates to reduce TIT if
and for checking the Avien TIT Indicator System. 871 'C i s exceeded when the engine is first ac-
The Bendix handbook, which comes with every test celerating and below 93% speed. This is true.
set, gives the procedure for checking the amplifier. It does do that; but, when the engine is first
We will cover the adjustments of the potentio- starting, there is an initial peak temperature
meters. to which it will go that the TD system cannot
completely control.
Use your test set when any of the following condi-
tions exist: It's normal for the engine temperature to mo-
mentarily overshoot and then stabilize below
1 An overtemperature condition occurs during 877 OC. The TD system and thermocouples,
engine starting. Check the TD system if: during this initial engine acceleration, do not
the TIT stays between 877OC and 940 "C for react fast enough to keep the engine temperature
for over five seconds, from momentarily exceeding the 871 O C limit.
or. the TIT exceeds 940C. One more thing. If the TIT exceeds 1070C,
the engine must be shut down for overtempera- I

On the surface, these temperature limits ture inspection.


Lockheed Service News
Amplifier Output Test (53)Cable

--.-
TEST SET HOOK UP

2 Anytime the TIT goes above 977C. This has in the temperature controlling range (throttle
one exception. If the throttles a r e shoved for- from 64" to 90" ) with TIT at 800C, the
ward very rapidly (throttle burst), the TIT may ature datum null control switch is moved
momentarily exceed 977 "C. This is normal. om AUTO to NULL and the TIT changes more

3 If a t maximum permissible suat&&j@ e


power (Military Power), the TZT %$X&& 4hnI
5 The TIT fluctuates more than ;t 1 0 "C and this
fluctuation is corrected by placing the null con-
r

957C o r of course is over 977C-


trol switch from AUTO to NULL.
This ,setting is controlled
~ i l i t a r yPower, which is 6 If in the temperature controlling range, the
maximum power that you c throttle position for one engine is out of align-
gine, you want to have T ment with the other three engine throttle knobs
maximum power without more than one-half inch. (The rigging is as-
damage. Military Power is s e sumed to be correct.)
or dth t h engine delivering 21,
of torque, whichever limit i 7 A new engine is installed on the airplane.
(Wit& verp cold outside
possible t o reach the t o r 8 A new engine relay box or 'I'D amplifier a r e
@ out exceeding p e r m i s s i installed on the engine.
-
January February 1958
"WHAT IS THE PROCEDURE FOR ADJUSTING THE ENGINE RELAY BOX POTENTIOMETERS?1f

Letts take these adjustments one at a time: on the Copilotts Circuit Breaker Panel,
Engine Fuel and Ignition Control
Prop and Engine Bus Power
TO ADJUST THE START LIMIT TEMPERATURE. Electronic Fuel Correction Relay
(MAKE THIS ADJUSTMENT FOR CONDITIONS 1, 7, Air&Oil
AND 8 LISTED W THE PRECEDING PARAGRAPH.) TD Valve Null
1 Bring the test set out to the airplane s o that it 3 Put the main inverter switch on the overhead
has time to adjust to the outside temperatures. panel ON.
It may take a s long a s 30 minutes in cold
weather. Be s u r e to handle the test s e t with
care. It is a piece of precision electronic 4 Hook up the test set.
equipment and should not be abused. We rec-
ommend the use of a test set support. For potentiometer adjustment, only two of the
test set cable leads a r e used. Connect:
Connect external DC power to the airplane. adapter to test set;

the J-1 electrical connector on the TD am-


Check to see that all necessary circuit breakers plifier to the J-1 Ifamplifier thermocouple
a r e in. These include: input test Ifcable;
on the DC Circuit Breaker Panel,
Main Inverter Control the 5-3 electrical connector on the TD am-
Prop and Engine Bus Power plifier to the 5-3 "amplifier output testwca-
Main Inverter Power ble. (The TD amplifier is located in the top
on the AC Circuit Breaker Panel, aft portion of the nacelle. It is accessible
Fuel and Temperature Control through an access door. )
on the Flight Station Distribution Panel,
Engine Fuel Control Check to s e e that the three switches on the
test set adapter a r e a l l at PCXSITION 1.

Lockheed Service News


5 Place throttle in GROUND IDLE. The nut should be removed from the adjustment
screw marked START. This is one of the two
lower adjustment screws on the relay box Use
(located on the flight pedestal) for the engine a screwdriver to turn this screw until 15 volts
being tested to AUTO. is indicated on the test set meter. The top row
of figures on the top line of the volt meter i s
7 Place the electronic fuel correction switch lo- the scale used.
cated on copilot's panel to CONTROLLED.
This completes the START limit adjustment.
8 Position the t e s t s e t controls a s follows (see Replace the potentiometer cap nut and safetv
illustration): wire.

A Move TEST SELECTOR switch to REF P T


& NULL VOLT-ALL (reference point and TO ADJUST THE NORMAL TEMPERATURE LIM-
null voltage-all). This is the seventh po- ITING CONTROL. (MAKE THIS CORRECTION
sition of the switch. FOR PREVIOUSLY MENTIONED CONDITIONS 2 ,

B Place 115V, 400 cps switch OFF.

C Put TCS (thermocouple standarization)


switch ON. This switch controls voltage
supplied the test set thermocouple circuit 2 Pull the a i r and oil circuit breaker out to de-
from one of two mercury batteries within energize the 13,000 rpm speed sensitive switch.
the set. This will simulate an operating engine and will
operate the normal limiting relay.
D Move OVER TEMP SIM (over temperature
simulator) dial to 100. 3 Position the ELECTRONIC FUEL CORRECTION
switch on the copilotls panel to LOCKED. This
O E Read the ambient temperature from the places the electronic control system in the
Weston thermometer. limiting range.

F Set the TEMP COMP (temperature com- 4 Adjust the TEMP ADJ (temperature adjustment)
pensator) to this reading. knob to the setting on the t e s t set calibration
c a r d which corresponds to 974C.
G Adjust the NULL INDICATOR There should
be no movement of the indicator needle when 5 Adjust the engine relay box NORMAL potentio-
the NI button is held in and then released. meter until a minimum voltage is indicated on
(This won't necessarily be at zero reading.) the test set meter. Adjusting this potentiometer
H If needle movement takes place, turn the will cause the meter pointer to first indicate a
TCS STAND knob and check by pushing in lower voltage and then r i s e again. Set the po-
and releasing the NI button several times, tentiometer to the lowest voltage that the pointer
indicates before it s t a r t s up the scale again.
I Adjust the TEMP ADJ (temperature adjust-
ment) knob to the test set calibration card
temperature equivalent of 871"C. The cali- 6 Set the TEMP ADJ (temperature adjustment)

I bration card will be with the test set; usu-


ally attached to the face o r top of the set.
This adjustment simulates an engine tem-
knob to approximately 100 dial graduations be-
low the 974C position.

Switch the ELECTRONIC FUEL CORRECTION


perature signal to the amplifier of 871"C, 7
the s t a r t limit temperature. switch from LOCKED to CONTROLLED.

9 Adjust the START Potentiometer screw on the 8 Wait four o r five seconds and then switch the
O engine relay box. On the relay box there a r e
four adjustment screws covered with "cap nuts".
ELECTRONIC FUEL CORRECTION switch to
LOCKED. This again puts the electronic sys-
January - February 1958
tem on temperature limiting. The fuel correc- ADJUSTMENT OF BIAS AND SLOPE TO ESTAB-
tion light, located on the copilotts instrument LISH THE TEMPERATURE CONTROLLING SCHE-
-
-

panel (one also on the test set adapter box) will DULE (THIS PROVIDES CORRECTION FOR 3, 4 ,
be out. 6, 7, 8 AND SOMETIMES 5).

Setting of BLAS and SLOPE determines the tempera-


9 Rotate the temperature adjustment dial very
t u r e schedule in temperature controlling (64"
slowly up to the data card equivalent of 974C
through 90 " throttle setting). Turning the BIAS
potentiometer screw to an "increased tempera-
10 Adjust the NORMAL potentiometer on the relay ture" moves the BIAS schedule line up (see the
box until the t r i m light just illuminates. This illustration on page 16). Turning the SLOPE ad-
indicates that an overtemperature condition justment screw changes the angle o r slope of the
exists and the TD valve is now unlocked and can BIAS schedule. The adjustment of one potentio-
operate to w.keV fuel to correct the condition. meter will affect the setting of the other. There-
This light should always illuminate within the fore you may have to readjust both BIAS and
tolerance of 974" (* 3" )C. SLOPE several times (three times on the average)
before the two settings a r e in agreement with the
desired temperature schedule.
11 This completes the NORMAL limit adjustment.
Replace the potentiometer cap nut and safety At present, BIAS is set to 582% at 34" throttle po-
wire. sition. Slope is set to 967 "C a t 90" throttle, Re-

34" 90 "
Throttle Position
SLOPE MOVEMENT
34" 70 O 90 "
Turning the Bias

* P)
&I

3al 3
Adjustment Screw
moves the Temperature
Schedule up o r down a Throttle Position
SET BIAS TO 582" (* 3")C

d al
k @ SETSLOPE TO967"(* SO)C

g ;:;::
570 "C
@ READJUST BIAS & SLOPE AS NECESSARY TO
OBTAIN THESE SETTINGS

34" 70" 90" @ CHECKBIASFOR803"(*3")C


Throttle Position
@ READJUST BIAS 6.SLOPE, IF NECESSARY, TO
BIAS MOVEMENT OBTAIN THESE SETTINGS

ADJUSTING BIAS AND SLOPE


Lockheed Service News
ence has indicated, however, that this After completing the above, recheck the BIAS

a 582 "C BIAS setting may be slightly low and will


make the r e s t of the scheduled temperatures in
the controlling range low. F o r this reason, we
setting of 582" (A 3 " )C at 34" throttle position.
Then reposition the throttle to 70" and reset
the TEMP AIIJ (temperature adjustment) knob
-. recommend setting BIAS at 34 " and setting SLOPE t o the t e s t s e t calibration c a r d equivalent of
+ . a t 90 then checking temperature at 70 " throttle
O
, 803" (& 3" )C. beadjust the BIAS potentiometer
to obtain minimum voltage a s indicated on the

: ,
pilot's breaker panel, and the fuel control circuit
breaker on the flight station distribution panel.

switch to CONTROLLED.

CH IS OPER-

5 Aaust the BIAS pot


connector 5-3 should be removed,and the engine
harness reconnected. This now leaves only one
cable from the test set connected, this is the J-1
wthermocoupleinput testn harness.
but do not safety until the following maximum
power (SLOPE) adjustment is made and a re-
check of both proves to be satisfactory. 2 Position the throttle to 70 " a s indicated on the
engine coordinator. Make sure the emergency
JUSTING THE SLOPE 'null switch is in AUTO.

3 Rotate the TEMP ADJ dial until it indicates at


least 15 graduations above the calibration card
equivalent of 803". This causes the control .
system to receive an overtemperature signal
and the TD valve will move t o the "takev po-
sition to c o r r e c t for it. An assiatant should
be on the right side of the engine listening for
the movement of the valve. A screwdriver
. . 4 Adjust the test set TEMP ADJ dial to the cali- against the TD valve casting will enable the
assistant to hear the movement.

5 Adjust the SLOPE potentiometer on the engine 4 Move the TD control valve switch on the flight
TEMPERATURE CONTROL relay box until a pedestal to NULL. This turns off .the power to
minimum voltage is indicated on the test set the amplifier and causes the TD valve to move
to NULL. Have an assistant listen for this
movement. It should take from one to three

January - February 1
5 Adjust the TEMP ADJ dial on the test set to at 6 Return the EMERGENCY NULL switch to NULL
least 15 graduations below the calibration card and again listen for movement in the TD valve.
equivalent of 803"(2. Position the EMERGENCY
NULL switch to AUTO. This cauraes the ampli- 7 If TD valve movement is heard during all of the
fier to rrense an undertemperature. Power is above checks, i t can be assumed that the 1
returned to the amplifier when the NULL switch EMERGENCY NULL system is operating satis- j

is positioned to AUTO and the TD valve operates factorily. ,


to the "put" position. Again listen for move-
ment of the TD valve.

Paneloc Fasteners
r e c e p t a c b , and within the receptacle, the
ternally threaded sleeve.

To s e c u r e the fastener, you insert the stud


the receptacle's inner sleeve. Push in the stud
d LOCATOR
with a Phillips screwdriver, and give it a quarter
turn. This engages cams on the stud with mating
cams in the receptacle's inner sleeve. Then you
an tighten, and the stud and sleeve act like a bolt.

orquing causes the stud to turn and the inner sleeve


with it. As the inner sleeve turns, it is drawn
eeper into the receptacle; this preloads the stud.
True o r not, there's a modern-day fable about a
character who makes a comfortable living with one o release the fastener, back off the stud a quar-
simple little Msucker"bet. Seems he will walk up n, (There's a spring in the receptacle which
to you, no matter who o r where you a r e , and bet akes t h e stud pop out indicating "unlockedn.)
you a buck that your cigarette lighter will not light
on the first go. Ac K. , what's the problem ? It should be obvious
through experience that seven out of eleven lighters now. When you r e l w e d the stud you didn' t back
will miss on the first try. off the inner aleeye. Now a s you try to secure the
fastener, the cams on the stud won't reach the cams
There a r e many such gimmicks. We think we have on the inner sleeve.
found a new one. From the reports on it, it seems
like a safe bet that a healthy percentage of mech- What do you do about i t ? Insert the stud into the
anics would fail in an effort to refasten an unlocked receptacle, push in on it with your screwdriver,
~covjllPaneloc Fastener. Actually, it's very simple and back it off one o r two turns. This causes the
after you've done it once. inner sleeve to back off bringing it out f a r enough
for re-engagement with the cams on the stud.
What a r e these Paneloc Fasteners ? Technically
speaking , they a r e high strength, quick release, When the stud engages, it goes in very easily, If
rotary fasteners. Not-so-technically, they a r e it doesn't want to go, you can't force it. In fact,
cam-locking fasteners that can be tightened. On trying to force it will only drive the sleeve deeper
the C-130, AF54-1635 and up, Paneloc Fasteners into the receptacle.
a r e used to install the ARC-34 and ARA-25 belly
antennas. One more point: There's no positive indication, no
ttfeeluto it, when the stud engages. The only way
Take a look at the illustration of the Paneloc fas- to tell is to remove the screwdriver and s e e if the
tener. Our main concern is with the stud, the stud pops back out.

Lockheed Service News


LOCKHEED, GEORGIA DIVISION, FIELD SERVICE DEPARTMENT ORGANIZATION

m
ALLISON DIVISION, GENERAL MOTORS CORP., ELGlN AIR FORCE BASE, FLORIDA
INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA PH. CH 3-3181 IW.6197
PH. eH 4-1511 Ext. 6262 M. D. I*JACKwPRUETT
P. E. "GENE" GUTHBIE Volparaiso, Florida, Ph. QB 1-7487
Indianapolis, Indiana, Ph. CH 4-7660 mrty 0. KratUoger Jack A. Ruelois

*
ARDMORE AIR FORCE BASE, OKLAHOMA NREUX-FAUVILLE AIR FORCE BASE, FllANCE

E. Tait Hunter L. C. "Tueky" M4xgm

ASHIYA AIR BASE, JAPAN

H. D. SPRINa*
Mack K. Camon
Jim M. Certich

M. L. "Macw&Daniel
C. A. "Charlie"
F. J. Wxbr"
Ed OIRourke
Karl A. Porter
Joe M. Priest
Ned C. Rtdinga
PH. 2358

Ph. 3122
Oschenfeld

m PALM BEACH AIR FORCE BASE, FLORIDA

R N. KIPP*

Harvey N. B l w k
PEL TE3-6401 M.81s

West Palm Beach, F l r . , Ph. JU2-9645


Park K W o n
T. !'EarlH Huddleston J. ,lJwmn

SEWART AIR FORCE BASE, TENNESSEE

m
PH. GL 9-2561 EX^. a132
R. D. "BO" M C I W E E L F
BEMIDJI, MINNESOTA l&mfreeeboro, Term. Ph. TW-
G. C. "Mike" Fepllell H. E. "W"?'adcard
W. C. *'BILL1'FLOWERS R C. lgobtl LQwie Hunter M. Soh8
Fran W. Navickaa

m
CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH CENTER, MASS. SHAW AIR FORCE BAS& SOUTH CABOLIMA

M
PH. CR4-6100 M. %lBl LANOLEY AIR FORCE BA!i& WaOlPaA
R. N. "RUS8" KAWA P E SP ~ - i lIlht.
~l a
Bedford, MaseBohusetts, Ph. VO 2-4757 HAL L. GILREATH
Sumter, South Carolina, Ph, SP 5-1743

m
DOVER AIR FORCE BASE, DELAWARE WARNER ROIlWS AIR MATERIEL AREA, OA.
pH. 9211 Ext. 8261 R. F. "BOB" SAVAGE
R. E. "BOB" MORGAN
Greenwood, Delaware, Ph. -8

EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OHIO
PH. 1101 Ext. 44591 PH. KE '1111 Ext. 27211
BEN I. HALL, IlJ R. W. "BOB" BORNHOLDT
Lancaster, California, Ph. WH8-1297 Dayton, Ohio, Ph. 0L-6718
LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT
CORPORATION ,

G E O R G I A D I V I S I O N
M A R I E T T A , G E O R G I A