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Applied Energy 179 (2016) 182190

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Applied Energy
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apenergy

Effect of ethanolgasoline blends on CO and HC emissions in last


generation SI engines within the cold-start transient: An experimental
investigation
Paolo Iodice , Adolfo Senatore, Giuseppe Langella, Amedeo Amoresano
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Universit degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy

h i g h l i g h t s g r a p h i c a l a b s t r a c t

 This study assesses the effect of


ethanolgasoline blends on cold
emissions.
 A last generation motorcycle was
operated on the chassis
dynamometer.
 A new calculation procedure was
applied to model the cold transient
behaviour.
 The 20% v/v ethanol blend shows the
highest reduction of CO and HC cold
emissions.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Urban areas in developed countries are characterized by an increasing decline in air quality state mainly
Received 31 October 2015 due to the exhaust emissions from vehicles. Besides, due to catalyst improvements and electronic mix-
Received in revised form 10 June 2016 ture control of last generation engines, nowadays CO and HC cold start extra-emissions are heavily higher
Accepted 29 June 2016
than emissions exhausted in hot conditions, with a clear consequence on air quality of the urban con-
Available online 5 July 2016
texts. Ethanol combined with gasoline can be widely used as an alternative fuel due to the benefit of
its high octane number and its self-sustaining characteristics. Ethanol, in fact, is well known as potential
Keywords:
alcohol alternative fuel for SI engines, since it can be blended with gasoline to increase oxygen content,
Air pollution
Ethanolgasoline blends
then decreasing CO and HC emissions and the depletion of fossil fuels.
SI engine Literature data about cold emissive behaviour of SI engines powered with ethanol/gasoline blended
Cold start transient fuels are rather limited. For this reason, the aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect
Exhaust emissions of ethanol/gasoline blends on CO and HC cold start emissions of four-stroke SI engines: a last generation
Motorcycle emissive behaviour motorcycle was operated on the chassis dynamometer for exhaust emission measurements without
change to the engine design, while the ethanol was mixed with unleaded gasoline in different percent-
ages (10, 20 and 30 vol.%). Results of the experimental tests and the application of a new calculation pro-
cedure, designed and optimised to model the cold transient behaviour of SI engines using different
ethanolgasoline blends, indicate that CO and HC cold start emissions decrease compared to the use of

Corresponding author at: Universit degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy.
E-mail address: paolo.iodice@unina.it (P. Iodice).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.06.144
0306-2619/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
P. Iodice et al. / Applied Energy 179 (2016) 182190 183

commercial gasoline, with the 20% v/v ethanol blend achieving the highest emission reduction. Moreover,
in this paper a review of the recent scientific literatures was performed on the emissive behaviour of SI
engines fuelled with ethanolgasoline blended fuels.
2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction However, for last generation SI engines actually only few data
are available in literature for showing the influence of ethanolga-
The worlds energy demand is nowadays growing more and soline blended fuels on exhaust emissions during the cold start
more and the problem of the fossil fuels depletion is becoming transient. For the new vehicles equipped with electronic mixture
increasingly crucial. For this reason the development of innovative control and the three-way catalyst, in fact, CO and HC cold start
technologies for the use of alternative fuels is a stringent necessity, extra-emissions are deeply higher compared with those obtained
both to meet the energy demands and to limit the production of during thermally stable operation, due to several factors: thermal
carbon dioxides (CO2), directly responsible for global warming. inefficiency of the engine during the cold transient, partial com-
Currently more than 25 billion tons of CO2 arising from worldwide bustion, catalyst inefficiency and increased frictions.
human activities are released annually into the atmosphere [1]. This study aims to evaluate the impact of ethanol addition in
Transportation sector is surely one of the most energy- ethanolgasoline blended fuels on CO and HC cold extra-
intensive, and emissions from internal combustion engines, widely emissions during the warming up process of a four-stroke motor-
used in the road transport sector, are increasing considerably [2,3]. cycle engine. An experimental-analytical investigation focusing
Pollutants produced by this activity, such as particulate matter on this issue was performed on the basis of roller test bench mea-
(PM), hydrocarbon (HC), carbon dioxides, carbon monoxides (CO) surements executed at Istituto Motori of the National Research
and nitrogen oxides (NOX), affect strongly the air quality in the Council (IM-CNR): emissions were evaluated in the exhaust of
urban areas [4], and about 22% global GHG (greenhouse gas) emis- one high-performance motorcycle of 1000 cm3 swept volume,
sions come from the larger and larger number of circulating vehi- belonging to the Euro-3 legislative category and equipped with
cles [5,6]. Carbon dioxide emission from this sector is expected to an ECU (electronic control unit).
increase by 92% in 2020, with respect to its value in 1990, while 8.6 A new calculation procedure to model the cold start transient
billion metric tons carbon dioxide will be dispersed from 2020 to behaviour of engines [17] has been optimized and applied for the
2035, as reported by the International Energy Agency (IEA) [7]. purpose of this investigation, in order to evaluate the values of
Worldwide energy demand from transportation is growing by CO and HC cold start extra-emissions of this vehicle fuelled with
1.1% every year tending to be at 63% responsible for fossil fuels different blended fuels. Three ethanolgasoline blended fuels were
consumption in the next three decades [8]. tested (10, 20 and 30 vol.%), and the results were then compared
In the last decades, therefore, due to this growing demand for with a commercial gasoline. By means of this methodology, a com-
energy, increased fuel prices, and severe air pollution restrictions prehensive assessment of the cold transient behaviour was per-
in the road transport sector, nations worldwide are vigorously formed for the various tested mixtures, so determining for the
developing and finding alternative fuel sources in order to reduce two pollutants: the total cold-start emissions produced during
the dependency on fossil fuels. Recently, attention has been drawn the transient phase, the relevant time-dependence function, the
to develop cleaner alternative fuels from renewable sources, in cold transient duration and the cold emission factors. Cold start
order to reduce the harmful emission to air and to decrease the emissions of CO and HC obtained by using ethanolgasoline blends
need of fossil fuel [9,10]. decreased compared to commercial gasoline, in quantities depend-
Among the available renewable fuels for internal combustion ing on the particular ethanol percentage in the blended fuels, and
engines, ethanol has gained ample consideration in the last years with the 20% ethanol blend that exhibited the highest emission
[11] (also for its current reduced production cost), so much that reduction.
nowadays ethanolgasoline blended fuel is one of the most broadly This study derives also from the need to evaluate the impact on
employed alternative fuels used as a gasoline substitute for vehi- the urban air quality of two-wheeler vehicular class, which nowa-
cles, due to several factors [12]. First, ethanol is considered a days are mostly used as popular means of daily moving in the
renewable and green fuel as a biomass fermentation and distilla- major European cities, where mopeds and motorcycles represent
tion product starting from a number of crops such as sugarcane, a great proportion of motorized vehicles [18,19]. The relevance of
potatoes, grains and corn, thus contributing to the reduction of using ethanolgasoline blended fuels in SI engines is discussed also
greenhouse gases (GHG). Secondly, ethanol is made up of a group in this particular context.
of chemical compounds whose molecules contain a hydroxyl group
and an ethyl group, bonded to a carbon atom [13]; so, the high oxy-
gen content of ethanol can promote the further combustion of
2. Literature review on properties of ethanol as fuel substitute
ethanolgasoline blend fuel within engine cylinders. In these con-
for SI engines
ditions, burning of ethanolgasoline blended fuels can reduce
emissions of carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbon.
Ethanol (C2H5OH) is a low cost renewable ecological fuel, and it
Thanks to its high octane number, ethanol may be a good addi-
can be produced biologically by using fermentation process from a
tive for gasoline [14], and this may also improve engine perfor-
variety of sucrose-containing biomass sources (sugarcane, sugar
mance, in particular due to increased flammability and heat of
beet, fruit etc.) and starchy biomass sources (milo, corn, potato,
vaporization of ethanol blended fuels [15]. As for other oxygenated
rice etc.). Ethanol is classified into two group: first generation
fuels, HC and CO emission from ethanolgasoline mixtures in SI
of ethanol that consists of both ethanol produced from sucrose-
engines are lower than traditional fuels, as confirmed in several
containing biomass and ethanol produced from starchy biomass
experimental research activities [16], so concluding that using
with commercial technologies, and second generation of ethanol
ethanolgasoline blended fuels can really decrease the air pollu-
produced from lignocellulosic biomass (wood, straw and grasses)
tion and the dependency of fossil fuels.
with technologies which are under industrial demonstration [1].
184 P. Iodice et al. / Applied Energy 179 (2016) 182190

The quality of engine combustion, engine performance and Stoichiometric air/fuel ratio: The stoichiometric airfuel-ratio of
emissive behaviour are closely dependent on the physical and ethanol is 1.6 times lower than that of gasoline. When ethanol is
chemical properties of fuels. In regard to ethanol and gasoline, added to blended fuel for a SI engine, since the amount of air intake
these properties are shown and compared in Table 1; by analysing remains constant (at fixed engine speed and at fixed throttle valve
of this table, for some of these properties it is possible to make the opening), in order to obtain the same air/fuel equivalence ratio, the
following observations and differences between the two fuels. electronic mixture control increases the volume flow rate of etha-
Density: Density affects fuel atomization quality and combus- nolgasoline blend, so producing the leaning effect [1]. In fuel-rich
tion efficiency. Ethanol density is higher than gasoline and this conditions, besides, the leaner effect produced by oxygen content
causes higher pressure drop and a reduction of fuel mass flow rate of ethanol shifts the air/fuel ratio to stoichiometric value, then
injected by volumetric-operating pump [2]. improving the combustion process [24].
Viscosity: Ethanol viscosity is higher than gasoline. This affects
the fuel atomization, generating higher droplet diameters and 2.1. Correlations between ethanolgasoline blends and exhaust
altering the jet penetration. Consequently the quality of the com- emissions
bustion process worsens and exhaust emission increases [20].
Heating value: Heating value (net calorific value) of a fuel influ- While the use of pure ethanol needs some modifications to SI
ences the power output of an engine directly. Heating value of engines, low percentages of ethanol in ethanolgasoline blended
ethanol is approximately 1/3 times lower than that of gasoline; fuels are regularly used without any change of the engine design.
thus, to achieve same engine power output, more amount fuel is For this reason, the use of ethanolgasoline blends containing 3
required for ethanol. This feature indicates that the heating value 10 vol.% ethanol has been promoted in the last decade in many
of the ethanolgasoline blended fuel will decrease with the industrialized countries [12], and many researchers analysed the
increase of the ethanol content [21]; therefore, ethanolgasoline correlations between ethanolgasoline blended fuels and the
blends have higher fuel consumption as compared to gasoline [22]. exhaust pollutant emissions. All these studies explained that using
Latent Heat of vaporization: Ethanol is characterized by a higher ethanolgasoline blended fuels can reduce the exhaust emissions
heat of vaporization than gasoline. This aspect makes the temper- of CO and HC from passenger cars equipped with SI engine
ature of the intake manifold lower, because ethanol requires more [21,25,26].
heat to evaporate, so increasing the volumetric efficiency of the Regarding HC exhaust emissions, in some experimental studies
engine, that is function of the temperature. Besides, higher heat [27], significant reductions were revealed with the addition of
of vaporization improves knock resistance of the engine [22]. How- alcohols in fuel blends; the decrease of HC emissions was caused
ever, a higher heat of vaporization could cause lower combustion by high oxygen content in alcohol and leaning effect that improves
temperature and burning velocity, and then higher CO and HC the combustion efficiency. Moreover, in other studies a substantial
emissions. reduction of HC emissions was detected with the addition of 10
Research Octane Number: Research octane number (RON) of vol.% ethanol in ethanolgasoline blends as result of higher oxygen
ethanol is higher than gasoline, therefore it is characterized by content [28]. Besides, faster flame speed of alcohol compared to
the ability to withstand high pressures and temperatures before gasoline can enhance complete combustion of ethanolgasoline
detonating. As the efficiency of SI engines depends on the compres- blends; this aspect results in lower HC exhaust emissions [29].
sion ratio (and a fuel with high octane number is particularly Other experimental studies revealed that the addition of alcohols
appropriate for high compression ratios), the use of ethanol in a reduces the HC emission level, particularly at higher engine speed
SI engine can improve energy efficiency [23]. (6000 rpm), because the air/fuel mix homogenises at high engine
Oxygen content: The oxygen content in ethanol (34.7 wt%) speed; under these operative conditions the in-cylinder tempera-
favours combustion efficiency and high combustion temperature ture increases, so improving the combustion efficiency [30].
of ethanolgasoline blended fuels, due to more oxygen concentra- Also CO emissions in SI engines are affected by the content of
tion provided within engine cylinders for a more complete com- oxygen in ethanolgasoline blends. The presence of oxygen in
bustion process (leaning effect), so reducing the emission levels these fuel blends efficiently improves both the combustion and
of CO and HC. the leaning effect in rich mixtures and then it is capable to reduce
Reid vapour pressure: The Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) of ethanol CO exhaust emission levels [25,31,32]. Analogous results were
(17 kPa) is very lower than that of gasoline (53.7 kPa), and then obtained by other studies, in which the CO emissions were reduced
the resulting lower volatility can cause difficult cold start transient with the addition of alcohol in gasoline [33,34]. In addition, the
of the engine during the warm-up phase. However, the ethanol decrease of CO emission level can be also caused by faster flame
gasoline mixture is not characterized by a RVP value linearly pro- speed of ethanol that increases combustion efficiency [22,35].
portional to the percentage of ethanol in the blends, as it will be Other testing and experimental studies investigated the influ-
better explained in the next paragraph. ence of ethanolgasoline blended fuels on emissive behaviour of
two-wheelers. In particular, Jia performed several tests on a four-
stroke motorcycle engine (125 cm3 without catalytic converter),
burning 10% ethanol blended gasoline, registering for reduced CO
and HC emission with respect to unblended gasoline, but similar
Table 1
levels for NOx production [13]. Yao executed a series of tests on
Properties of gasoline and ethanol [1,4749].
a similar displacement motorcycle four stroke engine varying the
Property Gasoline Ethanol ethanol blending percentage from 3% to 20% v/v, and keeping the
C-fraction (mass%) 87.4 52.2 research octane number (RON) at 95 as for common gasoline.
O-fraction (mass%) 0 34.7 The higher oxygen content in fuel, the lower CO and NOX emissions
Density (kg/m3) 750760 785810 but he did not register for a THC emission reduction with ethanol
Stoichiometric air/fuel ratio () 14.215.0 9.0
Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) 0.5 1.3
blending. Moreover he found that too high ethanol blending did
Reid vapor pressure (RVP) (kPa) 5360 17 not involve higher emission reduction which had its optimum
Research octan number (RON) () 91100 110 around 15% blends [16]. Yang tested emissions from nine four-
Lower heating value (MJ/kg) 44.0 27.0 stroke motorcycles equipped with carburettor system and the
Latent heat vaporization (kJ/kg) 380400 910
same two way catalyst. Burning 3% ethanol blended gasoline, he
P. Iodice et al. / Applied Energy 179 (2016) 182190 185

registered for and emission decrease of 20% for CO and 5.27% for 3. Material and methods
THC, while NOX and CO2 emission increased by 5.22% and 2.57%
respectively [14]. 3.1. The vehicle

The main characteristics of the vehicle employed in the test ser-


2.2. Engine performance within the cold start transient and the effect ies are summarized in Table 2. This high-performance motorcycle
of ethanolgasoline blends is equipped with a four-stroke engine and with a displacement of
1000 cm3. It belongs to Euro-3 legislative category; a three-way
In recent years, advances in internal combustion engines (such catalytic converter is used as closed loop exhaust after-treatment
as the common rail, the adoption of improved lubricants, the control system.
development of the control electronics and the use of catalytic con- This motorcycle is fitted with a very efficient electronic fuel
verters) allowed to reduce considerably both fuel consumption and injection system, allowing the control of fuel feeding and enhanc-
pollutants emission. These relate definitely steady operation of the ing catalyst efficiency also in cold transient; the on-board ECU con-
engines, but there is still some way to go with regard to engine trols the fuel injection strategy with feedback signal from the
cold- starting, the phase in which the environmental performance lambda probe oxygen sensor, that is placed in the exhaust pipe.
are not optimal due to low temperature of engine components and In this conditions the influence of ethanol addition on the pollutant
lubricants [36,37]. emissions was investigated for all the tested fuels under the origi-
Anyway, fuel consumption and emission levels are higher dur- nal fuel injection strategy [17].
ing the cold-start phase of the engine with respect to running con- Besides, previous analyses of combustion process were per-
dition. This occurs mainly for the following reasons. formed by analysing the in-cylinder pressure behaviour and the
Partial combustion: In the cold-start phase, engine components main engine parameters when varying the fuel blends; no signifi-
are not yet at the operation temperature. In particular, the fuel cantly differences were detected on the pressure gradient during
can condense on the cool walls of the inlet manifold and the cylin- the compression and combustion phases. By examining of some
der. It is therefore necessary to increase the supply of fuel to sup- on-board diagnostic (OBD) parameters during 120 km/h steady-
port combustion and drivability. The engine then works in state test, the ethanol addition in the blended fuel effected the
conditions of rich combustion and consequently concentration of injection time, which rises slowly as the ethanol percentage
CO and unburned hydrocarbons to the exhaust increase [36]. increases in the testing fuels. Regarding the spark advance, the
Catalyst inefficiency: The oxidation-reduction reactions occur- engine ECU doesnt modify this parameter for low percentages
ring in the three-way catalyst reach the maximum conversion effi- (<30%) of ethanol in ethanolgasoline blended fuels.
ciency (99% for CO and 95% for HC) when combustion evolves at
stoichiometric conditions and when the light-off temperatures of 3.2. Testing fuels
the catalyst is around 300 C. These conditions are not guaranteed
in the warm- up, reducing the conversion efficiency. Five testing fuels were used in the experimental activity. The
Increased friction: During warm-up, lubricants temperature it is characteristics of all tested fuels are shown in Table 3. First fuel
lower than optimal (100110 C) and thus their viscosity is higher (E0) is commercial gasoline with oxygenated additive (8.1% v/v)
than normal operation condition. This entails higher friction and a research octane number (RON) of 95.5. Second fuel is
between moving components and hence a lower efficiency of the unleaded gasoline without any oxygenated additive (G0), that is
engine [38]. also used as a reference and base fuel for the composition of etha-
With regard to the effect of ethanolgasoline blend on the cold nolgasoline blends; the other fuels (G10, G20, G30) are ethanol
start transient of a SI engine, it is important to make the following gasoline blends containing 10%, 20% and 30% ethanol v/v, respec-
assumptions. As already specified, the Reid Vapor Pressure of etha- tively. The ethanol used for the composition of these blends is
nol is very lower than that of gasoline, and then the resulting lower anhydrous. This Table clearly shows that the addition of ethanol
volatility can cause difficult cold transient of the engine during the to base fuel G0 increases the research octane number, density,
warm-up phase. Nevertheless, the ethanolgasoline blended fuels and oxygen content, while decreases the carbon content and the
doesnt have a RVP value that ranges linearly with the percentage heating value of the ethanolgasoline blended fuels.
of ethanol in the blends; in fact, with growing of ethanol content,
at first the RVP of the blended fuel rises to reach a maximal value
3.3. The laboratory
at about 15% v/v of ethanol addition (so facilitating the cold-start),
while after, at higher ethanol percentages, the RVP declines [39].
Roller test bench measurements were executed in the Istituto
Instead, vaporization of ethanol needs twice the energy
Motori of the National Research Council (IM-CNR); the motorcycle
required by gasoline, and consequently this property can affect
under investigation was tested on a two-wheeler chassis
the minimal starting temperature of SI engines powered with etha-
dynamometer (AVL Zollner 2000single roller), which simulates
nolgasoline blends [40]. Therefore, higher heat of vaporization of
vehicle inertia and road load resistance (Fig. 1). The bench is
ethanol leads to complications with engine start-up including
when a running cold engine particularly during winter months
owing to the cooling effect of the air/fuel mix [22,41]. Table 2
An interesting research analysed and compared the effect of dif- Technical characteristics of the tested vehicle.
ferent ethanolgasoline blended fuels (from 10 to 40 vol.% of etha- Engine and displacement (cm3) 4-stroke, 998
nol) on cold-start extra emissions of a SI engine; the pertinent Fuel system Integrated electronic engine management
results indicated clearly lower CO and HC cold emissions as com- system
pared to the use of unleaded gasoline [42]. However, nowadays Cooling system Liquid cooling
Maximum power (kW) @ 105.2
not much is known concerning the emissive behaviour of last gen- 10,000 rpm
eration SI engines equipped with an ECU and powered with etha- Weight (kg) 189
nolgasoline mixtures during the cold transient. An expansion of After-treatment control system Three-way catalytic converter with lambda
the relevant knowledge is necessary: this is precisely the purpose sensor
European emissive standard Euro-3
of the present study.
186 P. Iodice et al. / Applied Energy 179 (2016) 182190

Table 3 enrichments of the fuelair ratio. The second phase is character-


Characteristics of tested fuels. ized by declining cold emissions for the gradual rise of catalyst
Tested fuels E0 G0 G10 G20 G30 and engine temperatures and for the lower enrichments of the
Density (kg/m )3
730 745 750 755 760 mixture ratio. The last rather stable phase is characterized by the
Hi (MJ/kg) 44.30 44.30 42.30 40.47 38.50 lowest cold emissions when the normal operating temperatures
RON 95.5 94.7 96.7 98.8 100.8 are achieved and the mixture ratio is very near to the stoichiomet-
Carbon content (wt%) 86.56 86.56 81.20 76.47 71.97 ric airfuel ratio.
Oxygen content (wt%) 1.8 0.0 5.4 10.2 14.4
Benzene content (vol.%) 0.67 0.83 0.75 0.66 0.58
With these premises and assumptions, extra emissions during
Aromatic content (vol.%) 33.3 33.7 30.3 27.0 23.6 operation of the cold-start engine can be modelled by a cold
instantaneous emission factor fcold(t), represented by the time-
dependence function of Eq. (1). This function satisfies the two
arranged to reproduce the road load condition and to measure the boundary conditions represented by Eqs. (2) and (3); on the basis
exhaust emissions during dynamic speed cycles. By using this of the previous assumptions, in fact, this function must always
chassis dynamometer, it is too possible to carry out experimental be decreasing during the transient duration, and the fist derivative
tests in constant speed mode, constant tractive force mode and is equal to zero at the end of the cold transient duration.
 
constant acceleration mode. Besides, a variable speed blower, posi- t t
tioned in front of the vehicle, acted as the cooling wind on the road. f cold t f 0 eT reg  e  g=s 1
T reg
A drivers aid displayed speed trace of the driving cycle to follow
with a tolerance of 1 km/h. f cold T reg 0 2
Each experimental tests was performed in cold-start conditions
and, for each blended fuels, the motorcycle was kept at a relatively 0
f cold T reg 0 3
constant temperature around 20 C for at least 6 h. During the
experimental tests, the exhaust gases of the motorcycle were The cold instantaneous emission function in Eq. (1) is expressed
diluted with filtered ambient air by a Constant Volume Sampling through two parameters: Treg, that is the cold transient duration,
with Critical Flow Venturi (AVL CFV-CVS) unit. A dilution tunnel and f0, that is the value of function (1) at the first instant
is positioned upstream the sampling for gas analysis, in order to (namely: f0 = fcold(t = 0)). For the calculation of the these two
guarantee stable flow condition. A part of diluted exhaust was parameters, information on cold-start extra emissions and on the
sampled downstream the dilution tunnel for continuously measur- cold transient phase must be identified. By processing the experi-
ing the concentrations of CO and HC, by a flame ionization detector mental exhaust emissions during the cold start, the experimental
analyser (FID) and a non-dispersive infrared analyser (NDIR) of an curve of total cumulative emissions is obtained in function of the
exhaust gas analysis system (AVL AMA 4000). The only correction time for each investigated pollutant; the contribution of hot emis-
made to the signals is that of the delay with respect to the speed. sions on these cumulative curves can be fitted with a linear regres-
sion, that is characterized by high correlation coefficients. The
3.4. Modelling the cold start transient duration Treg of the cold duration is calculated as the instant in
which the curve of the cumulative emissions diverges from the lin-
In previous publications [17,23,43] a methodology was pre- ear regression. Besides, in order to set the parameter f0, the exper-
sented to model the cold-start transient behaviour. In the present imental and analytical curves of the cold cumulative extra
study this calculation procedure is optimized and applied in order emission must be achieved: the experimental curve is obtained
to evaluate the levels of CO and HC cold start extra-emissions of through the total cumulative curve of emissions (already
the vehicle under examination fuelled with different blended fuels. defined) by subtracting the hot phase linear regression during
Cold-start extra emissions during the transient duration of the the transient duration. The analytical curve, on the other hand, is
engine can be characterized by a cold instantaneous emission fac- calculated by integration of the function fcold(t) (Eq. (1)), so finding
tor fcold(t), expressed as mass per time unit and by considering the the analytical function expressed in Eq. (4). Parameter f0 is chosen
subsequent assumptions. The shape of the cold instantaneous so that the analytical function fits the experimental curve.
emission fcold(t) along time, for a certain pollutant, can be split up Z  
t t e  t2
into three different phases. The first phase of the transient is char- E cold t f cold tdt f 0 T reg  eT reg   T reg g 4
0 2T reg
acterized by the maximum cold-start emissions due to the lower cum
temperatures of engine, lubricant and catalyst and to the greatest

Fig. 1. The experimental apparatus.


P. Iodice et al. / Applied Energy 179 (2016) 182190 187

The total cold-start extra emissions produced during the tran- obtained by applying Eq. (6) and knowing the average speed of
sient time are calculated by employing the analytical function of the UDC driving cycle during the transient time.
the cold cumulative emissions (Eq. (4)) for t = Treg, so achieving EC The cold transient durations Treg can be derived by analysing the
(Eq. (5)). The cold emission factors ecold are calculated in terms of time-dependent functions represented in Fig. 3 (in fact these func-
mass per time unit as in Eq. (6), dividing the total cold-start emis- tions are equal to zero for t = Treg); it is evident that the cold tran-
sions EC of each pollutant (Eq. (5)) by the pertinet cold transient sient durations Treg, calculated according to this procedure, are
duration Treg. equal to around 160 s for CO and 180 s for HC for all the testing
e  fuels. Detailed considerations about the total cold-start emissions
EC E cold t T reg f 0  T reg  1 g 5 produced during the transient phase corresponding to the testing
2 fuels will be explained in the next subsections.
cum All these results show exhaustive information on the cold emis-
e  sive behaviour of the motorcycle under investigation in cold oper-
EC ative conditions and fuelled with different test fuels. In this regard,
ecold f0   1 g=s 6
T reg 2 the calculated cold emission factors (displayed in Fig. 5) can be
used to evaluate the environmental impact of last generation
motorcycles during cold operative conditions and fuelled with
4. Results and discussion ethanolgasoline blended fuels. In general, regional and national
emission inventories of the air pollutants from the road transport
In order to evaluate the influence of different ethanolgasoline sector can be assessed by using the COPERT methodology
mixtures on the relevant cold extra emissions, the experimental [44,45]. Consequently, the results obtained in this study can
test procedure measured exhaust emissions during UDC driving improve the COPERT database of emission factors for motorized
cycle for the following testing fuels: unleaded gasoline (E0), two-wheelers fuelled with the same examined test fuels. There-
unleaded gasoline without oxygenated additive (G0), and three fore, these results are very useful also in order to simulate several
ethanolgasoline blends containing 10% (G10), 20% (G20), and emissive scenarios in urban contexts characterized by high pollu-
30% ethanol (G30), v/v. By employing the calculation procedure tion density, assuming that a portion or the whole vehicle category
previously summarised, therefore, we used these engine test facil- to which the tested vehicle belongs (Euro 3 motorcycle) is fuelled
ities to investigate the effects of various blend rates of ethanolga- with ethanolgasoline blended fuels.
soline mixtures on CO and HC emissions during the cold start
transient. 4.1. Carbon monoxide
Comprehensive information on the cold start transient for dif-
ferent tested fuels were derived by applying the analytical proce- Partial combustion is usually the cause behind the formation of
dure above presented. In Fig. 2 the experimental cold cumulative carbon monoxide emissions in engine, which increase closely lin-
extra emissions of CO and HC along time during UDC driving cycle early with deviations from the stoichiometric value; CO formation,
are reported for the five tested fuels. In Fig. 3, CO and HC cold in fact, depends mostly on air/fuel mixture equivalence ratio. For
instantaneous extra emissions fcold(t) corresponding to these fuels all the tested fuels, cold-start extra emissions of CO increased in
are represented by the time-dependence functions calculated comparison with the levels recorded for steady engine operation
through the use of Eq. (1). In Fig. 4 the total cold-start extra emis- for catalyst inefficiency and incomplete combustion due to mixture
sions of CO and HC produced during the cold transient are first cal- enrichment.
culated by applying Eq. (5), and then plotted against the oxygen With regard to CO cold emissions, as it is described in Fig. 4, the
content of all testing fuels. In Fig. 5 the cold-start emission factors difference between G0 and E0 test fuels is not very significant, due
of CO and HC, expressed in terms of grams per kilometer, are to small difference in oxygen content among them (1.8 wt%) and

12 2.50
11
2.25
10
2.00
CO cold cumulative emission [g]

HC cold cumulative emission [g]

9
1.75
8

7 1.50

6 1.25
5
1.00
4 Unleaded Gasoline Unleaded Gasoline
0.75
3 G0 G0
G10 0.50 G10
2
G20 G20
1 0.25
G30 G30
0 0.00
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Time [s] Time [s]
Fig. 2. Experimental CO and HC cold cumulative extra emissions during UDC driving cycle for different tested fuels.
188 P. Iodice et al. / Applied Energy 179 (2016) 182190

0.22 0.040

0.20
0.035
CO cold istantaneous emissions [g/s]

HC cold istantaneous emissions [g/s]


0.18 Unleaded gasoline
Unleaded Gasoline G0
0.030
0.16 G0 G10
0.14 G10 G20
0.025
G20 G30
0.12
G30 0.020
0.10

0.08 0.015

0.06 0.010
0.04
0.005
0.02

0.00 0.000
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Time [s] Time [s]
Fig. 3. Calculated CO and HC cold instantaneous emissions during UDC driving cycle for different testing fuels.

11.5 2.8

11.0
E0 G30
2.6
G0
10.5 GO 2.4
CO Cold extra emissions [g]

HC Cold extra emissions [g]

10.0
2.2
9.5 G30
2.0
9.0 G10
G10 1.8
8.5
1.6
8.0

7.5 1.4
E0 G20
G20
7.0 1.2

6.5 1.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Oxygen content [wt %] Oxygen content [wt %]
Fig. 4. CO and HC total cold emissions during UDC driving cycle plotted against the oxygen content of testing fuels.

also considering the effect of different ambient air conditions on The decrease of CO cold-start extra emissions compared to com-
CO cold emissions. For the other blended fuels instead, the signif- mercial gasoline E0 and reference fuel G0 is substantial in the case
icant reduction of CO cold-start emissions during the transient of G10 and G20 tested fuels (9.2 g and 7.4 g respectively): under
time is linked to the rise of ethanol content in the ethanolgasoline the fuel-lean conditions, in fact, these ethanolgasoline blended
blends. Lower CO cold start emissions were detected for ethanol fuels supply more oxygen during the cold transient for more com-
gasoline blends in comparison with commercial gasoline E0 and plete and efficient combustion process.
base fuel G0, since the oxygen in ethanol molecule promotes the However, G30 blended fuel is characterised by higher CO cold
oxidation of CO in the combustion chamber. With the addition of start extra emission then G10 and G20 blends, because with the
ethanol in the mixtures, in fact, the oxygen content of the blends addition of ethanol in the blends, as well explained by Masum
increases as well, and this aspect helps to rise the oxygen-to-fuel [1], the heating value decreases and the latent heat of evaporation
ratio in the fuel rich regions of engine, improving the combustion increases, simultaneously, so resulting in low combustion temper-
process and thus decreasing carbon monoxide emission [11]. ature and burning velocity which lead to incomplete combustion
We remember that in the open-loop control, which character- process and therefore to higher CO cold-start extra emissions.
izes the cold transient duration of this engine, the fuel injection
strategy of this engine was the same for all fuels. Since the stoi- 4.2. Unburned hydrocarbons
chiometric air/fuel ratios for ethanol and gasoline are around 9
and 14.7 respectively (Table 1), the quantity of air required to cre- Fig. 4 shows evidently that, by comparing G0 and E0 test fuels, a
ate fuel rich conditions during the cold transient for commercial small oxygen content in the fuel is more effective in decreasing of
gasoline (E0) is too much high for ethanol/gasoline blended fuels, unburned hydrocarbons cold emissions compared to carbon
and then decreasing CO cold emissions. monoxide. In fact, HC cold-start extra emission detected on the
P. Iodice et al. / Applied Energy 179 (2016) 182190 189

17 2.8

16 2.6
E0 G0
CO Cold emission factor [g/km]

HC Cold emission factor [g/km]


15 2.4
14
GO 2.2
G30
13
2.0 G30
12 G10
1.8
11
G10 1.6
10
G20
1.4 G20
9 E0
8 1.2

7 1.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Oxygen content [wt %] Oxygen content [wt %]
Fig. 5. CO and HC cold emission factors during UDC driving cycle plotted against the oxygen content of testing fuels.

tested motorcycle for commercial gasoline E0 (1.38 g) is much 5. Conclusions


lower as related to the GO reference fuel (2.50 g), since the oxygen
content of additive in the commercial gasoline causes the reaction In the last decades renewable energy sources are becoming
to move towards more complete combustion, so reducing more and more vital for road transport sector all over the word,
unburned hydrocarbons [1]. due to the limited reserves of fossil fuels and environmental mat-
In the same figure is also evident that HC cold start emissions ters. The rapid industrialization, in fact, has increased the demand
decrease in comparison with G0 base fuel when ethanol fraction of fossil fuels more than ever, but fossil fuels reserves are deplet-
increases, but only until a certain concentration of ethanol in the ing. Ethanol is one of the alternative fuels which was used in sev-
ethanolgasoline blends. During the cold transient, in fact, the oxy- eral countries for several years as it is produced from renewable
gen content in the ethanolgasoline blended fuels is more effective sources and can lead cleaner emission.
in improving oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons compared to G0 In this study, the influence of ethanolgasoline blended fuels
reference fuel; with increasing of ethanol in the blended fuels, in was investigated on cold emissive behaviour of a last generation
fact, the actual air/fuel ratio approaches from rich to stoichiometric four-stroke SI engine. In the experimental tests CO and HC emis-
values, and thus combustion process becomes more efficient, so sions were measured in the exhaust of a high-performance motor-
increasing the in-cylinder temperature and decreasing the HC cold cycles, belonging to the Euro-3 legislative category. The cold-start
emissions during the transient time. extra emissions of CO and HC were evaluated by improving and
Besides, as already explained in the previous paragraphs, as applying a methodology focused on the cold transient behaviour
ethanol percentage in the ethanolgasoline blended fuel arises, at of engines, and were examined in relation to the oxygen content
first the RVP rises to reach a maximal value at around 15% v/v of of testing fuels. The results obtained in this study show clearly that
ethanol fraction (so easing the cold-start), while after, at higher using ethanolgasoline blends, CO and HC cold-start extra emis-
ethanol percentages, the RVP declines [43]; therefore, high volatil- sions decrease with increases in ethanol concentration, until 20%
ity of G20 ethanolgasoline blend enhances fuel vaporization dur- v/v ethanol content, because more ethanol in the blends supplies
ing the cold start transient, so decreasing the formation of HC cold additional oxygen during the cold transient for more efficient com-
emissions in the first engine cycles [46]. bustion process in the fuel rich regions of engine. Besides, the
On the other hand, G30 blend fuel shows HC cold emissions higher volatility of the 20% ethanol blend improves fuel vaporiza-
(2.0 g) higher than the G10 and G20 blends, and this feature can tion during the transient time, thus decreasing CO and HC cold
be attributed to several reasons. First, for higher ethanol percent- emission levels.
age (>20% v/v) the volatility of G30 blend fuel is lower than G10 On the other hand, higher ethanol concentration blend (30% v/v
and G20 blends. Second, greater concentrations of ethanol in the ethanol content) was characterized by higher CO and HC cold
mixtures reduce the heating value and increase the latent heat emissions than those of lower content blends, because with even
vaporization of the blended fuels, simultaneously, so reducing more ethanol in the blends, the heating value decreases while
the flame temperature which led to the increase of HC emission the latent heat of evaporation increases, so resulting in lower com-
levels during the cold start. Lastly, as explained in detail by Yao bustion temperature and burning velocity, leading to partial com-
[16], if a SI engine operates with actual air/fuel ratios over a certain bustion process. Besides, for higher ethanol percentage (>15% v/v)
lean limit during the cold transient time, partial combustion could the volatility of blend fuel decreases, and over a definite lean limit,
occur, leading to numerous misfires and then with resulting partial combustion could happen during the cold transient time,
increased HC cold emissions. Conceivably, although this motorcy- leading to numerous misfires and then with resulting increased
cle is equipped with an electronic mixture control of fuel injection cold emissions. Therefore, the 20% ethanol blend had the highest
system, the volume flow rate of ethanolgasoline blend could not reductions of CO and HC cold emissions relative to the reference
be tuned closely according to the actual combustion condition; this fuel. The results obtained in this study can be very useful to draw
aspect also results in incomplete combustion and then in higher up national emission inventories from road transport sector, in
HC cold start emissions of G30 blend fuel then the G10 and G20 order to evaluate the environmental impact of last generation
blends [23]. motorcycles fuelled with ethanolgasoline blended fuels.
190 P. Iodice et al. / Applied Energy 179 (2016) 182190

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