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CHAPTER 1: *Bacteriology

Biology: The Science of Life *Entomology


*Ethology
Biology (7) *Helminthology
Biological knowledge *Herpetology
Science (6) *Ichthyology
Medicines *Malacology
Food *Mammalogy
2 methods in the process of getting *Mycology
ideas: *Ornithology
*Inductive reasoning (2) *Parasitology
*Deductive reasoning (3) *Phycology
Scientific method *Primatology
Steps of the Scientific Method: *Virology
*Define or State a Noted prominent biologists:
Problem/Question *Aristotle
*Formulate hypotheses *Andreas Versalius (2)
*Collect Data *William Harvey
*Test the hypotheses *Robert Hooke (3)
*Formulate a conclusion or *Anton van Leeuwenhoek
generalization *Carolus Linnaeus (2)
Theory *Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de
Law Buffon
Scientific Investigations *Erasmus Darwin
3 main fields of biology: *Jean-Bastiste Lamarck
*Botany *Georges Cuvier
*Zoology *Charles Robert Darwin (2)
*Microbiology *Gregor Johann Mendel
Branches of biology: *Louis Pasteur (4)
*Anatomy -Pasteurization
*Biochemistry *Ernst Haeckel (2)
*Biotechnology *Thomas Hunt Morgan (3)
*Cytology *James Dewey Watson, Rosalind
*Ecology Franklin,
*Embryology Francis Harry Compton Crick
*Genetics -Watson
*Histology -Franklin
*Physiology -Crick
*Morphology *Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch (4)
*Nutrition Levels of Organization of Life in
*Paleontology Nature:
*Pathology *Atom (2)
*Taxonomy -Protoplasm
Sub-branches of biology: -Carbohydrate
*Molecule -Regulation
*Cell (2) *Nutrition
*Tissue (2) *Mutation
*Organ 2 types of mutation:
*Organ System -Somatic mutation (2)
*Species (2) -Germ mutation (2)
-Man *Biological Organization
*Population *Movement
*Community -Motile
*Ecosystem *Life Span
-Biosphere *Form and shape
Molecular biology
*Molecular biologists CHAPTER 2:
Cellular biology The Chemical Basis of Life
*Cell biologists Cells, tissues, and organs
Population biology (3) Biochemistry
Individual organisms (2) Molecular biology
Organisms Chemical compound is either:
Biological characteristics/Signs of Life: *Organic compounds (2)
*Growth (2) *Inorganic compounds
-Assimilation Protoplasm
-One-celled organism Organic materials
-Bacteria Organic compounds:
-Multicellular organism *Carbohydrates (8)
*Reproduction Classification of carbohydrates:
2 types of reproduction: -Monosaccharide (2)
-Sexual reproduction >Glucose (3)
-Asexual reproduction >Galactose
*Metabolism >Fructose (3)
-Photosynthesis >Ribose and deoxyribose (3)
>Carbohydrate & oxygen -Disaccharide (2)
-Digestion >Sucrose (2)
-ATP Hydrolysis
-Cellular respiration >Lactose/milk sugar
-Excretion Milk
-Metabolic reaction can be >Maltose/malt sugar (3)
classified as: -Polysaccharide (2)
>Anabolic reactions (anabolism) >Starch (3)
>Catabolic reactions >Glycogen
(catabolism) >Cellulose (3)
*Homeostatic responses >Chitin (2)
-Irritability *Proteins (2)
-Adaptation -Enzymes
-Homeostasis
-Amino acids hormones)
-Essential amino acids (2) +Corticosteroids
-R group -Derived Lipids (3)
*Lipids (3) >Fatty acids (3)
Lipids are classified as: >Omega end
-Simple Lipids (2) Most important omega fatty
>Triglycerides, neutral fats acids are:
Atoms are arranged in 2 kinds of +Omega 6
subunits: +Omega 3
+Glycerol Sample nomenclature for fatty
+Fatty acid acids (3)
Triglyceride has 2 main types: *Nucleic Acids
+Fats -DNA (3)
Saturated fats Genes
+Oils (4) -RNA (3)
Unsaturated fats Inorganic Compounds:
>Waxes (2) *Water (7)
+Earwax Water molecule
-Compound Lipids Pure water
>Phospholipids (3) Protoplasm
Phospholipids include: *Acids, Bases and Salts
+Lecithins (3) -Acids
+Cephalins Acidic substances
+Plasmalogens (2) -Base
+Lipositols (2) Basic or alkaline substances
+Sphingomyelins (3) -Salts (2)
>Glycolipids Electrolytes (4)
+Cerebrosides (2) Dehydration
+Gangliosides (2)
=Sulfolipids CHAPTER 3:
=Proteolipids Cell Structure and Function
>Terpenoids
>Steroids
+Cholesterol (2)
=HDL-C
=LDL-C
+Ergosterol
+7-dehydrocholesterol
+Androgens and estrogens (sex