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Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council (_ff R,^J

A Field Weldability Test for Pipeline Steels

Simple test indicates susceptibility to hydrogen-in-
duced cracking and shows the effect of time lapse be-
tween root pass and hot pass on cracking


ABSTRACT. This is a report of an in- tent of cracking as a function of time pare a review report on the field weld-
vestigation requested and supported lapse up to 20 min after welding. Not ability of pipeline steels, and ac-
by the American Petroleum Institute only was there a strong effect of time cepted the recommendation for a
to develop a simple weldability test for lapse, but some of the more sensitive project to develop a simple shop-type
pipeline steels that could be con- steels developed cracks in less than 5 weldability test for susceptibility of
ducted in the field as a measure of min. The effect of preheat on crack- pipe steels to h y d r o g e n - i n d u c e d
their susceptibility to hydrogen-in- ing was also clearly shown by the test. cracking. This paper is a report on the
duced cracking. The goal was a quan- Thus the test appeared potentially outcome of the project.
titative and reproducible test that useful for determining the time limit The object of the investigation was
could be prepared and evaluated with between the root pass and hot pass to develop a test which is quantita-
a hammer, vise and power saws. and the necessary preheat. It should tive, reproducible, and amenable to
A 150X200 m m specimen cut from have applicability to testing struc- use in the field without test equip-
formed pipe with a central sawed slot tural steels, generally, as well. ment other than saws, a vise, and a
in the girth direction and welded with hammer. These conditions barred the
a cellulosic electrode at welding con- Foreword use of the laboratory tests that have
ditions matching those used in the become generally accepted for
field was found to develop hydrogen- The authors wish to express their evaluating c r a c k i n g susceptibility.
induced cracks. Easy measurement a p p r e c i a t i o n to t h e A m e r i c a n The bead-on-plate test is simple to
of the extent of cracking was accom- Petroleum Institute for sponsoring the prepare and weld, but it offers prob-
plished by tempering and heat tinting investigation reported here and to the lems in m e a s u r i n g the extent of
any cracks formed and then cutting members of the Project Committee cracking accurately with shop equip-
slits into the weld from one side of the w h o c o n t r i b u t e d a d v i c e a n d ar- ment. It was necessary therefore to
specimen and hammering off one ranged for the steel samples used for explore other specimen designs.
side of the plate to expose any part of the tests.
the fracture previously heat tinted.
The test was examined for sensitivity Experimental Procedure
and reproducibility by testing a wide Materials
range of pipe steel compositions and In the construction of pipe lines by
thicknesses and was found to re- the " s t o v e p i p e " t e c h n i q u e , t h e In order to develop and character-
spond, as expected, to carbon, alloy production of girth welds is often ac- ize candidate specimen designs, it
content and gage. complished under difficult conditions was necessary to obtain a variety of
The test was used to study the ex- of weather and terrain. Further, the compositions and thicknesses of pipe
use of cellulosic electrodes and the steels that would provide a range of
trend toward higher strength steels r e s p o n s e s to h y d r o g e n - i n d u c e d
R. D. STOUT is Dean. Graduate School,
R. VASUDEVAN is a doctoral candidate in have kept the possibility of hydro- c r a c k i n g . The c o m p o s i t i o n s and
the Dept. of Metallurgy, and A. VJ. PENSE gen-induced cracking a matter of gages of the steel pipes obtained are
is Professor of Metallurgy & Materials c o n c e r n to t h e c o n s t r u c t o r . The listed in Table 1. The steel grades
Science. Lehigh University, Bethlehem, American Petroleum Institute c o m - ranging from 5LX-52 to arctic grades,
PA 18015. missioned Lehigh University to pre- included precipitation hardening

W E L D I N G R E S E A R C H S U P P L E M E N T ! 89-8
5 0 % Cracking

020 0.22 024

Carbon Content, percent

Fig. 6 Relation of onset of cracking

to carbon content

ceptible steels without resorting to 3 0 % Cracking

preheating of the pipes to an appro-
priate temperature.
It can also be seen from the results
that the time before start of the crack
is shortest for high carbon steels and
that the time increases with a lowering
of the carbon content. Figure 6 shows
the trend. These results confirm that
the best way to avoid hydrogen-
induced cracking in high strength
steels is to use lower carbon contents.

The results thus far available on the
effect of plate preheating temper-
ature are given in Table 4. As expect- No Cracking
ed, preheating was effective in reduc-
Fig. 7 Variation of restraint in the slot specimen by moving the slot toward one side and
ing or eliminating cracking, espe-
its effect on hydrogen cracking in Heat 63843
cially at temperatures approaching
100 C. The combined effect of pre-
heating and time lapse after welding
is still under study and will be report-
ed subsequently.
Table 4 Effect of Preheat on the Extent of HAZ Cracking
Variable Constraint
Percent Cracking with a Preheat of
It was found desirable to examine
the specimen design for means of 20 C 52 C 66 C 80 C 93 C 120 C
varying the restraint so that test Heat (R.T.) (125 F) (150 F) (175 F) (200 F) (250 F)
results could be " t u n e d " to match
63843 50 50 40 35 30 1
field experience. The slot-weld test
B319 40 30-40 -15 ~ 1 ~ 1 Nil
specimen provides a convenient way 98173 25 - 5 5 3-5 1 Traces
of varying the restraint which can be 88284 20 -13 10 ~ 5 3-5 Traces
achieved simply by varying the posi- W3134 2 Nil Nil
tion of the slot across the breadth of H228 15 Nil Nil
the sample. Heat No. 63843 which A210 10 1 to 2 Nil
gave 50% cracking with the slot in the A69-2 3 Nil Nil
center was chosen for the test on 492S1871 80 70 45 45 3-40 1
variable restraint. Figure 7 shows the 496S2211 2 Nil
496S1871 1 <1
fracture surface together with the test
490S2441 4 to 5 1 to 2
plate design for three different 490S2681 3 - 1
restraint levels. It is interesting to note 490S2391 2 to 3 2 to 5
that the slot placed 25 mm from the 493S2791 1 Nil
edge (the least restraint) gave 0%

W E L D I N G R E S E A R C H S U P P L E M E N T ! 93-8
cracking and the specimen with the direction of pipe curvature, and weld- 4. The test method was used to
slot 2 in. (51 mm) from the edge, the ed by depositing the weld bead over show the rate at which cracking takes
i n t e r m e d i a t e restraint level, p r o - t h e s l o t a n d e x t e n d i n g 25 m m place over intervals of time following
duced about 30% cracking. Thus a beyond each end of the slot. The welding. Some of the more crack-
satisfactory method of controlling re- welding conditions are chosen to sensitive steels e x h i b i t e d partial
straint has been devised, and the match field practice. cracking within one minute of c o m -
specimen can be adjusted to match 2. Quantitative m e a s u r e m e n t of pletion of the weld. Cracking occurred
constraints encountered in field weld- the extent of cracking is obtained with sooner in steels of higher carbon c o n -
ed girth joints. shop tools by aging the specimen up tent.
to 24 h. reheating to about 500 C with 5. The benefit of moderate pre-
a gas torch to arrest cracking and to heating in preventing h y d r o g e n -
S u m m a r y and Conclusions heat tint any h y d r o g e n - i n d u c e d induced cracking was demonstrated
cracking, and hammering off one side by the slot specimen.
The results of this investigation may of the weld to reveal the oxidized sur- 6. Variable constraint is readily ob-
be summarized as follows: face of the hydrogen-induced crack tained by moving the slot off center
1. A satisfactory shop-type weld- which can then be measured. toward one side of the specimen.
ability test has been developed for 3. The test was shown to discrim- 7. The slot specimen appears suit-
measuring the field weldability of inate among various compositions of able for measuring the weldability of
pipeline steels. It utilizes a 150 by pipeline steels and to correlate ap- structural steels generally, and more
200 mm specimen removed from proximately with carbon equivalent conveniently than the tests requiring
formed pipe, slotted centrally in the values. laboratory facilities.

AWS D10.10-75
Local Heat Treatment of Welds in Piping
and Tubing
In the manufacture of welded articles or structures in the shop or in
the field, it may be desirable, for a variety of reasons, to heat the weld
regions before welding (preheating), between passes (interpass heating),
or after welding (postheating). This document presents in detail the
various means commercially available for heating pipe welds locally,
either before or after welding, or between passes. The relative advantages
and disadvantages of each method are also discussed. Although the
document is oriented principally toward the heating of welds in piping
and tubing, the discussion of the various heating methods is applicable
to any type of welded fabrication.
Topics covered include the following:
Measurement of Temperature
Induction Heating
Electric Resistance Heating
Flame Heating
Exothermic Heating
Gas-Flame Generated Infrared Heating
Radiant Heating by Quartz Lamps.
The price of AWS D10.10-75, Local Heat Treatment of Welds in
Piping and Tubing, is $3.50. Discounts: 25% to A and B members; 20% to
bookstores, public libraries and schools; 15% to C and D members. Send
your orders to the American Welding Society, 2501 N.W. 7th Street,
Miami, FL 33125. Florida residents add 4% sales tax.

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