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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

## 97. Determine the normal stress and shear stress acting B

45 MPa
on the inclined plane AB. Solve the problem using the
stress transformation equations. Show the result on the
sectioned element. 80 MPa

## u = +135 (Fig. a) sx = 80 MPa sy = 0 txy = 45 MPa A

we obtain,
sx + sy sx - sy
sx = + cos u + txysin 2u
2 2

80 + 0 80 - 0
= + cos 270 + 45 sin 270
2 2

= -5 MPa Ans.

sx - sy
txy = - sinu + txy cos 2u
2

80 - 0
= - sin 270 + 45 cos 270
2

= 40 MPa Ans.

The negative sign indicates that sx is a compressive stress. These results are
indicated on the triangular element shown in Fig. b.

Ans:
sx = -5 MPa, txy = 40 MPa

842
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## 915. The state of stress at a point is shown on the element. 60 MPa

Determine (a) the principal stress and (b) the maximum
in-plane shear stress and average normal stress at the point.
Specify the orientation of the element in each case. 30 MPa

45 MPa

sx + sy sx - sy
Aa b + txy
2
s1, 2 = 2
a) 2
;
2

b + (30)
45 - ( -60) 2
a
45 - 60 2
= ;
2 A 2

## Orientation of principal stress:

txy 30
tan 2up = = = 0.5714
(sx - sy)>2 (45 - (- 60))>2

up = 14.87, -75.13

## Use Eq. 91 to determine the principal plane of s1 and s2:

sx + sy sx - sy
sx = + cos 2u + txy sin 2u, where u = 14.87
2 2

45 + (- 60) 45 - ( -60)
= + cos 29.74 + 30 sin 29.74 = 53.0 MPa
2 2

## Therefore up1 = 14.9 Ans. and up2 = - 75.1 Ans.

sx - sy
b) tmaxin - plane = A a b + txy =
2
b + 30 = 60.5 MPa Ans.
45 - (- 60) 2
Aa
2 2
2 2

sx + sy 45 + ( - 60)
savg = = = - 7.50 MPa Ans.
2 2

## -(sx - sy)>2 -(45 - ( - 60))>2

tan 2uy = = = - 1.75
txy 30

## uy = - 30.1 Ans. and uy = 59.9 Ans.

Ans:
By observation, in order to preserve equilibrium along AB, tmax has to act in the s1 = 53.0 MPa, s2 = - 68.0 MPa,
direction shown. up1 = 14.9 and up2 = -75.1,
savg = -7.50 MPa, tmax = 60.5 MPa,
in-plane
us = - 30.1 and 59.9

850
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## 918. A point on a thin plate is subjected to the two sy

85 MPa 60 MPa
successive states of stress shown. Determine the resultant
txy
state of stress represented on the element oriented as 45
shown on the right.
30 sx

85 MPa

For element a:

sx = sy = 85 MPa txy = 0 u = - 45
sx + sy sx - sy
(sx)a = + cos 2u + txy sin 2u
2 2

85 + 85 85 - 85
= + cos ( -90) + 0 = 85 MPa
2 2

sx + sy sx - sy
(sy)a = + cos 2u - txy sin 2u
2 2

85 + 85 85 - 85
= - cos (-90) - 0 = 85 MPa
2 2
sx - sy
(txy)a = - sin 2u + txy cos 2u
2

85 - 85
= - sin ( -90) + 0 = 0
2

For element b:

sx = sy = 0 txy = 60 MPa u = - 60
sx + sy sx - sy
(sx)b = + cos 2u + txy sin 2u
2 2

## = 0 + 0 + 60 sin (- 120) = - 51.96 MPa

sx + sy sx - sy
(sy)b = - cos 2u - txy sin 2u
2 2

## = 0 - 0 - 60 sin ( - 120) = 51.96 MPa

sx - sy
(txy)b = - sin 2u - txy cos 2u
2
85 - 85
= - sin ( - 120) + 60 cos ( -120) = - 30 MPa
2

## txy = (txy)a + (txy)b = 0 + ( -30) = - 30 MPa Ans.

Ans:
sx = 33.0 MPa, sy = 137 MPa, txy = - 30 MPa

855
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925. The wooden block will fail if the shear stress acting sy
along the grain is 550 psi. If the normal stress sx = 400 psi ,
determine the necessary compressive stress sy that will
cause failure.
58 sx 400 psi

sx - sy
txy = - a b sin 2u + txy cos 2u
2

400 - sy
550 = - a b sin 296 + 0
2

## sy = - 824 psi Ans.

Ans:
sy = - 824 psi

863
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## 927. The bracket is subjected to the force of 3 kip.

Determine the principal stress and maximum in-plane 3 kip a 3 in. 3 kip
shear stress at point B on the cross section at section aa.
Specify the orientation of this state of stress and show the
results on elements.

a 0.25 in.
A

## Internal Loadings: Consider the equilibrium of the free-body diagram of the

brackets left cut segment, Fig. a. B
0.25 in.
1 in.
+ F = 0;
: N - 3 = 0 N = 3 kip
x

## MO = 0; 3(4) - M = 0 M = 12 kip # in Section a a

Normal and Shear Stresses: The normal stress is the combination of axial and
bending stress. Thus,

N My
s = -
A I

The cross - sectional area and the moment of inertia about the z axis of the brackets
cross section is

1 1
I =
12 12

## For point B, y = - 1 in. Then

3 ( - 12)(-1)
sB = - = - 22.90 ksi
0.875 0.45573

## Since no shear force is acting on the section,

tB = 0

The state of stress at point A can be represented on the element shown in Fig. b.

## In - Plane Principal Stress: sx = - 22.90 ksi, sy = 0, and txy = 0. Since no shear

stress acts on the element,

## s1 = sy = 0 s2 = sx = - 22.90 ksi Ans.

The state of principal stresses can also be represented by the elements shown in Fig. b.

## Maximum In - Plane Shear Stress:

sx - sy 2
-22.90 - 0 2
t max = + txy 2 = a b + 02 = 11.5 ksi Ans.
in-plane C 2 B 2

## Orientation of the Plane of Maximum In - Plane Shear Stress:

A sx - sy B >2 ( -22.9 - 0)>2
tan 2us = - = - = -q
txy 0

## us = 45 and 135 Ans.

866
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927. Continued

Substituting u = 45 into
sx - sy
txy = - sin 2u + txy cos 2u
2

-22.9 - 0
= - sin 90 + 0
2

## = 11.5 ksi = t max

in-plane

This indicates that t max is directed in the positive sense of the y axes on the
in-plane
element defined by us = 45.

## Average Normal Stress:

sx + sy -22.9 + 0
savg = = = -11.5 ksi
2 2

The state of maximum in - plane shear stress is represented by the element shown in
Fig. c.

Ans:
s1 = 0, s2 = - 22.90 ksi, tmax = 11.5 ksi,
in-plane
us = 45 and 135

867
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## 933. The clamp bears down on the smooth surface at

E by tightening the bolt. If the tensile force in the bolt is
40 kN, determine the principal stress at points A and B and
show the results on elements located at each of these
points. The cross-sectional area at A and B is shown in the
300 mm
50 mm
30 mm A
100 mm B
B
A 25 mm
100 mm
Support Reactions: As shown on FBD(a). 50 mm
E
Internal Forces and Moment: As shown on FBD(b).

Section Properties:

## (0.03) A 0.053 B = 0.3125 A 10 - 6 B m4

1
I =
12

QA = 0

QB = yA = 0.0125(0.025)(0.03) = 9.375 A 10 - 6 B m3

My
Normal Stress: Applying the flexure formula s = - .
I

2.40(103)(0.025)
sA = - = -192 MPa
0.3125(10 - 6)
2.40(103)(0)
sB = - = 0
0.3125(10 - 6)

VQ
Shear Stress: Applying the shear formula t =
It

24.0(103)(0)
tA = = 0
0.3125(10 - 6)(0.03)
24.0(103) C 9.375(10 - 6) D
tB = = 24.0 MPa
0.3125(10 - 6)(0.03)

In-Plane Principal Stresses: sx = 0, sy = -192 MPa, and txy = 0 for point A. Since
no shear stress acts on the element.

s1 = sx = 0 Ans.

## sx = sy = 0 and txy = -24.0 MPa for point B. Applying Eq. 9-5

sx + sy sx - sy 2
s1,2 = ; a b + t2xy
2 C 2

= 0 ; 20 + (-24.0)2

= 0 ; 24.0

## s1 = 24.0 MPa s2 = -24.0 MPa Ans.

875
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933. Continued

txy -24.0
A sx - sy B >2
tan 2up = = = -q
0

## Substituting the results into Eq. 9-1 with u = -45.0 yields

sx + sy sx - sy
sx = + cos 2u + txy sin 2u
2 2

= 24.0 MPa = s1

Hence,

## up1 = -45.0 up2 = 45.0 Ans.

Ans:
Point A: s1 = 0, s2 = - 192 MPa,
up1 = 0, up2 = 90,
Point B: s1 = 24.0 MPa, s2 = - 24.0 MPa,
up1 = -45.0, up2 = 45.0

876
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942. The drill pipe has an outer diameter of 3 in., a wall 1500 lb
thickness of 0.25 in., and a weight of 50 lb>ft. If it is
subjected to a torque and axial load as shown, determine
(a) the principal stresses and (b) the maximum in-plane 800 lbft
shear stress at a point on its surface at section a.
20 ft

20 ft
Internal Forces and Torque: As shown on FBD(a).

Section Properties:

p 2
A =
4

## A 1.54 - 1.254 B = 4.1172 in4

p
J =
2

Normal Stress:

N -2500
s = = = -1157.5 psi
A 0.6875p

## Shear Stress: Applying the torsion formula.

Tc 800(12)(1.5)
t = = = 3497.5 psi
J 4.1172

a) In-Plane Principal Stresses: sx = 0, sy = -1157.5 psi and txy = 3497.5 psi for
any point on the shafts surface. Applying Eq. 9-5,
sx + sy sx - sy 2
s1,2 = ; a b + t2xy
2 C 2

0 - (-1157.5) 2
a b + (3497.5)2
0 + (-1157.5)
= ;
2 C 2

= -578.75 ; 3545.08

sx - sy 2
a b + t2xy
t max =
in-plane
C 2

0 - (-1157.5) 2
= + (3497.5)2
C 2

## = 3545 psi = 3.55 ksi Ans.

Ans:
s1 = 2.97 ksi, s2 = -4.12 ksi, tmax = 3.55 ksi
in-plane

886
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## 958. Determine the equivalent state of stress if an

element is oriented 25 counterclockwise from the element
shown.

550 MPa

## A(0, -550) B(0, 550) C(0, 0)

R = CA = CB = 550

## sy = 550 sin 50 = 421 MPa Ans.

Ans:
sx = -421 MPa, txy = -354 MPa,
sy = 421 MPa

902
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961. Draw Mohrs circle that describes each of the following 5 MPa 20 ksi
states of stress.

5 MPa 20 ksi

(a) (b)

18 MPa
(c)

905
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## 965. The thin-walled pipe has an inner diameter of 0.5 in.

and a thickness of 0.025 in. If it is subjected to an internal 200 lb 200 lb
pressure of 500 psi and the axial tension and torsional
loadings shown, determine the principal stress at a point on 20 lbft 20 lbft
the surface of the pipe.

Section Properties:

## A 0.2754 - 0.254 B = 2.84768 A 10 - 3 B in4

p
J =
2

r 0.25
Normal Stress: Since = = 10, thin wall analysis is valid.
t 0.025

N pr 200 500(0.25)
slong = + = + = 7.350 ksi
A 2t 0.013125p 2(0.025)

pr 500(0.25)
shoop = = = 5.00 ksi
t 0.025

## Shear Stress: Applying the torsion formula,

Tc 20(12)(0.275)
t = = = 23.18 ksi
J 2.84768(10 - 3)

Construction of the Circle: In accordance with the sign convention sx = 7.350 ksi,
sy = 5.00 ksi, and txy = -23.18 ksi. Hence,
sx + sy 7.350 + 5.00
savg = = = 6.175 ksi
2 2

## R = 2(7.350 - 6.175)2 + 23.182 = 23.2065 ksi

In-Plane Principal Stress: The coordinates of point B and D represent s1 and s2,
respectively.

## s2 = 6.175 - 23.2065 = -17.0 ksi Ans.

Ans:
s1 = 29.4 ksi , s2 = -17.0 ksi

910
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## 975. If the box wrench is subjected to the 50 lb force,

determine the principal stress and maximum in-plane shear
stress at point B on the cross section of the wrench at 12 in.
section aa. Specify the orientation of these states of stress
and indicate the results on elements at the point. 50 lb
0.5 in.
2 in.

a a
A B
Section a a

## Internal Loadings: Considering the equilibrium of the free-body diagram of the

wrenchs cut segment, Fig. a,

Fy = 0; Vy + 50 = 0 Vy = -50 lb

Mx = 0; T + 50(12) = 0 T = -600 lb # in

Mz = 0; Mz - 50(2) = 0 Mz = 100 lb # in

Section Properties: The moment of inertia about the z axis and the polar moment of
inertia of the wrenchs cross section are
p
Iz = (0.54) = 0.015625p in4
4
p
J = (0.54) = 0.03125p in4
2

Referring to Fig. b,

(Qy)B = 0

Normal and Shear Stress: The normal stress is caused by the bending stress
due to Mz.

MzyB 100(0.5)
(sx)B = - = - = -1.019 ksi
Iz 0.015625p

The shear stress at point B along the y axis is (txy)B = 0 since (Qy)B. However, the
shear stress along the z axis is caused by torsion.

Tc 600(0.5)
(txz)B = = = 3.056 ksi
J 0.03125p

## The state of stress at point B is represented by the two-dimensional element shown

in Fig. c.

926
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975. Continued

Construction of the Circle: sx = -1.019 ksi, sz = 0, and txz = -3.056 ksi . Thus,

sx + sy -1.019 + 0
savg = = = -0.5093 ksi
2 2

The coordinates of reference point A and the center C of the circle are

## In-Plane Principal Stress: The coordinates of reference points B and D represent

s1 and s2, respectively.

## s2 = -0.5093 - 3.0979 = -3.61 ksi Ans.

Maximum In-Plane Shear Stress: The coordinates of point E represent the
maximum in-plane stress, Fig. a.

## tmax = R = 3.10 ksi Ans.

in-plane

Ans:
s1 = 2.59 ksi, s2 = -3.61 ksi, up1 = -40.3,
up2 = 49.7, tmax = 3.10 ksi , us = 4.73
in-plane

927
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## 990. The solid propeller shaft on a ship extends outward

from the hull. During operation it turns at v = 15 rad>s
when the engine develops 900 kW of power. This causes a
thrust of F = 1.23 MN on the shaft. If the shaft has a 0.75 m
diameter of 250 mm, determine the maximum in-plane shear A
stress at any point located on the surface of the shaft. F
T

## P = 900 kW = 0.900 A 106 B N # m>s

= 60.0 A 103 B N # m
P 0.900(106)
T0 = =
v 15

## Internal Torque and Force: As shown on FBD.

Section Properties:

A 0.252 B = 0.015625p m2
p
A =
4

A 0.1254 B = 0.3835 A 10 - 3 B m4
p
J =
2

Normal Stress:

N -1.23(106)
s = = = - 25.06 MPa
A 0.015625p

## Shear Stress: Applying the torsion formula.

Tc 60.0(103) (0.125)
t = = = 19.56 MPa
J 0.3835 (10 - 3)

## Maximum In-Plane Principal Shear Stress: sx = - 25.06 MPa, sy = 0, and

txy = 19.56 MPa for any point on the shafts surface. Applying Eq. 9-7,
sx - sy 2
a b + t2xy
t max =
in-plane
C 2

- 25.06 - 0 2
= a b + (19.56)2
C 2

## = 23.2 MPa Ans.

Ans:
tmax = 23.2 MPa
in-plane

942
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## 993. Determine the equivalent state of stress if an 10 ksi

element is oriented 40 clockwise from the element shown.
Use Mohrs circle.

6 ksi

R = CA = CB = 8

## sy = -2 - 8 cos 80 = -3.39 ksi Ans.

Ans:
sx = -0.611 ksi, txy = 7.88 ksi, sy = -3.39 ksi

945
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## 994. The crane is used to support the 350-lb load. 5 ft

Determine the principal stresses acting in the boom at 3 in.
points A and B. The cross section is rectangular and has a 5 ft
width of 6 in. and a thickness of 3 in. Use Mohrs circle.
B
A
45 45

1
A = 6(3) = 18 in2 I = (3)(63) = 54 in4
12

## QB = (1.5)(3)(3) = 13.5 in3

QA = 0

For point A:

P My 597.49 1750(12)(3)
sA = - - = - = - 1200 psi
A I 18 54

tA = 0

s1 = 0 Ans.

## s2 = - 1200 psi = - 1.20 ksi Ans.

For point B:

P 597.49
sB = - = - = - 33.19 psi
A 18

VQB 247.49(13.5)
tB = = = 20.62 psi
It 54(3)

## s2 = - 16.60 - 26.47 = - 43.1 psi Ans.

Ans:
Point A: s1 = 0, s2 = - 1.20 ksi,
Point B: s1 = 9.88 psi, s2 = - 43.1 psi

946