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- 2-Lectures Lec 07 Torsion
- 2011-04
- Solid Mechanics
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- Syllabus Deg Ce
- CFRP STRENGTHENING OF CIRCULAR CONCRETE SLAB WITH AND WITHOUT OPENINGS
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

45 MPa

on the inclined plane AB. Solve the problem using the

stress transformation equations. Show the result on the

sectioned element. 80 MPa

we obtain,

sx + sy sx - sy

sx = + cos u + txysin 2u

2 2

80 + 0 80 - 0

= + cos 270 + 45 sin 270

2 2

= -5 MPa Ans.

sx - sy

txy = - sinu + txy cos 2u

2

80 - 0

= - sin 270 + 45 cos 270

2

= 40 MPa Ans.

The negative sign indicates that sx is a compressive stress. These results are

indicated on the triangular element shown in Fig. b.

Ans:

sx = -5 MPa, txy = 40 MPa

842

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Determine (a) the principal stress and (b) the maximum

in-plane shear stress and average normal stress at the point.

Specify the orientation of the element in each case. 30 MPa

45 MPa

sx + sy sx - sy

Aa b + txy

2

s1, 2 = 2

a) 2

;

2

b + (30)

45 - ( -60) 2

a

45 - 60 2

= ;

2 A 2

txy 30

tan 2up = = = 0.5714

(sx - sy)>2 (45 - (- 60))>2

up = 14.87, -75.13

sx + sy sx - sy

sx = + cos 2u + txy sin 2u, where u = 14.87

2 2

45 + (- 60) 45 - ( -60)

= + cos 29.74 + 30 sin 29.74 = 53.0 MPa

2 2

sx - sy

b) tmaxin - plane = A a b + txy =

2

b + 30 = 60.5 MPa Ans.

45 - (- 60) 2

Aa

2 2

2 2

sx + sy 45 + ( - 60)

savg = = = - 7.50 MPa Ans.

2 2

tan 2uy = = = - 1.75

txy 30

Ans:

By observation, in order to preserve equilibrium along AB, tmax has to act in the s1 = 53.0 MPa, s2 = - 68.0 MPa,

direction shown. up1 = 14.9 and up2 = -75.1,

savg = -7.50 MPa, tmax = 60.5 MPa,

in-plane

us = - 30.1 and 59.9

850

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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

85 MPa 60 MPa

successive states of stress shown. Determine the resultant

txy

state of stress represented on the element oriented as 45

shown on the right.

30 sx

85 MPa

For element a:

sx = sy = 85 MPa txy = 0 u = - 45

sx + sy sx - sy

(sx)a = + cos 2u + txy sin 2u

2 2

85 + 85 85 - 85

= + cos ( -90) + 0 = 85 MPa

2 2

sx + sy sx - sy

(sy)a = + cos 2u - txy sin 2u

2 2

85 + 85 85 - 85

= - cos (-90) - 0 = 85 MPa

2 2

sx - sy

(txy)a = - sin 2u + txy cos 2u

2

85 - 85

= - sin ( -90) + 0 = 0

2

For element b:

sx = sy = 0 txy = 60 MPa u = - 60

sx + sy sx - sy

(sx)b = + cos 2u + txy sin 2u

2 2

sx + sy sx - sy

(sy)b = - cos 2u - txy sin 2u

2 2

sx - sy

(txy)b = - sin 2u - txy cos 2u

2

85 - 85

= - sin ( - 120) + 60 cos ( -120) = - 30 MPa

2

Ans:

sx = 33.0 MPa, sy = 137 MPa, txy = - 30 MPa

855

2014 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently

exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

925. The wooden block will fail if the shear stress acting sy

along the grain is 550 psi. If the normal stress sx = 400 psi ,

determine the necessary compressive stress sy that will

cause failure.

58 sx 400 psi

sx - sy

txy = - a b sin 2u + txy cos 2u

2

400 - sy

550 = - a b sin 296 + 0

2

Ans:

sy = - 824 psi

863

2014 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently

exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Determine the principal stress and maximum in-plane 3 kip a 3 in. 3 kip

shear stress at point B on the cross section at section aa.

Specify the orientation of this state of stress and show the

results on elements.

a 0.25 in.

A

brackets left cut segment, Fig. a. B

0.25 in.

1 in.

+ F = 0;

: N - 3 = 0 N = 3 kip

x

Normal and Shear Stresses: The normal stress is the combination of axial and

bending stress. Thus,

N My

s = -

A I

The cross - sectional area and the moment of inertia about the z axis of the brackets

cross section is

1 1

I =

12 12

3 ( - 12)(-1)

sB = - = - 22.90 ksi

0.875 0.45573

tB = 0

The state of stress at point A can be represented on the element shown in Fig. b.

stress acts on the element,

The state of principal stresses can also be represented by the elements shown in Fig. b.

sx - sy 2

-22.90 - 0 2

t max = + txy 2 = a b + 02 = 11.5 ksi Ans.

in-plane C 2 B 2

A sx - sy B >2 ( -22.9 - 0)>2

tan 2us = - = - = -q

txy 0

866

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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

927. Continued

Substituting u = 45 into

sx - sy

txy = - sin 2u + txy cos 2u

2

-22.9 - 0

= - sin 90 + 0

2

in-plane

This indicates that t max is directed in the positive sense of the y axes on the

in-plane

element defined by us = 45.

sx + sy -22.9 + 0

savg = = = -11.5 ksi

2 2

The state of maximum in - plane shear stress is represented by the element shown in

Fig. c.

Ans:

s1 = 0, s2 = - 22.90 ksi, tmax = 11.5 ksi,

in-plane

us = 45 and 135

867

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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

E by tightening the bolt. If the tensile force in the bolt is

40 kN, determine the principal stress at points A and B and

show the results on elements located at each of these

points. The cross-sectional area at A and B is shown in the

300 mm

adjacent figure.

50 mm

30 mm A

100 mm B

B

A 25 mm

100 mm

Support Reactions: As shown on FBD(a). 50 mm

E

Internal Forces and Moment: As shown on FBD(b).

Section Properties:

1

I =

12

QA = 0

QB = yA = 0.0125(0.025)(0.03) = 9.375 A 10 - 6 B m3

My

Normal Stress: Applying the flexure formula s = - .

I

2.40(103)(0.025)

sA = - = -192 MPa

0.3125(10 - 6)

2.40(103)(0)

sB = - = 0

0.3125(10 - 6)

VQ

Shear Stress: Applying the shear formula t =

It

24.0(103)(0)

tA = = 0

0.3125(10 - 6)(0.03)

24.0(103) C 9.375(10 - 6) D

tB = = 24.0 MPa

0.3125(10 - 6)(0.03)

In-Plane Principal Stresses: sx = 0, sy = -192 MPa, and txy = 0 for point A. Since

no shear stress acts on the element.

s1 = sx = 0 Ans.

sx + sy sx - sy 2

s1,2 = ; a b + t2xy

2 C 2

= 0 ; 20 + (-24.0)2

= 0 ; 24.0

875

2014 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently

exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

933. Continued

txy -24.0

A sx - sy B >2

tan 2up = = = -q

0

sx + sy sx - sy

sx = + cos 2u + txy sin 2u

2 2

= 24.0 MPa = s1

Hence,

Ans:

Point A: s1 = 0, s2 = - 192 MPa,

up1 = 0, up2 = 90,

Point B: s1 = 24.0 MPa, s2 = - 24.0 MPa,

up1 = -45.0, up2 = 45.0

876

2014 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently

exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

942. The drill pipe has an outer diameter of 3 in., a wall 1500 lb

thickness of 0.25 in., and a weight of 50 lb>ft. If it is

subjected to a torque and axial load as shown, determine

(a) the principal stresses and (b) the maximum in-plane 800 lbft

shear stress at a point on its surface at section a.

20 ft

20 ft

Internal Forces and Torque: As shown on FBD(a).

Section Properties:

p 2

A =

4

p

J =

2

Normal Stress:

N -2500

s = = = -1157.5 psi

A 0.6875p

Tc 800(12)(1.5)

t = = = 3497.5 psi

J 4.1172

a) In-Plane Principal Stresses: sx = 0, sy = -1157.5 psi and txy = 3497.5 psi for

any point on the shafts surface. Applying Eq. 9-5,

sx + sy sx - sy 2

s1,2 = ; a b + t2xy

2 C 2

0 - (-1157.5) 2

a b + (3497.5)2

0 + (-1157.5)

= ;

2 C 2

= -578.75 ; 3545.08

sx - sy 2

a b + t2xy

t max =

in-plane

C 2

0 - (-1157.5) 2

= + (3497.5)2

C 2

Ans:

s1 = 2.97 ksi, s2 = -4.12 ksi, tmax = 3.55 ksi

in-plane

886

2014 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently

exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

element is oriented 25 counterclockwise from the element

shown.

550 MPa

R = CA = CB = 550

Ans:

sx = -421 MPa, txy = -354 MPa,

sy = 421 MPa

902

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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

961. Draw Mohrs circle that describes each of the following 5 MPa 20 ksi

states of stress.

5 MPa 20 ksi

(a) (b)

18 MPa

(c)

905

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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

and a thickness of 0.025 in. If it is subjected to an internal 200 lb 200 lb

pressure of 500 psi and the axial tension and torsional

loadings shown, determine the principal stress at a point on 20 lbft 20 lbft

the surface of the pipe.

Section Properties:

p

J =

2

r 0.25

Normal Stress: Since = = 10, thin wall analysis is valid.

t 0.025

N pr 200 500(0.25)

slong = + = + = 7.350 ksi

A 2t 0.013125p 2(0.025)

pr 500(0.25)

shoop = = = 5.00 ksi

t 0.025

Tc 20(12)(0.275)

t = = = 23.18 ksi

J 2.84768(10 - 3)

Construction of the Circle: In accordance with the sign convention sx = 7.350 ksi,

sy = 5.00 ksi, and txy = -23.18 ksi. Hence,

sx + sy 7.350 + 5.00

savg = = = 6.175 ksi

2 2

In-Plane Principal Stress: The coordinates of point B and D represent s1 and s2,

respectively.

Ans:

s1 = 29.4 ksi , s2 = -17.0 ksi

910

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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

determine the principal stress and maximum in-plane shear

stress at point B on the cross section of the wrench at 12 in.

section aa. Specify the orientation of these states of stress

and indicate the results on elements at the point. 50 lb

0.5 in.

2 in.

a a

A B

Section a a

wrenchs cut segment, Fig. a,

Fy = 0; Vy + 50 = 0 Vy = -50 lb

Mx = 0; T + 50(12) = 0 T = -600 lb # in

Mz = 0; Mz - 50(2) = 0 Mz = 100 lb # in

Section Properties: The moment of inertia about the z axis and the polar moment of

inertia of the wrenchs cross section are

p

Iz = (0.54) = 0.015625p in4

4

p

J = (0.54) = 0.03125p in4

2

Referring to Fig. b,

(Qy)B = 0

Normal and Shear Stress: The normal stress is caused by the bending stress

due to Mz.

MzyB 100(0.5)

(sx)B = - = - = -1.019 ksi

Iz 0.015625p

The shear stress at point B along the y axis is (txy)B = 0 since (Qy)B. However, the

shear stress along the z axis is caused by torsion.

Tc 600(0.5)

(txz)B = = = 3.056 ksi

J 0.03125p

in Fig. c.

926

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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

975. Continued

Construction of the Circle: sx = -1.019 ksi, sz = 0, and txz = -3.056 ksi . Thus,

sx + sy -1.019 + 0

savg = = = -0.5093 ksi

2 2

The coordinates of reference point A and the center C of the circle are

s1 and s2, respectively.

Maximum In-Plane Shear Stress: The coordinates of point E represent the

maximum in-plane stress, Fig. a.

in-plane

Ans:

s1 = 2.59 ksi, s2 = -3.61 ksi, up1 = -40.3,

up2 = 49.7, tmax = 3.10 ksi , us = 4.73

in-plane

927

2014 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently

exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

from the hull. During operation it turns at v = 15 rad>s

when the engine develops 900 kW of power. This causes a

thrust of F = 1.23 MN on the shaft. If the shaft has a 0.75 m

diameter of 250 mm, determine the maximum in-plane shear A

stress at any point located on the surface of the shaft. F

T

= 60.0 A 103 B N # m

P 0.900(106)

T0 = =

v 15

Section Properties:

A 0.252 B = 0.015625p m2

p

A =

4

A 0.1254 B = 0.3835 A 10 - 3 B m4

p

J =

2

Normal Stress:

N -1.23(106)

s = = = - 25.06 MPa

A 0.015625p

Tc 60.0(103) (0.125)

t = = = 19.56 MPa

J 0.3835 (10 - 3)

txy = 19.56 MPa for any point on the shafts surface. Applying Eq. 9-7,

sx - sy 2

a b + t2xy

t max =

in-plane

C 2

- 25.06 - 0 2

= a b + (19.56)2

C 2

Ans:

tmax = 23.2 MPa

in-plane

942

2014 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently

exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

element is oriented 40 clockwise from the element shown.

Use Mohrs circle.

6 ksi

R = CA = CB = 8

Ans:

sx = -0.611 ksi, txy = 7.88 ksi, sy = -3.39 ksi

945

2014 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently

exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Determine the principal stresses acting in the boom at 3 in.

points A and B. The cross section is rectangular and has a 5 ft

width of 6 in. and a thickness of 3 in. Use Mohrs circle.

B

A

45 45

1

A = 6(3) = 18 in2 I = (3)(63) = 54 in4

12

QA = 0

For point A:

P My 597.49 1750(12)(3)

sA = - - = - = - 1200 psi

A I 18 54

tA = 0

s1 = 0 Ans.

For point B:

P 597.49

sB = - = - = - 33.19 psi

A 18

VQB 247.49(13.5)

tB = = = 20.62 psi

It 54(3)

Ans:

Point A: s1 = 0, s2 = - 1.20 ksi,

Point B: s1 = 9.88 psi, s2 = - 43.1 psi

946

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