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# PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

## SD2411 Lightweight Structures and FEM

Foreword
These examples are taken from former exams in the course Lightweight Structures and FEM.
They are presented in chapters corresponding to different parts of the course content, i.e. bending,
torsion and warping of thin-walled beams and stiffened shells, plate analysis, and analysis of
stability.

There is also a brief introductory chapter intended for repetition of basic engineering concepts
and knowledge considered as prerequisites in this course.

For most examples the complete answer is given, although sometimes in a quite abbreviate form.
Especially the arithmetics may be somewhat condensed since, for instance, how a standard
integral is solved is not supposed to be a major challenge at this level in the education.

There are likely a few minor errors or typos in the presentation, numbers that havent come out
right during hand calculations, miss-prints, et cetera, and we very much appreciate if you notify
us if you find such errors, so we can correct them and improve the clarity further.

## Stefan Hallstrm and Dan Zenkert, 2013

Intro Brief recap of fundamentals (prerequisites) 5
A Bending, torsion and warping of thin-walled sections and beams 9
B Plates 19
C Stability 25
Solutions Solutions Intro S1
Solutions A S5
Solutions B S24
Solutions C S33

3
4
Intro

## Brief recap of basics

Centroid
Considering the beam section above, the position of the centroid C or the centre of gravity of the
cross section area, is defined by equilibrium of 1st moment of area. If we introduce a coordinate
system in the plane of the cross section and let the origin be located at the centroid. Then

dA = 0
A

is true for an arbitrary coordinate direction from that point. If you think of the cross section area
as a thin plate, the centroid is located at the point where you can balance the plate on the tip of
your finger, i.e. the centre of gravity for the plate. Note that the cross section area itself is not
necessarily equally divided between two sides of the centroid.
For a completely arbitrary Cartesian coordinate in the plane of the cross section area, lets call it
, the coordinate of the centroid is defined by the following relation

dA = C A,
A

where C is the -coordinate of the centroid and A is the total cross section area. Note that the
second relation is in total agreement with the first since C (as well as C) is zero by definition.

Moment of inertia
The bending stiffness of a beam is defined by the product of its Young's modulus E and its (area)
moment of inertia I, where the Young's modulus is the material stiffness and the moment of
inertia is the geometric stiffness of the beam cross section. An applied bending moment is carried
as tensile and compressive normal stresses over the cross section area. For pure bending there has
to be force equilibrium and the following condition for the stresses needs to be satisfied

dA = 0 ,
z
A

5
where z is a coordinate parallel with the beam, normal to the cross section plane. Otherwise the
stresses would generate global tension or compression of the beam, which cannot be true for pure
bending.
Let us now for simplicity assume that the beam cross section is rectangular and that a case of
symmetric bending is applied as illustrated below.

The plane that constitutes the border between tensile and compressive stresses is called the
neutral plane since there are no normal stresses z along this plane in pure bending. The
projection of the neutral plane on the cross section is called the neutral axis. The moment of
inertia expresses the 2nd moment of area with respect to the neutral axis, as

Ixx = y 2 dA
A

## and correspondingly for Iyy if bending occurs around the y-axis.

The area moment of inertia of a rectangular cross section as illustrated above is

bh 3
Ixx =
12
from solving the integral above.

For cross sections that could be split into several subsections one can replace the integral with a
sum and derive the total moment of inertia by simply adding up the contribution from all parts.
One way of doing this is to use Steiner's theorem for parallel axes. One then calculates the local
moment of inertia of each part, around their respective local centroids, and then transpose their
contribution to the global centriod through

I xx = I xxi + Ai ( yC yCi )
2

where I xxi is the local moment of inertia of part i with respect to its local centroid. Ai is the cross
section area of part i and yC and yCi are the global y-coordinates of the global and the local
centroids, respectively.

6
Problem I.1
Calculate the position of the centriod of the thin-walled cross sections below.
a = 20 mm, t = 1 mm.

a)

b)

c)

Problem I.2
Show that the area moment of inertia given for the rectangular cross section on the previous page
is correct.

Problem I.3
Calculate Ixx and Iyy for the cross sections in Problem I.1, assuming that a>>t.

7
Problem I.4
Calculate Ixx and Iyy for the thin-walled section below (Ixy = 0!).

## b = 40 mm, h = 30 mm, t = 3 mm.

Problem I.5
Calculate Ixx for the thin-walled section below.

R = 25 mm, t = 2 mm

Problem I.6
Calculate Ixx, Iyy, Ixy for the thin-walled section below.

8
A

## Bending torsion and warping of beams

Problem A.1
Calculate the deflections u and v, and the angle of twist for the beam geometry in the figure.

z
x t
P
L P
a t

Problem A.2
Calculate the deflections u and v, and the angle of twist for the beam geometry in the figure.

y y
Q
Q

z
x
L

a t

9
Problem A.3
Calculate the deflections u and v at z = L. (Open thin-walled cross-section)

q y

t q

L
z
x

a a

ProblemA.4
Calculate the maximum deflections u and v, and the maximum stress z for the beam.

y t<<h Q
2t
Q
t h
Z
2t

L
h/2 h/2
Material: E, G

Problem A.5
Calculate the deflections u and v under the load point, and the angle of twist for the beam
geometry in the figure at z = L. The material has Youngs modulus E and shear modulus G.

y
y
P
x
z P a
t
L
45

10
Problem A.6
Calculate the deflections u and v under the load point, and the angle of twist for the beam
geometry in the figure at z = L. The material has Youngs modulus E and shear modulus G.

y
P
P
x
a
z

3t
L
t

30

Problem A.7
Calculate the position of the shear centre SC. (t << a)

Sy t

2a
2t

Problem A.8
A beam of rectangular cross-section a2a has walls made of sheet metal with thickness t and
reinforcing booms in the corners with areas B and 2B.

y
2B B (a) Calculate the position of the shear centre
SC.
t
a x (b) Calculate the position of the shear centre
SC assuming that the booms carry all the
normal loads and the walls only carry shear
2B B
2a

11
Problem A.9
Calculate the position of the shear centre SC. t << a
Comment: This is an extreme task since it is solved without idealised theory for stiffened shells.
It requires great understanding plus quite a lot of calculations (!) but could be a good exercise for
the ambitious student.
B
2t
t

2B B

2t t

a a
B

Problem A.10
Calculate the position of the shear centre SC. (t << a)
2t
2B B

B = 100 mm2
t = 0.5 mm
t 3t a = 50 mm
2a

2t

2B B
3a

12
Problem A.11
Calculate the position of the shear centre SC and the angle of twist . The material has Youngs
modulus E and shear modulus G. (t << a)

y
q

t q
L
z
x

a a

Problem A.12
Calculate the position of the shear centre SC and the angle of twist . The material has shear
modulus G. (t << a)

a
t p
= 30
a t
2 2L

Problem A.13
Calculate the warping of the cross-section. Assume that the section twists around SC which is
situated in the point (xc,yc) = (a/2 2 ,0). The torque is T(z) = 3qa2(zL)/4, which is applied at SC.
(t << a)
t q

sc
L
T(z) z

xsc
a a

13
Problem A.14
Calculate the warping due to the generated twist coming from the load acting with a slight off-set
(at x=a/2) with respect to the mid-point of the cross section. Assume that the ends are prevented
to rotate but are free to warp. Note that the sign of the warping is essential and should be treated
thoroughly.

Problem A.15
Calculate the twist and the warping of the closed cross-section. Centre of twist is located in point
C.
t

100
t = 2 mm
C 100
G = 27 GPa
T
T = 50000 Nm
100 700

Problem A.16
Assume that the shear centre of the cross section is located at the origin.
Calculate the warping of the cross section when the load P is acting at the right edge of the cross
section.

14
Problem A.17
Calculate the warping of the cross section due to the applied load P. The cross section is forced to
twist around the origin (0,0). Free warping could be assumed and the shear modulus is given.

Problem A.18
A thin-walled cylindrical tube is subjected to a torque T. Calculate the ratios:
( max ) (max )
closed closed

and
( max ) (max )
open open

where max is the maximum shear stress and the angle of twist for the tube if it is closed and
opened by a thin slit, respectively.
y

t
T T R
x

15
Problem A.19
A thin-walled cross-section according to the figure is subjected to a torque T = 1000 Nm.
Calculate the maximum shear stress in the section and the rate of twist d/dz.

t t
a = 100 mm
a
t = 2 mm

G = 27 GPa
3t
a

Problem A.20
A thin-walled cross-section according to the figure is subjected to a torque T = 6000 Nm.
Calculate the maximum shear stress in the section and the rate of twist d/dz.

t t

a = 100 mm
2t
a/2 a
t = 2 mm

G = 27 GPa
t
a

Problem A.21
Calculate the rate of twist d/dz for the cross-section below which is subjected to a vertical shear
force P at the origin.
y

t Material: E, G

a a

16
Problem A.22
Calculate the maximum shear stress in the section and the rate of twist d/dz for the closed and
open cross-sections in the figure, which are subjected to a torque T. The material moduli are E
and G.
t t

a a

a a

Problem A.23
A thin-walled cross-section according to the figure is subjected to a torque T = 700 Nm.
Calculate the maximum shear stress in the section and the rate of twist d/dz.

a = 50 mm

t t 2a t = 1 mm

G = 27 GPa
2t

Problem A.24
The end of a cantilever beam could be displaced in two directions (u and v) and rotate () when
the beam is subjected to an end load as illustrated below. Indicate whether u, v and occur (0)
or not (=0) for the five cross section cases a, b, c, d and e, preferably in a table, and motivate your

17
18
B

Plates

Problem B.1
Describe methods for approximate analysis of plates and discuss the advantages and

Problem B.2
The plate in the figure has a deflection field in the vicinity of the point (a,a) which equals
w(x, y) = 0 ( x 4 + 3x 3 y 2y 4 ) where D is the plate flexural rigidity
q
D
Calculate the maximum tensile stress at (x,y) = (a,a). (h = a/20 and = 1/6)

(a,a)

19
Problem B.3

## A plate has a deflection field

a w(x, y) = Cx 2 ( a 2 y 2 )
where C is a constant. The plate flexural rigidity
x is D and the Poisson ratio = 0.

## a (a) Calculate the bending moment distribution

along the line x = 0.

## (b) To what applied load does the deflection

field correspond?
y
2a

Problem B.4
Calculate the radius of curvature Rx for the plate with

Mx = 60 kNm/m
My = 30 kNm/m
Mxy = 80 kNm/m
h = 0,2 m
= 0,3
E = 20 GPa

Problem B.5
In an elastic plate with thickness 10 mm, Youngs modulus 70 GPa and Poisson ratio = 0.3, the
stresses have been experimentally measured at a given location in the top surface to
x = 82 MPa
y = 13 MPa
xy = 23 MPa
Calculate the curvatures x, y and xy in that point.

20
Problem B.6
A simply supported quadratic plate with dimension aa, thickness h, Youngs modulus E and
Poisson ratio = 0.25, has the deflection
w(x, y) = Axy ( a 2 x 2 )( a y )

Problem B.7
O C
x w(x, y) = cxy ( 4a 2 x 2 )(5a y )

## E (a) Find the support load mid-way

=1 5a
4
(b) The corner load at C
t

A B
2a
y

Problem B.8
x q = q0 (2sx sy + s3x sy ) with
x y 3x
sx = sin , sy = sin , s3x = sin
q a a a a
D
Assume: w = w 0 sx sy + w1s3x sy
Calculate
(a) the mid-point deflection,
a (b) the mid-point bending moments and
(c) the corner load at (0,0)
y

21
Problem B.9
3a 5x 3y
q = q0 sin sin
x 3a 4a
where = 0.3; and E, h, a, and q0 are given
(2a,a)
4a
Calculate
(a) principal bending moments and their directions
at point (2a,a),
(b) the support line load along the line (0,y) and
(c) the corner load R at points (0,0) and (3a,0).

Problem B.10
Calculate the maximum deflection of the plate in the figure using an approximate energy method.
The loading is a uniformly distributed pressure q. The plate deformation field may be
approximated by
w(x, y) = Cx 2 ( a 2 y 2 )
where C is a constant. The plate flexural rigidity is D and assume for simplicity that the Poisson
ratio = 0.

2a

22
Problem B.11
The plate in the figure has two edges clamped while the other two are free. It is subjected to a
uniformly distributed pressure q.
Calculate approximately the deflection of point A of the plate in the figure using the energy
method. The plate deformation field may be approximated by
w = Cx 2 y 2
Comment on to what extent the assumed deflection field satisfies the boundary conditions.
Estimate any plausible forces of the free edge x = a. The plate flexural rigidity is D and assume
for simplicity that the Poisson ratio = 0.

A
a

Problem B.12
A plate according to the figure is subjected to a point load in the middle of the plate, i.e., at point
(1.5a, a/2). Calculate the maximum deflection of the plate using Ritz energy method. The plate
flexural rigidity is D and assume for simplicity that the Poisson ratio = 0.

3a
y

23
Problem B.13
A plate according to the figure is subjected to a uniform pressure q = 2 kPa (0.002 MPa). The
boundaries y = 0 and y = b are simply supported, the boundary x = 0 is clamped and the boundary
x = L is free.
Data:
y
E = 70 GPa (70 000 MPa), = 0.3
a = b = 400 mm
Plate thickness: h = 3 mm

## Assume the deflected shape

b A 2
x y
w( x, y ) = C sin
a b
x
a

where C is an unknown quantity. Use Ritz method (energy method) to calculate the deflection of
the plate and especially for point A in the figure using data according to the above. Comment the
deflection assumption and how well it satisfies the boundary conditions and how well you expect

24
C

Stability

Problem C.1
Draw and describe the cr - relation (or Pcr - relation) and give all the relation and failure
phenomena occurring for different slenderness ratios () for axially loaded columns with the
following cross-sections.
a. homogeneous
b. closed thin-walled
c. open thin-walled

Problem C.2
The cantilever beam below is made of aluminium with Youngs modulus E = 70 GPa. Consider
Euler buckling, torsion buckling, local buckling (max load) and calculate the critical load Pcr
when,

a) L = 1000 mm
b) L = 500 mm

## a = 50 mm, t = 2 mm, G = 30 000 MPa, y = 250 MPa, a>>t

25
Problem C.3
A beam loaded in compression is simply supported at its ends and supported in one direction (y)
at its midpoint. Calculate the critical load with respect to Euler, torsion and local buckling.

## L = 2000 mm, a = 50 mm, t = 2 mm, E = 70 GPa, G = 27 GPa

Problem C.4
A truss structure according to the figure below is subjected to vertical force P. Calculate the angle
so that the Euler buckling load is minimised.
P

EI EI

a a

Problem C.5
A simply supported beam is loaded in compression as illustrated below. Its cross section is
optimised for local buckling. How long can the beam be without being critical in Euler buckling
and will torsion buckling be avoided? Hint: Use theory for thin-walled beams.

E = 70 GPa, G = 30 GPa
[mm]
60
3
L,E,G P
60

26
Problem C.6
A simply supported beam (see fig. below) is loaded in axial compression. What are the conditions
for torsion buckling to occur? Both Euler and local buckling shall be regarded.

Problem C.7
A rigid beam (infinite flexural rigidity EI) is connected to a compliant beam as illustrated in the
figure below. The rigid beam has length L and the compliant beam has length 2L. Calculate the
load P = Pcr at which the construction in the figure becomes unstable.

Rigid
L

2L, EI

Problem C.8
The transverse force in a truss-structure according to the figure is assumed to be completely
carried by the diagonal rods. Calculate the angle so that the weight is minimised. The diagonal
rods are critical in buckling and are assumed to have quadratic cross-section.

27
Problem C.9
Calculate the effective (reduced) elastic modulus at plastic buckling in terms of Youngs modulus
E and the tangent modulus Et for a symmetric H-profile with Imin about the x-axis. The web may
be neglected in the analysis.
y

Flange area A
h x

Problem C.10
A beam structure consists of three beams with flexural rigidity EI. Beam parts AB and BC have
length L/2 and the part BD has length L. The beams are joined together in a rigid corner B and
supported according to the figure. Calculate the instability load P.

A
B C

Problem C.11

2L/3,EI L/3,EI
P P

28
Problem C.12
Calculate the ultimate local buckling stress for the non-symmetric L-profile in the figure.
(a) The profile is made of an Aluminium alloy with 0,2 = 250 MPa.
(b) How large does the local buckling stress become if the profile instead is made of steel with
s = 400 MPa ?
40

25 2
2

2
Both materials are elastic-plastic with = 0.3.

Problem C.13
Calculate the average stress when all parts of the section have failed due to local buckling for the
hat-profile made of extruded aluminium with 0,2 = 320 MPa

1
30
2

20 40 20

Problem C.14
Calculate the maximum load carrying capacity for a short axially loaded L-profile with cross-
section according to the figure below. 0,2 = 300 MPa and E = 70 GPa.

50

5
25 3

29
Problem C.15
Calculate the ultimate buckling stress and the load carrying capacity for a short Z-profile made of
aluminium 0,2 = 300 MPa and E = 70 GPa.

25

1,5
50

25

Problem C.16
Calculate the ultimate local buckling stress for a non-symmetric Z-profile made of extruded
aluminium Al SIS 4214 with 0,2 = 250 MPa. What can be done to increase the local buckling
stress for this profile?
40

50 2

50

Problem C.17
An extruded aluminium profile with E=70 GPa, 0,2 = 280 MPa and cross-section according to
the figure below is subjected to a compressive load. Its length is approximately 100 mm. How
thick should the flanges be to obtain optimal load carrying capacity with respect to local
buckling, i.e critical load occurring simultaneously in the flanges and the web?

30
34

1
34

34

Problem C.18

Calculate the critical buckling load for the cross section. Local buckling, Euler buckling and
torsion buckling should be regarded. At which beam length is the probability equal for local
buckling and torsion buckling? Comment on the accuracy of the solution.

E=70 GPa, G=27 GPa, b=50 mm, h=50 mm, t=5 mm.

31
32
SOLUTIONS

Solutions Intro
Solution I.1
a)
y

yC

xC

a a
xC (at + 2a 2t) = at xC =
2 10
4a
yC (at + 2a 2t) = 2a 2t (a) yC =
5

b)
y

x
xC

## Due to symmetry the centre of gravity is on the x-axis.

a 3a
xC (5at) = at + 2at 0 + 2at a xC =
2 10
c) y
x

xC

## Due to symmetry the centre of gravity is on the x-axis.

a a
xC (2at) = 2at cos 45 xC =
2 2 2

S1
SOLUTIONS

Solution I.2
The area moment of inertia is given by
h 2
h 2
y3 h 3 h 3 bh 3
Ixx = y dA = b y dy = b
2 2
= b =
A h 2 3 h 2 24 24 12

Solution I.3
The moments of inertia are calculated with respect to the centroid, thus the coordinate system is here
assumed to have its origin there.
a)
2t (2a)
3 2 2 3
a 4a 4 20 32ta
Ixx = + 2t2a + ta = ta 3 + =
12 5 5 3 25 15
2 2
a ta 3 2a 1 1 17ta
3
Iyy = 2t2a + + ta = ta 3 + =
10 12 5 12 5 60

b)
t (2a)
3
2ta 3
Ixx = =
12 3
t ( 3a)
3 2 2
a 3a 3 9 3 51ta 3
Iyy = + 3at + 2at = ta + =
12 5 10 4 10 20

Solution I.4

Due to symmetry the centre of gravity is located in the middle of the cross section.

Moments of inertia,
2
th 3 h th 2 h
Ix = + 2tb = + b = 60750 mm4
12 2 2 6
tb 3
Iy = 2 = 32000 mm4
12

S2
SOLUTIONS

Solution I.5

t (2 R )
3 2 2
8tR 3 sin 2
= y dA = + 2 (R sin ) tRd =
2
I xx 2
+ 2 R 3t
12 0
12 2 4 0
2tR 3 2
= + 2tR 3 = tR 3 + = 69921mm 4
3 4 3 2

Solution I.6

ta 3 a 2 13ta 3
I xx = + 2 2at =
12 2 12

t ( 2a ) 3 16ta 3
I yy = 2 + 2ata 2 =
12 3

a a
Ixy = 2at a + 2at (a) = 2ta 3
2 2

S3
SOLUTIONS

S4
SOLUTIONS

Solutions A
Solution A.1
y
sc y

t Sy
x P
cg
a PL z
Mx
t

## BC u(0)=v(0)=0 and u(0)=v(0)=0, Mx = P(L-z)

a
The position of cg is: (x e , y e ) = (1,1) relative the corner. The moments of inertia are then
4
ta 3
a 2
a 2 5ta 3 a a a a ta 3
Ixx = Iyy = + ta + ta = and Ixy = ta + ta =
12 4 4 24 4 4 4 4 8
From the formula sheet we have that
M x Ixy M y Ixx PI Lz 2 z 3
u = u= xy
( ) + Az + B but BC A = B =0
E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) 2
2 2
6
M x Iyy + M y Ixy PIyy Lz 2 z 3
v = v = ( ) + Cz + D but BC C = D =0
E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 ) 2 6
which gives that
3PL3 5PL3
u= and v =
2Eta 3 2Eta 3
Torsion of the cross-section is then (the distance from the load P to the shear centre is a)
at 3 T 3P 3PL
T = Pa, J = 2 = = 3 =
3 dz GJ 2Gt 2Gt 3

S5
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.2
y y
sc

t x Qz/L
cg
a Q Sy
t z
QL/2
a M

## BC u(0)=v(0)=0 and u(0)=v(0)=0

Q z2 L
Sy = (z L) M x = Q( z + )
L 2L 2
a
The position of cg is: (x e , y e ) = (1,1) relative the corner. The moments of inertia are then
4
ta 3 a 2
a 2 5ta 3
Ixx = Iyy = + ta + ta =
12 4 4 24
a a a a ta 3
Ixy = ta + ta =
4 4 4 4 8
From the formula sheet we have that
M x Ixy M y Ixx QI z4 z 3 Lz 2
u = u= xy
( + ) + Az + B but BC A = B =0
E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) 24L 6
2 2
4
M x Iyy + M y Ixy QIyy z4 z 3 Lz 2
v = v = ( + ) + Cz + D
E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 ) 24L 6 4
but BC C = D =0

## This gives that

9QL3 15QL3
u= and v =
16Eta 3 16Eta 3
Torsion of the cross-section is then (the distance from the load Q/L to the shear centre is a/2)
dT Qa Qa at 3
= , T(z) = (z L) and J = 2
dz 2L 2L 3
T 3Q(z L) 3Q z 2 3QL
= = ( L ) = 3 Lz and thus ( L) =
dz GJ 4Gt 3
4LGt 2 8Gt 3

S6
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.3
y

y
4
p
t paz
2
paL
Sy
2
1 3 x
paL2 Mx z
s1
2 2
a a

## BC: u(0)=v(0)=0 and u(0)=v(0)=0

pa 2 pa 2 z 2 L2
Sx = Sy = (z L) M x = M y = ( Lz + )
2 2 2 2
The centre of gravity is the middle of the section. The moments of inertia are then
a a
s 2a 3 t
Ixx = Iyy = y 2 dA = 4 t(s1 sin 45) 2 ds1 = 4 t( 1 ) 2 ds1 =
0 0 2 3
Ixy=0
Since Ixy = 0, the curvature is given by
My pa z 4 z 3 L L2 z 2
u = u= ( - + ) + Az + B but BC A = B = 0
EIyy EI 2 24L 6 4
yy

## in the same way: v(z) = u(z)

Thus,
3pL4
u(L) = and v(L) = u(L)
16 2Eta 2

S7
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.4
Q
2t
t<<h y

t
Qz
L
h Sy

2t z
Q
Mx
2
h/2 h/2

## BC: u(0)=v(0)=0 and u(L)=v(L)=0

z 1 z2 z
Sy = Q( ) M x = Q( ); M y = 0
L 2 2L 2
The centre of gravity is the middle of the section. The moments of inertia are then
7th 3 th 3 th 3
Ixx = ; Iyy = ; Ixy =
12 6 4
From the formula sheet we have that
M I M y Ixx QI z4 z3
u = x xy u = xy
( ) + Az + B
E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) 24L 12
2 2

QI L2
BC A = xy
;B = 0
24 E(Ixx Iyy Ixy )
2

M x Iyy + M y Ixy QI z4 z3
v = v = yy
( ) + Cz + D
E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) 24L 12
2

L2QIyy
BC C = ;D = 0
24 E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 )
which gives that:
3QL3 QL3
u= and v =
32Eth 3 16Eth 3
The maximum tensile stress is then
L QL
M x max = M x ( ) =
2 8 h h L 3QL
= z( , , ) =
M x (Iyy y Ixy x) max 2 2 2 20th 2
z =
Ixx Iyy Ixy
2

S8
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.5
y

y
t a
P Sy
x
PL Mx z
45 45 P

## BC: u(0)=v(0)=0 and u(0)=v(0)=0

Mx = P(z L) and My = 0
a
Position of cg: xe =0; y e =
2 2
The moments of inertia are then
2 2 2
2ta 3 1 ta 3 2ta 3 1 a ta 3
I xx = = , I yy = + 2ta =
12 2 12 12 2 2 2 3
Ixy = 0 u = 0
Since Ixy = 0, the curvature is given by
Mx 12P z 3 Lz 2
v = v = 3 ( ) + Cz + D but BC C = D = 0
EIxx ta E 6 2
4PL3
and then v =
Eta 3
Torsion of the cross-section is (the distance from the load P to the shear centre is a/ 2)
Pa at 3
T= J=2
2 3
T 3P 3PL
= = 3
=
dz GJ 2 2Gt 2 2Gt 3

S9
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.6
y

P y
a sc
t Sy
3t
tp x PL Mx z
30 30
P

## BC: u(0)=v(0)=0 and u(0)=v(0)=0

Mx = P(z L) and My = 0
3a a
Position of cg: x e = ye =
8 4
The moments of inertia are then
2 2 2
4ta 3 3 3 3a 3a
2
4ta 3 1 ta 3 13
Ixx = = , Iyy = + ta + 3ta = a3t
12 2 12 12 2 8 8 16
a 3 t sin(60) + 3a 3 t sin(60) 3 3
Ixy = = at
24 24
From the formula sheet we have that
M x Ixy M y Ixx PI z 3 Lz 2

u = 2 u=
xy
2 (
) + Az + B
E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) 6 2
BC A = B = 0
M x Iyy + M y Ixy PI z 3 Lz 2
v = v = yy
( ) + Cz + D
E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) 6
2
2
BC C = D = 0
which gives that
2 3PL3 13PL3
u= and v =
9Eta 3 3Eta 3

Torsion of the cross-section is (the distance from the load P to the shear centre is a 3/4)

T=
Pa 3
4
, J=
st 3 1 3
3
= at + a (3t )3 =
3
(28 3
3
at )
T 3 3P 3 3PL
= = (L ) =
dz GJ 112Gt 3 112Gt 3

S10
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.7
2 s1 1
Sy

xe
x 2a
SC

2t

t
3 4
a
Due to symmetry, SC must be on the x-axis. Thus assume Sx=0. First calculate the necessary
moments of inertia, here only Ixx is necessary since Ixy = 0 due to symmetry.
3ta 2 2t (2a) 13ta 3
3

t<<a Ixx = 2 a + =
2 12 3
The flange thickness varies and can be described by the relation
s
t(s1 ) = t(1+ 1 )
a
From the above, we can find the shear flow by the simplified relation
S s
Sx = 0 qs = y tyds
Ixx 0
From point 1 to point 2, we get the shear flow as
Sy ta s12
1-2: qs12 (s1 ) = s1 +
Ixx 2a
Which is the only required shear flow if we use point 3 as reference for the moment equivalence.
Then,
4 a
4a
Sy x e = qs pds = qs12 2ads = Sy
0 0
13
4a
i.e. xe =
13

S11
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.8
y t Due to symmetry,
2B B SC must be on the x-axis Sx = 0 and Ixy = 0.
2 1
s We thus only need Ixx!
2 2
ta 3 a a
a 0 x Ixx = 2 + 2 2at + 6B
3 12 2 2
7ta 3 3Ba 2
4 5B = +
2B 6 2
2a if we assume t<<a
To find the shear flow use
Sy s
Sx = Ixy = 0 qs = qb + qs0 = ( tyds + Br y r ) + qso
Ixx 0
Start at point 0 and find the shear flow around the entire cross-section.
S s1 S ts 2 S ta 2
0-1: qb 01 = y tsds = y 1 qb1 = y
Ixx 0 Ixx 2 Ixx 8
S y Ba Sy ta 2 Ba
1-1+: qb1+ = qb1 = +
I xx 2 I xx 8 2
s2
Sy a Sy 9ta 2 Ba
1+-2: qb12 =
I xx t
0
2
ds + qb1+ qb 2 =
I xx

8
+
2
Sy 9ta 2 3Ba
2-2+: qb 2 + = +
Ixx 8 2
Sy ts3 9ta 2 3Ba
2+-3: qb 23 = ( a s3) + + (point 3 at the origin, between 2 and 4)
Ixx 2 8 2
qs,0 is found from the relation
qb ds = 2 a / 2q ds + 2a q ds + a / 2q ds = 1 2Sx 30ta 3 + 7Ba 2
qs,0 =
ds 6a 0 b 01 1 0 b12 2 0 b 23 3 6a Ixx 16 4
This gives:
Sy 5ta 2 7Ba ts12 Sy ta 2 Ba tas2
qs01 =
+ , qs12 = + and
Ixx 8 12 2 Ixx 2 12 2
S ta 2 11Ba tas3 ts3 2
qs23 = y + +
Ixx 2 12 2 2
Moment equivalence about the origin gives the position of the shear centre.
a /2 2a
a Sy 7ta 4 4Ba 3
Sy x e = qs pds = 2 qs01 2ads1 + qs12 ds2 = +
0 0
2 Ixx 6 3
7ta 4 4Ba 3 7ta 3 3Ba 2
xe = + +
6 3 6 2
8a
If t is small: x e =
9

S12
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.9
y Due to symmetry, SC is on the x -axis and
Ixy = 0. Thus, take Sx=0
2t 1
t<<a
t
2t 2 (2a / 2 ) 3 t 2 (2a / 2 ) 3
I xx = +
s 12 12
Sy + 2 B(a / 2 ) = ta + Ba
2 3 2
xe
0 x Sy s
q s = qb + q s 0 = ( tyds + Br y r ) + q so
I xx 0

a a

3
Start at point 0 and find the shear flow around the entire cross-section.
S s1 ts S ts 2 S ta 2
0-1: qb 01 = y ds = y 1 qb1 = y
Ixx 0 2 Ixx 2 2 Ixx 2 2
Sy Ba S ta 2 Ba
1-1+: qb1+ = qb1 = y +
Ixx 2 Ixx 2 2 2
S s2
2t S 2tas 2ts2 ta 2 Ba
+
1 -2: qb12 = y
Ixx
2
(a s)ds + qb1+ = y 2 2 +
Ixx 2 2 2 2 2
+
2

0

## qs,0 is found from the relation (Megson (9.48))

qb
ds
t a q a
qb12 2t Sy 1 ta 3 1 ta 3 ta 3 ta 3 Ba 2
qs,0 = t = 2 b 01 ds1 + ds2 = + + +
ds 3a Ixx t 6 2 2t 2 3 2 2 2 2
t 3a 0 t 0 2t

S 3ta 2 + 2Ba
= y
Ixx 6 2
Insertion gives:
S 3ts12 + 3ta 2 + 2Ba
qs01 = y
Ixx 6 2
Sy 12tas2 + 6ts22 3ta 2 6Ba + 3ta 2 + 2Ba Sy 6tas2 + 3ts22 2Ba
qs12 = =
Ixx 6 2 Ixx 3 2
Equivalence of moments (torque) about the origin gives the position of the shear centre as

a a
a
a 2Sy ta 4 + 3ta 4 + 2Ba 3 3ta 4 + ta 4 2Ba 3
s
Sy xe = ! q pds = 2 s 01 2 1 s12 2 2 = I
0
q ds +
0
q ds
xx 12 2
+
6 2

Sy 4Ba 3 4Ba 3
= x =
I xx 6 2
e
(
6 2 ta 3 + Ba 2 )

S13
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.10
y Due to symmetry, SC is on the x -axis and
Ixy = 0. Thus, take Sx=0
2
1 t<<a
Sy 3t(2a) 3 t(2a) 3
s Ixx = + + 2 2t 3a a 2 +
12 12
xe 44 3
2 2B a 2 + 2 B a 2 = ta + 6Ba 2
0 x 3
Sx = Ixy = 0 qs = qb + qs0 =
Sy s
( tyds + Br y r ) + qso
Ixx 0
3 4
Start at point 0 and find the shear flow around the entire cross-section.
S s1 S 3ts12 S 3ta 2
0-1: qb 01 = y 3tsds = y qb1 = y
Ixx 0 Ixx 2 Ixx 2
+ Sy Sy 3ta 2
1-1 : qb1+ = qb1 Ba = + Ba
Ixx Ixx 2
S s2
Sy 3ta 2
+
1 -2: qb12 = y
Ixx
2tads + qb1 + = 2tas2 +
Ixx 2
+ Ba

0

Sy 15ta 2
2-2+: qb 2 + = + 3Ba
Ixx 2
Sy s2 15ta 2
2+-3: qb 23 = t as3 3 + + 3Ba
Ixx 2 2
qs,0 is found from the relation (Megson (9.48))
q
tb ds 3t a qb 01 3a
q a
qb 23 S 177ta 2 27Ba
qs,0 =
ds
=2 ds1 + b12 ds2 + ds3 = y +
t 17a 0 3t 0 2t 0 t Ixx 34 17

Insertion gives:
Sy 177ta 2 27Ba 3ts12
qs01 = +
Ixx 34 17 2
S 10Ba 63ta 2 34tas2
qs12 = y +
Ixx 17 17 17
Moment (torque) equivalence around point 3 gives the position of the shear centre as
a 3a
S 552ta 4 222Ba 3
Sy x e = qs pds = 2 qs01 3ads1 + qs12 2ads2 = y +
0 0 Ixx 17 17
With numbers: xe = 109.5 mm

S14
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.11
y

t p

Sy
1 3 x
T
s1
xsc
a a

2
The centre of gravity is the middle of the cross-section. The moments of inertia are then.
a a
s1 2a 3 t
I xx = I yy = y dA = 4 t(s1 sin 45 ) ds1 = 4 t(
2 2
) ds1 =
2
, Ixy = 0
0 0 2 3
The transverse shear force can be written as
pa 2
Sy = ( z L)
2
From point 1 to point 2, we get the shear flow as
S s1 s S ts 2
1-2: qb12 = y t ds = y 1
Ixx 0 2 Ixx 2 2
We know from symmetry that qs41 = qs12. Thus, qs12 is the only required shear flow if we use point 3
as reference for the moment equivalence. The torque, counter clockwise with respect to point 3, is
then (p = a)
a
a a
Sy x sc = 2 qs12 ads1 = Sy x sc =
0 2 2 2 2
The torque due to the applied load is then
a a Sx =Sy a 3a 2 p
T = Sy x sc + Sx = Sy x sc + = (L z)
2 2 2 2 2 4
st 3 4at 3
J = =
3 3
d T 9ap(L z)
= =
dz GJ 16t 3G
L
d 9apL2
= dz =
0
dz 32t 3G

S15
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.12
sc ys T
Sx ys
a Sy
3
t
Sx
4 30 2
a Sy
2 =
5 1
Due to symmetry, SC is on the y-axis and Ixy = 0, then assume Sy=0. The pressure loads can be
written as
p 3p
px = py =
2 2
and the shear forces as
Sy = py a(z L) and Sx = px a(z L)
The only required moment of inertia is then Iyy which is found as
3
( )
2

2ta 3a 2
ta 3 /2 3a 2 5 3
Iyy = + 2 + ta = at
2 2 12 4 4

The shear from point 1 to 2 is then calculated as
s
Sx 1 3 S 3
qs12 = t
Iyy 0 2
Iyy 2
ats1

From symmetry we then have that qs45 = qs12. By considering the torque around point 3, qs23 and qs34
are not necessary to calculate. Thus,
a /2
3a 3a
Sx y s = 2 qs12 ds1 y s =
0 2 20
The torque around SC is then
a 3a 23pa 2
T = Sx y s + Sy = (L z)
4 4 40
Furthermore
d T 23pa(L z)
J = at 3 = =
dz GJ 40Gt 3
and
L
d 23paL2
= dz
dz =
80Gt 3
0

S16
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.13
4
t

1 3 sc

a a xsc

2
This is an open section, thus use formulae for warping of open sections. Assume w3 = 0 on the
symmetry line so that the warping is zero here, i.e. w3 = 0. The sector coordinate at point 4 is then
given by (since (xc,yc) = (a/2 2 ,0))
1 a a2
3-4: AR 4 = a= since is negative
22 2 2 8
and the warping becomes since the torque is T(z) = 3pa2(zL)/4
d T st 3 4at 3
w s (w 0 ) = 2AR = 2AR , J = =
dz GJ 3 3
a 3a p
2 2
3 3
9a p
w 4 = 2 ( z L) 3 = 3 ( z L) = w 2
8 4G 4at 64t G
Similarly for point 5 (remember to add the sector coordinate at point 4 or alternatively, do not add the
sector coordinate but then you must add the warping at point 4)
1 a a2
4-5: AR 5 = a + a + AR 4 = since is positive
2 4 2
a 2 9ap 9a 3 p
w5 = 2 (z L ) = (z L ) = w1
2 16t 3 G 16t 3 G

Solution A.14
The torque generated from the applied load is illustrated below.

No symmetry no obvious candidate for zero warping. Swept area with respect to SC starting at
point 1.
1 a2
1-2: AR,012 = as1 AR ,02 =
2 2

1a as a2 3a 2
2-3: AR,023 = s2 + AR ,02 = 2 + AR,03 =
22 4 2 4
S17
SOLUTIONS

3a 2
3-4: AR,034 = 0 + AR ,03 =
4

1a as 3a 2 a2
4-5: AR,045 = s4 + AR ,04 = 4 + AR ,05 =
22 4 4 2

1 as a2
5-6: AR,056 = as5 + AR ,05 = 5 +
2 2 2

A R,0 tds
1 as1
a a
as2 a 2 a
3a 2
a
as4 3a 2 a
as5 a 2
5a 0 2 4 2 4 4 4 2 + 2 ds
AR = C
= ds + + ds + ds + + ds +
tds
C
0 0 0 0

## 1 as12 as22 a 2 s2 3a 2 s3 as42 3a 2 s4 as52 a 2 s5 a 2

a a a a a

= + + + + + + + =
5a 4 0 8 2 0 4 0 8 4 0 4 2 0 2

5at 3
J=
3
The torque is negative on the interval 0<x<L/2 and positive on L/2<x<L giving warping in opposite
directions at the two ends. The sign shift at the applied load (x=L/2) constitutes a "warping conflict"
which constrains the warping to zero, locally at the applied load.
Left hand side (x<L/2 and some distance away from the applied load):
T T a 2 Pa 3 3Pa 2
w1 = 2AR1 = 2(0 AR ) = 2 = = {antisymmetry} = w 6
GJ GJ 2 4G 5at 3 20Gt 3

T a 2 a 2 Pa 3
w 2 = 2AR 2 = 2 = 0 = {antisymmetry} = w 5
GJ 2 2 4G 5at 3

T 3a 2 a 2 Pa 3 3Pa 2
w 3 = 2AR 3 = 2 = = {antisymmetry} = w 6
GJ 4 2 4G 5at 3 40Gt 3

Right hand side (x>L/2 and some distance away from the applied load):
Same as above but with opposite signs.

Solution A.15
2 t
100 1
3 c 0 100
5
4
700
This a closed section, thus use formulae for warping of closed sections. The rate of twist is

S18
SOLUTIONS

d T ds 100 2 700
2
= , with A = + 100 700 + 2 50 =120 708 mm2
dz 4 A Gt 2 2
The line integral to be evaluated is
ds = 100 + 2 700 2 + 50 2 + 100 = 1818 mm
and this in numerical values
d 50 10 6 1818 rad
= 2 = 2.89 105
dz 4 (120708) 27 10 2
3
mm
Assume that w = 0 in 0. Then,
T 0s A0s
ws w0 =
2A A
s
ds 1818 ds
= =
Gt 27 10 2
3
= 0.03367 mm2/N and 0 s =
Gt
0

At point 1, we have that ds = 50mm, t = 2, G = 27000 N/mm2 so that Gt = 54000 N/mm. The swept
area at point 1 is 700mm50mm/2. The warping is then calculate to
50 10 6 0,03367 50 700 50
w1 = = 0, 819 mm
2 120708 54 10 0,03367 2 120708
3

## Similarly for point 2, we obtain

50 10 6 0,03367 50 + 700 2 + 50 2 700 50 + 700 25
w2 = = 0.150 mm
2 120708 54 10 3 0,03367 120708
in the same manner: w3 = 0. Due to symmetry w1 = w5 and w2 = w4

Solution A.16

a)
The torque is T = P 3a
T 0 A0 s
The warping is given by w w0 =
2A A
ds 16a

where = !
GT
=
Gt
and A = 7a 2

## Starting at 0 and integrating counter clockwise:

a 1 a a2
0-1: 0 s1 = , A0 s1 = a = , w0=0
2Gt 2 2 4

S19
SOLUTIONS

24P a 2 a 2 4 24P 1 1 6P 7 8 3P
w1 = 2
= = =
7Gt 16a 7a 7Gt 32 28 7Gt 56 196Gt

2a 5a 1a a2
1-2: 0 s 2 = + 0 s1 = , A0 s 2 = 2a + A0 s1 =
Gt 2Gt 22 4
24P 5a 2 a 2 4 24P 5 1 6P 15 + 8 129P
w2 = + 2
= + = =
7Gt 16a 7a 7Gt 32 28 7Gt 56 196Gt

a 7a 1 5a 2
2-3: 0 s 3 = + 0s2 = , A0 s 3 = a3a + A0 s 2 =
Gt 2Gt 2 4
24P 7 a 2 5a 2 4 6P 7 5 6P 49 40 27P
w3 = 2
= = =
7Gt 16a 7a 7Gt 8 7 7Gt 56 196Gt

3a 13a 1 3a 7a 2
3-4: 0 s 4 = + 0s3 = , A0 s 4 = 3a + A0 s 3 =
Gt 2Gt 2 2 2
24P 13a 2 7a 2 2 12P 13 16 9P
w4 = 2
= =
7Gt 16a 7a 7Gt 16 28Gt
and the rest is given by anti-symmetry: w5=-w4, w6=-w3, w7=-w2 and w8=-w1.

Solution A.17

## The torque is T = P a (negative since clockwise)

T 0 A0 s
The warping is given by w w0 =
2A A
ds 10a

where = !
GT
=
Gt
and A = 5a 2

## Starting at 0 and integrating clockwise:

a
0-1: 01 = , A01 = 0
Gt
Pa 10a a P
w1 = =
2 5a Gt 10a
2
10Gt

a 2a 1 a2
0-2: 02 = + 01 = , A02 = a a + A01 =
Gt Gt 2 2

S20
SOLUTIONS

P 2 1 2 P
w2 = =
Gt 10 5 10Gt

a/2 5a 1a a2
0-3: 03 = + 02 = , A03 = a + A02 =
Gt 2Gt 22 4
P 5 2 1 4 P
w3 = =
Gt 10 5 5Gt

a 7a 1 3a
0-4: 0 s 4 = + 03 = , A04 = a + A03 = a 2
Gt 2Gt 2 2
P 7 2 1 3P
w4 = =
Gt 10 5 20Gt

and the rest is given by (anti)symmetry: w5=-w4, w6=-w3, w7=-w2 and w8=-w1.

Solution A.18
Closed tube:
T
q= by definition for a closed section subjected to a pure torque. Then
2A
q T
max = =
t min 2R 2 t
d q ds T 2R T
=
dz 2A
Gt = 4 A
2
=
Gt 2R 3Gt

Open tube:
2Rt 3 d d 3T d 3T
J= , T = GJ = , max = Gt =
3 dz dz 2Rt G
3
dz 2Rt 2

( dz)
closed
d
1 t
closed 2
1 t
max
= =

(d dz) 3 R
open open
max 3R

S21
SOLUTIONS

Solution A.19
Closed section
T q q a2
q= max = = , A= = 5000 mm2
2A t min 2 2
T 1000000 Nmm
max = = = 50 MPa
2At min 2 5000 mm 2 2 mm
2

d T ds 110 6 a ( )
=
dz 4 A 2
= 2
Gt 4G(5000) 3t
+2
t
= 4.76 10
5

mm

Solution A.20
Closed section
( a /2)
2
T q q T
q= max = = = , A = a2 + = 13.927 mm2
2A t min 2 4 A 2
T
max = = 107.7 MPa
2At min
d T ds 6 10 6 2 100 100 100 rad
=
dz 4 A 2
= 2
Gt 4G(13927) 2
+
4
+
4
= 5.8310
5

mm

Solution A.21
From example 12 the following data are taken:
2ta 3 a
Ixx = Iyy = , Ixy = 0, sc =
3 2 2
The torque is then
a a 3Pa 4t 3a d T 9P
T = P + = , J = , = =
2 2 2 2 2 3 dz GJ 8 2Gt 3

Solution A.22
Closed section:
T T q T
q= = 2 max = = 2
2A 2a t 2a t
d T ds T T
2
= = 4 4a = 3
dz 4 A Gt 4a Gt a Gt
Open section:
4at 3 d d 3T d 3T
J= , T = GJ = , max = Gt =
3 dz dz 4Gat 3
dz 4at 2
For the same applied torque we get that
max
closed
2t 1
= = {a = 20t (e.g)} =
max
copen
3a 30

S22
SOLUTIONS

( dz)
closed
d
4 t 1
2

= = {a = 20t} =
(d dz) 3 a 300
open

Solution A.23
Closed section:
T q
q= max = = q, A = a 2 = 2500 mm2
2A t min
T 700000 Nmm
max = = = 140 MPa
2At min 2 2500 mm 2 1 mm

( )
2

d T ds 700000 50 4a 2 + a 2 rad
= =
dz 4 A 2 Gt 4G(2500) 2 3
+2
1
= 2.4 10
4

mm

Solution A.24
a) u0, v0, =0
b) u=0, v0, 0
c) u=0, v0, 0
d) u0, v0, =0
e) u=0, v0, =0
The results depend on whether the load acts through the shear centre (then =0) and if Ixy0 (then
u0).

S23
SOLUTIONS

Solutions B
Solution B.1
Methods for approximate analysis of thin plates:

(Fourier series) Only for certain boundary conditions
Energy method As above As above

## Finite difference Fairly general Difficult with non-rectangular shape

method and certain boundary conditions.
Finite element Completely general Require computer programs and
method knowledge to run those

Solution B.2
To find bending moments we need the second derivatives, which are obtained as
2 w q0 2w 2 w q0 2
( ) y 2 D
q0
= 12x 2
+ 18xy , = 24 y 2
and = 9x
x 2 D xy D
The bending moments are then given by
2 w 2 w
[ ]
M x = D 2 + 2 = q0 12x 2 + 18xy + (24 y 2 ) = 26 q0 a 2
x y
2 w 2 w
[ ]
M y = D 2 + 2 = q0 24 y 2 + (12x 2 + 18xy ) = 19 q0 a 2
y x
2 w
M xy = D(1 ) = q0 (1 )9x 2 = 7.5 q0 a 2
xy
On the top side of the plate (z=h/2) we have that:
6M x 6 26q0 a 2
x = = = 62.4 10 3 q0
h2 (a /20) 2
6M y 6 19 q0 a 2
y = = = 45.6 10 3 q0 w
h2 (a /20) 2
6M xy 6 7.5q0 a 2
xy = 2 = 2
= 18.0 10 3 q0
h (a /20)
The largest tensile stress is then (maximum principal stress):
62,4 + (45,6) 1
I = + (62,4 (45,6)) 2 + 4 18 2 10 3 =65.3 103 q0
2 2

S24
SOLUTIONS

Solution B.3
a) w = Cx 2 ( a 2 y 2 )
The second derivatives are obtained through the first as
w w
= 2Cx ( a 2 y 2 ) , = 2Cx 2 y
x y
2w 2w 2 w
2

x 2
= 2C ( a 2
y 2
) ,
y 2
= 2Cx ,
xy
= 4Cxy

## The bending moments are thus derived as

2 w 2w 2 w 2w
M x = D 2 + 2 = 2DC( a 2 y 2 ) , M y = D 2 + 2 = 2DCx 2
x y y x
w2
M xy = D(1 ) = 4DCxy
xy
Along the line x = 0, the bending moments are
M y ( x = 0) = M xy ( x = 0) = 0 , M x ( x = 0) = 2DC ( a 2 y 2 )
The largest one of these is
M x,max = M x (y = 0) = 2DCa 2

b)
4w 4w 4w q
+ 2 + =
x 4 x 2y 2 y 4 D
If we differentiate the deflection and insert this into the plate equation we get that
4w 4w 4w
= 0, = 0 , 2 2 = 4C
x 4 y 4 x y
q
8C = q = 8DC
D
i.e., a uniformly distributed load q, with q=8DC

Solution B.4
We can write the bending moments as (neglect Mxy here, it does not influence Rx)
2 w
Mx 1 x 2
M = D 1 2 w
y
y 2
Inverted, this gives the curvatures, especially the curvature in x-direction, as
2w 12 69 10 3

x 2
=
1
D(1 2 )
M (x )M y = (
12
Et 3
M x )
M y =
20 10 9 0.2 3
= 0.005175 m1

1
Thus, Rx = = 193 m
w / x 2
2

S25
SOLUTIONS

Solution B.5
The strains are given by Hooke's law as
x =
1
E
(
x y =) 1
70000
(82 + 0.313) = 0.00123, y = 0.000537
23 2(1+ 0.3)
xy = = 0.000854
70000
If we have a pure bending case, 0 = 0, then the strains are linked to the curvatures by = z, and
since the strains are given at the surface for which z = h/2, we get that
1 x 2 x 2
x = = = = 0.245 m-1, y = y = 0.107 m-1, and
x z h h
2w 2
xy (= 2 ) = xy = 0.171 m-1
xy h

Solution B.6
The solution is given by
w = Axy ( a 2 x 2 )( a y )
The derivatives of this deflection is then
2w 4w 4w 4w
= A( a 2 3x 2 )( a 2y ) , = 0 , = 0 , = 12Ax
xy x 4 y 4 x 2y 2
q 4w 4w 4w q
2 w = or + 2 + =
D x 4 2 x 2 y y 4 D
gives with the expression for the derivative as
q 96 3 Eh 3
= 24 Ax q = Eh Ax since D =
D 45 12(1 2 )
2w
b) The corner loads Rh = 2D(1 ) are then
xy
2 4
Rh (0,0)= Rh(0,a) = Eh 3 Aa 3 and Rh (a,a)= Rh(a,0) = Eh 3 Aa 3
15 15

Solution B.7
The solution is given by
w(x, y) = cxy ( 4a 2 x 2 )(5a y )
The derivatives of the deflection are then
2w 3w 3w
= c ( 4a 2 3x 2 )(5a 2y ) , = 6cy(5a y) , = 2c ( 4a 2 3x 2 )
xy x 3 xy 2
a) The support load in the middle of the BC (load intensity) is found by
3 w 3w
Vx = D 3 + (2 )
x xy 2
[
= D 6cy (5a y ) + (2 )2c ( 4a 3x )
2 2
]
S26
SOLUTIONS

5a Eh 3 38 3 2
(x, y) = (2a, ) and D = gives Vx,BC = Eh ca
2 12(1 )
2
45
2w 16 3 3
b) The corner load Rh = 2D(1 ) at point C (x,y)= (2a,0) is Rh,C = Eh a
xy 3

Solution B.8
x y 3x y
q = q0 2sin sin + sin sin
a a a a
Assume a deflection of the same type, i.e.
x y 3x y
w = w 0 sin sin + w1 sin sin
a a a a
x
Use notation c x = cos , etc. and derive the derivatives required for the plate equation
a
2w w 0 2 w1 2 2w w 0 2 w1 2
= s s 9 s s , = s s s3x sy
x 2 y 2
x y 3x y x y
a2 a2 a2 a2
2 w w 0 2 3w 2 4 w w 0 4 w1 4
= 2 c x c y + 12 c 3x c y . = s s + 81 s3x sy
xdy x 4
x y
a a a4 a4
4 w w 0 4 w1 4 4w w 0 4 w1 4
= s s + s s , = s s + 9 s3x sy
y 4 x 2y 2
x y 3x y x y
a4 a4 a4 a4
The plate equation
q 4w 4w 4w q
w=
2
+2 2 2 + 4 =
D x 4 x y y D
Inserting the derivatives into the plate equation yields
w 4 w 4 q q
4 0 4 sx sy + 100 1 4 s3x sy = 2 0 sx sy + 0 s3x sy
a a D D
4 4
qa q0 a
w 0 = 0 4 w1 =
2D 100D 4
a) The central deflection is now
a a 49q0 a 4
w , =
2 2 100D 4
b) The bending moments in the middle are (take (x,y) = (a/2,a/2))
2w 2w q a2
M x,middle = D 2 + 2 = 0 2 ( 41+ 49 )
x y 100
2w 2w q a2
M y,middle = D 2 + 2 = 0 2 ( 49 + 41 )
y x 100
c) The corner load at (0,0) is
2w 53 q0 a 2
Rh = 2D(1 ) = (1 ) (downwards)
xy 50 2

S27
SOLUTIONS

Solution B.9
5x 3y
q = q0 sin sin
3a 4a
Assume a deflection of the same type, i.e.
5x 3y
w = w 0 sin sin
3a 4a
Derive the derivatives required for the plate equation
2w 25 w 0 2 5x 3y 2 w 9 w 0 2 5x 3y
= sin sin , = sin sin
x 2 9 a2 3a 4a y 2 16 a 2 3a 4a
2 w 5 w 0 2 5x 3y 3 w 125 w 0 3 5x 3y
= cos cos , 3 = 3 cos sin
xy 4 a 2
3a 4a x 27 a 3a 4a
3w 15 w 0 3 5x 3y w 625 w 0 5x 3y
4 4
= cos sin , = 4 sin sin
xy 3
16 a 3
3a 4a x 4
81 a 3a 4a
4 w 81 w 0 4 5x 3y 4 w 25 w 0 4 5x 3y
= sin sin , = sin sin
y 4 256 a 4 3a 4a x 2y 2 16 a 4 3a 4a
The plate equation
q 4w 4w 4w q
2 w = + 2 + =
D x 4 2 x 2 y y 4 D
Inserting the derivatives into the plate equation yields
625 w 0 4 25 w 0 4 81 w 0 4 5x 3y 5x 3y
81 a 4 + 2 + 4 sin sin = q0 sin sin
16 a 4
256 a 3a 4a 3a 4a
This expression must hold for every x and y so that
625 w 0 4 25 w 0 4 81 w 0 4
+ 2 + = q0
81 a 256 a 4
4
16 a 4
which gives that
q0 a 4
w 0 = 92 105
D
a) Principal bending moments and directions at (2a,a) (use derivatives from above!) are given by the
bending moments in this point, which are
2w 2w
M x = D 2 + 2 = 0.0164 q0 a 2
x y
2w 2w
M y = D 2 + 2 = 0.00776 q0 a 2
y x
2w
M xy = D(1 ) = 0.00281 q0 a 2
xy
The principal bending moments are calculated as
M1 M + M 0.00693 q0 a 2
( M x M y ) + 4 M xy = 0.01722 q a2
1 2
=
x y 2

M 2 2 2 0

S28
SOLUTIONS

1 2M xy
= arctan = -16,5
2 Mx My
b) The support load at (0,y) is given by
3 w 3w 3y
Rx (0, y) = D 3 + (2 ) 2
= 0.178sin qa
x xy x= 0 4a 0
c) The corner loads are given by
2w
Rh (0,0) = 2D(1 ) = 0.0159 q0 a (downwards)
2

xy x= y= 0
Rh (3a,0) = 0.0159 q0 a 2 (downwards)

Solution B.10
The use of energy methods, or Ritz' method as it is usually called, requires a deflection assumption
that satisfies at least the kinematic boundary conditions, preferably all boundary conditions. Since
this assumption is given herein, start by obtaining the necessary derivatives.
( )
Assumed: w(x, y) = Cx 2 a 2 y2 , which satisfies the B.C. The derivatives of this are now
w w2
w
= 2Cx ( a 2 y 2 ) , = 2C ( a 2 y 2 ) , = 2Cx 2
x x 2
y
2w 2w
= 2Cx 2
and = 4Cxy
y 2 xy
Now, insert these into the strain energy equation for an isotropic plate, giving
a 2a 2
2w 2w 2w 2
D 2w 2w
U = 2 + 2 2(1 ) 2 dxdy =
2 a 0 x y x y 2 xy

a 2a

= 2DC 2 ( a 4 2a 2 y 2 + y 4 + 8x 2 y 2 + x 4 ) dxdy =
2624
DC 2 a 6
a 0
45
The potential energy of the applied loads, here a uniform pressure, is then also
a 2a
32
V = wqdxdy = qCa 6
a 0 9
The total energy of is then
2624 32
U +V = DC 2 a 6 qCa 6
45 9
The minimum of this energy with respect to unknowns (here only one - C!) is given by
(U + V ) 5 q
= 0 which gives C as C =
C 164 D
Maximum deflection at (x,y)=(2a,0) is then simply obtained by inserting into the assumption
5 qa 4
w max =
41 D

S29
SOLUTIONS

Solution B.11
Assume: w(x, y) = Cx 2 y 2 , which satisfies the B.C. The derivatives necessary for insertion into the
plate energy equation are
w 2w 2 w 2w 2w
= 2Cxy 2 , = 2Cy , = 2Cx 2
y , = 2Cx 2
and = 4Cxy
x x 2 y y 2 xy
Now, insert these into the strain energy equation for an isotropic plate, giving
D 2 w 2 w 2 w 2 w 2 w 2
a a 2

U = 2 + 2 2(1 ) 2 2 dxdy
2 0 0 x y x y xy

[ ( )]
a a

## = (2Cy 2 + 2Cx 2 ) 2 2Cy 2 2Cx 2 ( 4Cxy ) dxdy

D 2 2

2 00
a a

= 2DC 2 ( y 4 + 8y 2 x 2 + x 4 ) dxdy =
116
DC 2 a 6
0 0
45
The potential energy of the applied loads, here a uniform pressure, is then also
a a a a
C 3 3 a,a 1
V = wq0dxdy = Cx 2 2
y q0 dx dy = 9 x y = 9 q0Ca
6

0 0 0 0 0,0

The minimum of this energy with respect to unknowns (here only one - C!) is given by
(U + V ) 232 1
= DCa 6 q0 a 6 = 0
C 45 9
which gives that
5 q0
C= and thus from the assumption
232 D
5 q0 a 4
w ( a,a) =
232 D
On the boundary with x = a:
2w 2w
M x (a, y) = D 2 + 2 = D(2Cy 2 + 2Cy 2 ) =
5
q0 y 2
x y 116
i.e., Mx = 0 not satisfied on the boundary x = a.
3w 3w 40 5
Vx (a, y) = D 3 + (2 ) 2
= D(0 + 2 4Cx ) = q0 a = q0 a
x xy 232 29
i.e., Vx = 0 not satisfied on the boundary x = a.

Solution B.12
x y
Assume:, w(x, y) = Asin 2 sin 2 which satisfies the B.C. The derivatives necessary for
3a a
insertion into the plate energy equation are
2 w 2A 2 2 x 2 x
2 y 2 w 2A 2 2 y y x
= cos sin sin , = 2
cos sin 2 sin 2
x 2
9a
2
3a 3a a y 2
a a a 3a
2 w 4 A 2 x x y y
= sin cos cos sin
xy 3a 2 3a 3a a a
S30
SOLUTIONS

## The parts of the energy integral is then obtained as

3a a 2w 2 A 2 4 3a a 2w 2 9A 2 4
x 2 x y =
36a 2
, y 2 x y =
4a 2
0 0 0 0

3a a 2w 2w A 2 4
3a a 2w 2 A 2 4
x 2 y 2 x y =
12a 2
, xy x y =
12a 2
0 0 0 0

so that
D a 2a 2 w 2 w 2 w 2
2 2
U=
+
2 a 0 x 2 y 2
+ 2
x 2 y 2
+ 2( )
1
xy
dx dy =
9 a2
The potential energy of the applied loads, here a point load, is then simply
V = Pw0 = PA
Thus, we seek A, which is found by
(U + V ) 9 Pa 2
=0 A= ,
A 22 4 D
and then
9 Pa 4 Pa 2
w middle = 0.0042
22 4 D D

Solution B.13
Since the deflection assumption is given, and which satisfies the kinematic boundary conditions, we
may proceed by finding the derivatives of w as
w 2Cx y 2 w 2C y w x 2 y
= 2 sin , = sin , = C cos ,
x a b x 2
a 2
b y a b b
x y 2 w 2Cx y
2 2
2 w
= C sin och = 2 cos
y 2
a b b xy a b b
The total energy is then after integration
DC 2 2b 4 a 2 2 2 2qCab
U= + 2 + 2(1 )
2 a 3 10b 3 3ab 3ab 3
The condition dU/dC = 0 leads to
2b 4 a 2 2 2 2qab
DC 3 + 2 + 2(1 ) =0
a 10b
3
3ab 3ab 3
Solve for C!
1 1
2qab 2b 4 a 2 2 2 qa 4 3 4 a 4 2 a 2 2 a 2
C= + 2 + 2(1 ) = 3+ + 2(1 ) 2
3D a 3 10b 3 3ab 3ab D 20b 4 3b 2 3b
Eh 3
with D = = 173076 Nmm, q = 0,002 MPa, and a = b = 400 mm gives that
12(1 2 )
qa 4 x y
2
qa 4
C = 0,0112 w(x, y) = 0,0112 sin
D D a b
which has a max for x = a and y = a/2. The deflection of point A is then w(a, a/2) = 3,31 mm

S31
SOLUTIONS

Solutions C
Solution C.1
a)
cr cr
0,2 2 2
cr = 0,2
4c 2 E
Euler
2
c E
0,2 cr = E =

2

E
p

Slenderness ratio = L/i p

## Simple solution Empirical method

b)
cr I1 I
Engesser E eff = Et + 2 E
E eff
2
I I
cr = c
2

E
p

c)
cr cr

## Local buckling Local buckling

Torsional buckling
Euler buckling Euler buckling
cr,local cr,local

> p >p

S32
SOLUTIONS

Solution C.2

a
2ta
xTP = 2=a
4ta 4
2ta a a
yTP = =
4ta 2

## and the shear centre is located at the flange intersection (0,0).

t (2a) a a ta 3
3 2 2
5ta 3
Ixx = + 2ta + 2ta = ( 4 + 3 + 3) =
12 2 2 6 3
2ta 3 a 2 a 2 ta 3 5ta 3
Iyy = + 2ta + 2ta = (8 + 6 + 6 ) =
12 4 4 48 12
a a a a ta 3
Ixy = 2ta + =
4 2 4 2 2
Ixx + Iyy I I 2
Imin = xx yy + Ixy2
2 2

## (20 + 5)ta 3 15ta 3 2 t 2 a 6 25 369

= + = ta 3
24 24 4 24
a)

Euler:

Leff = 2L
2 EImin 2 70000 2 50 3 25 369
Pcr,Euler = = = 10.4 kN
L2eff 2000 2 24
Local:
t 2 10.64
cr,local = 0.38E = MPa
b 170.24
Pcr,local = 10.64 2 100 + 170.24 4 50 = 36 kN (ultimate)

Torsion:

S33
SOLUTIONS

## 2at 3 a(2t ) 10at 3

3

J= + =
3 3 3
A = 4at
I0 = Ixx + Iyy + A( x SC
2
+ y SC
2
)
5ta 3 5ta 3 a 2 a 2 ta 3 10ta 3
= + + 4ta + = (20 + 5 + 15) =
3 12 4 2 12 3
4ta 10at 3 3 4Gt 3 4 30000 2 3
Pcr, = G = = = 19 kN
310ta 3 a 50

## Euler buckling is critical at 10.4 kN.

b)

In this case only Euler buckling is affected by the beam length. Hence,

Euler:

Leff = 2(0.5 L)
2 EI min 2 70000 2 50 3 25 369
Pcr , Euler = = = 41.7 kN
L2eff 1000 2 24

Torsion buckling is critical at 19 kN.

Solution C.3
Moments of inertia
ta 3 ta 3 ta 3 a 2 7ta 3
Ixx = 2 = och Iyy = + 2ta =
12 6 12 2 12
Gives us critical loads with respect to Euler
2 EIxx 4 2 Eta 3 2 EIyy 7 2 Eta 3
Pcr,x = 2 =
och Pcr,y = =
(L 2) 6L2 L2 12L2

Local buckling
2t 2
Critical stress in flanges: cr,lokal = 0.38E
a
t 2
and critical stress in web: cr,lokal = 3.6E
a
2t 2 t 2
critical (ultimate) load : Pcr,lokal = 2ta 0.38E + ta 3.6E
a a

Due to symmetry the shear centre is located in the middle of the cross section.

1 as as
Hence, the swept area for a flange is AR (s) = =
2 2 4

S34
SOLUTIONS

3 a 2 ta 5
2
a 2
as 2 s
(2A ) tds = 4 2 tds = a t =
2
R = R
0
4 3 0 24
ta 3 7ta 3 3ta 3
Polar moment of inertia I0 = Ixx + Iyy = + =
6 12 4
J=
(a + 2a) t 3 = at 3
3

## 3at 2 ER 3at 12 2 Eta 5 36 2 Eta 5

Pcr, = GJ + = Gat 3
+ = Gat 3
+
I0 L2 13ta 3 24L2 13a 2 24L2

Wich gives

## The beam buckles in Euler or torsion around 24-25 kN!

Solution C.4
Pk / 2 2 EI
P Fcr = = 2
sin L
2 2 EI sin cos 2
Pcr =
a2
Pk
= C (cos cos 2 sin 2cos asin ) = 0

cos (cos2 2sin 2 ) = 0
a a
F 1
tan( ) = = 35
2

EI
L=a/cos()

Solution C.5
Local buckling,
2 2
t 6
cr,local = kE = 0.38 70000 = 266 MPa
b 60

Euler buckling,
S35
SOLUTIONS

## The position of centre of gravity is

60 6 30
= 20 mm below the intersection of web and flange.
60(3 + 6 )
Moments of inertia is,
6 603
Ixx = + 6 60 102 + 3 60 202 = 216000 mm4
12
and
3 603
Iyy = = 54000 mm4 = Imin
12
2 EI min
cr, Euler =
AL2
2 EI min 2 70000 54000
Lcr = = = 510 mm
A cr,local 60 9 266

Torsion buckling,
The shear centre is in the corner where the web and flange intersect.
I0 = I xx + Iyy + Ay sc2 = 216000 + 54000 + 540 202 = 486000 mm4

J =
st 3 60 33 + 6 3
=
(= 4860 mm4
)
3 3
GJ 30000 4860
cr, = = = 300 MPa > cr,local, OK, will not occur.
I0 486000

Solution C.6
The shear centre is located in the middle of the cross section and =0 since AR= everywhere.
Torsion buckling is thus given by
AGJ
Pcr, =
I0

at 3
where J = 4 and A = 4at
3
(2a)
3
t 4ta 3
The polar moment of inertia is I0 = Ixx + Iyy = 2 =
12 3
4atG 4at 3 4Gt
3 3
and thereby Pcr, = =
3 4ta 3 a
Local buckling is given by
t 2 t3
Pcr,local = A cr,local = 4at 0.385E = 1.54 E
a a

S36
SOLUTIONS

Since both the local buckling and the torsion buckling are independent of length in the given case an
absolute condition for torsion buckling to occur is that Pct,<Pcr,local:
4Gt 3 Et 3
< 1.54 E > 2.6G
a a
E
For isotropic materials the relation G = is satisfied and 0.3 is true for several materials
2(1+ )
such as aluminium and steel. For these materials and the given cross section torsion buckling and
local buckling are equally probable too occur, regardless of the relation between a and t.
The final thing to examine is the influence of the length since this determines the shift to Euler
buckling:
2 EImin
Pcr,Euler =
L2
Pcr,local<Pcr,Euler:
t 3 2 EImin
1.54 E <
a L2
2 2ta 3 a a2
L< L < 2.07
1.54 3t 3
t

Solution C.7
P

EI 2L
M

## Equilibrium equation for the rigid part: :

L M=PL (1)
Deformation relationship:

ML
= (2)
2 EI
Solving (1) and (2) for Pk:
A M 2 EI 2 EI
PL = 0 Pcr = 2
L L

S37
SOLUTIONS

Solution C.8
hLTc
T
N

L

h h T 2 EI 2 EI Th 2
L= c= , N= = 2 = I= (1)
sin tan sin L (h /sin ) 2 sin 3 2 E
a4 Th 2 a4 12Th 2
I= ; A = a2 I = 3 2 = A = a2 = (2)
12 sin E 12 sin 3 2 E
Mass per unit length truss structure:
AL A( h /sin ) A
m= = = (3)
c h /tan cos
Substituting (2) into (3), we get:
a 2 12Th 2
m= =
cos cos sin 3 2 E
12 Th 2
m 2E 3 2 3
= 4 + = 0 , = arctan 51
12Th 2 sin cos sin cos
2 3
2
2
sin 3 2 E

Solution C.9

## We obtain the following expressions for h1 and h2 (Megson (6.19)) :

EAh1 = Et Ah2 (1)
h1 + h2 = h (2)
Solving (1) and (2) for h1 and h2:
Et h Eh
h1 = h2 = (3)
Et + E Et + E
We know that:

S38
SOLUTIONS

Ah 2
I 1 = Ah1 2 I 2 = Ah2 2 I= (4)
2
and that (se Megson (6.16))
I1 I
Eeff = E + Et 2 (5)
I I
By substituting (3)-(4) into (5) we get:
2EEt
Eeff =
E + Et

Solution C.10
D

L,EI

B
M

M
A B C

L/2,EI L/2,EI

A B C
M M
2 2
L/2,EI L/2,EI

## By analyzing the beam AB we get

ML
ML
= 2 2 = (1)
3EI 12EI
and similarly for the beam BD we obtain
ML
= ( BD ) (2)
3EI
Now, using (1) and (2):
ML 1 1
( ) + = 0 but M0 ( BD ) =
3EI 4 4

S39
SOLUTIONS

## Page 81 of the handbook : BD = 4.20

Pk EI
Thus BD = L Pcr = 17,6 2
EI L

Solution C.11
Assume a deformation like the picture below

P P P P
1
2
M M
2L/3,EI
L/3,EI
1 = 2 (1)
P L P
=L 1 = 2 2 with 2 = (2)
EI 3 EI
For an axially loaded beam, the following relationships are valid:
2 L
M L M
3 3
1 = ( 1 ) 2 = ( 2 ) (3)
3EI 3EI
Using (1)-(3) we get: 2 ( 2 2 ) + ( 2 ) = 0

## and by substituting different values of 2 into the expression above, we obtain

2
3 EI
2 1.9 Pcr = EI 2 32,5 2
L L

Solution C.12
40
k=0.38 for both flanges (one side clamped and
two sides free).
1
2
2 t
25 cr ,1 = 0.38 E
2 b

## a) For part 1: t = 2 mm, b = 40 mm cr,1 = 66,5 MPa

For part 2: t = 2 mm, b = 25 mm cr,1 = 170,2 MPa
66,5 40 2 + 170,2 25 2
cr ,local = = 106 MPa
(40 + 25) 2
b) For part 1: t = 2 mm, b = 40 mm cr,1 = 199,5 MPa
For part 2: t = 2 mm, b = 25 mm cr,1 = 510.7 MPa > s cr,1 = s

S40
SOLUTIONS

199,5 40 2 + 400 25 2
cr ,local = = 276 MPa
(40 + 25) 2

Solution C.13

A
3

B
1
C 30
2

20 40 20

E=70 GPa
3 2
A = 3.6 70000 = 1417.5 MPa > 0.2 A = 320 MPa
40
1 2
B = 3.6 70000 = 280 MPa
30
2 2
C = 0.38 70000 = 266 MPa
20
320 40 3 + 2 280 30 + 2 266 2 20
cr,local = = 294 MPa
120 + 60 + 80

Solution C.14
50

5
25 3 2

## E=70 GPa, 0.2 = 300 MPa

3 2
1,cr = 0.38 70000 = 383 MPa > 0.2 A = 300 MPa
25

S41
SOLUTIONS

5 2
2,cr = 0.38 70000 = 266 MPa
50
Pcr ,local = 300 3 25 + 266 5 50 = 89 kN

Solution C.15
E=70 GPa, 0.2 = 300 MPa
2
3
cr , f 1 = 0.38 70000 = 383 MPa > 0.2 cr,f1 = 300 MPa
25
2
2
cr , f 2 = 0.38 70000 = 170 MPa
25
2
1.5
cr , web = 3.6 70000 = 227 MPa
50
300 3 25 + 170 2 25 + 227 1.5 50
cr,local = = 240 MPa and Pcr,local = 48 kN
( 3 + 2 ) 25 + 1.5 50

Solution C.16
E=70 GPa, 0.2 = 250 MPa
2
3
cr ,1 = 0.38 70000 = 150 MPa
40
2
2
cr , 2 = 3.6 70000 = 403 MPa > 0.2 cr,fl = 250 MPa
50
2
4
cr ,3 = 0.38 70000 = 170 MPa
50
cr ,local = 183 MPa

Making the profile of aluminium with a higher yield stress would increase its resistance to local
buckling.

S42
SOLUTIONS

Solution C.17
0.2 = 280 MPa
2
1
cr,web= 3.6 70000 = 218 MPa
34
2
t opt
topt when cr,fl = 218 MPa 0.38 70000 = 218 MPa t opt = 3,1 mm
34

Solution C.18
2t 2 t 2
local, flange = 0.38E lcal,web = 3.6E
b t h 2t
Pc,local = 2bt lcaal, flange + (h 2t)t local,web = 1444 kN

shear cenre = torsion centre = centre of gravity for the cross section, place origin there!
th 3 h t 2 1679375
Ix = + 2t(b t) = mm4
12 2 6
(h 2t)t 3 2tb 3 313750
Iy = + = mm4
12 12 3
Ixy = 0

## 2bt 3 (h 2t)t 3 17500 b(h t) 1125

J= + = mm4 , and AR = = mm2
3 3 3 2 2 2 4
2
(h t)s
b

= 2 4 AR tds = 52734375 mm6
0
4
Iy<Ix implies that buckling occurs about the y-axis.
2 EIy 21962500000 2
PEuler = =
L2 3L2
2306875
I0 = Ix + Iy = mm4 (SC=CG) and A = 2bt + (h 2t)t = 700 mm2
6
A 2 E 24806250000000 2
Pc, = GJ + = 285935 +
I0 L2 3691L2

A 2 E 2 E
Pc,local = GJ + so that L2
= L = 239 mm
I0 L2 I0 Pc,lokal
GJ
A

S43