11 голос за00 голосов против

9 просмотров74 стр.FEM problem and solution

Mar 16, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

FEM problem and solution

© All Rights Reserved

9 просмотров

11 голос за00 голосов против

FEM problem and solution

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 74

Foreword

These examples are taken from former exams in the course Lightweight Structures and FEM.

They are presented in chapters corresponding to different parts of the course content, i.e. bending,

torsion and warping of thin-walled beams and stiffened shells, plate analysis, and analysis of

stability.

There is also a brief introductory chapter intended for repetition of basic engineering concepts

and knowledge considered as prerequisites in this course.

For most examples the complete answer is given, although sometimes in a quite abbreviate form.

Especially the arithmetics may be somewhat condensed since, for instance, how a standard

integral is solved is not supposed to be a major challenge at this level in the education.

There are likely a few minor errors or typos in the presentation, numbers that havent come out

right during hand calculations, miss-prints, et cetera, and we very much appreciate if you notify

us if you find such errors, so we can correct them and improve the clarity further.

Table of contents

Intro Brief recap of fundamentals (prerequisites) 5

A Bending, torsion and warping of thin-walled sections and beams 9

B Plates 19

C Stability 25

Solutions Solutions Intro S1

Solutions A S5

Solutions B S24

Solutions C S33

3

4

Intro

Centroid

Considering the beam section above, the position of the centroid C or the centre of gravity of the

cross section area, is defined by equilibrium of 1st moment of area. If we introduce a coordinate

system in the plane of the cross section and let the origin be located at the centroid. Then

dA = 0

A

is true for an arbitrary coordinate direction from that point. If you think of the cross section area

as a thin plate, the centroid is located at the point where you can balance the plate on the tip of

your finger, i.e. the centre of gravity for the plate. Note that the cross section area itself is not

necessarily equally divided between two sides of the centroid.

For a completely arbitrary Cartesian coordinate in the plane of the cross section area, lets call it

, the coordinate of the centroid is defined by the following relation

dA = C A,

A

where C is the -coordinate of the centroid and A is the total cross section area. Note that the

second relation is in total agreement with the first since C (as well as C) is zero by definition.

Moment of inertia

The bending stiffness of a beam is defined by the product of its Young's modulus E and its (area)

moment of inertia I, where the Young's modulus is the material stiffness and the moment of

inertia is the geometric stiffness of the beam cross section. An applied bending moment is carried

as tensile and compressive normal stresses over the cross section area. For pure bending there has

to be force equilibrium and the following condition for the stresses needs to be satisfied

dA = 0 ,

z

A

5

where z is a coordinate parallel with the beam, normal to the cross section plane. Otherwise the

stresses would generate global tension or compression of the beam, which cannot be true for pure

bending.

Let us now for simplicity assume that the beam cross section is rectangular and that a case of

symmetric bending is applied as illustrated below.

The plane that constitutes the border between tensile and compressive stresses is called the

neutral plane since there are no normal stresses z along this plane in pure bending. The

projection of the neutral plane on the cross section is called the neutral axis. The moment of

inertia expresses the 2nd moment of area with respect to the neutral axis, as

Ixx = y 2 dA

A

The area moment of inertia of a rectangular cross section as illustrated above is

bh 3

Ixx =

12

from solving the integral above.

For cross sections that could be split into several subsections one can replace the integral with a

sum and derive the total moment of inertia by simply adding up the contribution from all parts.

One way of doing this is to use Steiner's theorem for parallel axes. One then calculates the local

moment of inertia of each part, around their respective local centroids, and then transpose their

contribution to the global centriod through

I xx = I xxi + Ai ( yC yCi )

2

where I xxi is the local moment of inertia of part i with respect to its local centroid. Ai is the cross

section area of part i and yC and yCi are the global y-coordinates of the global and the local

centroids, respectively.

6

Problem I.1

Calculate the position of the centriod of the thin-walled cross sections below.

a = 20 mm, t = 1 mm.

a)

b)

c)

Problem I.2

Show that the area moment of inertia given for the rectangular cross section on the previous page

is correct.

Problem I.3

Calculate Ixx and Iyy for the cross sections in Problem I.1, assuming that a>>t.

7

Problem I.4

Calculate Ixx and Iyy for the thin-walled section below (Ixy = 0!).

Problem I.5

Calculate Ixx for the thin-walled section below.

R = 25 mm, t = 2 mm

Problem I.6

Calculate Ixx, Iyy, Ixy for the thin-walled section below.

8

A

Problem A.1

Calculate the deflections u and v, and the angle of twist for the beam geometry in the figure.

z

x t

P

L P

a t

Problem A.2

Calculate the deflections u and v, and the angle of twist for the beam geometry in the figure.

y y

Q

Q

z

x

L

a t

9

Problem A.3

Calculate the deflections u and v at z = L. (Open thin-walled cross-section)

q y

t q

L

z

x

a a

ProblemA.4

Calculate the maximum deflections u and v, and the maximum stress z for the beam.

y t<<h Q

2t

Q

t h

Z

2t

L

h/2 h/2

Material: E, G

Problem A.5

Calculate the deflections u and v under the load point, and the angle of twist for the beam

geometry in the figure at z = L. The material has Youngs modulus E and shear modulus G.

y

y

P

x

z P a

t

L

45

10

Problem A.6

Calculate the deflections u and v under the load point, and the angle of twist for the beam

geometry in the figure at z = L. The material has Youngs modulus E and shear modulus G.

y

P

P

x

a

z

3t

L

t

30

Problem A.7

Calculate the position of the shear centre SC. (t << a)

Sy t

2a

2t

Problem A.8

A beam of rectangular cross-section a2a has walls made of sheet metal with thickness t and

reinforcing booms in the corners with areas B and 2B.

y

2B B (a) Calculate the position of the shear centre

SC.

t

a x (b) Calculate the position of the shear centre

SC assuming that the booms carry all the

normal loads and the walls only carry shear

loads, i.e., t << a.

2B B

2a

11

Problem A.9

Calculate the position of the shear centre SC. t << a

Comment: This is an extreme task since it is solved without idealised theory for stiffened shells.

It requires great understanding plus quite a lot of calculations (!) but could be a good exercise for

the ambitious student.

B

2t

t

2B B

2t t

a a

B

Problem A.10

Calculate the position of the shear centre SC. (t << a)

2t

2B B

B = 100 mm2

t = 0.5 mm

t 3t a = 50 mm

2a

2t

2B B

3a

12

Problem A.11

Calculate the position of the shear centre SC and the angle of twist . The material has Youngs

modulus E and shear modulus G. (t << a)

y

q

t q

L

z

x

a a

Problem A.12

Calculate the position of the shear centre SC and the angle of twist . The material has shear

modulus G. (t << a)

a

t p

= 30

a t

2 2L

Problem A.13

Calculate the warping of the cross-section. Assume that the section twists around SC which is

situated in the point (xc,yc) = (a/2 2 ,0). The torque is T(z) = 3qa2(zL)/4, which is applied at SC.

(t << a)

t q

sc

L

T(z) z

xsc

a a

13

Problem A.14

Calculate the warping due to the generated twist coming from the load acting with a slight off-set

(at x=a/2) with respect to the mid-point of the cross section. Assume that the ends are prevented

to rotate but are free to warp. Note that the sign of the warping is essential and should be treated

thoroughly.

Problem A.15

Calculate the twist and the warping of the closed cross-section. Centre of twist is located in point

C.

t

100

t = 2 mm

C 100

G = 27 GPa

T

T = 50000 Nm

100 700

Problem A.16

Assume that the shear centre of the cross section is located at the origin.

Calculate the warping of the cross section when the load P is acting at the right edge of the cross

section.

14

Problem A.17

Calculate the warping of the cross section due to the applied load P. The cross section is forced to

twist around the origin (0,0). Free warping could be assumed and the shear modulus is given.

Problem A.18

A thin-walled cylindrical tube is subjected to a torque T. Calculate the ratios:

( max ) (max )

closed closed

and

( max ) (max )

open open

where max is the maximum shear stress and the angle of twist for the tube if it is closed and

opened by a thin slit, respectively.

y

t

T T R

x

15

Problem A.19

A thin-walled cross-section according to the figure is subjected to a torque T = 1000 Nm.

Calculate the maximum shear stress in the section and the rate of twist d/dz.

t t

a = 100 mm

a

t = 2 mm

G = 27 GPa

3t

a

Problem A.20

A thin-walled cross-section according to the figure is subjected to a torque T = 6000 Nm.

Calculate the maximum shear stress in the section and the rate of twist d/dz.

t t

a = 100 mm

2t

a/2 a

t = 2 mm

G = 27 GPa

t

a

Problem A.21

Calculate the rate of twist d/dz for the cross-section below which is subjected to a vertical shear

force P at the origin.

y

t Material: E, G

a a

16

Problem A.22

Calculate the maximum shear stress in the section and the rate of twist d/dz for the closed and

open cross-sections in the figure, which are subjected to a torque T. The material moduli are E

and G.

t t

a a

a a

Problem A.23

A thin-walled cross-section according to the figure is subjected to a torque T = 700 Nm.

Calculate the maximum shear stress in the section and the rate of twist d/dz.

a = 50 mm

t t 2a t = 1 mm

G = 27 GPa

2t

Problem A.24

The end of a cantilever beam could be displaced in two directions (u and v) and rotate () when

the beam is subjected to an end load as illustrated below. Indicate whether u, v and occur (0)

or not (=0) for the five cross section cases a, b, c, d and e, preferably in a table, and motivate your

answers.

17

18

B

Plates

Problem B.1

Describe methods for approximate analysis of plates and discuss the advantages and

disadvantages of each method.

Problem B.2

The plate in the figure has a deflection field in the vicinity of the point (a,a) which equals

w(x, y) = 0 ( x 4 + 3x 3 y 2y 4 ) where D is the plate flexural rigidity

q

D

Calculate the maximum tensile stress at (x,y) = (a,a). (h = a/20 and = 1/6)

(a,a)

19

Problem B.3

a w(x, y) = Cx 2 ( a 2 y 2 )

where C is a constant. The plate flexural rigidity

x is D and the Poisson ratio = 0.

along the line x = 0.

field correspond?

y

2a

Problem B.4

Calculate the radius of curvature Rx for the plate with

Mx = 60 kNm/m

My = 30 kNm/m

Mxy = 80 kNm/m

h = 0,2 m

= 0,3

E = 20 GPa

Problem B.5

In an elastic plate with thickness 10 mm, Youngs modulus 70 GPa and Poisson ratio = 0.3, the

stresses have been experimentally measured at a given location in the top surface to

x = 82 MPa

y = 13 MPa

xy = 23 MPa

Calculate the curvatures x, y and xy in that point.

20

Problem B.6

A simply supported quadratic plate with dimension aa, thickness h, Youngs modulus E and

Poisson ratio = 0.25, has the deflection

w(x, y) = Axy ( a 2 x 2 )( a y )

(a) Calculate the loading q(x,y) (surface pressure)

(b) Calculate the corner loads.

Problem B.7

O C

x w(x, y) = cxy ( 4a 2 x 2 )(5a y )

between B and C (load/length)

=1 5a

4

(b) The corner load at C

t

A B

2a

y

Problem B.8

x q = q0 (2sx sy + s3x sy ) with

x y 3x

sx = sin , sy = sin , s3x = sin

q a a a a

D

Assume: w = w 0 sx sy + w1s3x sy

Calculate

(a) the mid-point deflection,

a (b) the mid-point bending moments and

(c) the corner load at (0,0)

y

21

Problem B.9

3a 5x 3y

q = q0 sin sin

x 3a 4a

where = 0.3; and E, h, a, and q0 are given

(2a,a)

4a

Calculate

(a) principal bending moments and their directions

at point (2a,a),

(b) the support line load along the line (0,y) and

(c) the corner load R at points (0,0) and (3a,0).

Problem B.10

Calculate the maximum deflection of the plate in the figure using an approximate energy method.

The loading is a uniformly distributed pressure q. The plate deformation field may be

approximated by

w(x, y) = Cx 2 ( a 2 y 2 )

where C is a constant. The plate flexural rigidity is D and assume for simplicity that the Poisson

ratio = 0.

2a

22

Problem B.11

The plate in the figure has two edges clamped while the other two are free. It is subjected to a

uniformly distributed pressure q.

Calculate approximately the deflection of point A of the plate in the figure using the energy

method. The plate deformation field may be approximated by

w = Cx 2 y 2

Comment on to what extent the assumed deflection field satisfies the boundary conditions.

Estimate any plausible forces of the free edge x = a. The plate flexural rigidity is D and assume

for simplicity that the Poisson ratio = 0.

A

a

Problem B.12

A plate according to the figure is subjected to a point load in the middle of the plate, i.e., at point

(1.5a, a/2). Calculate the maximum deflection of the plate using Ritz energy method. The plate

flexural rigidity is D and assume for simplicity that the Poisson ratio = 0.

3a

y

23

Problem B.13

A plate according to the figure is subjected to a uniform pressure q = 2 kPa (0.002 MPa). The

boundaries y = 0 and y = b are simply supported, the boundary x = 0 is clamped and the boundary

x = L is free.

Data:

y

E = 70 GPa (70 000 MPa), = 0.3

a = b = 400 mm

Plate thickness: h = 3 mm

b A 2

x y

w( x, y ) = C sin

a b

x

a

where C is an unknown quantity. Use Ritz method (energy method) to calculate the deflection of

the plate and especially for point A in the figure using data according to the above. Comment the

deflection assumption and how well it satisfies the boundary conditions and how well you expect

your answer to comply with an exact solution.

24

C

Stability

Problem C.1

Draw and describe the cr - relation (or Pcr - relation) and give all the relation and failure

phenomena occurring for different slenderness ratios () for axially loaded columns with the

following cross-sections.

a. homogeneous

b. closed thin-walled

c. open thin-walled

Problem C.2

The cantilever beam below is made of aluminium with Youngs modulus E = 70 GPa. Consider

Euler buckling, torsion buckling, local buckling (max load) and calculate the critical load Pcr

when,

a) L = 1000 mm

b) L = 500 mm

25

Problem C.3

A beam loaded in compression is simply supported at its ends and supported in one direction (y)

at its midpoint. Calculate the critical load with respect to Euler, torsion and local buckling.

Problem C.4

A truss structure according to the figure below is subjected to vertical force P. Calculate the angle

so that the Euler buckling load is minimised.

P

EI EI

a a

Problem C.5

A simply supported beam is loaded in compression as illustrated below. Its cross section is

optimised for local buckling. How long can the beam be without being critical in Euler buckling

and will torsion buckling be avoided? Hint: Use theory for thin-walled beams.

E = 70 GPa, G = 30 GPa

[mm]

60

3

L,E,G P

60

26

Problem C.6

A simply supported beam (see fig. below) is loaded in axial compression. What are the conditions

for torsion buckling to occur? Both Euler and local buckling shall be regarded.

Problem C.7

A rigid beam (infinite flexural rigidity EI) is connected to a compliant beam as illustrated in the

figure below. The rigid beam has length L and the compliant beam has length 2L. Calculate the

load P = Pcr at which the construction in the figure becomes unstable.

Rigid

L

2L, EI

Problem C.8

The transverse force in a truss-structure according to the figure is assumed to be completely

carried by the diagonal rods. Calculate the angle so that the weight is minimised. The diagonal

rods are critical in buckling and are assumed to have quadratic cross-section.

27

Problem C.9

Calculate the effective (reduced) elastic modulus at plastic buckling in terms of Youngs modulus

E and the tangent modulus Et for a symmetric H-profile with Imin about the x-axis. The web may

be neglected in the analysis.

y

Flange area A

h x

Problem C.10

A beam structure consists of three beams with flexural rigidity EI. Beam parts AB and BC have

length L/2 and the part BD has length L. The beams are joined together in a rigid corner B and

supported according to the figure. Calculate the instability load P.

A

B C

Problem C.11

Calculate the instability load P.

2L/3,EI L/3,EI

P P

28

Problem C.12

Calculate the ultimate local buckling stress for the non-symmetric L-profile in the figure.

(a) The profile is made of an Aluminium alloy with 0,2 = 250 MPa.

(b) How large does the local buckling stress become if the profile instead is made of steel with

s = 400 MPa ?

40

25 2

2

2

Both materials are elastic-plastic with = 0.3.

Problem C.13

Calculate the average stress when all parts of the section have failed due to local buckling for the

hat-profile made of extruded aluminium with 0,2 = 320 MPa

1

30

2

20 40 20

Problem C.14

Calculate the maximum load carrying capacity for a short axially loaded L-profile with cross-

section according to the figure below. 0,2 = 300 MPa and E = 70 GPa.

50

5

25 3

29

Problem C.15

Calculate the ultimate buckling stress and the load carrying capacity for a short Z-profile made of

aluminium 0,2 = 300 MPa and E = 70 GPa.

25

1,5

50

25

Problem C.16

Calculate the ultimate local buckling stress for a non-symmetric Z-profile made of extruded

aluminium Al SIS 4214 with 0,2 = 250 MPa. What can be done to increase the local buckling

stress for this profile?

40

50 2

50

Problem C.17

An extruded aluminium profile with E=70 GPa, 0,2 = 280 MPa and cross-section according to

the figure below is subjected to a compressive load. Its length is approximately 100 mm. How

thick should the flanges be to obtain optimal load carrying capacity with respect to local

buckling, i.e critical load occurring simultaneously in the flanges and the web?

30

34

1

34

34

Problem C.18

Calculate the critical buckling load for the cross section. Local buckling, Euler buckling and

torsion buckling should be regarded. At which beam length is the probability equal for local

buckling and torsion buckling? Comment on the accuracy of the solution.

E=70 GPa, G=27 GPa, b=50 mm, h=50 mm, t=5 mm.

31

32

SOLUTIONS

Solutions Intro

Solution I.1

a)

y

yC

xC

a a

xC (at + 2a 2t) = at xC =

2 10

4a

yC (at + 2a 2t) = 2a 2t (a) yC =

5

b)

y

x

xC

a 3a

xC (5at) = at + 2at 0 + 2at a xC =

2 10

c) y

x

xC

a a

xC (2at) = 2at cos 45 xC =

2 2 2

S1

SOLUTIONS

Solution I.2

The area moment of inertia is given by

h 2

h 2

y3 h 3 h 3 bh 3

Ixx = y dA = b y dy = b

2 2

= b =

A h 2 3 h 2 24 24 12

Solution I.3

The moments of inertia are calculated with respect to the centroid, thus the coordinate system is here

assumed to have its origin there.

a)

2t (2a)

3 2 2 3

a 4a 4 20 32ta

Ixx = + 2t2a + ta = ta 3 + =

12 5 5 3 25 15

2 2

a ta 3 2a 1 1 17ta

3

Iyy = 2t2a + + ta = ta 3 + =

10 12 5 12 5 60

b)

t (2a)

3

2ta 3

Ixx = =

12 3

t ( 3a)

3 2 2

a 3a 3 9 3 51ta 3

Iyy = + 3at + 2at = ta + =

12 5 10 4 10 20

Solution I.4

Due to symmetry the centre of gravity is located in the middle of the cross section.

Moments of inertia,

2

th 3 h th 2 h

Ix = + 2tb = + b = 60750 mm4

12 2 2 6

tb 3

Iy = 2 = 32000 mm4

12

S2

SOLUTIONS

Solution I.5

t (2 R )

3 2 2

8tR 3 sin 2

= y dA = + 2 (R sin ) tRd =

2

I xx 2

+ 2 R 3t

12 0

12 2 4 0

2tR 3 2

= + 2tR 3 = tR 3 + = 69921mm 4

3 4 3 2

Solution I.6

ta 3 a 2 13ta 3

I xx = + 2 2at =

12 2 12

t ( 2a ) 3 16ta 3

I yy = 2 + 2ata 2 =

12 3

a a

Ixy = 2at a + 2at (a) = 2ta 3

2 2

S3

SOLUTIONS

S4

SOLUTIONS

Solutions A

Solution A.1

y

sc y

t Sy

x P

cg

a PL z

Mx

t

a

The position of cg is: (x e , y e ) = (1,1) relative the corner. The moments of inertia are then

4

ta 3

a 2

a 2 5ta 3 a a a a ta 3

Ixx = Iyy = + ta + ta = and Ixy = ta + ta =

12 4 4 24 4 4 4 4 8

From the formula sheet we have that

M x Ixy M y Ixx PI Lz 2 z 3

u = u= xy

( ) + Az + B but BC A = B =0

E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) 2

2 2

6

M x Iyy + M y Ixy PIyy Lz 2 z 3

v = v = ( ) + Cz + D but BC C = D =0

E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 ) 2 6

which gives that

3PL3 5PL3

u= and v =

2Eta 3 2Eta 3

Torsion of the cross-section is then (the distance from the load P to the shear centre is a)

at 3 T 3P 3PL

T = Pa, J = 2 = = 3 =

3 dz GJ 2Gt 2Gt 3

S5

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.2

y y

sc

t x Qz/L

cg

a Q Sy

t z

QL/2

a M

Q z2 L

Sy = (z L) M x = Q( z + )

L 2L 2

a

The position of cg is: (x e , y e ) = (1,1) relative the corner. The moments of inertia are then

4

ta 3 a 2

a 2 5ta 3

Ixx = Iyy = + ta + ta =

12 4 4 24

a a a a ta 3

Ixy = ta + ta =

4 4 4 4 8

From the formula sheet we have that

M x Ixy M y Ixx QI z4 z 3 Lz 2

u = u= xy

( + ) + Az + B but BC A = B =0

E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) 24L 6

2 2

4

M x Iyy + M y Ixy QIyy z4 z 3 Lz 2

v = v = ( + ) + Cz + D

E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 ) 24L 6 4

but BC C = D =0

9QL3 15QL3

u= and v =

16Eta 3 16Eta 3

Torsion of the cross-section is then (the distance from the load Q/L to the shear centre is a/2)

dT Qa Qa at 3

= , T(z) = (z L) and J = 2

dz 2L 2L 3

T 3Q(z L) 3Q z 2 3QL

= = ( L ) = 3 Lz and thus ( L) =

dz GJ 4Gt 3

4LGt 2 8Gt 3

S6

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.3

y

y

4

p

t paz

2

paL

Sy

2

1 3 x

paL2 Mx z

s1

2 2

a a

pa 2 pa 2 z 2 L2

Sx = Sy = (z L) M x = M y = ( Lz + )

2 2 2 2

The centre of gravity is the middle of the section. The moments of inertia are then

a a

s 2a 3 t

Ixx = Iyy = y 2 dA = 4 t(s1 sin 45) 2 ds1 = 4 t( 1 ) 2 ds1 =

0 0 2 3

Ixy=0

Since Ixy = 0, the curvature is given by

My pa z 4 z 3 L L2 z 2

u = u= ( - + ) + Az + B but BC A = B = 0

EIyy EI 2 24L 6 4

yy

Thus,

3pL4

u(L) = and v(L) = u(L)

16 2Eta 2

S7

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.4

Q

2t

t<<h y

t

Qz

L

h Sy

2t z

Q

Mx

2

h/2 h/2

z 1 z2 z

Sy = Q( ) M x = Q( ); M y = 0

L 2 2L 2

The centre of gravity is the middle of the section. The moments of inertia are then

7th 3 th 3 th 3

Ixx = ; Iyy = ; Ixy =

12 6 4

From the formula sheet we have that

M I M y Ixx QI z4 z3

u = x xy u = xy

( ) + Az + B

E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) 24L 12

2 2

QI L2

BC A = xy

;B = 0

24 E(Ixx Iyy Ixy )

2

M x Iyy + M y Ixy QI z4 z3

v = v = yy

( ) + Cz + D

E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) 24L 12

2

L2QIyy

BC C = ;D = 0

24 E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 )

which gives that:

3QL3 QL3

u= and v =

32Eth 3 16Eth 3

The maximum tensile stress is then

L QL

M x max = M x ( ) =

2 8 h h L 3QL

= z( , , ) =

M x (Iyy y Ixy x) max 2 2 2 20th 2

z =

Ixx Iyy Ixy

2

S8

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.5

y

y

t a

P Sy

x

PL Mx z

45 45 P

Mx = P(z L) and My = 0

a

Position of cg: xe =0; y e =

2 2

The moments of inertia are then

2 2 2

2ta 3 1 ta 3 2ta 3 1 a ta 3

I xx = = , I yy = + 2ta =

12 2 12 12 2 2 2 3

Ixy = 0 u = 0

Since Ixy = 0, the curvature is given by

Mx 12P z 3 Lz 2

v = v = 3 ( ) + Cz + D but BC C = D = 0

EIxx ta E 6 2

4PL3

and then v =

Eta 3

Torsion of the cross-section is (the distance from the load P to the shear centre is a/ 2)

Pa at 3

T= J=2

2 3

T 3P 3PL

= = 3

=

dz GJ 2 2Gt 2 2Gt 3

S9

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.6

y

P y

a sc

t Sy

3t

tp x PL Mx z

30 30

P

Mx = P(z L) and My = 0

3a a

Position of cg: x e = ye =

8 4

The moments of inertia are then

2 2 2

4ta 3 3 3 3a 3a

2

4ta 3 1 ta 3 13

Ixx = = , Iyy = + ta + 3ta = a3t

12 2 12 12 2 8 8 16

a 3 t sin(60) + 3a 3 t sin(60) 3 3

Ixy = = at

24 24

From the formula sheet we have that

M x Ixy M y Ixx PI z 3 Lz 2

u = 2 u=

xy

2 (

) + Az + B

E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) 6 2

BC A = B = 0

M x Iyy + M y Ixy PI z 3 Lz 2

v = v = yy

( ) + Cz + D

E(Ixx Iyy Ixy 2 ) E(Ixx Iyy Ixy ) 6

2

2

BC C = D = 0

which gives that

2 3PL3 13PL3

u= and v =

9Eta 3 3Eta 3

Torsion of the cross-section is (the distance from the load P to the shear centre is a 3/4)

T=

Pa 3

4

, J=

st 3 1 3

3

= at + a (3t )3 =

3

(28 3

3

at )

T 3 3P 3 3PL

= = (L ) =

dz GJ 112Gt 3 112Gt 3

S10

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.7

2 s1 1

Sy

xe

x 2a

SC

2t

t

3 4

a

Due to symmetry, SC must be on the x-axis. Thus assume Sx=0. First calculate the necessary

moments of inertia, here only Ixx is necessary since Ixy = 0 due to symmetry.

3ta 2 2t (2a) 13ta 3

3

t<<a Ixx = 2 a + =

2 12 3

The flange thickness varies and can be described by the relation

s

t(s1 ) = t(1+ 1 )

a

From the above, we can find the shear flow by the simplified relation

S s

Sx = 0 qs = y tyds

Ixx 0

From point 1 to point 2, we get the shear flow as

Sy ta s12

1-2: qs12 (s1 ) = s1 +

Ixx 2a

Which is the only required shear flow if we use point 3 as reference for the moment equivalence.

Then,

4 a

4a

Sy x e = qs pds = qs12 2ads = Sy

0 0

13

4a

i.e. xe =

13

S11

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.8

y t Due to symmetry,

2B B SC must be on the x-axis Sx = 0 and Ixy = 0.

2 1

s We thus only need Ixx!

2 2

ta 3 a a

a 0 x Ixx = 2 + 2 2at + 6B

3 12 2 2

7ta 3 3Ba 2

4 5B = +

2B 6 2

2a if we assume t<<a

To find the shear flow use

Sy s

Sx = Ixy = 0 qs = qb + qs0 = ( tyds + Br y r ) + qso

Ixx 0

Start at point 0 and find the shear flow around the entire cross-section.

S s1 S ts 2 S ta 2

0-1: qb 01 = y tsds = y 1 qb1 = y

Ixx 0 Ixx 2 Ixx 8

S y Ba Sy ta 2 Ba

1-1+: qb1+ = qb1 = +

I xx 2 I xx 8 2

s2

Sy a Sy 9ta 2 Ba

1+-2: qb12 =

I xx t

0

2

ds + qb1+ qb 2 =

I xx

8

+

2

Sy 9ta 2 3Ba

2-2+: qb 2 + = +

Ixx 8 2

Sy ts3 9ta 2 3Ba

2+-3: qb 23 = ( a s3) + + (point 3 at the origin, between 2 and 4)

Ixx 2 8 2

qs,0 is found from the relation

qb ds = 2 a / 2q ds + 2a q ds + a / 2q ds = 1 2Sx 30ta 3 + 7Ba 2

qs,0 =

ds 6a 0 b 01 1 0 b12 2 0 b 23 3 6a Ixx 16 4

This gives:

Sy 5ta 2 7Ba ts12 Sy ta 2 Ba tas2

qs01 =

+ , qs12 = + and

Ixx 8 12 2 Ixx 2 12 2

S ta 2 11Ba tas3 ts3 2

qs23 = y + +

Ixx 2 12 2 2

Moment equivalence about the origin gives the position of the shear centre.

a /2 2a

a Sy 7ta 4 4Ba 3

Sy x e = qs pds = 2 qs01 2ads1 + qs12 ds2 = +

0 0

2 Ixx 6 3

7ta 4 4Ba 3 7ta 3 3Ba 2

xe = + +

6 3 6 2

8a

If t is small: x e =

9

S12

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.9

y Due to symmetry, SC is on the x -axis and

Ixy = 0. Thus, take Sx=0

2t 1

t<<a

t

2t 2 (2a / 2 ) 3 t 2 (2a / 2 ) 3

I xx = +

s 12 12

Sy + 2 B(a / 2 ) = ta + Ba

2 3 2

xe

0 x Sy s

q s = qb + q s 0 = ( tyds + Br y r ) + q so

I xx 0

a a

3

Start at point 0 and find the shear flow around the entire cross-section.

S s1 ts S ts 2 S ta 2

0-1: qb 01 = y ds = y 1 qb1 = y

Ixx 0 2 Ixx 2 2 Ixx 2 2

Sy Ba S ta 2 Ba

1-1+: qb1+ = qb1 = y +

Ixx 2 Ixx 2 2 2

S s2

2t S 2tas 2ts2 ta 2 Ba

+

1 -2: qb12 = y

Ixx

2

(a s)ds + qb1+ = y 2 2 +

Ixx 2 2 2 2 2

+

2

0

qb

ds

t a q a

qb12 2t Sy 1 ta 3 1 ta 3 ta 3 ta 3 Ba 2

qs,0 = t = 2 b 01 ds1 + ds2 = + + +

ds 3a Ixx t 6 2 2t 2 3 2 2 2 2

t 3a 0 t 0 2t

S 3ta 2 + 2Ba

= y

Ixx 6 2

Insertion gives:

S 3ts12 + 3ta 2 + 2Ba

qs01 = y

Ixx 6 2

Sy 12tas2 + 6ts22 3ta 2 6Ba + 3ta 2 + 2Ba Sy 6tas2 + 3ts22 2Ba

qs12 = =

Ixx 6 2 Ixx 3 2

Equivalence of moments (torque) about the origin gives the position of the shear centre as

a a

a

a 2Sy ta 4 + 3ta 4 + 2Ba 3 3ta 4 + ta 4 2Ba 3

s

Sy xe = ! q pds = 2 s 01 2 1 s12 2 2 = I

0

q ds +

0

q ds

xx 12 2

+

6 2

Sy 4Ba 3 4Ba 3

= x =

I xx 6 2

e

(

6 2 ta 3 + Ba 2 )

S13

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.10

y Due to symmetry, SC is on the x -axis and

Ixy = 0. Thus, take Sx=0

2

1 t<<a

Sy 3t(2a) 3 t(2a) 3

s Ixx = + + 2 2t 3a a 2 +

12 12

xe 44 3

2 2B a 2 + 2 B a 2 = ta + 6Ba 2

0 x 3

Sx = Ixy = 0 qs = qb + qs0 =

Sy s

( tyds + Br y r ) + qso

Ixx 0

3 4

Start at point 0 and find the shear flow around the entire cross-section.

S s1 S 3ts12 S 3ta 2

0-1: qb 01 = y 3tsds = y qb1 = y

Ixx 0 Ixx 2 Ixx 2

+ Sy Sy 3ta 2

1-1 : qb1+ = qb1 Ba = + Ba

Ixx Ixx 2

S s2

Sy 3ta 2

+

1 -2: qb12 = y

Ixx

2tads + qb1 + = 2tas2 +

Ixx 2

+ Ba

0

Sy 15ta 2

2-2+: qb 2 + = + 3Ba

Ixx 2

Sy s2 15ta 2

2+-3: qb 23 = t as3 3 + + 3Ba

Ixx 2 2

qs,0 is found from the relation (Megson (9.48))

q

tb ds 3t a qb 01 3a

q a

qb 23 S 177ta 2 27Ba

qs,0 =

ds

=2 ds1 + b12 ds2 + ds3 = y +

t 17a 0 3t 0 2t 0 t Ixx 34 17

Insertion gives:

Sy 177ta 2 27Ba 3ts12

qs01 = +

Ixx 34 17 2

S 10Ba 63ta 2 34tas2

qs12 = y +

Ixx 17 17 17

Moment (torque) equivalence around point 3 gives the position of the shear centre as

a 3a

S 552ta 4 222Ba 3

Sy x e = qs pds = 2 qs01 3ads1 + qs12 2ads2 = y +

0 0 Ixx 17 17

With numbers: xe = 109.5 mm

S14

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.11

y

t p

Sy

1 3 x

T

s1

xsc

a a

2

The centre of gravity is the middle of the cross-section. The moments of inertia are then.

a a

s1 2a 3 t

I xx = I yy = y dA = 4 t(s1 sin 45 ) ds1 = 4 t(

2 2

) ds1 =

2

, Ixy = 0

0 0 2 3

The transverse shear force can be written as

pa 2

Sy = ( z L)

2

From point 1 to point 2, we get the shear flow as

S s1 s S ts 2

1-2: qb12 = y t ds = y 1

Ixx 0 2 Ixx 2 2

We know from symmetry that qs41 = qs12. Thus, qs12 is the only required shear flow if we use point 3

as reference for the moment equivalence. The torque, counter clockwise with respect to point 3, is

then (p = a)

a

a a

Sy x sc = 2 qs12 ads1 = Sy x sc =

0 2 2 2 2

The torque due to the applied load is then

a a Sx =Sy a 3a 2 p

T = Sy x sc + Sx = Sy x sc + = (L z)

2 2 2 2 2 4

st 3 4at 3

J = =

3 3

d T 9ap(L z)

= =

dz GJ 16t 3G

L

d 9apL2

= dz =

0

dz 32t 3G

S15

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.12

sc ys T

Sx ys

a Sy

3

t

Sx

4 30 2

a Sy

2 =

5 1

Due to symmetry, SC is on the y-axis and Ixy = 0, then assume Sy=0. The pressure loads can be

written as

p 3p

px = py =

2 2

and the shear forces as

Sy = py a(z L) and Sx = px a(z L)

The only required moment of inertia is then Iyy which is found as

3

( )

2

2ta 3a 2

ta 3 /2 3a 2 5 3

Iyy = + 2 + ta = at

2 2 12 4 4

The shear from point 1 to 2 is then calculated as

s

Sx 1 3 S 3

qs12 = t

Iyy 0 2

ads = x

Iyy 2

ats1

From symmetry we then have that qs45 = qs12. By considering the torque around point 3, qs23 and qs34

are not necessary to calculate. Thus,

a /2

3a 3a

Sx y s = 2 qs12 ds1 y s =

0 2 20

The torque around SC is then

a 3a 23pa 2

T = Sx y s + Sy = (L z)

4 4 40

Furthermore

d T 23pa(L z)

J = at 3 = =

dz GJ 40Gt 3

and

L

d 23paL2

= dz

dz =

80Gt 3

0

S16

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.13

4

t

1 3 sc

a a xsc

2

This is an open section, thus use formulae for warping of open sections. Assume w3 = 0 on the

symmetry line so that the warping is zero here, i.e. w3 = 0. The sector coordinate at point 4 is then

given by (since (xc,yc) = (a/2 2 ,0))

1 a a2

3-4: AR 4 = a= since is negative

22 2 2 8

and the warping becomes since the torque is T(z) = 3pa2(zL)/4

d T st 3 4at 3

w s (w 0 ) = 2AR = 2AR , J = =

dz GJ 3 3

a 3a p

2 2

3 3

9a p

w 4 = 2 ( z L) 3 = 3 ( z L) = w 2

8 4G 4at 64t G

Similarly for point 5 (remember to add the sector coordinate at point 4 or alternatively, do not add the

sector coordinate but then you must add the warping at point 4)

1 a a2

4-5: AR 5 = a + a + AR 4 = since is positive

2 4 2

a 2 9ap 9a 3 p

w5 = 2 (z L ) = (z L ) = w1

2 16t 3 G 16t 3 G

Solution A.14

The torque generated from the applied load is illustrated below.

No symmetry no obvious candidate for zero warping. Swept area with respect to SC starting at

point 1.

1 a2

1-2: AR,012 = as1 AR ,02 =

2 2

1a as a2 3a 2

2-3: AR,023 = s2 + AR ,02 = 2 + AR,03 =

22 4 2 4

S17

SOLUTIONS

3a 2

3-4: AR,034 = 0 + AR ,03 =

4

1a as 3a 2 a2

4-5: AR,045 = s4 + AR ,04 = 4 + AR ,05 =

22 4 4 2

1 as a2

5-6: AR,056 = as5 + AR ,05 = 5 +

2 2 2

A R,0 tds

1 as1

a a

as2 a 2 a

3a 2

a

as4 3a 2 a

as5 a 2

5a 0 2 4 2 4 4 4 2 + 2 ds

AR = C

= ds + + ds + ds + + ds +

tds

C

0 0 0 0

a a a a a

= + + + + + + + =

5a 4 0 8 2 0 4 0 8 4 0 4 2 0 2

5at 3

J=

3

The torque is negative on the interval 0<x<L/2 and positive on L/2<x<L giving warping in opposite

directions at the two ends. The sign shift at the applied load (x=L/2) constitutes a "warping conflict"

which constrains the warping to zero, locally at the applied load.

Left hand side (x<L/2 and some distance away from the applied load):

T T a 2 Pa 3 3Pa 2

w1 = 2AR1 = 2(0 AR ) = 2 = = {antisymmetry} = w 6

GJ GJ 2 4G 5at 3 20Gt 3

T a 2 a 2 Pa 3

w 2 = 2AR 2 = 2 = 0 = {antisymmetry} = w 5

GJ 2 2 4G 5at 3

T 3a 2 a 2 Pa 3 3Pa 2

w 3 = 2AR 3 = 2 = = {antisymmetry} = w 6

GJ 4 2 4G 5at 3 40Gt 3

Right hand side (x>L/2 and some distance away from the applied load):

Same as above but with opposite signs.

Solution A.15

2 t

100 1

3 c 0 100

5

4

700

This a closed section, thus use formulae for warping of closed sections. The rate of twist is

S18

SOLUTIONS

d T ds 100 2 700

2

= , with A = + 100 700 + 2 50 =120 708 mm2

dz 4 A Gt 2 2

The line integral to be evaluated is

ds = 100 + 2 700 2 + 50 2 + 100 = 1818 mm

and this in numerical values

d 50 10 6 1818 rad

= 2 = 2.89 105

dz 4 (120708) 27 10 2

3

mm

Assume that w = 0 in 0. Then,

T 0s A0s

ws w0 =

2A A

s

ds 1818 ds

= =

Gt 27 10 2

3

= 0.03367 mm2/N and 0 s =

Gt

0

At point 1, we have that ds = 50mm, t = 2, G = 27000 N/mm2 so that Gt = 54000 N/mm. The swept

area at point 1 is 700mm50mm/2. The warping is then calculate to

50 10 6 0,03367 50 700 50

w1 = = 0, 819 mm

2 120708 54 10 0,03367 2 120708

3

50 10 6 0,03367 50 + 700 2 + 50 2 700 50 + 700 25

w2 = = 0.150 mm

2 120708 54 10 3 0,03367 120708

in the same manner: w3 = 0. Due to symmetry w1 = w5 and w2 = w4

Solution A.16

a)

The torque is T = P 3a

T 0 A0 s

The warping is given by w w0 =

2A A

ds 16a

where = !

GT

=

Gt

and A = 7a 2

a 1 a a2

0-1: 0 s1 = , A0 s1 = a = , w0=0

2Gt 2 2 4

S19

SOLUTIONS

24P a 2 a 2 4 24P 1 1 6P 7 8 3P

w1 = 2

= = =

7Gt 16a 7a 7Gt 32 28 7Gt 56 196Gt

2a 5a 1a a2

1-2: 0 s 2 = + 0 s1 = , A0 s 2 = 2a + A0 s1 =

Gt 2Gt 22 4

24P 5a 2 a 2 4 24P 5 1 6P 15 + 8 129P

w2 = + 2

= + = =

7Gt 16a 7a 7Gt 32 28 7Gt 56 196Gt

a 7a 1 5a 2

2-3: 0 s 3 = + 0s2 = , A0 s 3 = a3a + A0 s 2 =

Gt 2Gt 2 4

24P 7 a 2 5a 2 4 6P 7 5 6P 49 40 27P

w3 = 2

= = =

7Gt 16a 7a 7Gt 8 7 7Gt 56 196Gt

3a 13a 1 3a 7a 2

3-4: 0 s 4 = + 0s3 = , A0 s 4 = 3a + A0 s 3 =

Gt 2Gt 2 2 2

24P 13a 2 7a 2 2 12P 13 16 9P

w4 = 2

= =

7Gt 16a 7a 7Gt 16 28Gt

and the rest is given by anti-symmetry: w5=-w4, w6=-w3, w7=-w2 and w8=-w1.

Solution A.17

T 0 A0 s

The warping is given by w w0 =

2A A

ds 10a

where = !

GT

=

Gt

and A = 5a 2

a

0-1: 01 = , A01 = 0

Gt

Pa 10a a P

w1 = =

2 5a Gt 10a

2

10Gt

a 2a 1 a2

0-2: 02 = + 01 = , A02 = a a + A01 =

Gt Gt 2 2

S20

SOLUTIONS

P 2 1 2 P

w2 = =

Gt 10 5 10Gt

a/2 5a 1a a2

0-3: 03 = + 02 = , A03 = a + A02 =

Gt 2Gt 22 4

P 5 2 1 4 P

w3 = =

Gt 10 5 5Gt

a 7a 1 3a

0-4: 0 s 4 = + 03 = , A04 = a + A03 = a 2

Gt 2Gt 2 2

P 7 2 1 3P

w4 = =

Gt 10 5 20Gt

and the rest is given by (anti)symmetry: w5=-w4, w6=-w3, w7=-w2 and w8=-w1.

Solution A.18

Closed tube:

T

q= by definition for a closed section subjected to a pure torque. Then

2A

q T

max = =

t min 2R 2 t

d q ds T 2R T

=

dz 2A

Gt = 4 A

2

=

Gt 2R 3Gt

Open tube:

2Rt 3 d d 3T d 3T

J= , T = GJ = , max = Gt =

3 dz dz 2Rt G

3

dz 2Rt 2

( dz)

closed

d

1 t

closed 2

1 t

max

= =

(d dz) 3 R

open open

max 3R

S21

SOLUTIONS

Solution A.19

Closed section

T q q a2

q= max = = , A= = 5000 mm2

2A t min 2 2

T 1000000 Nmm

max = = = 50 MPa

2At min 2 5000 mm 2 2 mm

2

d T ds 110 6 a ( )

a2 + a 2 rad

=

dz 4 A 2

= 2

Gt 4G(5000) 3t

+2

t

= 4.76 10

5

mm

Solution A.20

Closed section

( a /2)

2

T q q T

q= max = = = , A = a2 + = 13.927 mm2

2A t min 2 4 A 2

T

max = = 107.7 MPa

2At min

d T ds 6 10 6 2 100 100 100 rad

=

dz 4 A 2

= 2

Gt 4G(13927) 2

+

4

+

4

= 5.8310

5

mm

Solution A.21

From example 12 the following data are taken:

2ta 3 a

Ixx = Iyy = , Ixy = 0, sc =

3 2 2

The torque is then

a a 3Pa 4t 3a d T 9P

T = P + = , J = , = =

2 2 2 2 2 3 dz GJ 8 2Gt 3

Solution A.22

Closed section:

T T q T

q= = 2 max = = 2

2A 2a t 2a t

d T ds T T

2

= = 4 4a = 3

dz 4 A Gt 4a Gt a Gt

Open section:

4at 3 d d 3T d 3T

J= , T = GJ = , max = Gt =

3 dz dz 4Gat 3

dz 4at 2

For the same applied torque we get that

max

closed

2t 1

= = {a = 20t (e.g)} =

max

copen

3a 30

S22

SOLUTIONS

( dz)

closed

d

4 t 1

2

= = {a = 20t} =

(d dz) 3 a 300

open

Solution A.23

Closed section:

T q

q= max = = q, A = a 2 = 2500 mm2

2A t min

T 700000 Nmm

max = = = 140 MPa

2At min 2 2500 mm 2 1 mm

( )

2

d T ds 700000 50 4a 2 + a 2 rad

= =

dz 4 A 2 Gt 4G(2500) 2 3

+2

1

= 2.4 10

4

mm

Solution A.24

a) u0, v0, =0

b) u=0, v0, 0

c) u=0, v0, 0

d) u0, v0, =0

e) u=0, v0, =0

The results depend on whether the load acts through the shear centre (then =0) and if Ixy0 (then

u0).

S23

SOLUTIONS

Solutions B

Solution B.1

Methods for approximate analysis of thin plates:

(Fourier series) Only for certain boundary conditions

Energy method As above As above

method and certain boundary conditions.

Finite element Completely general Require computer programs and

method knowledge to run those

Solution B.2

To find bending moments we need the second derivatives, which are obtained as

2 w q0 2w 2 w q0 2

( ) y 2 D

q0

= 12x 2

+ 18xy , = 24 y 2

and = 9x

x 2 D xy D

The bending moments are then given by

2 w 2 w

[ ]

M x = D 2 + 2 = q0 12x 2 + 18xy + (24 y 2 ) = 26 q0 a 2

x y

2 w 2 w

[ ]

M y = D 2 + 2 = q0 24 y 2 + (12x 2 + 18xy ) = 19 q0 a 2

y x

2 w

M xy = D(1 ) = q0 (1 )9x 2 = 7.5 q0 a 2

xy

On the top side of the plate (z=h/2) we have that:

6M x 6 26q0 a 2

x = = = 62.4 10 3 q0

h2 (a /20) 2

6M y 6 19 q0 a 2

y = = = 45.6 10 3 q0 w

h2 (a /20) 2

6M xy 6 7.5q0 a 2

xy = 2 = 2

= 18.0 10 3 q0

h (a /20)

The largest tensile stress is then (maximum principal stress):

62,4 + (45,6) 1

I = + (62,4 (45,6)) 2 + 4 18 2 10 3 =65.3 103 q0

2 2

S24

SOLUTIONS

Solution B.3

a) w = Cx 2 ( a 2 y 2 )

The second derivatives are obtained through the first as

w w

= 2Cx ( a 2 y 2 ) , = 2Cx 2 y

x y

2w 2w 2 w

2

x 2

= 2C ( a 2

y 2

) ,

y 2

= 2Cx ,

xy

= 4Cxy

2 w 2w 2 w 2w

M x = D 2 + 2 = 2DC( a 2 y 2 ) , M y = D 2 + 2 = 2DCx 2

x y y x

w2

M xy = D(1 ) = 4DCxy

xy

Along the line x = 0, the bending moments are

M y ( x = 0) = M xy ( x = 0) = 0 , M x ( x = 0) = 2DC ( a 2 y 2 )

The largest one of these is

M x,max = M x (y = 0) = 2DCa 2

b)

The plate equation reads

4w 4w 4w q

+ 2 + =

x 4 x 2y 2 y 4 D

If we differentiate the deflection and insert this into the plate equation we get that

4w 4w 4w

= 0, = 0 , 2 2 = 4C

x 4 y 4 x y

q

8C = q = 8DC

D

i.e., a uniformly distributed load q, with q=8DC

Solution B.4

We can write the bending moments as (neglect Mxy here, it does not influence Rx)

2 w

Mx 1 x 2

M = D 1 2 w

y

y 2

Inverted, this gives the curvatures, especially the curvature in x-direction, as

2w 12 69 10 3

x 2

=

1

D(1 2 )

M (x )M y = (

12

Et 3

M x )

M y =

20 10 9 0.2 3

= 0.005175 m1

1

Thus, Rx = = 193 m

w / x 2

2

S25

SOLUTIONS

Solution B.5

The strains are given by Hooke's law as

x =

1

E

(

x y =) 1

70000

(82 + 0.313) = 0.00123, y = 0.000537

23 2(1+ 0.3)

xy = = 0.000854

70000

If we have a pure bending case, 0 = 0, then the strains are linked to the curvatures by = z, and

since the strains are given at the surface for which z = h/2, we get that

1 x 2 x 2

x = = = = 0.245 m-1, y = y = 0.107 m-1, and

x z h h

2w 2

xy (= 2 ) = xy = 0.171 m-1

xy h

Solution B.6

The solution is given by

w = Axy ( a 2 x 2 )( a y )

The derivatives of this deflection is then

2w 4w 4w 4w

= A( a 2 3x 2 )( a 2y ) , = 0 , = 0 , = 12Ax

xy x 4 y 4 x 2y 2

a) The loading is q(x,y): The plate equation reads

q 4w 4w 4w q

2 w = or + 2 + =

D x 4 2 x 2 y y 4 D

gives with the expression for the derivative as

q 96 3 Eh 3

= 24 Ax q = Eh Ax since D =

D 45 12(1 2 )

2w

b) The corner loads Rh = 2D(1 ) are then

xy

2 4

Rh (0,0)= Rh(0,a) = Eh 3 Aa 3 and Rh (a,a)= Rh(a,0) = Eh 3 Aa 3

15 15

Solution B.7

The solution is given by

w(x, y) = cxy ( 4a 2 x 2 )(5a y )

The derivatives of the deflection are then

2w 3w 3w

= c ( 4a 2 3x 2 )(5a 2y ) , = 6cy(5a y) , = 2c ( 4a 2 3x 2 )

xy x 3 xy 2

a) The support load in the middle of the BC (load intensity) is found by

3 w 3w

Vx = D 3 + (2 )

x xy 2

[

= D 6cy (5a y ) + (2 )2c ( 4a 3x )

2 2

]

S26

SOLUTIONS

5a Eh 3 38 3 2

(x, y) = (2a, ) and D = gives Vx,BC = Eh ca

2 12(1 )

2

45

2w 16 3 3

b) The corner load Rh = 2D(1 ) at point C (x,y)= (2a,0) is Rh,C = Eh a

xy 3

Solution B.8

The loading of the plate is written as

x y 3x y

q = q0 2sin sin + sin sin

a a a a

Assume a deflection of the same type, i.e.

x y 3x y

w = w 0 sin sin + w1 sin sin

a a a a

x

Use notation c x = cos , etc. and derive the derivatives required for the plate equation

a

2w w 0 2 w1 2 2w w 0 2 w1 2

= s s 9 s s , = s s s3x sy

x 2 y 2

x y 3x y x y

a2 a2 a2 a2

2 w w 0 2 3w 2 4 w w 0 4 w1 4

= 2 c x c y + 12 c 3x c y . = s s + 81 s3x sy

xdy x 4

x y

a a a4 a4

4 w w 0 4 w1 4 4w w 0 4 w1 4

= s s + s s , = s s + 9 s3x sy

y 4 x 2y 2

x y 3x y x y

a4 a4 a4 a4

The plate equation

q 4w 4w 4w q

w=

2

+2 2 2 + 4 =

D x 4 x y y D

Inserting the derivatives into the plate equation yields

w 4 w 4 q q

4 0 4 sx sy + 100 1 4 s3x sy = 2 0 sx sy + 0 s3x sy

a a D D

4 4

qa q0 a

w 0 = 0 4 w1 =

2D 100D 4

a) The central deflection is now

a a 49q0 a 4

w , =

2 2 100D 4

b) The bending moments in the middle are (take (x,y) = (a/2,a/2))

2w 2w q a2

M x,middle = D 2 + 2 = 0 2 ( 41+ 49 )

x y 100

2w 2w q a2

M y,middle = D 2 + 2 = 0 2 ( 49 + 41 )

y x 100

c) The corner load at (0,0) is

2w 53 q0 a 2

Rh = 2D(1 ) = (1 ) (downwards)

xy 50 2

S27

SOLUTIONS

Solution B.9

The loading of the plate is written as

5x 3y

q = q0 sin sin

3a 4a

Assume a deflection of the same type, i.e.

5x 3y

w = w 0 sin sin

3a 4a

Derive the derivatives required for the plate equation

2w 25 w 0 2 5x 3y 2 w 9 w 0 2 5x 3y

= sin sin , = sin sin

x 2 9 a2 3a 4a y 2 16 a 2 3a 4a

2 w 5 w 0 2 5x 3y 3 w 125 w 0 3 5x 3y

= cos cos , 3 = 3 cos sin

xy 4 a 2

3a 4a x 27 a 3a 4a

3w 15 w 0 3 5x 3y w 625 w 0 5x 3y

4 4

= cos sin , = 4 sin sin

xy 3

16 a 3

3a 4a x 4

81 a 3a 4a

4 w 81 w 0 4 5x 3y 4 w 25 w 0 4 5x 3y

= sin sin , = sin sin

y 4 256 a 4 3a 4a x 2y 2 16 a 4 3a 4a

The plate equation

q 4w 4w 4w q

2 w = + 2 + =

D x 4 2 x 2 y y 4 D

Inserting the derivatives into the plate equation yields

625 w 0 4 25 w 0 4 81 w 0 4 5x 3y 5x 3y

81 a 4 + 2 + 4 sin sin = q0 sin sin

16 a 4

256 a 3a 4a 3a 4a

This expression must hold for every x and y so that

625 w 0 4 25 w 0 4 81 w 0 4

+ 2 + = q0

81 a 256 a 4

4

16 a 4

which gives that

q0 a 4

w 0 = 92 105

D

a) Principal bending moments and directions at (2a,a) (use derivatives from above!) are given by the

bending moments in this point, which are

2w 2w

M x = D 2 + 2 = 0.0164 q0 a 2

x y

2w 2w

M y = D 2 + 2 = 0.00776 q0 a 2

y x

2w

M xy = D(1 ) = 0.00281 q0 a 2

xy

The principal bending moments are calculated as

M1 M + M 0.00693 q0 a 2

( M x M y ) + 4 M xy = 0.01722 q a2

1 2

=

x y 2

M 2 2 2 0

S28

SOLUTIONS

1 2M xy

= arctan = -16,5

2 Mx My

b) The support load at (0,y) is given by

3 w 3w 3y

Rx (0, y) = D 3 + (2 ) 2

= 0.178sin qa

x xy x= 0 4a 0

c) The corner loads are given by

2w

Rh (0,0) = 2D(1 ) = 0.0159 q0 a (downwards)

2

xy x= y= 0

Rh (3a,0) = 0.0159 q0 a 2 (downwards)

Solution B.10

The use of energy methods, or Ritz' method as it is usually called, requires a deflection assumption

that satisfies at least the kinematic boundary conditions, preferably all boundary conditions. Since

this assumption is given herein, start by obtaining the necessary derivatives.

( )

Assumed: w(x, y) = Cx 2 a 2 y2 , which satisfies the B.C. The derivatives of this are now

w w2

w

= 2Cx ( a 2 y 2 ) , = 2C ( a 2 y 2 ) , = 2Cx 2

x x 2

y

2w 2w

= 2Cx 2

and = 4Cxy

y 2 xy

Now, insert these into the strain energy equation for an isotropic plate, giving

a 2a 2

2w 2w 2w 2

D 2w 2w

U = 2 + 2 2(1 ) 2 dxdy =

2 a 0 x y x y 2 xy

a 2a

= 2DC 2 ( a 4 2a 2 y 2 + y 4 + 8x 2 y 2 + x 4 ) dxdy =

2624

DC 2 a 6

a 0

45

The potential energy of the applied loads, here a uniform pressure, is then also

a 2a

32

V = wqdxdy = qCa 6

a 0 9

The total energy of is then

2624 32

U +V = DC 2 a 6 qCa 6

45 9

The minimum of this energy with respect to unknowns (here only one - C!) is given by

(U + V ) 5 q

= 0 which gives C as C =

C 164 D

Maximum deflection at (x,y)=(2a,0) is then simply obtained by inserting into the assumption

5 qa 4

w max =

41 D

S29

SOLUTIONS

Solution B.11

Assume: w(x, y) = Cx 2 y 2 , which satisfies the B.C. The derivatives necessary for insertion into the

plate energy equation are

w 2w 2 w 2w 2w

= 2Cxy 2 , = 2Cy , = 2Cx 2

y , = 2Cx 2

and = 4Cxy

x x 2 y y 2 xy

Now, insert these into the strain energy equation for an isotropic plate, giving

D 2 w 2 w 2 w 2 w 2 w 2

a a 2

U = 2 + 2 2(1 ) 2 2 dxdy

2 0 0 x y x y xy

[ ( )]

a a

D 2 2

2 00

a a

= 2DC 2 ( y 4 + 8y 2 x 2 + x 4 ) dxdy =

116

DC 2 a 6

0 0

45

The potential energy of the applied loads, here a uniform pressure, is then also

a a a a

C 3 3 a,a 1

V = wq0dxdy = Cx 2 2

y q0 dx dy = 9 x y = 9 q0Ca

6

0 0 0 0 0,0

The minimum of this energy with respect to unknowns (here only one - C!) is given by

(U + V ) 232 1

= DCa 6 q0 a 6 = 0

C 45 9

which gives that

5 q0

C= and thus from the assumption

232 D

5 q0 a 4

w ( a,a) =

232 D

On the boundary with x = a:

2w 2w

M x (a, y) = D 2 + 2 = D(2Cy 2 + 2Cy 2 ) =

5

q0 y 2

x y 116

i.e., Mx = 0 not satisfied on the boundary x = a.

3w 3w 40 5

Vx (a, y) = D 3 + (2 ) 2

= D(0 + 2 4Cx ) = q0 a = q0 a

x xy 232 29

i.e., Vx = 0 not satisfied on the boundary x = a.

Solution B.12

x y

Assume:, w(x, y) = Asin 2 sin 2 which satisfies the B.C. The derivatives necessary for

3a a

insertion into the plate energy equation are

2 w 2A 2 2 x 2 x

2 y 2 w 2A 2 2 y y x

= cos sin sin , = 2

cos sin 2 sin 2

x 2

9a

2

3a 3a a y 2

a a a 3a

2 w 4 A 2 x x y y

= sin cos cos sin

xy 3a 2 3a 3a a a

S30

SOLUTIONS

3a a 2w 2 A 2 4 3a a 2w 2 9A 2 4

x 2 x y =

36a 2

, y 2 x y =

4a 2

0 0 0 0

3a a 2w 2w A 2 4

3a a 2w 2 A 2 4

x 2 y 2 x y =

12a 2

, xy x y =

12a 2

0 0 0 0

so that

D a 2a 2 w 2 w 2 w 2

2 2

2w 2w 11 4 AD

U=

+

2 a 0 x 2 y 2

+ 2

x 2 y 2

+ 2( )

1

xy

dx dy =

9 a2

The potential energy of the applied loads, here a point load, is then simply

V = Pw0 = PA

Thus, we seek A, which is found by

(U + V ) 9 Pa 2

=0 A= ,

A 22 4 D

and then

9 Pa 4 Pa 2

w middle = 0.0042

22 4 D D

Solution B.13

Since the deflection assumption is given, and which satisfies the kinematic boundary conditions, we

may proceed by finding the derivatives of w as

w 2Cx y 2 w 2C y w x 2 y

= 2 sin , = sin , = C cos ,

x a b x 2

a 2

b y a b b

x y 2 w 2Cx y

2 2

2 w

= C sin och = 2 cos

y 2

a b b xy a b b

The total energy is then after integration

DC 2 2b 4 a 2 2 2 2qCab

U= + 2 + 2(1 )

2 a 3 10b 3 3ab 3ab 3

The condition dU/dC = 0 leads to

2b 4 a 2 2 2 2qab

DC 3 + 2 + 2(1 ) =0

a 10b

3

3ab 3ab 3

Solve for C!

1 1

2qab 2b 4 a 2 2 2 qa 4 3 4 a 4 2 a 2 2 a 2

C= + 2 + 2(1 ) = 3+ + 2(1 ) 2

3D a 3 10b 3 3ab 3ab D 20b 4 3b 2 3b

Eh 3

with D = = 173076 Nmm, q = 0,002 MPa, and a = b = 400 mm gives that

12(1 2 )

qa 4 x y

2

qa 4

C = 0,0112 w(x, y) = 0,0112 sin

D D a b

which has a max for x = a and y = a/2. The deflection of point A is then w(a, a/2) = 3,31 mm

S31

SOLUTIONS

Solutions C

Solution C.1

a)

cr cr

0,2 2 2

cr = 0,2

4c 2 E

Euler

2

c E

0,2 cr = E =

2

E

p

Slenderness ratio = L/i p

b)

cr I1 I

Engesser E eff = Et + 2 E

E eff

2

I I

cr = c

2

E

p

c)

cr cr

Torsional buckling

Euler buckling Euler buckling

cr,local cr,local

> p >p

S32

SOLUTIONS

Solution C.2

a

2ta

xTP = 2=a

4ta 4

2ta a a

yTP = =

4ta 2

t (2a) a a ta 3

3 2 2

5ta 3

Ixx = + 2ta + 2ta = ( 4 + 3 + 3) =

12 2 2 6 3

2ta 3 a 2 a 2 ta 3 5ta 3

Iyy = + 2ta + 2ta = (8 + 6 + 6 ) =

12 4 4 48 12

a a a a ta 3

Ixy = 2ta + =

4 2 4 2 2

Ixx + Iyy I I 2

Imin = xx yy + Ixy2

2 2

= + = ta 3

24 24 4 24

a)

Euler:

Leff = 2L

2 EImin 2 70000 2 50 3 25 369

Pcr,Euler = = = 10.4 kN

L2eff 2000 2 24

Local:

t 2 10.64

cr,local = 0.38E = MPa

b 170.24

Pcr,local = 10.64 2 100 + 170.24 4 50 = 36 kN (ultimate)

Torsion:

S33

SOLUTIONS

3

J= + =

3 3 3

A = 4at

I0 = Ixx + Iyy + A( x SC

2

+ y SC

2

)

5ta 3 5ta 3 a 2 a 2 ta 3 10ta 3

= + + 4ta + = (20 + 5 + 15) =

3 12 4 2 12 3

4ta 10at 3 3 4Gt 3 4 30000 2 3

Pcr, = G = = = 19 kN

310ta 3 a 50

b)

In this case only Euler buckling is affected by the beam length. Hence,

Euler:

Leff = 2(0.5 L)

2 EI min 2 70000 2 50 3 25 369

Pcr , Euler = = = 41.7 kN

L2eff 1000 2 24

Torsion buckling is critical at 19 kN.

Solution C.3

Moments of inertia

ta 3 ta 3 ta 3 a 2 7ta 3

Ixx = 2 = och Iyy = + 2ta =

12 6 12 2 12

Gives us critical loads with respect to Euler

2 EIxx 4 2 Eta 3 2 EIyy 7 2 Eta 3

Pcr,x = 2 =

och Pcr,y = =

(L 2) 6L2 L2 12L2

Local buckling

2t 2

Critical stress in flanges: cr,lokal = 0.38E

a

t 2

and critical stress in web: cr,lokal = 3.6E

a

2t 2 t 2

critical (ultimate) load : Pcr,lokal = 2ta 0.38E + ta 3.6E

a a

Due to symmetry the shear centre is located in the middle of the cross section.

1 as as

Hence, the swept area for a flange is AR (s) = =

2 2 4

S34

SOLUTIONS

3 a 2 ta 5

2

a 2

as 2 s

(2A ) tds = 4 2 tds = a t =

2

R = R

0

4 3 0 24

ta 3 7ta 3 3ta 3

Polar moment of inertia I0 = Ixx + Iyy = + =

6 12 4

J=

(a + 2a) t 3 = at 3

3

Pcr, = GJ + = Gat 3

+ = Gat 3

+

I0 L2 13ta 3 24L2 13a 2 24L2

Wich gives

Solution C.4

Pk / 2 2 EI

P Fcr = = 2

sin L

2 2 EI sin cos 2

Pcr =

a2

Pk

= C (cos cos 2 sin 2cos asin ) = 0

cos (cos2 2sin 2 ) = 0

a a

F 1

tan( ) = = 35

2

EI

L=a/cos()

Solution C.5

Local buckling,

2 2

t 6

cr,local = kE = 0.38 70000 = 266 MPa

b 60

Euler buckling,

S35

SOLUTIONS

60 6 30

= 20 mm below the intersection of web and flange.

60(3 + 6 )

Moments of inertia is,

6 603

Ixx = + 6 60 102 + 3 60 202 = 216000 mm4

12

and

3 603

Iyy = = 54000 mm4 = Imin

12

2 EI min

cr, Euler =

AL2

2 EI min 2 70000 54000

Lcr = = = 510 mm

A cr,local 60 9 266

Torsion buckling,

The shear centre is in the corner where the web and flange intersect.

I0 = I xx + Iyy + Ay sc2 = 216000 + 54000 + 540 202 = 486000 mm4

J =

st 3 60 33 + 6 3

=

(= 4860 mm4

)

3 3

GJ 30000 4860

cr, = = = 300 MPa > cr,local, OK, will not occur.

I0 486000

Solution C.6

The shear centre is located in the middle of the cross section and =0 since AR= everywhere.

Torsion buckling is thus given by

AGJ

Pcr, =

I0

at 3

where J = 4 and A = 4at

3

(2a)

3

t 4ta 3

The polar moment of inertia is I0 = Ixx + Iyy = 2 =

12 3

4atG 4at 3 4Gt

3 3

and thereby Pcr, = =

3 4ta 3 a

Local buckling is given by

t 2 t3

Pcr,local = A cr,local = 4at 0.385E = 1.54 E

a a

S36

SOLUTIONS

Since both the local buckling and the torsion buckling are independent of length in the given case an

absolute condition for torsion buckling to occur is that Pct,<Pcr,local:

4Gt 3 Et 3

< 1.54 E > 2.6G

a a

E

For isotropic materials the relation G = is satisfied and 0.3 is true for several materials

2(1+ )

such as aluminium and steel. For these materials and the given cross section torsion buckling and

local buckling are equally probable too occur, regardless of the relation between a and t.

The final thing to examine is the influence of the length since this determines the shift to Euler

buckling:

2 EImin

Pcr,Euler =

L2

Pcr,local<Pcr,Euler:

t 3 2 EImin

1.54 E <

a L2

2 2ta 3 a a2

L< L < 2.07

1.54 3t 3

t

Solution C.7

P

EI 2L

M

L M=PL (1)

Deformation relationship:

ML

= (2)

2 EI

Solving (1) and (2) for Pk:

A M 2 EI 2 EI

PL = 0 Pcr = 2

L L

S37

SOLUTIONS

Solution C.8

hLTc

T

N

L

h h T 2 EI 2 EI Th 2

L= c= , N= = 2 = I= (1)

sin tan sin L (h /sin ) 2 sin 3 2 E

a4 Th 2 a4 12Th 2

I= ; A = a2 I = 3 2 = A = a2 = (2)

12 sin E 12 sin 3 2 E

Mass per unit length truss structure:

AL A( h /sin ) A

m= = = (3)

c h /tan cos

Substituting (2) into (3), we get:

a 2 12Th 2

m= =

cos cos sin 3 2 E

12 Th 2

m 2E 3 2 3

= 4 + = 0 , = arctan 51

12Th 2 sin cos sin cos

2 3

2

2

sin 3 2 E

Solution C.9

EAh1 = Et Ah2 (1)

h1 + h2 = h (2)

Solving (1) and (2) for h1 and h2:

Et h Eh

h1 = h2 = (3)

Et + E Et + E

We know that:

S38

SOLUTIONS

Ah 2

I 1 = Ah1 2 I 2 = Ah2 2 I= (4)

2

and that (se Megson (6.16))

I1 I

Eeff = E + Et 2 (5)

I I

By substituting (3)-(4) into (5) we get:

2EEt

Eeff =

E + Et

Solution C.10

D

L,EI

B

M

M

A B C

L/2,EI L/2,EI

A B C

M M

2 2

L/2,EI L/2,EI

ML

ML

= 2 2 = (1)

3EI 12EI

and similarly for the beam BD we obtain

ML

= ( BD ) (2)

3EI

Now, using (1) and (2):

ML 1 1

( ) + = 0 but M0 ( BD ) =

3EI 4 4

S39

SOLUTIONS

Pk EI

Thus BD = L Pcr = 17,6 2

EI L

Solution C.11

Assume a deformation like the picture below

P P P P

1

2

M M

2L/3,EI

L/3,EI

1 = 2 (1)

P L P

=L 1 = 2 2 with 2 = (2)

EI 3 EI

For an axially loaded beam, the following relationships are valid:

2 L

M L M

3 3

1 = ( 1 ) 2 = ( 2 ) (3)

3EI 3EI

Using (1)-(3) we get: 2 ( 2 2 ) + ( 2 ) = 0

2

3 EI

2 1.9 Pcr = EI 2 32,5 2

L L

Solution C.12

40

k=0.38 for both flanges (one side clamped and

two sides free).

1

2

2 t

25 cr ,1 = 0.38 E

2 b

For part 2: t = 2 mm, b = 25 mm cr,1 = 170,2 MPa

66,5 40 2 + 170,2 25 2

cr ,local = = 106 MPa

(40 + 25) 2

b) For part 1: t = 2 mm, b = 40 mm cr,1 = 199,5 MPa

For part 2: t = 2 mm, b = 25 mm cr,1 = 510.7 MPa > s cr,1 = s

S40

SOLUTIONS

199,5 40 2 + 400 25 2

cr ,local = = 276 MPa

(40 + 25) 2

Solution C.13

A

3

B

1

C 30

2

20 40 20

E=70 GPa

3 2

A = 3.6 70000 = 1417.5 MPa > 0.2 A = 320 MPa

40

1 2

B = 3.6 70000 = 280 MPa

30

2 2

C = 0.38 70000 = 266 MPa

20

320 40 3 + 2 280 30 + 2 266 2 20

cr,local = = 294 MPa

120 + 60 + 80

Solution C.14

50

5

25 3 2

3 2

1,cr = 0.38 70000 = 383 MPa > 0.2 A = 300 MPa

25

S41

SOLUTIONS

5 2

2,cr = 0.38 70000 = 266 MPa

50

Pcr ,local = 300 3 25 + 266 5 50 = 89 kN

Solution C.15

E=70 GPa, 0.2 = 300 MPa

2

3

cr , f 1 = 0.38 70000 = 383 MPa > 0.2 cr,f1 = 300 MPa

25

2

2

cr , f 2 = 0.38 70000 = 170 MPa

25

2

1.5

cr , web = 3.6 70000 = 227 MPa

50

300 3 25 + 170 2 25 + 227 1.5 50

cr,local = = 240 MPa and Pcr,local = 48 kN

( 3 + 2 ) 25 + 1.5 50

Solution C.16

E=70 GPa, 0.2 = 250 MPa

2

3

cr ,1 = 0.38 70000 = 150 MPa

40

2

2

cr , 2 = 3.6 70000 = 403 MPa > 0.2 cr,fl = 250 MPa

50

2

4

cr ,3 = 0.38 70000 = 170 MPa

50

cr ,local = 183 MPa

Making the profile of aluminium with a higher yield stress would increase its resistance to local

buckling.

S42

SOLUTIONS

Solution C.17

0.2 = 280 MPa

2

1

cr,web= 3.6 70000 = 218 MPa

34

2

t opt

topt when cr,fl = 218 MPa 0.38 70000 = 218 MPa t opt = 3,1 mm

34

Solution C.18

2t 2 t 2

local, flange = 0.38E lcal,web = 3.6E

b t h 2t

Pc,local = 2bt lcaal, flange + (h 2t)t local,web = 1444 kN

shear cenre = torsion centre = centre of gravity for the cross section, place origin there!

th 3 h t 2 1679375

Ix = + 2t(b t) = mm4

12 2 6

(h 2t)t 3 2tb 3 313750

Iy = + = mm4

12 12 3

Ixy = 0

J= + = mm4 , and AR = = mm2

3 3 3 2 2 2 4

2

(h t)s

b

= 2 4 AR tds = 52734375 mm6

0

4

Iy<Ix implies that buckling occurs about the y-axis.

2 EIy 21962500000 2

PEuler = =

L2 3L2

2306875

I0 = Ix + Iy = mm4 (SC=CG) and A = 2bt + (h 2t)t = 700 mm2

6

A 2 E 24806250000000 2

Pc, = GJ + = 285935 +

I0 L2 3691L2

A 2 E 2 E

Pc,local = GJ + so that L2

= L = 239 mm

I0 L2 I0 Pc,lokal

GJ

A

S43

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.