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MICROBIOLOGY STUDY NOTES

What is Microbiology?.................................................................................................................... 2
Bacterial Cell Structure.................................................................................................................. 5
Microbial Growth ...............................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
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Evolution and Microbial Phylogeny............................Error! Bookmark not defined.
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Soil Diversity........................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Eukaryotic Microorganisms...........................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
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Fungal Infections................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
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Microbial Interactions......................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Introduction to Virology..................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
HCV and HIV.........................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
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Antibiotics.............................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
What is Microbiology?

Study of microorganisms (single-cell).


Domains:
o Prokaryotes:
 Bacteria  eubacteria.
 Archaea  archaeabacteria.
o Eukaryotes:
 Protozoa.
 Microscopic algae.
 Microscopic fungi.
o Viruses and prions.
Comparison of domains:

Bacteria Archaea Eukarya


Cell size 0.3-2m 0.3-2m 5-50m
Cell wall Peptidoglycan present Pseudopeptidoglycan Plants
or protein only (polysaccharide),
animals (none), fungi
(chitin)
Cell membrane Straight chain fatty Branched Straight chain fatty
acids linked to hydrocarbon chains acids linked to
glycerol molecules by attached to glycerol glycerol molecules by
ester linkages by ether linkages ester linkages
Membrane-enclosed Absent Absent Present
nucleus
DNA Circular Circular Linear
Ribosome size 70s (50s + 30s) 70s (50s + 30s) 80s (60s + 40s)
Membrane-bound Absent Absent Present
organelles
Mitochondria Absent Absent Present
Methanogenesis No Yes No
Dissimilative Yes Yes No
reduction of SO42- to
H2S, or Fe3+ to Fe2+
Nitrogen fixation Yes Yes No
Capable of Yes Yes No
nitrification
Chlorophyll-based Present Absent Present (in
photosynthesis chloroplasts)
Chemlithotrophy Yes Yes No
(Fe, S, H2)
First microorganisms approximately 3.8 billion years ago.
Can live in human body:
o Made up of approx. 1013 cells.
o Hosts approx. 1014 bacterial cells.
Viruses:
o Small microorganisms.
o Not cells.
o Do not take nutrients or expel wastes.
o Static structure (behave like particles, except when infecting host).
o Possess genes, but no biosynthetic machinery.
o Rely on host machinery to reproduce.
o Known to infect all cells.
o Bacteriophages: viruses of bacteria.
Prions:
o Proteins that can cause disease.
o Cause related normal proteins to fold differently and become
prions themselves.
Importance of microorganisms in:
o Agriculture:
 Nutrient cycling.
 Nitrogen fixation.
 Cellulose degradation in animals guts.
o Food:
 Fermented foods.
 Food preservation.
o Environment:
 Bioremediation.
 Biofuels.
 Waste treatment.
o Industry:
 Gene therapy.
 Genetically modified organisms.
 Pharmaceuticals.
Importance of microbes:
o Microorganisms cause infectious diseases.
o ~20 million died from influenza (viral) in 1918.
o New infectious diseases are still being discovered.
o Malaria:
 Eukaryote (called plasmodium) transmitted by mosquitoes.
Microorganisms in humans:
o 500-1000 species estimated in intestine.
o Make up 60% of dry mass in faeces.
o Needed for digestion of food.
o 20 bacteria per mm2 of dry skin.
o 800 bacteria per mm2 of moist skin (e.g. armpits).
o 100 species of bacteria, and 100s of species of fungi, protozoa and
viruses in our mouths.
o Streptococcus mutants is behind tooth decay.
o Three types of yeast live on human skin.
o Two other types of fungi cause ringworm and athletes foot.
o 90% of humans host Herpes simplex; can remain dormant until
hosts health is low.
Importance of microbiology:
o Microbes were first life on Earth.
o Created biosphere that allowed multi-cellular organisms to evolve.
o Multi-cellular organisms evolved from microbes (endosymbiosis).
o >50% of Earths biomass is comprised of microbes.
o Microbes are everywhere and interact with any other life form.
Bacterial Cell Structure

Main structural elements of bacterial cell:


Plasma membrane:
o Phospholipid bilayer (fatty acids).
o Hydrophilic exterior, hydrophobic interior.
o Embedded with integral membrane proteins.
o Linked to glycerol molecules with ester linkages.
o Function:
 Permeability barrier: prevents leakage or allows passage of
nutrients in and out of cell (essentially impermeable to
everything except water).
 Protein anchor.
 Energy conservation: site of generation and use of proton
motive force (potential difference created across membrane
with OH- inside the cell and H+ outside the cell).
o Types of transport across membrane: