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1 Prof.

Francisco Zabala - 2015

Phonetics II
Ze?!mdsHjr s t9 { !Hms?mdHRm\<

Prof. Francisco Zabala


2 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

GOBIERNO DE LA CIUDAD DE BUENOS AIRES


2013. Ao del 30 aniversario de la vuelta a la democracia

INSTITUTO DE ENSEANZA SUPERIOR EN LENGUAS VIVAS

JUAN RAMON FERNANDEZ

DEPARTAMENTO: Ingls
CARRERA: Profesorado
TRAYECTO: TFCELE
INSTANCIA CURRICULAR: Fontica II
CARGA HORARIA: 5 (cinco)
CURSADA: Anual
TURNO: Matutino (lunes de 9.50 a 13.10)
PROFESOR: Francisco Zabala
AO LECTIVO: 2015

1- Fundamentacin
La pronunciacin en una lengua extranjera es la carta de presentacin con la que cuenta el hablante al
vincularse con otros. A diferencia de los fonemas, los errores de entonacin no suelen ser detectados por la
audiencia como tales, ya que se asume que el hablante suena como desea sonar. Dado que las dificultades
suprasegmentales pueden impedir una comunicacin e interaccin social satisfactoria, se presentar un
marco de soporte terico que ayude a los alumnos a tomar decisiones informadas sobre el
comportamiento de la prosodia de la lengua meta. El foco ser puesto en el alumno como agente activo en
la construccin del aprendizaje. Se propiciar la creacin de un espacio de anlisis donde el alumno
descubra las caractersticas de la prosodia de la lengua inglesa y observe la evolucin de su interlengua
fonolgica. Se fomentar la obtencin de estrategias para el trabajo autnomo que lo acompaarn a lo
largo de sus estudios y de toda su vida profesional.

2- Objetivos generales
Que los alumnos:
a. afirmen los conocimientos obtenidos en Fontica I y los complementen con un estudio
detallado de la prosodia del ingls;
b. valoren la pronunciacin como herramienta para desempearse idneamente como
profesionales;
c. logren una relacin de responsabilidad y compromiso con ellos mismos y el docente, mediante
la autoevaluacin, la valoracin, el consenso y la cumplimentacin de normas, plazos y
tiempos.
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3- Objetivos especficos
Que el alumno logre:
a. mejorar su capacidad de comprensin auditiva;
b. distinguir las caractersticas distintivas de los contornos de entonacin y as reconocerlos;
c. lograr una calidad apropiada en la produccin de los rasgos segmentales y suprasegmentales;
d. producir los sonidos y contornos entonativos del acento R.P. (en palabras sueltas, dilogos
conectados simples, en produccin controlada y, finalmente, en la produccin libre);
e. crear estrategias que le permitan ser autnomo;
f. tomar dictado de palabras, frases y textos de discurso conectado;
g. realizar transcripciones fonticas y tonticas;
h. comunicarse con claridad.

4- Contenidos mnimos
La prosodia del ingls.

5- Contenidos de la instancia curricular


Unidad 1: Marco general de referencia
Introduccin a la materia Definicin de prosodia Las formas y las funciones de la entonacin Las
caractersticas prosdicas y paralingsticas El ritmo del ingls y su percepcin La promiencia: altura
tonal, intensidad, cantidad y Concepto de acentos lxicos y contextuales Percepcin de la prominencia y
los grados de acentuacin La interaccin de los fenmenos segmentales y suprasegmentales: gradacin,
ligazn, juntura, coarticulacin, elisin, asimilacin El sistema analtico de Halliday: tonalidad, tonicidad y
tono La unidad tonal y su anatoma El sistema de marcacin tontica de OConnor & Arnold.

Unidad 2: La entonacin y el discurso


La interaccin verbal y el enfoque pragmtico El valor comunicativo en el anlisis del discurso La unidad
tonal y la prominencia Seleccin: las elecciones significativas de la primera y la ltima slaba acentuada
(onset & nucleus) El contexto de interaccin La proclama y la referencia La seleccin de sentido y la
seleccin social.

Unidad 3: Acentuacin Lxica


El acento lxico Grados de acentuacin lxica en detalle Los acentos y el sistema de vocales fuertes y
dbiles La acentuacin lxica y los sufijos: sufijos que no afectan el patrn de acentuacin, sufijos que
atraen el acento y sufijos que repelen el acento El acento lxico y la categora gramatical Los patrones
de acentuacin y la anatoma silbica: monoslabos, bislabos, y polislabos Los patrones de acentuacin
alternativos Alteraciones del patrn de acentuacin en contexto (stress shift).

Unidad 4: Acentuacin de los tems lxicos compuestos

Delimitacin del concepto de palabras compuestas La representacin grfica de los acentos en los
diccionarios para los hablantes extranjeros Los grupos compuestos con acentos tempranos Los
compuestos con acentos tardos Los compuestos de ms de dos palabras.
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Unidad 5: Tonalidad
Sealizacin de la estructura La eleccin del tamao de las unidades tonales Tonicidad y gramtica
Vocativos Adverbios Frases sustantivas de alto peso Topicalizacin Clusulas adjetivas Esctructuras
paralelas Tag questions.

Unidad 6: Tonicidad
Concepto de acento nuclear La tradicin britnica: la escuela de Londres El modelo tradicional:
contraste entre el ingls y el castellano de las palabras tpicamente acentuadas y no-acentuadas El
modelo sintctico El modelo semntico El modelo focal Concepto de foco, foco ancho y foco estrecho
Informacin nueva y dada La regla de la acentuacin del ltimo tem lxico y sus excepciones El
modelo discursivo: los paradigmas universales, existenciales y la seleccin.

Unidad 7: Los tonos en detalle: tono y la escuela de Londres

Variaciones distintivas: contornos de descenso vs contornos de ascenso El tono de descenso El tono de


ascenso El tono de descenso-ascenso Los enunciados Las preguntas Otros tipos de oraciones
Secuencias de tonos Los significados de los tonos.
Unidad 8: El enfoque del discurso en detalle

Las variantes dominantes y no dominantes de los tonos de referencia La convergencia y la divergencia


La secuencia tonal y el para-tono Clave tonal y terminacin La concordancia tonal y su ruptura La
orientacin directa y la orientacin oblicua Los usos del tono 0 Los significados abstractos de los tonos
y su comparacin con los significados locales.

Unidad 9: La enseanza de la prosodia

La utilidad de la enseanza del ritmo, la acentuacin y la entonacin Qu se puede ensear y cundo?


Top-down y bottom-up Prioridades - Tcnicas.

6- Actividades

Las actividades sern variadas, pero siempre se respetar al alumno por sus intereses, necesidades,
conocimientos previos y posibilidades de aprendizaje. A su vez, el enfoque elegido para la adquisicin de
los contenidos es interdisciplinario con el fin de integrar los contenidos transversales.

La comprensin auditiva ser ejercitada en forma continua mediante el uso de audios, videos, segmentos
de series o pelculas, etc. Los alumnos sern expuestos a una amplia variedad de gneros discursivos que
ilustren el ingls contemporneo (preferentemente, del ao 2000 en adelante). Los alumnos trabajarn
sobre la imitacin fiel, la lectura en voz alta, la exposicin oral planificada y la charla espontnea.

Los alumnos realizarn distintos tipos de trabajos prcticos relacionados con los contenidos mencionados
en las unidades temticas: imitacin de audio, eleccin de textos para usar en su prctica docente, anlisis
del contenido sobre pronunciacin en los libros de ingls general, anlisis de cursos, observacin de
docentes, anlisis de distintos gneros discursivos y variedades del ingls, creacin de materiales para la
enseanza de la pronunciacin, etc.
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Se realizar un trabajo final escrito integrador de todos los aspectos tericos y prcticos analizados durante
la cursada a travs del estudio de casos.

7- Bibliografia
BIBLIOGRAFIA OBLIGATORIA

Cuadernillo de ctedra con la seleccin de materiales de audio para la imitacin fiel y la prctica de escucha
intensiva.
Brazil, D., M. Coulthard & C. Johns (1981). Discourse Intonation and Language Teaching. Essex: Longman.
Seleccin de diversos captulos.
Ortz Lira, Hctor (1998). Word Stress and Sentence Accent. Santiago de Chile: Universidad Metropolitana
de Cs de la Educacin. Facultad de Cs., Geografa y Letras.
Wells, J.C. (2006) English Intonation. An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

BIBLIOGRAFIA DE CONSULTA

Brazil, D. (1997) The Communicative Value of Intonation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cruttenden, Alan (1997). Intonation. Third edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dickerson, Wayne (1989). Stress in the Speech Stream. The Rhythm of Spoken English. U.S.A.
Finch, D. & Ortiz Lira, H. (1982) A Course in English Phonetics for Spanish Speakers. London: Heinemann
Educational Books.
Kingdon, Roger (1958). The Groundwork of English Intonation. Harlow: Longman.
Kingdon, Roger (1958). The Groundwork of English Stress. Harlow: Longman.
Kreidler, Charles W. (1997). Describing Spoken English. London: Routledge.
Zenobi, Nilda Carls de. (1992) A Basic Guide to English Prosody for Spanish Students of Teacher Training
Schools. Buenos Aires: Depto de Ingles, "Joaquin V.Gonzalez" Language Research Center Press.

8- Rgimen de promocin y evaluacin


Promocin Mixta

Las condiciones para acceder a la promocin mixta, es decir a la promocin del examen escrito durante la
cursada y rendir en consecuencia un examen oral, son las siguientes:

1. Haber asistido al 75% de la totalidad de las clases.


2. Haber aprobado la parte escrita con un promedio de 7 (siete) o superior en los exmenes y
transcripciones realizados durante la cursada.
3. Haber aprobado las materias correlativas antes de terminar la cursada de Fontica II.

El examen final oral constar de:

1. La lectura a primera vista de un texto nunca antes visto y su anlisis.


2. La discusin con el tribunal examinador sobre distintos temas tericos de este programa.
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Examen Final:

Los alumnos que hayan asistido al 75% de la totalidad de las clases pero que no hayan obtenido una
calificacin mnima de 7 (siete) en los parciales y transcripciones de carcter evaluativos dentro de la
cursada, o que adeuden las materias correlativas antes de finalizar la cursada de Fontica II, debern rendir
un examen de las siguientes caractersticas:

1. Una transcripcin fonemtica y tontica de aproximadamente 120 palabras.


2. La lectura a primera vista de un texto nunca antes visto y su anlisis.
3. La discusin con el tribunal examinador sobre distintos temas tericos de este programa.

9 - Alumno libre

Los alumnos libres debern rendir un examen de las siguientes caractersticas:

1. Un dictado fonemtico y tontico de aproximadamente 120 palabras.


2. Una transcripcin fonemtico, alofnica y tontica de aproximadamente 120 palabras.
3. Un examen escrito sobre aspectos tericos de la materia. El tribunal decidir el tpico a discutir.
4. La lectura a primera vista de un texto nunca antes visto y su anlisis.
5. La discusin con el tribunal examinador sobre distintos temas tericos de este programa.
7 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Revision
8 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

VOWELS LEXICAL SETS

SYMBOL NUMBER LEXICAL SET EXAMPLES

.h9. 1 FLEECE Heat, bee, seize, TV.

.H. 2 KIT Sit, live, spin, village.

.d. 3 DRESS Men, recommend, friend.

.z. 4 TRAP Frank, splash, fantastic.

.@9. 5 BATH Class, far, laugh, answer.

.P. 6 LOT Worry, what, dog, was.

.N9. 7 THOUGHT Form, door, sure, flaw

.T. 8 FOOT Good, book, put, could.

.t9. 9 GOOSE Food, blue, do, move, too.

.U. 10 STRUT Cut, front, does, blood.

.29. 11 NURSE Herb, stir, fur, word, learn.

.?. 12 commA England, phonetics, centre

.h. - happY Sorry, anybody, he, she.

.t. - thank YOU You, to, do, who.

.`T. - MOUTH Cow, mountain, countable.

.?T. - GOAT Home, own, road, soul, toe.

.`H. - PRICE Time, pie, cry, type, high.

.dH. - FACE Ale, rail, day, eight, great.

.NH. - CHOICE Toy, boy, noise.

.H?. - NEAR Here, dear, idea, museum.

.d?. - SQUARE Care, chair, bear, aerial.

.T?. - CURE Poor, tour, plural, sure.


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Strong and weak vowels


Lets suppose you are in a room, and what people in a different room are saying gets muffled. It is possible that, even
without hearing intelligible words or accurate sounds, you will detect what language is being used. How is this
possible? It may be a question of rhythm.

Compare Bens quite fat now, Benny is very heavy at present, and Benjamin is particularly corpulent presently.
These three sentences are definitely different in size but similar in duration (i.e. time).

1st FOOT 2nd FOOT 3rd FOOT 4th FOOT

(4 stresses / 4 syllables)
Bens Quite Fat now

(4 stresses / 10 syllables)
Benny is very Heavy at Present

(4 stresses / 15 syllables)
Benjamin is par ticularly corpulent presently

How can this be possible? Although this is not scientifically accurate, for teaching purposes we say that English rhythm
tends to be isochronous .`H!rPjq?m?r., that is, beats tend to happen in a regular way. All the unstressed syllables in a
foot can be crammed together because they generally contain weak vowels.

? H h9 d z @9
P N9 t9 U
h `H dH NH
T H? d? T?
t ?T `T

1. Weak vowels can only occur in weak, unstressed syllables:


a. E.g. Benjamin .!admcY?lHm., carry .!jzqh., into .!Hmst+ !Hms?..
b. Sometimes .?. may even be dropped: apple .!zok., listen .!kHrm..

2. .H+ T.belong to both groups. They can occur either in stressed or unstressed syllables.
a. Stressed: book .!aTj., sit .!rHs., look .!kTj., win .!vHm., wood .!vTc..
b. Unstressed: catching .!jzsRHM., added .!zcHc., strongest .!rsqPMfHrs..
c. Sometimes .?. can replace them:
Particular .o?!sHjiTk?+ o?!sHji?k?. Endless .!dmckHr+ !dmck?r.

3. Strong vowels: they are obligatory in stressed syllables. They can also be found in some unstressed
syllables.
a. Stressed: time .!s`Hl., dollar .!cPk?., pronunciation .oq?$mUmrh!dHRm..
b. Unstressed: activity .zj!sHu?sh., context .!jPmsdjrs., dialogue .!c`H?kPf..
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Sentence Stress

In their citation form, every word has a lexical stress or more. However, when they
occur in context some of them are not stressed at all and may even take a
weak vowel (i.e. .?+ h+ t+ H+ T.). It is convenient to think that there are two
classes of words: those that carry more meaning and those whose function
is more grammatical and less loaded with information. Imagine that you
get these two text messages: which is the more informative?

The second message, though ungrammatical, is meaningful. If we assemble the two


messages together and read the text aloud, we can see that those
meaningful words retain their stress.

We need some cash


for the new phone

Content or Lexical Function or Grammar


- More information W - Less information
- Keep their stress - Unstressed (if
O monosyllabic)
NAVA:
R CAPPA:
Nouns
Conjunctions
Adjectives
Verbs D Auxiliaries
Pronoun
Adverbs S Prepositions
Articles

1. Read this conversation. Underline all the content words.


ROB: I was sure I that I had my licence with me...
SAM: I can help you look for it. When did you see it last?
ROB: Not for some days. I have been driving very little. There is a lot of traffic, so I try not
to drive into town.
SAM: I see. Do you take a bus or the tube?
ROB: Either. I think that public transport is better for the environment... and cheaper
than a car park!

2. Look at these highlighted words from the text and choose the correct alternative:
a. Was in line 1 rhymes with: Oz fuzz neither.
b. Can in line 2 rhymes with: man American bun barn.
c. For in line 3 rhymes with: four chauffeur neither.
d. That in line 6 rhymes with: Albert hat heart.
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Word Stress
Due to rhythmical reasons, the vowels in Spanish and English words behave in a different way. Thus, it is important for
Spanish speakers to focus on some strong tendencies which will better their performance in English. Let us compare
the Spanish word entretenido and its English counterpart entertaining. In Spanish, the stress pattern is

Entretenido Zdms3dsd!mhCn\
The English pattern is quite different. There is a very strong syllable before the primary stress which should not be
overlooked. A stress, be it primary or secondary, requires a strong vowel.

Entertaining Z$dms?!sdHmHM\ (not *Z?ms?!sdHmHM\)

The Teutonic Rule


The Teutonic Rule asks for an obligatory stress in either the first or the second syllable, i.e., there cannot be
two initial unstressed syllables in English. This is challenging for Spanish speakers, whose language allows
several unstressed initial syllables.

Garden .!f@9cm. Person .!o29rm. Using .!it9yHM.

Believe .aH!kh9u. Decide .cH!r`Hc. Result .qH!yUks.

What happens with longer words? First of all, spot the primary stress. If it is neither on the first or second
syllable, we need to find the secondary stress. The next two rules come to our rescue!

The Rule of Alternation


The Rule of Alternation comes in handy at this stage. It can help the learner to predict the stressed syllables in a
polysyllabic word. There is a strong tendency to alternate strong and weak syllables, so if the primary stress
falls on the third syllable, the first one is likely to bear a secondary stress. Conversely, if the primary stress falls on the
fourth syllable, it is the second one that is likely to carry the secondary stress. Be on the alert: there are several
exceptions!

University .$it9mH!u29r?sh. Conversation .$jPmu?!rdHRm.


Adolescence .$zc?k!drmr. Demonstration .$cdl?m!rsqdHRm.
Pronunciation .oq?$mUmrh!dHRm. Abbreviation .?$aqh9uh!dHRm.
Enthusiastic .Hm$Sit9yh!zrsHj. Evaluation .H$uzkt!dHRm.

The Rule of Derivation


The Rule of Derivation can help you spot the secondary stress of a word. Many English words are derived from other
words. If the primary stress is moved more than one syllable when an affix is added, the stressed syllable in the
original word may be likely to become a secondary stress:

Pronounce .oq?!m`Tmr. Pronunciation .oq?$mUmrh!dHRm.


Generous .!cYdmq?r. Generosity .$cYdm?!qPr?sh.
12 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Spelling & Pronunciation

1. Basic Vowel Pattern: (Consonant) + Vowel + Consonant


Monosyllabic words that are formed by one vowel letter sandwiched by one or more consonants generally
take a short vowel sound.

BASIC VOWEL PATTERN: (CC)VC(C)


<a> = .z. <e> = .d. <i> = .H. <o> = .P. <u> = .T. <u> = .U.
add egg it on up
cat met sit lot put bus

At the edges:
o Several consonant letters may stand for just one consonant sound
Nick .!mHj. chop .!sRPo. knit .!mHs. puff .!oUe.

o There may be several consonant sounds together


moths .!lPSr. strong .!rsqPM. grip .!fqHo. clan .!jkzm.

Exceptions: these are normally a small group of common every-day words that got fossilized
in the language. E.g.:
most .!l?Trs. ghost .!f?Trs. kind.!j`Hmc. mind.!l`Hmc.
wont .!v?Tms. dont .!c?Tms. bath .!a@9S. cant .!j@9ms.

2. Ending Modifiers that make the previous vowel letter say its name
a. Silent <e>

When silent <e> is added at the end of a one-syllable word that ends in a single consonant, the vowel
letter in the middle tends to say its own name.

SILENT <-e>
<a> = .z = dH. <e> = .d = h9. <i> = .H = `H. <o> = .P =?T. <u> = .T+ U ='i(t9.
cut cute
hat hate pet Pete sit site hop hope
duck duke

Exceptions: these are normally a small group of common every-day words that got fossilized
in the language. E.g.:
<-ve> have .g?u+ !gzu. live .!kHu. love .!kUu.
<-me> some .r?l+ !rUl. come .!jUl.
<-ne> none .!mUm. gone .!fPm.
13 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

b. Magic <-y>
When <y> is added at the end of a one-syllable word ending in a single consonant letter, the vowel in the
middle tends to say its own name.

MAGIC <-y>
<a> = .z = dH. <e> = .d = h9. <i> = .H = `H. <o> = .P =?T. <u> = .T+ U ='i(t9.
lad lady Ken key tin tiny pot pony duck duty

c. Final <-le>
When <le> is added at the end of a one-syllable word ending in a single consonant letter, the vowel in the
middle tends to say its own name. This does not apply to medial letter <e>.

FINAL <-le>
<a> = .z = dH. <i> = .H = `H. <o> = .P =?T. <u> = .T+ U ='i(t9.
cab cable till tile pot pole run rule

3. Double consonant letters


Consonant letters are normally doubled to keep a short vowel. In other words, the occurrence of
diphthongs and long vowels tends to be blocked by these double letters. Compare:
write .!q`Hs. writing .!q`HsHM. wrote .!q?Ts. written .!qHsm.

DOUBLE CONSONANTS
Silent <-e> Magic <-y> Final <-le>
Long Blocked Long Blocked Long Blocked
<a> = .z+ dH. later latter lady daddy table apple
<e> = .d+ h9. Pete getting key Benny --- ---
<i> = .H+ `H. site sitting tiny tinny idle middle
<o> = .P+ ?T. hope hopping Toby dolly noble wobble
<u> = .T+ U+ 'i(t9. cute cutting duly dully mule juggle

Note: Words ending in <oll> in their base form take .?T.. For example:
poll .!o?Tk. polling .!o?TkHM.
roll .!q?Tk. rolling .!q?TkHM.
stroll .!rsq?Tk. strolling .!rsq?TkHM.
toll .!s?Tk. tolling .!s?TkHM.















14 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

4. Internal modifiers
a. Radical <r>
A post-vocalic <r> letter indicates that the vowel sound is longer or more open. This occurs in monosyllabic
words and in the stressed syllable of longer words, too. Final <-re> may also result in a centring diphthong
(i.e. .H?+ d?+ T?.).

RADICAL <r>
Basic Vowel Pattern Monosyllable Polysyllable <-re>
<a> = .z = @9+ d?. cat cart remark care
<e> = .d = 29+ d?. gem germ German there
<i> = .H = 29+ `H?. fit firm confirm fire
<o> = .P = N9. pot port imported pore
<u> = .T+ U = 29+ T?. run turn disturbing pure

Note: This rule does not work either when the letter is doubled or when it is between two vowel sounds
within the base form.

marry .!lzqh. sorry .!rPqh. very .!udqh. curry .!jUqh.

Paris .!ozqHr. harry .!gzqh. berry .!adqh. mirror .!lHq?.

b. Troublesome <w>
The quality of letters <a, e, o> is distorted when they are followed by <w>.

FINAL TROUBLESOME <w>


Basic Vowel Pattern Monosyllable Polysyllable
<a> = .z., <aw> = .N9. pat paw withdraw
<e> = .d., <ew> = .'i(t9. net new renewed
<ow> = .`T. cot cow allowed
<o> = .P.,
<ow> = .?T. cot flow fellow

The quality of <a> and <o> changes when they are preceded by <w>.

INITIAL TROUBLESOME <w>


Basic Vowel Pattern Monosyllable Polysyllable
<wa> = .N9. bad war award
<a> = .z.,
<wa> = .P. match watch wallet
<o> = .P., <wo> = .29. loss worse working
15 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

5. Two vowels together: the first says its name


Although these patterns are highly inconsistent, there is a tendency: when there are two vowel letters
together, many times the first that came says its name.

THE FIRST VOWEL LET TER SAYS ITS NAME


Spelling Examples
<ai> .dH. Complain rain raid
<ea> .h9. Bean team reason
<ee> .h9. See glee feel
<ei> .h9. Ceiling seize
<ie> .`H. Replied die
<oa> .?T. Goat load
<ou> .?T. Soul shoulder
<ui> .'i(t9. Fruit nuisance
Common exceptions
<oo> .t9. Fool moon
<oo> .T. Good book
<oi, oy> .NH. Toy boil
<au> .N9. Daughter fraud

6. Consonants
The relationship between the spelling and pronunciation of consonants is much more straightforward than
the behaviour of vowels.
a. The following letters always stand for the same phoneme, even if they are doubled:
<b, bb> .a.: Ben, lab, bobby, pebble
<d, dd> .c.: Dan, daddy, fuddy-duddy
<f, ff> .e.: Frank, cufflinks, puff
<h> .g.: hand, heart, hard
<j> .cY.: jam, major, juice
<k> .j.: kit, bike, Nike
<l, ll> .k.: lot, ball, allotted, rolling
<m, mm> .l.: more, humble, from, immediate
<n, nn> .m.: nice, then, thinner, beginning
<v, vv> .u.: vice, Eve, savvy
<z, zz> .y.: zoo, zebra, buzzing, fizzy
b. <ph> .e.: Phillips, phonetics, photograph
c. <sh> .R.: she, show, marsh
d. <ch>
.sR.: chin, much, arch
.j.: architect, character, headache
.R.: chef, champagne, Chicago
e. <gh>
Silent: high, weigh, eight, night
.e.: enough, rough, cough
f. <th>
.S.
o Words ending in <-th>: bath, cloth, math (BUT with)
o Most content words beginning in <th->: theme, theatre, throw
16 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

.C.
o Grammar words beginning with <th->: they, this, that, etc (BUT though)
o Content words ending in <-the(r)>: bathe, breathe, bother
g. <c>
.j. <c> + consonant: act, buckle, mediocre
.j. <c> + <a, o, u>: camera, cut, come
.r. <c> + <e, i, y>: cinema, century, cycle
.jr. <cc>: accident, success
.R.<-cious, -cial>: delicious, precious, special, glacial
h. <g>
.f. <ga, go, gu>, <gg>: gate, go, gun, bigger, leggings
.cY. <ge, gi, gy>: gem, engine, gym (BUT girl, get, give, begin, tiger, finger,
etc.)
i. <qu> is generally:
.jv. at the beginning or middle of a word: question, square, liquid
.j. in silent <-e> endings <-que>: antique, unique
j. <s> is very unstable. See .r. or .y.? The eternal nightmare! in the set of notes.
k. <t>
.s. generally: lot, talk, bottom
.sR?. in the ending <-ture>: picture, future, torture
.R. in the endings <-tious, -tion, -tial>: ambitious, information, initial
l. <x>
.jr. + unstressed vowel: Mexico, maximum
.jr. + consonant or final: extra, excellent, sex, mix
.fy. + stressed vowel: exam, exist
.y. when initial in the word: xenophobic, Xavier, Xerox
m. <y>
.i. at the beginning of a word: yes, young, yacht
.H. internally in a word: gym, myth, rhythm
At the end of words:
o .h. in final unstressed position: city, busy, family
o .`H. in monosyllables: my, sty, fly, why, try
o .`H. under the effect of silent <-e> or radical <r>: rhyme, type, tyre
o .`H. when stressed: July, apply, deny
o .`H. in the ending <-fy>: justify, clarify, modify

Adapted from:
Fitzpatrick, F. (1995) A teachers guide to practical pronunciation. London: Prentice Hall
17 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Basic Vowel Pattern (C)(C) V C (C) (C)


Short vowel Mends .!'l(dm'cy(.
sound Double consonants
Latter .z. (Cf. Later .dH.)
Silent <-e>
Pete .h9. (Cf. pet .d.)
Vowel says its Magic <y>
Tendencies name Tony .?T. (Cf. Johnny .P.)
Two vowel letters
rain .dH., team .h9., goat .?T.
Radical <r>
cart .@9. (Cf. cat .z.)
he .gh'9(. (Cf. here .H?.)

Fossilized & frequent words


Exceptions (e.g. have, come, love)
18 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Contractions

Auxiliary + Negative Adv. Pronoun + Auxiliary


Arent .!@9ms. AM Im .`Hl.
Cant .!j@9ms. Hes .ghy.
Couldnt .!jTcms. Heres .gH?y.
Darent .!cd?ms. Hows .g`Ty.
Didnt .!cHcms. IS Its .Hsr.
Doesnt .!cUyms. Shes .Rhy.
Dont .!c?Tms. Thats .Czsr.
Hadnt .!gzcms. Theres .C?y+ !Cd?y.
Hasnt .!gzyms. HAS Whats .vPsr.
Havent .!gzums. Whens .vdmy.
Isnt .!Hyms. Wheres .vd?y.
Maynt .!ldHms+ !ldH?ms. Whos .gty+ !gt9y.
Mightnt .!l`Hsms. Theyre .Cd?.
Mustnt .!lUrms. Were .vH?.
ARE
Neednt .!mh9cms. Whore .gt?+ !gt9?.
Oughtnt .!N9sms. Youre .iN9.
Shant .!R@9ms. Ive .`Hu.
Shouldnt .!RTcms. Thereve .C?u.
Wasnt .!vPyms. HAVE Weve .vhu.
Werent .!v29ms. Whove .gtu+ !gt9u.
Wont .!v?Tms. Youve .itu.
Wouldnt .!vTcms. Hed .ghc.
Id .`Hc.
Itd .Hs?c.
Remember! HAD
Shed .Rhc.
1. Weak contractions become strong when they
are stressed: Thatd .!Czs?c.
Shes nice, not you... (Contrast) Thered .C?c.
.!Rh9y !m`Hr { !mPs !it9. WOULD Theyd .CdHc.
Youll forget, but we wont. (Contrast) Wed .vhc.
.!it9k e?!fds { a?s !vh9 !v?Tms. Whod .gtc+ !gt9c.
Theres Pam (Strong Locative) Youd .itc.
.!Cd?y !ozl. Hell .ghk.
Theres a fly in my soup. (Existential) .`Hk.
Ill
.C?y ? !ek`H Hm l`H !rt9o.
Shell .Rhk.
2. Negative contractions are strong because they WILL Thatll .!Czsk.
contain a content word, the adverb not. Theyll .CdHk+ Cd?k.
3. Notice the vowels in the following words: Well .vhk.
.?T. in dont and wont (BVP exception) SHALL Whatll .!vPsk.
.@9. in cant & shant (BVP exception) Youll .itk.
.H?.in were Wholl .gtk+ !gt9k.
.d?. in theyre .C?k.
Therell
.N9. in youre

Adapted from Avendao Ziga, A. &Ortz Lira, H. (1998). Practical English phonetics. Santiago de Chile: UMSE.
19 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Strong & Weak Forms


Remember that the strong forms of the following words are used only under exceptional circumstances. Italics
indicate that a sound may be optional.

Auxiliaries & Verb to be


Weak Form Strong Form Conjunctions
Am /m .?l+ l. .zl. Weak Form Strong Form
Are/ re .?. .@9. And .?m'c(. .zm'c(.
Be .ah. .ah9. As .?y. .zy.
Been .ah9m+ aHm. But .a?s. .aUs.
Can .j'?(m. .jzm. Than .C'?(m. .Czm.
Could .j?c+ jTc. .jTc. That .C?s. .Czs.
.c?.+Consonant Prepositions
Do .ct9. Weak Form Strong Form
.ct.+Vowel
At .?s. .zs.
Does .c?y. .cUy.
For .e?. .eN9.
Had/ d .'g(?c+ c. .gzc.
.'g(?y+ r+ y. .gzy. From .eq'?(l. .eqPl.
Has/ s
.'g(?u+ u. .gzu. Of .?u. .Pu.
Have/ ve
Is /s .Hy+ r+ y. .Hy. .s?.+Consonant
To .st9.
Must .l?rs. .lUrs. .st. + Vowel
Shall .R'?(k. .Rzk. Others
Should .R?c+ RTc. .RTc. Weak Form Strong Form
Was .v?y. .vPy. There .C?. .Cd?.
Were /re .v?. .v29. Some .r'?(l. .rUl.
Will/ ll .vHk+ v'?(k+ k. .vHk.
Would .v?c+ vTc. .vTc.

Personal Pronouns Possessive Adjectives


Subjective Objective
Weak Form Strong Form Weak Form Strong Form Weak Form Strong Form
I .`H. Me .lh. .lh9. My .l`H.
You .it. .it9. You .it. .it9. Your .iN9.
He .'g(h. .gh9. Him .'g(Hl. .gHl. His .'g(Hy. .gHy.
She .Rh. .Rh9. Her .'g(?. .g29. Her .'g(?. .g29.
It .Hs. It .Hs. Its .Hsr.
We .vh. .vh9. Us .?r. .Ur. Our .`'T(?+ @9.
They .CdH. Them .C'?(l. .Cdl. Their .Cd?.

Articles
Indefinite Definite
Weak Form Strong Form Weak Form Strong Form
A .?. .dH. .Ch.+Vowel
The .Ch9.
An .?m. .zm. .C?.+Consonant
20 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

SUPREME RULE: Reasons for the use of strro


ong forms
PROMINENCE: 1. CITATION:
Any word can be Well discuss
di the weak forms of THE. .vhk cH!rjUr C? !vh9jeN9ly ?u !Ch9.
.vhk cH!rjUr C? !vh9jeN9ly ?u !
highlighted in the Lets analyse
an the uses of CAN. .!kdsr !zm?k`Hy C? !it9rHy ?u !jzm
jzm.
utterance by 2. EMPHASIS:
stressing it. Phonetics
ics is THE subject. .e?!mdsHjr Hy !Ch9 !rUacYHjs.
We MUST meet soon. .vh !lUrs !lh9s !rt9m.
Please do transcribe REGularly. .!okh9y !ct9 sqzm!rjq`Ha !qdfi?k?kh.
i?k?kh.

3. STYLISTIC a. First word in the chunk


These are As I SAID | we should FIRE him. .?y `H !rdc
rdc { vh R?c !e`H?q Hl.
optional. The weak As I SAID | we should FIRE him. .!zy `H !rdc
rdc { vh R?c !e`H?q Hl.
form is the norm, Are they HERE? .? CdH !gH?.
but the strong Are they HERE? .!@9 CdH !gH?.

form is possible,
b. Buttressing or Rhythmic Strengthening
too. Preposition + pronoun
I asked QUEStions of her. .`H !@9rs !jvdrsRmy ?u ?.
sRmy ?u ?.
I asked QUEStions of her. .`H !@9rs !jvdrsRmy !Pu ?.
sRmy !Pu ?.
Pronoun + preposition + pronoun
Weve COOKED them for her. .vhu !jTjs C C?l e?q ?.
Weve COOKED them for her. .vhu !jTjs C C?l eN9q ?.

4. CONTRAST: X not Y elements of the same set


Explicit:
He was talking to US, not to THEM. .gh v?r !sN9jHM st !Ur { !mPs s? !
{ !mPs s? !Cdl.
Implicit:
I want to marry YOU (not your mother). .`H !vPms s? !lzqh !it9..
Short questioon
ns and answers (contrast on polarity):
A: WAS it? B: Yes, it WAS. .!vPy Hs {{ !idr Hs !vPy.

5. HEAVY SEMANTIC WEIGHT:


Negative contractions:
You werent
were inVITed. .it !v29ms Hm!u`HsHc.
Main verbs do & have:
Well do the HOMEwork. .vhk !ct9 C? !g?Tlv29j.
We could have some COFfee. .vh j?c !gzu r?l !jPeh.
Causative have:
Shes had her HOUSE painted. .Rhy !gzc g? !g`Tr !odHmsHc.
Obligation have to:
He has to attend
at CLASses. .gh !gzy st ?!sdmc !jk@9rHy.


SYNTACTIC GAP: 1. AUXILIARIES & PREPOSITIONS: syntactic movement
STRANDING1 I wonder where they ARE (, Dan). .`H !vUmc? !vd? CdH !@9 '!czm(.
Strong, regardless What Im THINKing
THINK of is a SECret. .vPs `Hl !SHMjHM Pu { Hy ? !rh9jq?s.
of whether they What are you LOOKing at(, Pam)? .!vPs ? it !kTjHM zs '!ozl(.
are stressed or not. 2. AUXILIARIES: ellipsis
A: Who can get this SATurday off?
B: YOU can, if you finish your rePORT. .!it9 jzm{ He it !eHmHR iN9 qH!oN9s.

Notice:

Syllables in bold are stressed.


Each NUCLEUS is underlined and in bold capitals in the orthographic version. They are in bold in the transcriptions, too.
1.
Stranding A term used in some grammars to refer to an element which is left unattached after it has been moved out of a
construction,, or after the rest of the construction has been moved. Crystal, D. (2008). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics.
Blackwell: Oxford.
2.
Buttressing means strengthening. . Speakers may strengthen the preposition so as not to create contrast by stressing the
pronoun.
21 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Buttressing
In unemphatic sentences, the nucleus should go on the last lexical item (normally a noun or a verb). The speaker
can choose to keep the final preposition and pronoun in their weak form. Without changing the meaning of the
utterance, the speaker can also choose to apply buttressing .!aUsq?rHM. (i.e.
(i.e. to strengthen the preposition).
preposi If the
preposition is buttressed, its strong form should be used.
E.g. a. Ive been WAITing ing for you. .`Hu aHm !vdHsHM e? it. No No buttressing

b. Ive been WAITing


ing for you. .`Hu aHm !vdHsHM /eN9 it. Buttressing
Buttressing

If the pronoun gets stressed, then the sentence becomes contrastive. This is possible only if the context
requires a contrast. We have got to fight the Spanish tendency of stressing the last word so as not to
create unnecessary contrasts, which may confuse the listener.
E.g. Ive been waitinging for YOU. Contrastive: not her .`Hu aHm !vdHsHM e? !it9.
.`Hu aHm !vdHsHM e? !it9.

Practise!
Read out these sentences. You should be able to read them with and without buttressing. Pay special attention not to
change the nucleus!
Preposition + Pronoun
No buttressing Buttressing
1. What was Ben DOing in that picture?
pic a. He was LOOKing at you. He was LOOKing at you.

b.He was TALKing to her. He was TALKing to her.

c. He was SCREAMing at them He was SCREAMing at them

2. What about Shawns eXAM? a. Hes reVISing for it. Hes reVISing
re for it.

b.Hes having a GO at it. Hes having a GO at it.

c. Hes setting his MIND to it. Hes setting his MIND to it.

Pronoun + Preposition + Pronoun


No buttressing Buttressing
3. What about these SCONES? a. Shes BROUGHT them for you. Shes BROUGHT them for you.

b.Marys COOKed them for me. ys COOKed them for me.


Marys

4. What shall I do with this BALL? a. GIVE it to me. GIVE it to me.

b.THROW it at them THROW it at them

5. What did Fiona do with the rePORT


PORT? a. She corRRECTed it for me. She corRRECTed
cor it for me.

b.She MAILED it to them. She MAILED it to them.

6. What did Robby say about the BOX?


BOX a. He ASKED me for it. He ASKED me for it.

b.He SENT you for it. He SENT you for it.


22 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Spanish with an English Touch!


Read these sentences. Try to say them as if you were English. You
need to put on a funny British accent. If these sentences sound funny,
then you have are using proper English sounds. Be ready to lose
face in front of your mates!

Vowels:

.h. Lili: S, s. Vi mi mini biquini. Y si insists?


.d. En el verde csped del edn, clebre sede de creyentes, Pepe se estremece.
.`. La barra brava va para la cancha. Las caras marcadas Batalla Campal!
.n. Coco tost los ocho pollos; los coloc con los mondongos. Horroroso!
.t. Lul: tu tut azul usualmente usurpa mi lugar. Ufa!

Dipththongs:

La ley no es muy clara. Hoy hay reuniones que causan pleitos. Qu hacemos?.

Consonants:

.o. Pepe Pompn propuso poner precio a los puestos de la plaza del puerto.
.a. Cambiate, Vivi. Tu abu acababa de bajar del noveno, se resbal y se abri el bocho, la vieja.
.s. Te tomaste un taxi? Cunta plata te gastaste? Trataste de venirte en tren o subte?
.c. Aldo, cundo diste educacin ciudadana? Dec la verdad, dale. De tarado no tengo nada!
.j. Cada cul con su cada quin. Coca, a caso te crees que Carlos se come cualquiera?
.f. Gus, alguien te agarr algn da con ganas de gritarle algo grosero? Yo ya no me aguanto.
.sR. Che, Chuchi, te enchufaron un chamullo! Te achanchaste, y chas! Te echaron al tacho.
.e. Fede y Fer al fin fueron a Formosa. Los flacos firmes y les dieron los francos.
.r. Susana es fiel a sus creencias, Juan. Le es un suplicio estudiar esos temas, ya.
.R. Ayer Yoly se llev mis llaves de la joyera y yo en la lluvia esperaba que ella llegara.
.w. Juanjo y ngel juegan en el jardn. Juanjo se queja y gime si ngel lo joroba.
.q. Pilar es enfermera y trabaja en Cabrera. Cree ser una gran mujer en su laburo.
.qq. Roco es re rara y burra. Se re y me revienta. La aborrezco, realmente. Me da rabia.
.i. De sabio tiene bien poco. De necio siempre pienso que tiene hasta los dientes.
.v. Bueno. Que muevan cielo y tierra. Cueste lo que cueste consganme ese huevo, huachos!
.k. El molde del toldo se rompi de vuelta. La lona es de mala calidad.
.l. Miriam es muy mala. En cambio, sus amigas son muy gamba. Ambas son bien monas.
.m. Son o se hacen? En dnde se vieron hombres tan necios, Romn? Los entends?
23 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

English

Intonation
24 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Unit 1: Introduction

Contents:

Stress: word stress and stress in context. Compound words. Stress shift.
The influence of stress on weak and strong syllables as well as weak and strong forms.
The three Ts: tonality, tonicity and tone
The School of London and the School of Birmingham
25 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Class 1
1. Pre-listening:
a. Read the text. Whats it about?
b. Focus on the syntax. Imagine you had to use this dialogue in one of your classes: what level would
be suitable?
c. Focus on the lexis. Do you still agree with your previous answer?

2. Listen (Track 1)

Busy in the kitchen

Billy: Mummy, you busy?

Mother: Yes! Im in the kitchen.

Billy: Can I go swimming in Chichester with Jim this morning?

Mother: Jim?

Billy: Jim English. Hes living with Mr. and Mrs. Willis in the village Spring
Cottage.

Mother: Isnt it a bit chilly to go swimming?

Billy: Whats this? Can I pinch a bit of it?

Mother: Oh, Billy, you little pig! Its figgy pudding. Get your fingers out of it!

Billy: Women are so silly! I only dipped a little finger in

Mother: Well, its a filthy little finger. Here. Tip this chicken skin into the bin and Ill
give you a biscuit.

Ponsonbi, M. (1987). How now brown cow? Cambridge: Prentice Hall International. Page 71.

3. Post-listening
a. Would you still use it in the class you mentioned above? Why?
b. What phonological features in the text can be exploited in a language class?
26 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Segmental analysis
1. Weak and strong forms
2. Weak and strong syllables
3. Weak and strong vowels

4. Difficult contrasts for Riverplate Spanish speakers:


a. Production vs. distribution problems
b. Onglide/offglide
c. KIT .H. vs. FLEECE .h9.
d. TRAP .z. vs. STRUT .U. vs. BATH .@9.
e. LOT .P. vs. THOUGHT .N9.
f. FOOT .T. vs. GOOSE .t9.
g. DRESS .d. vs. NURSE .29.
h. .o+ s+ j. (aspiration and devoicing of approximants)
i. .a+ c+ f. full closure
j. .cY+ R+ Y+ sR. and sequences of affricates (e.g. huge giant)
k. English alveolar Zs+ c\ vs. Spanish dental Zs+ c\
l. .c+ C.
m. .a+ u.
n. .M. + vowel
o. Consonant clusters
p. Keeping final consonants

5. Allophones and connected speech processes


a. Full aspiration and lack of aspiration
b. Devoicing of approximants .k+ q+ v+ i.
c. Devoicing of obstruents
d. Pre-fortis clipping
e. Masked plosives
i. No audible release/Unreleased
ii. Lateral release
iii. Nasal release
f. Clear and dark .k.
g. Dentalization
h. The glottal stop
i. Elision
j. Assimilation
k. Linking (and intrusive) .q.
27 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Suprasegmental analysis
1. Word stress:
Find examples of these patterns: ( unstressed vs. stressed syllable)

2. Compound words
Find examples in the dialogue: ____________________________________________

3. Sentence accent (Track 2)

Listen:

Nucleus: 1. Here 2. Mummy

Onset + Nucleus 1. Whats this? 2. Busy in the kitchen.

4. Accent vs. stress (Track 2)

I only dipped a little finger in

5. Information and intonation (Track 2)


a. Chunking

Hes living with Mr and Mrs Willis in the village Spring Cottage

b. Prominence: nucleus placement

Billy: Whats this? Can I pinch a bit of it?

Mother: Oh, Billy, you little pig! Its figgy pudding. Get your fingers out of it!

Billy: Women are so silly! I only dipped a little finger in

Mother: Well, its a filthy little finger.

c. Tone

Billy: Can I go swimming in Chichester (with Jim this morning?)

Mother: Isnt it a bit chilly to go swimming?


28 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

KEY: Busy in the kitchen

1aHyh Hm C? 99jHsRm

8aHkh {{ rlUlh { it raHyh {{

8lUC? {{ 7idr {{ `Hl 1Hm C? 7jHsRHm {{

8aHkh {{ j?m 1`H f?T arvHlHM Hm 8sRHsRHrs? { vHC tcYHl CHr dlN9mHM {{

8lUC? {{ rcYHl {{

8aHkh {{ 2cYHl 7HMfkHR {{ ghy 2kHuHM vHC 1lHrs?q ?l alHrHy 8vHkHr {{ Hm C? 8uHkHcY {{ 1roqHM

8jPsHcY {{

8lUC? {{ 1Hyms Hs ? aaHs 8sRHkh { s? 2f?T qrvHlHM {{

8aHkh {{ 1vPsr 8CHr {{ j?m 1`H woHmsR ? aaHs ?u Hs {{

8lUC? {{ 1?T 8aHkh {{ it 1kHsk 8oHf {{ Hsr 1eHfh 8oTcHM {{ 1fdsRN9 8eHMf?y d`Ts ?u Hs {{

8aHkh {{ 3vHlHm ? 1r?T 8rHkh {{ `H ?Tmkh acHos ? rkHsk deHMf?q Hm {{

8lUC? {{ vdk Hsr ? 7eHkSh dkHsk deHMf? {{ 8gH? {{ sHo CHr tsRHj?m rjHm { rHms? C? daHm { ?m `Hk 2fHu it
? 9aHrjHs {{
29 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

A Top-Down Approach

Reflect...
What can you remember about your previous courses in pronunciation?
What kind of connections have you made between sounds and intonation?
Can these two areas be separated from each other?

Although students in Argentina are normally introduced to sounds first and intonation later, this does not
mean that they are separate entities. To be more precise, it can be argued that sounds and intonation are
more than just the two sides of a coin. According to Dalton & Seidlhofer (1994, 70)
in the top-down approach, the assumption is that once the prosodic features of pronunciation are in
place, the necessary segmental discriminations will follow of their own accord. This view is consistent
with a more communicative perspective in language teaching, in that it focuses on how speakers
achieve meaning in discourse.

It is not surprising that David Brazil (1994), whose main focus was placed on the communicative value of
intonation, shares this view. In the following sections the model presented goes along these lines. It may be
possible to approach a text globally and from this macro-picture start uncovering the building blocks that
hold all the pieces together. This is a metaphoric way of introducing a top-down approach.

Suppose you are an official at a Space Centre who is talking to a colleague about a recent launch. Read out
the following dialogue and imagine what it would sound like:

A: There was a launch. Were you free to watch it?


B: I have never missed one.
A: What did you think of the European space shuttle?
B: It was fabulous! Especially as it took off.
(adapted from Dickerson 1989, p. 32)
30 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Lets explore this text!

Reflect

To start with, you need to think about what words deserve to be stressed. For instance, do all the words in
the sentence there was a launch contribute to its meaning in the same way? Why?

Speakers and listeners of a particular language share a code. They are able to understand each
other because they share the way in which they approach an oral text. In other words, an English
speaker will pronounce in a clear way the cues that he or she thinks the listener will need to
successfully interpret the message. English speakers highlight certain syllables of their message by
means of stress: these are the syllables that English listeners need to reconstruct the content of
the message. Communication is effective when the listeners needs are matched by the cues the
speaker has made explicit in their message.

In there was a launch, the only relevant syllable is launch, therefore this is the only stressed
syllable. This stressed syllable constitutes a whole word, in this case a noun. The remaining
syllables are unstressed as they play a less relevant role in the meaning-cline. This very short
sentence is useful to illustrate how English speakers unconsciously use phonetics to deal with
meaning: content words tend to be highlighted, while grammar words tend to be backgrounded.
What is more, it is the stressed syllables of content words that get highlighted!

Stop!

Activity 1:

Before carrying on, go back to the conversation above and identify the content words in it. Provide
the category of each content word. The answers are to be found in the following section.
31 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Stress: content words vs. grammar words

As stated in the previous section, speakers highlight elements in speech by means of stress. From
a semantic point of view, it is clear that since content words normally contribute to the meaning in
a message, these are the items that should carry stress. However, from a phonetic point of view,
stress is not a property of words but of syllables. Therefore, the stressed syllables in content
words are the elements that get highlighted. It is interesting to note here that:

The verb to be is semantically empty, so it behaves like a grammar word.


Some grammatical words are likely to be stressed because they are heavily loaded with
meaning, such as the interrogative pronouns (i.e. question words) and, at times,
demonstrative pronouns.
Some content words have more than one stressed syllable.
Some lexical items are made up of more than one word (e.g. compound nouns, phrasal
verbs, etc.).

noun adjective verb

A: There was a launch. Were you free to watch it?

adverb verb

B: I have never missed one.

verb adjective compound noun

A: What did you think of the European space shuttle?

adjective adverb phrasal verb

B: It was fabulous! Especially as it took off.


32 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

English speakers and listeners rely on stress to decipher what is relevant in a message. If we read
between the lines, we can also understand that they need something else to decipher the
message: the absence of stress,
stress which marks what elements are not burdened
rdened with meaning
because they are easily recoverable, or because they are grammatical elements used just to hold
the text together. The alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables is semantically powerful
and its phonetic correlate is rhythm.
rhythm Lets analyse the rhythm structure of this conversation. The
stress mark [!] will be used to represent a rhythmic stress in the orthographic tier. A big dot will
represent a stressed syllable and a small dot an unstressed syllable in the rhythm tier above the
text.

Activity 2 Track 3:
Listen to the recorded text. Notice that the strong beats are clearly enunciated, while the
unstressed syllables are less loud and quickly articulated. After listening to it several times, copy
the audio and try to keep the same pace.

Notice!
Traditionally, English rhythm was thought to be isochronous (i.e. beats occur at regular intervals of
time). Although modern research has proved this wrong, the idea is still widely used in teaching.
You should focus on reducing unstressed syllables as much as possible and cram them together in
between the beats.
33 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Stress vs. accent


Once the stresses in each intonation phrase have been located, one finer distinction needs to be
made. Although all stresses contribute to the rhythm in the phrase and tend to be related to its
meaning, every phrase must have one and only one obligatory accent called nucleus. In contrast,
there may also be another accent called onset, but this is not essential.

Stress is a property of some syllables that makes them more prominent than others; the listener
perceives this prominence mainly in terms of loudness. An accented syllable should not only be
stressed, but it should also show some pitch change: there may be a pitch jump (as is the normally
the case in the onset syllable) or a glide that initiates a major pitch movement (as is normally the
case in the nuclear syllable). The nucleus is normally located on the last new lexical item. The
onset, if present, tends to occur on the first lexical item. Again, it is relevant to remember that
semantically speaking, the meaning of the nucleus and onset is related to the word in which they
are hosted; phonetically, however, the onset and nucleus are syllables. At this stage, the onset
syllable can be indicated by capitalization or the [!] mark, the nuclear syllable can be capitalized
and underlined, and finally all the remaining rhythmic stresses can be indicated by the [ ] mark.
For example: e!SPECially as it took OFF.

Notice!

Stress = Prominence (loudness + strong vowel quality / length)


Accent = Stress + Pitch
Nucleus = Last accent (generally last new lexical item)
Onset = First accent (generally first content word)

Activity 3:

Go back to the text. Decide which of the stressed syllables are likely to be onset syllables and
which nuclear syllables. Apply the notation explained above.
34 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The shape of the tone unit


The conversation that has been presented to discuss intonation is made up of four exchanges.
Some of these exchanges are in turn made up of smaller units. In this case, these units coincide
with the grammatical unit that is normally known as sentence. In the study of speech the unit of
analysis is not the sentence but the intonation phrase, also known by its more informal
denomination: chunk. There are six intonation phrases in this conversation; four of them have two
accents (an onset and the obligatory nucleus) while the remaining two lack an onset.

A: There was a LAUNCH. Were you !FREE to WATCH it?


B: I have !NEVer MISSED one.
A: !WHAT did you think of the Euro pean SPACE shuttle?
B: It was FABulous! E!SPECially as it took OFF.

By definition, the nucleus is the pitch movement initiator. In other words, there is a further choice
to be made at each nuclear syllable, that of tone. Although this topic will be tackled in further
detail in the following units, it may be useful to show how these choices are mapped on the text. A
slanted tonetic mark can be placed before each nuclear syllable to indicate the direction of the
pitch movement involved. The onset syllable normally shows a jump up in pitch, while the nuclear
syllable may show a glide. All unaccented syllables follow the movement indicated by the accent
that precedes them, if there is one: the onset defines the movement of all the syllables in the
head and the nucleus defines the movement of all the syllables in the nucleus and tail.
35 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Activity 4 Tracks 4 & 5:


Listen to track 4.. First, you will hear a whistled version of the text. Notice the prominence of every
stressed syllable. Also, focus on the pitch variations manifested by the onset and nuclear syllables.
Finally, you will a slow-tempo
tempo version (track 5). Try
ry to connect what you hear with the interlinear
notation.

Stress shift and downgrading


Although words normally have a fixed stress-pattern
stress pattern in their citation form, this pattern may vary
when these words occur in context. Due to rhythmical reasons, some of the stresses may be
downgraded: i.e. they may be sacrificed for the sake of simplicity. English tends to reject two
stresses close to each other, so one of them may go. Sometimes, a secondary stress may become
an onset and a primary stress may be downgraded
downgraded as it is quite close to the nucleus. (See Wells
2006, 5.10.) Listen to these examples:

Track 6: !Euro ean space


p space /shuttle vs. !European space
space /shuttle
36 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Segmental analysis
Once the stresses have been spotted, the phonemic treatment of a text is straightforward. After having
dealt with the sounds of English for a considerable time, you must be aware that the greatest difficulty for a
non-native
native speaker is likely to be found in
in the selection of vowels. The previous work on this text will come
in handy at this stage: stressed syllables will always select a vowel from the strong vowel system, while
unstressed syllables normally select a vowel from the weak vowel system (Wells: 2008).
20 To put it
differently, the presence of a stress, be it in the form of an accent or a mere rhythmical stress, will protect
the vowel in a syllable from obscuration, i.e., from becoming a weak vowel.

The English vowel systems: weak and strong vowel sub-systems


systems

1-.. The first intonation phrase consists of just one stressed syllable, the nucleus. The nuclear syllable is
protected, so a strong vowel must be chosen. The spelling consists of several vowels; therefore a long
vowel is likely to be used. The pre--nuclear
nuclear syllables are not protected by stress and, as a result, are weak.
These grammar words will be used in their weak form.

.C? v?y ? kN9msR.

2-.. The second phrase contains two accents. The syllables that host these accents need a strong vowel. The
word free needs a long vowel because 1) strong short vowels cannot be used in word-final
word position, 2) the
spelling <ee> is frequently mapped to .h9.. The nuclear syllable watch needs a short vowel since it is an
example of the basic vowel pattern (consonant letter + vowel letter + consonant letters).
letters) The remaining
syllables are unstressed, therefore they are weak forms. Note, however, that it may have been possible to
use the strong form of the verb to be since it is a full yes/no question.
37 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

.v? it !eqh9 s? vPsR Hs .

3-. The third intonation phrase consists of two unstressed syllables that stand for two grammar words in
their weak form, the onset syllable made up of a protected short vowel, the unprotected final syllable of
the onset word, the nuclear syllable (miss is another example of the basic vowel pattern) and an unstressed
pronoun as the tail. Note, however, that although most unstressed syllables take a weak vowel, this is not
always the case. The word one, for example, does not have a weak form.

.`H g?u !mdu? lHrs vUm.

4-. The fourth phrase is more complex than the previous ones. There are three stressed (though
unaccented) syllables in the head, i.e. between the onset and the nucleus. The word European is late-
stressed (also known as double-stressed) since the main stress does not fall on the first or second syllables.
In its citation form, the word presents the following stress pattern: .$iT?q?!oh9?m.. This is a clear example of
1) the Teutonic rule, 2) the rule of alternation and 3) the rule of derivation. As English is a Germanic
language, it is subjected to the Teutonic rule. This demands that either the first or second syllable of every
English word should be stressed. Since the primary stress in this word falls on the third syllable, there must
be a secondary stress towards the beginning. In order to locate the secondary stress, two rules come in
handy: the rule of alternation states that stresses tend to repel each other, just like magnets do.
Consequently, if the third syllable hosts the primary stress, then not the second but the first syllable should
host the secondary stress. At the same time, the rule of alternation helps to corroborate that this is so: the
primary stress of a word may become the secondary stress in derivate words (.!iT?q?o = $iT?q?!oh9?m.).

As expected, the nucleus falls on the last new lexical item, the compound word space-shuttle .!rodHr $RUsk..
This is a compound noun made up of two nouns, where the first classifies the second noun. This pattern
(N1+N2) is early stressed in approximately 80% of the cases. Although the semantic nucleus is the whole
compound word, the phonetic nucleus is the primary stress. The rhythmic stress found in shuttle follows
slavishly the pitch movement dictated by the nucleus.
38 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

As regards sounds, the words what and think take short vowels because they conform to the basic vowel
pattern. The word shuttle takes a short vowel because double letters (<tt> here) prefer short vowels to
precede them. The word space is a clear example of how final silent-<e> makes the previous vowel say its
name.

.!vPs cHc it SHMj ?u C? iT?q? oh9?m rodHr /RUsk.

5-. The fifth intonation phrase is quite simple. There is only one protected syllable, the nucleus. The first
two syllables are two weak forms and the two syllables in the tail are typical examples of weak syllables
containing unprotected vowels.

.Hs v?y ezai?k?r.

6-. The final intonation phrase is interesting since it illustrates the behaviour of phrasal verbs. They are
similar to compound words in the sense that both are treated as a single lexical item, not as two
independent words. Also, it is relevant to draw your attention to the fact that phrasal verbs need to be
closely inspected: an unwary student may think that the particle is a grammar word unworthy of the
nuclear accent. Yet, a phrasal verb is one unit that is loaded with meaning, thus deserving a stress. These
structures are typically double stressed in their citation form: the verb takes the secondary stress and the
adverbial particle the primary stress (took off .$sTj !Pe.).

.H!rodR?kh ?y Hs sTj Pe.



39 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Summary:
I
Text N
F
Intonation L
phrases U
E
Accents & stresses
N
C
Phonemes E

Stress and communication

Reflect...
How important do you think rhythm is when it comes to understanding an oral text?
How important do you think it is to be understood by a native speaker of English?
How important do you think it is to be understood by another Spanish speaker?

Here are some quotes for you to voice your ideas:


In English conversation, native-like
native like rhythm and melody are often more important to listeners
than exact vowel and consonant sounds. That is, native listeners depend heavily on your phrase
rhythm and your melody to make sense out of your message
(Dickerson 1989, Page 31, Chapter 1, Lesson 4)

When you talk with people, you want them to understand what you say. We all do. What can we
do to hold our listeners attention? One of the things we can do is to try to deliver our message
with the minimum amount of distraction. Wrong rhythm is a major distraction. Wrong rhythm
tends to divert the listeners attention away from what we are saying and attract attention to how
we are saying it. So, when you talk, an important way you can keep your listener focused
foc on what
you are saying is to use the rhythm that the listener expects. The expected rhythm does not draw
attention to itself.
(Dickerson 1989, Page 71, Chapter 2, Lesson D)

Do you think that is true? What happens in Spanish? You understand a foreigner
foreigner better if:

a. Their sounds are accurate but they make a faulty use of stress
b. Their sounds are faulty but they make an accurate use of stress
40 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

What about your listening skills? Do you understand everything that English speakers say? Is it

possible to understand everything? How do you think adult learners feel when they have to solve a
listening task? Why?

Intonation and stress in particular is a source of confusion for foreign learners of English. To cap it all,
this is not a one-way problem: learners find it very hard to understand spoken English and, in turn, their
own speech may be difficult to be understood. Crystal and Davy (1975, 8) stated that unlike grammar,
vocabulary, and segmental pronunciation, mistakes in intonation are not usually noticed and allowed for by
native speakers, who assume that in this respect a person sounds as he means to sound.

Rost (2002) believes that learners fail to understand spoken English because their expectations are placed
on the wrong cues: they want to hear accurate sounds and build meaning in a linear fashion. Actually, the
English are stingy in that respect: they only articulate with great clarity the stressed syllables of the words
they believe are relevant in any given context. The message is coded, and the key to decode it is not to be
found in the clarity of each sound but on the context of interaction and in your prediction skills.

The use of weak syllables and weak forms puzzles Spanish speakers, who rely on vowel quality to
understand a message. In the following example, the message would be clear even if all the unstressed
syllables were taken away. The words that are reduced need to be weak so as not to attract attention to
themselves: if a strong form is used, listeners normally think that these have been chosen to show contrast
or emphasis.

Although a strong form is possible,


a weak form is more frequent. This adjective = meaning verb = meaning
is the only word that can collocate A pronoun is used to refer
here. .v? it !eqh9 s? vPsR Hs . to recoverable information.
It = launch
A pronoun is used to refer to Vs.
recoverable information. You = my This particle is predictable
interlocutor .v? !it9 !eqh9 s? vPsR Hs . because it is the only word
that can collocate here.

If the pronoun is strong, it is selected as a word that is essential to


the meaning. This would be interpreted as emphatic (e.g. You of
all people!!!) or contrastive (e.g. You and not me!).
41 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Three Ts: Tonality, Tonicity & Tone

Activity 5 Track 7:
Listen to the following conversation. Many of the words are repeated, but the tone changes. Does the
meaning of each word change when the intonation is different? What type of meaning changes?

The Bear
Sid: Shh!
Joe: What?
Sid: Bear!
Joe: Bear?
Sid: Bear!
Joe: Where?
Sid: There!
Joe: Far?
Sid: No!
Joe: Near?
Sid: Yeah!
Joe: Run?
Sid: Run! (Hancock 2003, p. 116)

There are different languages in the world, and some languages exploit tone at the lexical level. Chinese,
for example, is a tone language. English and Spanish are not, they are intonation languages. In the text
above, some words have been intoned differently, but the lexical meaning remains stable: run and run
have the same dictionary meaning (lexical meaning), but they have a different pragmatic meaning. A
rise is used to ask a question: the speaker wants to check whether he should run or not. A fall is used to tell
the interlocutor something: he must run for his life. The point here is that intonation operates at a unit
broader than the word. Intonation is at work in intonation phrases. The meaning is not derived from the
lexical meaning of the word that bears the nucleus; it is a property of the whole combination of elements.

As stated above, intonation is best treated as a system. In a system, phenomena do not occur at random.
There is a set of choices that can be made at different points. The three Ts are the choices made in the
English intonation system.
42 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Intonation system

Tonality Tonicity
Tone
(chunking) (nucleus placement)

Although these three choices occur in real time, it is advisable to follow this order in the analysis.
1) Tonality: Speech can consist of just one syllable preceded and followed by silence (e.g.
), but it normally consists of a stream of sound much longer than that. The first task
. m?T.),
Th intonation
a listener has to carry out is the division of this stream into smaller units. The
phrase is the unit of prosodic analysis. From a phonetic point of view, an intonation phrase
contains at least nuclear syllable. From a semantic point of view, this is a complete unit of
information. Listeners need these units to process information.
information. Even though an intonation
phrase does not always correspond to any grammatical unit, it often coincides with a
clause. When it does, this intonation phrase is said to be an example of neutral tonality.
When it does not, the tonality is marked. Long
Long phrases, for instance, tend to be chunked
off. On average, each chunk tends to be made up of 7 syllables, approximately.
a. Neutral tonality (1 clause = 1 IP)
Track 8
i. Main clauses
Homer went to the bar | but Ned went to church.|
ii. Main and subordinate clauses
We can eat at Mc Donalds | if you behave properly.|

b. Marked tonality (more than a clause = 1 IP / less than a clause = 1 IP)


i. More than one clause
I thought (that) it would rain.|
ii. Less than one clause
Sir Charles Chaplin | expressed his political views in his films.|
43 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

2) Tonicity: This is also referred to as nucleus placement. By definition, each intonation


phrase is complete if and only if it contains a nucleus, the major pitch movement initiator.
The nucleus tends to reside in the last lexical item in the IP (LLI rule), therefore this is
called neutral tonicity. Marked tonicity occurs when the nucleus falls somewhere else. This
topic will be further developed in other units.
a. Neutral tonicity (LLI rule)
Track 9
My names Bond.|
b. Marked tonicity
i. Deaccentuation of old information in final position
(My names Bond)| James Bond.|
ii. Contrastive focus
(My names Bond | James Bond.|) Whats your name?|
iii. Exceptions to the LLI rule
Shut up you silly old fool.| (Vocative in final position)
Were going to be late, I guess| (Final comment clause)
Uncle Cuthbert is coming.| (Event sentence)

3) Tone: According to most authors, there are five distinctive tones in English. A tone is the
intonation curve or contour that is initiated by the nucleus. Phonetically, pitch movement
can take place on the nuclear syllable alone if there is no tail, or it can be spread through
the tail if there is one. There are two families of tones: falls and non-falls.

i. Falls: 1-. Fall [ ]


Track 10
2-. Rise-fall [ ]

ii. Non-falls 3-. Rise []

4-. Fall-rise [ ;]

5-. Level [>]


44 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Reading:
Read Wells (2006), Chapter 1 and chapter 5, section 10.
If you are unsure about word stress and compound words, read Ortz Lira (1998) Chapter 2
Stress in English Simple Words and Chapter 3 Stress in English Compound Words.

Activity 6: Stressing
Decide whether these words are early stressed or late stressed by ticking the right column. Mention the
rule.

Word Early stressed Late stressed Rule


Fall-rise
Lexical Item
LLI rule
Phrasal verb
Preposition
Rise-fall
Strong form
Weak form
Wh- question
Yes/No question

Activity 7: Stress-shift
Use the two words provided in a noun phrase. Mark the stressing as shown below:

E.g.: !country + $inde!pendent: An !independent country

1-. !problem + $uni!versal:


2-. af!fair + $inter!national:
3-. !work + $indi!vidual:
4-. !failure + $syste!matic:
5-. tran!scription + $allo!phonic:
45 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The School of London & the School of Birmingham

Reflect...
What sorts of units have been discussed in the sections above?
What do you think is the scope of an intonation phrase?
Is there anything above it in a phonological hierarchy?

Up to this point we have analysed English pronunciation both at the segmental and suprasegmental levels.
Our proposal is a top-down approach, whereby many of the intricacies related to the choice of phonemes
are solved in a simple way by approaching the text from its prosody. The spotting of stressed and
unstressed syllables uncovers what sorts of vowels are necessary in each of them. The interplay between
stress in connected speech and the use of weak and strong forms becomes transparent.

The study of the Three Ts i.e. tonality, tonicity and tone allows us to understand the workings of the
intonation system in English. As any other system, the choices are not whimsical; these choices are
triggered at different stages to assign meaning to speech. First, speech is segmented, then prominences are
located and a tone is selected at the nuclear syllable. These choices operate at the level of the intonation
phrase. Now, is the intonation phrase the most comprehensive unit of analysis?

We need to go back in history to find an answer to this question. At present, we can confidently state that
each intonation phrase is part of a text. There are connections between these phrases and, above all, there
are connections that link these phrases to items outside the text. We can arrive at this conclusion thanks to
the contributions made by discourse analysts. There came a moment when the sentence was a straight-
jacket, since many of the suprasegmental phenomena could not be accounted for. The next broader unit,
the text, did provide certain answers... but not all. The idea that there is something broader than the text
itself was very appealing and innovative. This is how the context was taken into consideration.

The British tradition has a long-standing history. Palmer, in the early 20h century, introduced the construct
of the nucleus. He realized that the most meaningful choice of tone occurred at a particular syllable. Other
phoneticians added more findings: a) there are five contrastive tones, b) the nucleus tends to fall on certain
grammatical categories, c) there seems to be a connection between intonation and information, d)
intonation can be analysed as a system, etc. The School of London has been the most influential in Britain.
Daniel Jones, J. D. OConnor, G. F. Arnold, A. C. Gimson, Alan Cruttenden and John Wells, among others,
work along these lines. We owe the tonetic marking system of strokes and circles superimposed to the
orthographic text to them. Their approach is based on the grammatical structure and the attitude
conveyed by the configuration of different intonational contours. On the one hand, he heavy reliance on
46 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

grammar can be useful for the foreign learner: the presence of grammatical boundaries can help us predict
the boundaries of intonation phrases, the division between grammar and content words can help us
identify what words are likely to be stressed and which are prone to be nuclear. Also, their taxonomy of
tone choices may be straightforward e.g. wh-questions take a fall, while yes/no-questions take a rise. On
the other hand, however, this approach tends to be burdened with contradictory and never-ending lists of
epithets to describe attitudes and a lack of flexibility regarding the tone choices triggered by grammar.

In the 70s, David Brazil and other researchers studied discourse. They stressed the communicative value of
the choices made by language users rather than the intrinsic value of grammatical structure. Brazil
recorded people interacting with each other and he was able to draw some conclusions that did not
necessarily match the precepts of the traditional approach, that of the School of London. We call this newer
trend the School of Birmingham, as this is where they worked. Brazils approach is followed by Barbara
Bradford and Adrian Underhill, among others. They understand language as a vehicle to do certain things:
you can exchange information (i.e. there is a transactional function) and you can put language to social
purposes (i.e. there is an interactional function). This view does away with the slavish bond between
intonation and grammar, as it offers a more phonological set of options. Their contribution has unearthed
the more general meanings of tones as opposed to the more local meanings found in the attitudinal
approach.

In this course both approaches are adopted. In spite of the differences they seem to present, we will see
that they can complement each other perfectly well. This is not surprising in the least; after all, both
approaches came to existence as a tool to explain the behaviour of the same object of study: English
intonation. The School of London is more prescriptive, which is good at an early stage for it helps learners
to study rules. The School of Birminghams contributions, which are descriptive, are very valuable to grasp
a broader picture of how intonation works, especially as regards tone choices and the interplay between
the elements in the intonation phrase and other elements in the text and the context of interaction.
47 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Unit 2: The Anatomy of Intonation

Aims:

To understand the phonetic configuration of accents in an intonation phrase


To perceive the English tones
To predict the configuration of the English tones
To produce the English tones
To produce tonetic transcriptions

Contents:

The anatomy of English intonation


Typical cases of chunking
The onset and nucleus
The fall
The rise
The fall-rise
The level
The rise-fall
48 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Anatomy of English Intonation

In the previous unit you were introduced to the basics of English intonation. Here you will expand that
knowledge and devote time to the production of tones. We shall focus on:

Typical cases of chunking


The placement of the nucleus
The configuration of the tone
The placement of the onset syllable

An emphasis will be placed on the interlinear notation. Those learners who favour their auditory memory
may not benefit from this analysis. Yet, most learners are not auditory. If you are a visual learner, you will
surely find this system useful in the extreme. Just like musicians, you will be able to pitch your instrument:
your voice. The upper line stands for the normal highest note your speaking voice can produce. Similarly,
the lower line stands for the normal lowest note your speaking voice can produce. A word of caution is
called for here: you should never strain your voice. Listen to your voice in Spanish in order to identify your
high and low pitch. If you try to get a note much lower or higher than your usual ones, your voice will crack
and this may be harmful. In intonation studies, it is the relative pitch that matters, not the absolute pitch.
In music, the opposite is the case. You need to be able to show a contrast between your high and low pitch,
and you should also find your mid pitch. With these three notes you will be able to exploit the meaning
oppositions presented in this system.

Reflect...

What do you think of your voice when you hear a recording? Do you identify with it?

Does your voice setting resemble your parents or friends setting?

Compare two singers: whose singing voice is higher, Christian Castros or Patricia Sosas? Does this mean
that the former is unable to produce low notes and the latter high notes?
49 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Tonality: Problem cases for Spanish speakers

Track 11 The starting point of any intonational analysis is chunking. Wells (2006) maintains that

most languages use tonality in a similar way. Since English and Spanish share a lot in this area, we will focus
on the greatest differences.

1) Initial short words: Spanish speakers tend to chunk words when they occur at the
beginning of a sentence. Although there are no statistics about this, it may be true that
they are absorbed as either the onset syllable or just a pre-head. This happens with words
such as Oh, Well, Yes, No, Now, etc. Notice that the comma after these expressions does
not mean that a pause is needed. Examples:

A: Well, !what about going out to/night?


B: Oh, I !think its a great i dea. Shall we !tell Sheila?
A: ()No, ;not to/day. Shes in a !bad mood. Do you !like Thai food?
B: Yes, I a dore it. Now, !what time shall we meet?

2) Final elements: When the following elements occur in final position, they are typically part
of the tail. If they are chunked off, however, they are likely to take a rise (a trailing tone
that exploits politeness).

a. Vocatives:
!Sit down, /Mary.
Is that your ;seat, /Graham?

b. Adverbs of courtesy:
!Pass the salt, /please.
!Thats e nough, /thanks.

c. Reporting clauses:
Im !going to be late, she /whispered.
d. Comment clauses:
Your !father will be mad, I i/magine.
50 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

e. Copy tag (constant positive polarity):


Shes angry, /is she?

f. Reversed polarity tags (after a rising nuclear tone):



Granny cant be ;pregnant, /can she?

Finally, two words seem to be problematic for Spanish speakers, namely the conjunction that and the verb
to be. As these words normally occur in the weak form, students should not end a chunk after them:

a-. * I !think >that | we can !buy a car.

* . `H !SHMj >CUs { vh j?m !a`H ? j@9 .

;I think | that we can !buy a car.

. ;`H SHMj { C?s vh j?m !a`H ? j@9 .

b-. * >Some people are | !very am bitious.

* . >rUl oh9ok @9 { !udqh zl aHR?r .

>Some people |are !very am bitious.

. >rUl oh9ok { ? !udqh zl aHR?r .

c-. * !There >was | a !big dog in the /yard.

* .!Cd? >vPy { ? !aHf cPf Hm C? /i@9c.

There was a !big dog in the /yard.

.C? v?y ? !aHf cPf Hm C? /i@9c.


51 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Activity 1: Chunking a readymade text


Readymade or written texts tend to contain elaborate lexis and grammar, but the planning implied makes
for clear intonation boundaries. As punctuation and phonological boundaries may not go hand in hand,
there are no punctuation marks in the text.

1. Look at the underlined section. Where does it belong to?

2. Listen to the recording and insert boundaries (with |) whenever you detect that an
intonation phrase ends.

Track 12 complementary therapy

complementary therapy which focuses on the whole person is becoming more

widely used it considers a patients physical symptoms and also takes lifestyle

into account most practitioners believe that the body seeks a state of balance

what complementary therapy does is help people achieve this balance treatment

not only relieves the disease but also promotes general wellbeing how

complementary therapy works is still not entirely clear recent research has

compared it with traditional medicine in one study conducted in Canada a group

of patients who had severe back pain were treated either with complementary or

traditional treatments patients who had complementary treatments showed faster

rates of improvement (Hewings, 2007, p. 115.)

3. Listen to the recording again and underline the nuclei. What sort of elements get
accented? What elements are deaccented?
52 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015


jPlok?ldmsqh Sdq?oh
jPlok? ldmsqh Sdq?oh { vHsR e?Tj?rHy Pm C? g?Tk o29rm { Hy aHjUlHM

lN9 v`Hckh it9yc {{ Hs j?m!rHc?y ? odHRmsr eHyHjk /rHls?ly { ?mc !N9kr?T

sdHjr k`Hers`Hk Hmst ?/j`Tms {{ l?Trs oqzjsHRm?y a?kh9u { C?s C? !aPch

rh9jr? rsdHs ?u azk?mr {{ vPs jPlokHldmsqh Sdq?oh /cUy { Hy gdko oh9ok

?sRh9uCHr /azk?mr {{ sqh9sl?ms { mPs ?Tmkh qHkh9uy C? cHyh9y { a?s N9kr?T

oq?l?Tsr fdm?qk vdk ah9HM {{ !g`T jPlokHldmsqh Sdq?oh v29jr { Hy !rsHk

mPs Hm s`H?kh jkH? {{ qh9rms qHr29sR { g?y j?lod?c Hs vHC sq?cHRmk /ldcrm {{

Hm vUm rsUch { j?mcUjsHc Hm jzm?c? { ? fqt9o ?u odHRmsr { gt gzc r?uH?

azj /odHm { v? sqh9sHc `HC? vHC jPlokHldmsqh { N9 sq?cHRmk { sqh9sl?msr {{

odHRmsr { gt gzc jPlokHldmsqh /sqh9sl?msr { R?Tc e@9rs? { qdHsr ?u

Hloqt9ul?ms {{


53 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Intonation Phrase

In the previous unit a full intonation phrase was sketched. In this section, a full analysis of the possible
combinations will be presented. The only obligatory element in an intonation phrase is the nucleus. All
other elements may be optional. Remember that the onset syllable is the beginning of the head.

(pre-head) + (head) + NUCLEUS + (tail)

Track 13

NUCLEUS: Go|

head + NUCLEUS: Dont go|

pre-head + head + NUCLEUS: Oh dont go|

pre-head + head + NUCLEUS + tail: Oh dont go Patricia|

head + NUCLEUS + tail: Dont go Patricia|

NUCLEUS + tail: Go Patricia|

pre-head + NUCLEUS + tail: Oh go Patricia|

pre-head + NUCLEUS: Oh go|


54 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Tonicity

Reflect...

Whats the correct translation into Spanish of I thought it was going to be cold: Pens que iba a hacer
fro or Saba que iba a hacer fro? What does this depend on?

Is nucleus placement as important in Spanish as it is in English?

What do you think of the following intonation phrases? Do they have the same intonation pattern? No te
veo, Linda. No te veo linda.

Tonicity is one of the subsystems that make up intonation. It consists of the placement of the nuclear
syllable. Since the nucleus is the only obligatory element in all well-formed intonation phrases, then tonicity
choices are at work every time you speak. Mind you: you make nucleus placement choices both in English
and Spanish!

The nucleus can be defined by different criteria:

a) Phonetic criterion: the nucleus is generally perceived as the most prominent syllable in the
intonation phrase, especially because it normally is the major pitch movement initiator.
b) Distributional criterion: the nucleus is the last accent in an intonation phrase (there may
be other stresses, but the nuclear syllable is the last one where a pitch choice is made).
c) Functional criterion: the nucleus signals the focal structure in the intonation phrase.

Unlike tonality, which is supposedly pretty stable across languages (Wells, 2006), tonicity is by far the most
difficult of the Three Ts to be learned by Spanish speakers.
55 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Neutral and Marked Tonicity

The very first steps in this course were devoted to devising a top-down model to work with English
pronunciation. This idea goes along the lines of the traditional approach to tonicity. At the very top, the
decisions that govern the choice of a suitable nucleus are made. The trends that were discussed in Unit 1
are summarized below:

All content words tend to be stressed. However, some words may lose their stress because
of contextual factors, such as the vicinity of other stresses.
The nucleus tends to fall on the last lexical item. It is hosted in a stressed syllable that
becomes accented, as the nucleus is the major pitch movement initiator.
Old information is normally de-accented. Therefore, the nucleus tends to fall on the last
lexical item that is new.

Crystal (1969) noted that in his corpus, the nucleus tends to fall on the last lexical item in approximately
80% of the tokens. Since this figure is high, it is reasonable to state that when this occurs the tonicity is
unmarked (or neutral). In contrast, marked tonicity occurs when the nucleus does not fall on the last lexical
item. This can be the caused by several factors: the last lexical item may be old information, the nucleus
may fall on a grammar word, or there may be final lexical items that do not attract the nucleus.

A very easy rule of thumb is that the nucleus is likely to fall on the last NEW lexical item. Although this
seems to be a simple rule to follow, most Spanish speakers find it terribly hard to apply. There is an
intimate connection between information and intonation in English. The English ear is extremely sensitive
to this, and many times the accenting of old information may lead to miscomprehension. Also, since they
play down old information in a systemic way, many of the syllables and words that are not highlighted are
said very quickly and in a low volume at times. Spanish speakers may find it difficult to understand English
speech because of this very reason.

Interesting!

In an analysis of a corpus of about 1,200 intonation groups, Altenberg (1987) found that (i) there is a
strong tendency for the last lexical item to carry the nucleus (78%); (ii) English nouns have the greatest
potential for prosodic prominence and particularly nuclear accent (73%) Ortiz Lira (1998, page 52).
56 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Prominence Selection - Highlighting

Detecting the nucleus


You already know some things about tonicity. The nucleus tends to fall on the last lexical item (LLI). If there
is old information at the end of an intonation phrase, it falls on the last NEW lexical item. For practical
reasons, using the LAST NEW LEXICAL ITEM rule can provide you with better results as it is more
comprehensive. Remember, however, that there are exceptions to the LLI rule that do not involve old
information.

Activity 3 Track 14
Listen and underline the nucleus in each IP. (Ponsomby, 1992, p. 80.)
a) We didnt mean to arrive just in time for lunch.|
b) Is this the book you are looking for?|
c) But you told me I could come round tonight.|
d) I havent seen Elizabeth for ages.|
e) No dear. | He broke his leg in a skiing accident.|
f) Are all nine of the Joneses coming to dinner?|

Activity 4 Track 15
Read each sentence. Practise shifting the nucleus as indicated. Then, compare your version to the
recording. What context of interaction is projected by each of them? (Ponsomby, 1992, p. 80.)
a) Are you coming to Majorca with us this summer?
Are you coming to Majorca with us this summer?
Are you coming to Majorca with us this summer?
Are you coming to Majorca with us this summer?
Are you coming to Majorca with us this summer?

b) My wife doesnt look like a sack of potatoes.


My wife doesnt look like a sack of potatoes.
My wife doesnt look like a sack of potatoes.
My wife doesnt look like a sack of potatoes.
My wife doesnt look like a sack of potatoes.
My wife doesnt look like a sack of potatoes.
57 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Activity 4 Track 16
Listen to the following utterances. Focus on their prominences. Then, decide which question is suitable for
each of them: (Bradford, 1988, p. 8)

1. They hired a car.


a. Did they take the car?
b. Did they hire bikes?
2. No, the train was delayed.
a. Had she already arrived at the station?
b. Was the plane late?
3. The banks on the corner.
a. Wheres the bank?
b. Whats on the corner?
4. I sent him a letter.
a. Arent you going to send Tony a letter?
b. How does Mr Pringle know your news?
5. Its next Tuesday.
a. Is it your birthday next week?
b. Was it your birthday last Tuesday?

Activity 4 Track 17
B uses the same words to answer the two different things that A says. Predict the prominences in each of
Bs interventions: (Bradford, 1988, p. 9-10)

1 A: Paul looks happy! B: Hes got a new car.


A: I think Paul needs a new car. B: Hes got a new car.

2 A: We must get some flowers. B: Ive got some flowers.


A: Dont forget to get them a present. B: Ive got some flowers.

3 A: Lets go to Paris. B: Ive been to Paris.


A: Have you had a good weekend? B: Ive been to Paris.

4 A: You need something hot. B: Then Ill have some soup.


A: The soups good here. B: Then Ill have some soup.

5 A: How did you know it was Mike who rang? B: He said hed phone.
A: Why hasnt he written? B: He said hed phone.
58 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Activity 4 Track 18 Contrastive focus


First listen to this short conversation. Pay attention to the way As intervention affects the nuclear choices
B makes. Then, predict the prominences in the following dialogues: (Bradford, 1988, p. 8)

Example: A: What did you have | for starters?


B: I had chicken soup.
A: And what did the others have?
B: Chris had tomato soup | and James | had tomato salad.

One A: And what did you have for dessert?


B: I had apple pie.
A: What did the others have?
B: Chris had cherry pie | and James | had cherry cake.

Two A: Its your birthday this month,| isnt it?


B: Yes. Its the thirty-first.
A: Are both your sisters birthdays | this month too?
B: Yes. Sarahs is the twenty-first | and Jennys | is the twenty-fourth.

Three A: Where did he wait for you?


B: At the back entrance.
A: And where had you arranged to meet?
B: At the main entrance,| which is right on the main street.

Four A: When did you visit Japan?


B: I went last year.
A: And are you going again?
B: Yes, | Im going again this year. | In fact, | Im going this month.

Five A: Whats the problem?


B: Shes got black shoes.
A: And why is that a problem?
B: She needed white shoes | to go with her white dress.
59 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Focal Model

Although there is no agreement in the literature as to what the exact definition of focus is (for instance,
some authors use the term as a synonym for nucleus which is disfavoured in this course), this model
seems to be comprehensive. Broadly speaking, the focus can be thought as the stretch in the intonation
phrase that is foregrounded. Ortiz Lira (1998, page 54) reminds us that the focus determines the
accentuation pattern of an intonation phrase because: (i) accents signal focus; (ii) not all focused
constituents need to take an accent, and (iii) unfocused constituents do not take an accent.

Notice!

Focus

.!e?Tj?r.

Broad and Narrow Focus


Semantically, an intonation phrase contains different elements. These elements are linked to the whole
text and the context. The interplay between these relationships and the intonation phrase has a bearing on
the focus domain (i.e. the scope of the focus). In the next example, the question is too open to restrict the
answer in any way:
A: What happened?
B: [I have !just had a bath.]

All the items in the answer are new. The whole intonation phrase is in focus. In other words, this IP is in
broad focus.

Now, the next context is different:


A: Who has just had a bath?
B: [ I] have /just had a /bath.

This time, only part of the answer is in focus. The nucleus falls on the only new item, the pronoun. Narrow
focus occurs when only part of the information is in focus: generally, the last new item in the focus
receives the nucleus while the elements that are old remain out of focus and are deaccented.

Activity
Mark the focus in the answers:

1 A: Wheres the car? B: I have no idea.


2 A: Age? B: Im fifteen years old.
3 A: Wheres the car? B: I dont have a car.
4 A: Where were you during the B: I was in the shooting.
shooting?
5 A: I was born in 1990. B: I was born in 1990, too!
6 A: Are you an English teacher? B: Im an English professor.
7 A: What about the new house? B: It caved in.
8 A: Are you Mrs. Shaw? B: Mrs. George Shaw.
9 A: When shall we meet? B: Thursday at eleven forty-
five.
10 A: What about the venue? B: Ill be in the hall.
60 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Activity

Track 19 Listen to the recording and mark the prominences. Focus on new and old info. (OConnor
and Fletcher 1989, page 53).

The Language School


ALICE: I want to improve my English. Is it a good idea | to go to a
language school | in August?
CAMERON: I went to an English summer school | a year ago. It was at the
Gold School of English.
ALICE: Was it good?
CAMERON: Yes | very good. There were grammar lessons | and regular
progress tests. And we also | played games. That was great.
ALICE: What sort of games?
CAMERON: Guessing games, for example. A simple game | is the bag game.
One group | has a big bag | and the other group | guesses whats
in the bag. Its a good game at the beginning | to get to know each
other.
ALICE: Did you get to know | the other students well?
CAMERON: Yes! It wasnt a big group. Ive forgotten exactly how many. We got
on very well | together.

Remember!
As stated in the first unit, you should always bear in mind that:
1-.You should approach an intonation phrase from the end.
2-. A lexical item may be made up of more than one word.
3-. Be careful with early stressed compound words as they are only one lexical item.
E.g.: !film $prize !Harry w on a film /prize.
3-. Be careful with final phrasal verbs: the particle there is not a grammar word but part of a compound
lexical item. They are double stressed.
E.g.: $run a!way Its!time to run a w ay.
61 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

C? kzMfvHcY rjt9k {{
zkHr {{ `H vPms st Hloqt9u l`H HMfkHR {{ Hy Hs ? fTc `HcH? { s? f?T st ?

kzMfvHcY rjt9k { Hm N9f?rs {{

jzlq?m {{ `H vdms st ?m HMfkHR rUl? rjt9k { ? iH?q ?f?T {{ Hs v?y ?s C? f?Tkc

rjt9k ?u HMfkHR {{

zkHr {{ vPy Hs fTc {{

jzlq?m {{ idr {{ udqh fTc {{ C? v? fqzl? kdrmy { zmc qdfi?k? oq?Tfqdr sdrsr {{

?m vh N9kr?T { okdHc fdHly {{ Czs v?y fqdHs {{

zkHr {{ vPs rN9s ?u fdHly {{

jzlq?m {{ fdrHM fdHly e?q Hfy@9lok {{ ? rHlok fdHl { Hy C? azf fdHl {{

vUm fqt9o { gzy ? aHf azf { ?m Ch UC? fqt9o { fdrHy vPsr 7Hm

C? azf {{ Hsr ? fTc fdHl ?s C? aHfHmHM { s? fds s? 7m?T h9sR UC? {{

zkHr {{ cHcYt fds s? m?T { Ch UC? rsit9cmsr vdk {{

jzlq?m {{ idr {{ Hs vPyms ? aHf fqt9o {{ `Hu e?fPsm Hfyzjskh g`T ldmh {{

vh fPs Pm udqh vdk { s?fdC? {{


62 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Semantic Model

The traditional approach was seen as little flexible by some authors, such as Bolinger (1986). He believed
that the decisions that govern intonation choices spring from the speaker, not from the grammatical
structure. He introduced the concept of the relative semantic weight of words: those elements that the
speaker views as semantically heavy will be accented, while those elements that are viewed as semantically
light will not. This allows speakers to downplay elements.

The Discoursal Approach

Brazils (1980, 1994) approach highlights that there is nothing inherent in the text: the intonation choices
are made by each speaker, who canpresent information and project a context of interaction in different
ways. He adopts a different terminology, but his terms normally have an equivalent in the traditional
approach. For instance, he considers that each tone unit (i.e. each intonation phrase) has an obligatory
prominence (i.e. accent): the tonic syllable (i.e. the nucleus). If there are more prominences, the first one is
the onset syllable and the last one is the tonic syllable. He believes that the relevant choices are realized in
the tonic segment that starts at the onset syllable and finishes at the tonic syllable. Speakers judge which
syllables in each tone unit will be prominent according to the context of interaction. In other words,
speakers take into account what he/she thinks he/she shares with the interlocutor, etc.

Each tone unit presents syntagmatic choices (the horizontal syntactic organization of a text). By way of
illustration, the IPI went to Cuba is made up of four slots that are syntagmatically connected as subject,
verb and complement. Each syntagm (each slot) can also be exploited paradigmatically. That is, each word
is chosen from a subset of other possible words that could work in that combination. When a speaker
chooses one word to fill a slot he/she has decided not to choose any other word. This is a meaningful
choice. Some slots present more options than others (e.g. Cuba can be replaced by thousands of places, but
the word tois the only option here, as it is the only item the verb went allows). The linguistic paradigm is
made up of all the combinations that are grammatically possible, while the existential paradigm consists of
all the combinations that are true in the real world.

Slot
Explanation
1 2 3 4
at Cuba. This is not a valid linguistic paradigm: at does not collocate.
thens.
A These are all possible options in the linguistic and existential paradigm.
I !went
to New York. By choosing Cuba, the speaker is not choosing any other place.
Hogwarts. This is not a valid existential paradigm outside Harry Potters world.
63 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Contrastive Focus

Contrast can break all rules. Cruttenden (1997, 82) states that an informal definition of contrastive
would refer to it as involving comparison within a limited set. The most common type of contrast is binary,
which can be formulated as X not Y (E.g. I want an apple, not an orange.Apple vs. Orange). In this
case, the contrast was made explicit. Some other times, the contrast is presented in an implicit way. If
somebody says I love you the listener is expected to recover the referent against which youis contrasted
(e.g. I love you, not my wife.) Finally, it is possible to find a contrastive set that is not binary. For
instance, Cruttenden exemplifies this point by referring to traffic lights: The lights were red means that
they were neither green nor yellow.

Track 20 Listen to the recording. Focus on the contrasts. (Hancock 2003, 107)

Exams
JAMES: I wont pass.
TED: You will pass.
JAMES: Youll pass.
TED: I dont know.
JAMES: You wont fail.
TED: I might fail.
JAMES: I | will fail.
TED: The exams |not hard.
JAMES: Its very hard.
TED: But not too hard.
JAMES: Too hard for me.
TED: But youre very clever!
JAMES: Youre | the clever one.
TED: Yes, | I suppose youre right.
64 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015


Ch Hf88yzl {{

8cYdHly {{ `H v?Tms to@9r {{
v?Tm

8sdc {{ it 7vHk ddo@9r {{

8cYdHly {{ rit9k do@9r {{


o@9r {{

8sdc {{ `H c?Tms ym?T {{


c?Tm

8cYdHly {{ it v?Tms redHk {{


v?Tm

8sdc {{ `H tl`Hs
l`Hs dedHk {{

8cYdHly {{ u`H { vHk


{ vHk wedHk {{

8sdc {{ yzly { mPs tg@9c {{


Ch Hf5yzly

8cYdHly {{ Hsr 7udqh


h dg@9c {{

8sdc {{ a
a?s mPs rst9 dg@9c {{
?s mPs


8cYdHly {{ st9 g@9c e?
st9 g@9c e? ylh9 {{

8sdc {{ a?s iN9 udqh 8jkdu? {{


iN9 udqh

8cYdHly {{ uit9 { ? C?
? C? tjkdu? dvUm {{

8sdc {{ iidr {{ `H r
{{ `H r?2o?Ty iN9 iq`Hs {{


65 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Highlighting: Communication activity


Adapted from Bradford (1988, p 51 & 55)

Student A:
You are a customer in a small restaurant and are ready to order. The menu is quite limited, but there are different
kinds/flavours of each thing. Student B is the waiter/waitress and will ask you for your order.
1. Choose from the menu what you would like for each course.
2. Ask the waiter/waitress for more information.
3. Choose from the selection of thins you are offered.

Starters:
Soup
Salad
Main course:
Meat
Pasta

Dessert:
Cake or pie
Ice-cream

Hot beverages

Student B:
You are a waiter in a small. The customers menu is quite limited and student A will need more information about the
kinds/flavours of the things in each course before he/she can order.
1. Ask the customer to choose something.
2. Give more information about the thing he/she chooses.
3. Do these two activities for each course.

Menu: Friday 12th


Starters
Salad: Caesar steamed vegetables fresh vegetables
Soup: tomato vegetable chicken
Main course
Pasta: spaghetti Bolognese mac and cheese - vegetarian
Meat: steak chicken schnitzel grilled salmon
Dessert:
Ice-cream: vanilla chocolate strawberry
Cake: cheesecake chocolate cake red velvet cake
Hot beverages: tea coffee (with or without milk)
66 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Tone variants
At times, it is very hard to distinguish one tone from another one.. Why is this so? There are several variants
of each tone. Although we do not normally mark these features, there are three major choices: tone
direction, width and pitch height.

Tone

Direction Pitch height Width Distribution

Falls Non-falls High Narrow Glide

Fall Rises Level Mid Wide Step

Rise-fall Rise Low

Fall-rise

a) Pitch direction:: Does the pitch go up or down?


down? Does it stay level? The distinction made
between falls and non-falls
falls is related to the meanings they convey, a topic that will be
developed in unit 4 in greater detail. Tones are defined in terms of their end point: the
falling tones (i.e. fall and rise-fall)
ri fall) end in a fall, the rising tones (i.e. the rise and the fall-rise)
fall
end in a rise, and the level remains at the same pitch height.

b) Pitch height:: This topic is dealt with in further detail in the next course. Some authors refer
to this as key. The normal
ormal relative pitch height seems to be mid. A high tone is contrastive
(the attitudinal approach maintains that this expresses surprise or liveliness) and a low
tone is normally equative (the attitudes conveyed may be glossed as matter-of-factly,
matter
bored, uninvolved).

c) Width: Wide tones are more easily detected than narrow tones. A very wide tone normally
shows greater involvement, while a very narrow tone may sound casual.

d) Distribution:: If the nuclear syllable contains a long vowel that is not clipped, there tends to
be a marked glide.. If the nuclear syllable is made up of a short vowel, especially followed
by a voiceless sound, there tends to be steps in the tail.
67 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Track 21

Example of different kinds of falls

The Interlinear Tonetic Notation

Before embarking on a detailed description of the English nuclear tones, a full description of the interlinear
tonetic notation is presented here:

The upper line indicates the upper range of a particular speakers speaking voice.
The lower line indicates the lower range of a particular speakers speaking voice.
Each syllable is represented by a dot.
o A large black dot indicates that the syllable is stressed.
o A large empty dot indicates that the syllable is prominent, generally because it
contains a strong vowel.
o A small dot indicates that the syllable is unstressed and non-prominent.
68 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Stave
In suprasegmental phonetics, unlike music, were not interested in the absolute pitch of notes. Although we
do not speak the way we sing, it is useful to train our ears and voices at the outset of this course to be able
to use relative pitch at will.

Low, mid and high levels

Pre-head and head

Static high head

Stepping head
69 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Falling head

Rising head

Practise:
Draw the stressed and unstressed syllables corresponding to each intonationally marked phrase:

1) There were some 1men at the 7bar. 5) Can I areally alet them ago to the rloo?

2) 1Why did you deacide to aleave 7them. 6)1Underastanding English pronunci8ation.

3)7Peter is dcoming to dsee us todmorrow. 7) Dont be asuch a aselfish 7fool.

4)She was getting avery asympa7thetic. 8)He can be quite ananoying aguy, rtoo.
70 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Fall

Awareness raising:
Listen to the prologue to The Lord of the Rings. What sort of text is it? Whats its
purpose?

Track 22 Focus
ocus on form:

The pitch goes from a higher note to a lower note. The starting point may vary; therefore the key of the
tone may be high, mid or low. If the nucleus is not followed by a tail, then the fall takes place on this
syllable. If there is a tail, two possibilities
possibiliti are available:

A falling glide on the nuclear syllable (especially if the vowel is long). All the syllables in the tail
remain low.
A step down from the nuclear syllable (especially if the vowel is short and followed by a voiceless
sound) to a succession
n of low syllables in the tail.

Semantic criterion: the fall sounds


complete, like a statement or an

Focus on meaning: exclamation.


This is your parcel. Go
now!

The Fall: Basic Meanings & Uses


School of London School of Birmingham
Statements New information
My name is Bond. This is a 8pronoun.| wPronouns
Pronouns | replace
8nouns.
Exclamations
Thats absolutely 8brilliant!

Wh- questions Find-out questions


What are you 8doing? Whats your favourite 8subject?
subject?

Commands
Close the 8door. Divergence (separateness)
8Oh, | youre 8back.
Major information (independent)
Shes going to re8sign | Im awfraid
fraid.
71 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 1: Types of Fall (Track 23)


1 \Now!!!
2 Now!
3 Now.
4 Now.

Task 2: Fall (Track 24)


Just focus on the general fall of the pitch, disregard all its variants.

1 Three 10 Come 19 Boo


2 Go 11 Stop 20 Super
3 Four 12 First 21 Crazy
4 Stay 13 Right 22 Never
5 Sure 14 Six 23 Splendid
6 Bad 15 Wow 24 Rubbish
7 Nine 16 Gosh 25 Nonsense
8 Good 17 Great 26 Marvellous
9 Sing 18 Cheers 27 Wonderful

Task 3: Enlarging a tone unit (Track 25)


Listen and repeat. Focus on the onset and the nucleus:

Group A Group B
Ridiculous! In credible!
How ridiculous! How incredible!
But thats ri diculous! Thats incredible!
How absolutely ridiculous! How utterly incredible!
I think thats really quite ridiculous! Theyre going to find it utterly incredible!

Group C
Youre right!
Youre right, you /know!
Youre absolutely right!
I think youre absolutely right!
Youre going to be proved quite right!

Group D
She lives in Kent.
She lives in Kenton.
She lives in Kensington.
She lives in Kettering, you know.
72 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 4: Single Intonation Phrases (Track 26)


1 English Intonation. An Introduction. By 27 Youve got better. But I havent.
John Wells. Cambridge University Press
2 What do I do now? 28 The train was crowded. So we caught a later
one.
3 Were planning to fly to Italy. 29 Where are you from? () Bill asked Jim.
4 Were planning to fly to Italy. 30 He had a heart attack last year. It hasnt
stopped him smoking, though.
5 Were planning to fly to Italy. 31 Youve got to slow down a bit.
6 This is a pen. 32 Id like four tickets, please.
7 Im delighted to meet you. 33 Hell be off soon, I imagine.
8 Were all here. 34 Its just not good enough.
9 Theyre waiting outside. 35 Who are you waiting for?
10 Its half past eleven. 36 What are you looking at?
11 Ill go and get some milk. 37 Take your shoes off. Take them off.
12 So there were three of them. 38 Bring your umbrella with you. Bring it with
you.
13 So well be free by six, then. 39 Pick the boxes up. Now put them down
again.
14 Hi. Im Cathy Pomeroy. Im a customers 40 Hows the homework going?
service agent.
15 Whos that? 41 Ive still got an essay to write.
16 Which is the shift key? 42 He ought to keep his mouth shut.
17 Whats your name? 43 You need to keep the brush wet.
18 Ill pick you up tomorrow morning. 44 Tell me what to do.
19 What time? 45 Wait and see which way the wind is
blowing.
20 Ill ask you once more. 46 Hello! This is Jimmy speaking.
21 What a surprise! Wasnt it! 47 Thank you | very much | indeed.
22 What an interesting lecture that was! 48 Its nearly ready.
23 Stand up when you answer. 49 Well make up your mind.
24 What are you looking at? 50 He said you must make up your mind.
25 Who was she talking to? 51 I went over to Karens house | but it was her
father | who answered the door.
26 I received a letter from him.

Task 5: Exchanges (Track 27)


1 A: How long | have you been frightened of B: Ive always been terrified of spiders.
spiders?
2 A: Why dont you try keeping | a spider as a B: Ive always been terrified of spiders.
pet?
3 A: Is there anything that really | frightens B: Ive always been terrified of spiders.
you?
4 A: Ive just finished reading | Homebush B: Thats the book I wanted.
Boy.
5 A: I couldnt get you The Collector,| so I B: Thats the book I wanted.
bought The Magus | instead.
6 A: Whose is this? B: Mine.
7 A: Whose is this? B: Yours.
8 A: Where do you come from? B: Spain.
9 A: Where do you come from? B: France.
10 A: Weve just got engaged! B: How marvellous!
11 A: Shes had a baby boy! B: But thats wonderful!
73 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

12 A: Now they want us to reregister. B: What a palaver!


13 A: Ill be there by five. B: Great.
14 A: Its nearly eight... B: Goodness! Im going to be late!
15 A: Hes from France. B: From Germany.
16 A: She said her foot was hurting. B: Her arm.
17 A: Do sell stamps? B: Yes, | we do.
18 A: Do you know Peter? B: Of course. | Yes, | I do.
19 A: Do you know Peter? B: Of course I know Peter.
20 A: It looks like rain. B: It does, | doesnt it?
21 A: Mummy, | can I have some cake? B: Well have to see, | wont we?
22 A: Why did I only get a C? B: Because you made a lot of mistakes, |
didnt you?
23 A: I really like it here. B: Do you? | I was afraid you wouldnt.
24 A: Her daughters awfully clever... B: Yes, | isnt she?
25 A: Will you be going to Oak Hill? B: Will I heck!
26 A: Unscrew the cylinder head. B: Right. | I will.
27 A: Who does she work for? B: E & Q.
28 A: Whats your number? B: Two seven nine.
29 A: Did James answer the phone? B: No, Nikki did.
30 A: Will Natasha read the lesson? B: No, Jake will.
31 A: Where shall we have our tea? B: In the sitting room.
32 A: Wheres Jim gone? B: Hes off on a training run.
33 A: What are they suffering from? B: Food poisoning.
34 A: What are they suffering from? B: Athletes foot.
35 A: What are they suffering from? B: Whooping cough.
36 A: Do you object to dogs? B: No, I adore dogs.
37 A: Shall we have the beef curry? B: No. | Lets have the prawn curry.
38 A: Do you like whisk? B: Oh, I like most card games.
39 A: Have you hurt yourself? B: Yes, Ive cut myself.
40 A: Did you say fifteen | or sixteen? B: Fifteen.
41 A: Hes a psychotherapist. B: No, a physiotherapist.
42 A: I need ten milligrams. B: You mean ten millilitres.
43 A: Do you work hard? B: Of course I do!
44 A: God! I was so angry! B: I bet you were!
45 A: Jason was to blame. B: Was he?
46 A: Do you smoke? B: I do.
47 A: Who likes spinach? B: I do.
48 A: How are you? B: Fine, thanks. How are you?
49 A: Wheres your passport?
B: I havent got one.
50 A: Why are you looking worried? B: Ive got an exam this afternoon.
51 A: Everything OK? B: Its a bit hot in here.
52 A: Youve left this line | blank. B: (Well, those details) | werent asked for!
53 A: Whats the matter? B: The babys crying.
54 A: Whats the matter? B: My arm hurts.
55 A: Will you be leaving on Thursday? B: Oh, I havent decided yet.
56 A: Are you ready to hand in your essay B: No, I havent quite finished it yet.
now?
57 A: Was the cheese still OK? B: It had gone mouldy | naturally.
58 A: Whos Nikki? B: Shes my sister who lives in Canada.
59 A: Whos Nikki?
B: Shes my sister | who lives in Canada.
60 A: What are you looking for? B: Wheres the newspaper I was reading?
61 A: Who are you talking to? B: Oh, thats Winston. The man I was
telling you about.
62 A: Whats that? B: Its a spatula, | for cleaning the bowl with.
74 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 6: In the classroom!


1 Nice work! 15 Go to page eleven.
2 Well done, kids! 16 Open you books.
3 Ten out of ten. 17 Turn your phones off.
4 Just in time. 18 Dont rush.
5 Thats a great question! 19 Dont pull.
6 Keep going! 20 Times up.
7 Dont give up! 21 Silence, please.
8 Way to go! 22 Listen to the recording.
9 Whats the answer? 23 Come to the front.
10 Nice try! 24 Turn on your computers.
11 Nice attempt! 25 Whats the date today?
12 Try again. 26 What do you call this?
13 Theres no hurry. 27 What the weather like?
14 Never mind. 28 Clean the board, please.

Task 7: Simon says!


Get together in groups. Lets play Simon says. Make sure you can build long intonation phrases whose
head is static and whose nuclear tone is a fall.

E.g.: Speaker: Simon says stand up.


Speaker: Touch your nose.
Speaker: Simon says close your right eye.

Task 8: Long heads


1 We havent heard from him for 8ages, you dsee. 11 When ever will he get a chance like 8that!
2 I dont think he had the chance to e8scape. 12 You can take the first turning on the 8right.
3 I guess she may be free on Sunday after8noon. 13 Take the whole idea with a pinch of 8salt.
4 I guess she may be free on Sunday after8noon. 14 Keep the jacket for as long as you 8like.
5 I firmly believe youll be better off wi8thout him. 15 This is a present from my Uncle 8Jonathan.
6 I cant quite make up my 8mind about it. 16 What horrible weather for late Ju8ly.
7 But why cant he keep his 8mouth shut. 17 What a lovely sunny day for our 8picnic!
8 We browsed around in the backstreet 8shops 18 Just leave the whole affair to Peter and 8me.
9 When are you going to learn to be 8careful. 19 When will you date a respectable young 8man?
10 Can I see him if I come back in the 8evening? 20 Your report card leaves much to be de8sired.

Task 9: Long tails


1 Uncle 8Duncan is coming to see us tomorrow. 11 How much 8milk do you want in your tea?
2 Its up to 8you, sir, declared the secretary. 12 Your 8zip has come undone again, Hunter.
3 I dont think thats 8fine, he said cautiously. 13 My 8elbow has got something wrong with it.
4 Theres a 8bug in my vegetable salad. 14 I 8knew she would never marry our son.
5 How about going to a 8restaurant, for a change. 15 Even your 8husband can appreciate beauty.
6 I guess shell never be 8glad, as a matter of fact. 16 Leave the 8door open, please, my sweety pie.
7 Its 8obvious, I would have thought. 17 Pass the 8pepper, will you, please, Percy?
8 I hate the 8T-shirt that Jimmy is wearing. 18 I 8do like the idea that shes just introduced.
9 Whats the 8point, Id like to know. 19 What 8courses have you taken so far, Shawn?
10 Which 8flavour do you prefer? 20 Hell 8have to let you travel with your boss.
75 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Pitch height: high, mid & low


Key Context Example Analysis
Contrastive Peters problem is | that hes married. married not single
Titanic not the rest (e.g.
High
As Good as it Gets / The
Particularizing And the winner is | Titanic.
Full Monty / Good Will
Hunting / LA Confidential)
Mid Additive Look for the icon | click on it. and then wait a bit.
Equative Phone Mr. Brown | the headmaster. Mr Brown = Headmaster
He was unfaithful so she
Cause-Effect He was unfaithful | she dumped him.
Low dumped him
She dumped him because
Effect-Cause She dumped him| he was unfaithful.
he was unfaithful

Task 10: listen to these contrasts (Track 28)


1 Wonderful!
2 Wonderful.
3 Wow!
4 Great!
5 Cheers
6 Splendid!
7 Marvellous!
8 Wonderful!
9 It was great!
10 Then well see what happens.
11 I cant believe he did that!
12 What a pity!
13 I need some new running shoes.
14 Good for you!
15 Bully for you!
16 We didnt hear a thing.
17 I wont tell anyone.
18 I wonder when it would be.
19 Whos that?
20 Im singing, | too!
21 Nice to see you again, Humphrey.
22 I had an unexpected letter yesterday.
23 Ive got some work to do.
24 I love you. I adore you. I think youre wonderful.
25 Better than ever!
26 Well, make up your mind!
27 He says | were too young, | but were not too young!
28 He says | I cant afford it,| but I can afford it!
29 He thinks | well stay out too late, | but we wont stay out too late.
30 He says | well make too much noise | in the hotel, | but we wont make too much noise.
31 He thinks | I havent got a passport, | but I have got a passport.
32 He says I dont work hard enough | for school, | but I do work hard!
33 He says | Ive got schoolwork to do, | but I havent got any school work to do.
34 He thinks | we cant look after ourselves, | but we can look after ourselves.
76 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

35 A: Were going on an outing | today. B: Where to?


36 A: I need you to give me a lift. B: Where to?
37 A: Why dont you want to go? B: Well, its raining, | isnt it?
38 A: Why dont you want to go? B: Well, its raining, | isnt it?
39 A: I dont know what to do! B: Can I help you at all?
40 A: I dont know what to do! B: Can I help you at all?
41 Come and have dinner with us!
42 Come and have dinner with us!

Task 11: contrast high, mid and low

1 Brilliant.
2 Brilliant.
3 Brilliant.
4 Thats gross!
5 Thats gross!
6 Thats gross!
7 You should come back at ten.
8 You should come back at ten.
9 You should come back at ten.
10 She was quite late, you see.
11 She was quite late, you see.
12 She was quite late, you see.
13 Her brothers sent an email.
14 Her brothers sent an email.
15 Her brothers sent an email.
16 Dont look back.
17 Dont look back.
18 Dont look back.
19 Its rather dark outside at the moment.
20 Its rather dark outside at the moment.
21 Its rather dark outside at the moment.
22 Theres a leak on the roof.
23 Theres a leak on the roof.
24 Theres a leak on the roof.
25 It was Peter who dumped you.
26 It was Peter who dumped you.
27 It was Peter who dumped you.
28 I knew she was going to resign.
29 I knew she was going to resign.
30 I knew she was going to resign.
77 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Rise

Awareness raising (track 29):

Task 1:

(Brazil 1994, p.18)

Task 2:

(Brazil 1994, p.18)


78 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Focus
ocus on form (track 30):

The pitch goes from a lower note to a higher note. The starting point may vary; therefore the key of the
tone may be high, mid or low. If the nucleus is not followed by a tail, then the fall takes place on this
syllable as a rising glide. If there is a tail, the rise is spread through the tail in a gradual way. If a high rise
ris is
followed by a long tail, the syllables after the nucleus do not step up abruptly; it is the last syllables that
complete the effect by means of a steep jump up.

Semantic criterion: the rise sounds


like a checking question.
one time | at band camp.

Focus on meaning:
The Rise: Basic Meanings & Uses
School of London School of Birmingham
Yes/NO questions Old information
Can I help you? Look at the board. The board
board | is new.

Echo questions Checking questions


When am I going to Vegas? Can you hear me well?

Repeat questions Convergence (togethernes


togetherness)
Where did you say? Oh, | I see you got an A
A.

Minor information (dependent) Linguistic control


It never snows | in this city
city. (Trailing) Once upon a time
time | in a far away land |...
In this city, | it never snows.
snows. (Leading)

Politeness
Have a seat, please.

Continuation
We need flower, | sugar, | milk...
(Listing)
Do you prefer tea | or coffee?
coffee? (Alternatives)
(
Mr Smithson | has two sons.
sons. (Topic)
(
79 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 3: (track 31)


Listen to these contrasts.

1 Im sure. 2 Im sure? 3 I think it was ridiculous. 4 I think it was ridiculous.

Task 4: (track 32)


Listen to what was happening at the end of Mandy and Davids conversation. (Brazil 1994, p.21)

MANDY: Now let me see if Ive got it right. I need the right hand lane
DAVID: Yes, | right hand lane
MANDY: Yes
DAVID: By the Shell service station
MANDY: Yes
DAVID: College Lane
MANDY: Yes, | past the technical college
DAVID: Past the technical college, | past the primary school
MANDY: Yes
DAVID: Another junction
MANDY: Yes
DAVID: Park road,| turn right
MANDY: Yes, | take the first exit
DAVID: First exit | at the mini roundabout
MANDY: And thats Park Close.
DAVID: Thats it!

Task 5: (track 33)


Listen to the answers. Are these checking questions (rise) or finding out questions (falls).

1 A: Bill could ask a friend. B: Who?


2 A: Bill could ask a friend. B: Who?
3 A: Bill could ask a friend. B: Who?
4 A: Bill could ask a friend. B: Who?
5 A: Bill could ask a friend. B: Who?
6 A: Bill could ask a friend. B: Who?
7 A: Bill could ask a friend. B: Who?
8 A: Bill could ask a friend. B: Who?
9 A: Bill could ask a friend. B: Who?
10 A: Bill could ask a friend. B: Who?
80 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 6: (track 34)


Listen to these different types of rises.

1 Wonderful

2 Wonderful

3 /Wonderful
4 A: Have you got the details?

B: I have.

5 A: Youve forgotten your gloves. B: I have?

6 A: You havent paid for the coffee! B: /I have!!!

Task 7: (track 35)


Listen to these intonation phrases and imitate them.
1 /Now 33 Havent they done enough?
2 Now 34 Didnt you bring an umbrella?
3 Now 35 Couldnt you send a text message?
4 /Now 36 Isnt she ready yet?
5 Now 37 Arent you going to introduce us?
6 Three 38 Wont it be a bit cold?
7 Play 39 Wasnt she here last week?
8 Go 40 Hasnt he finished yet?
9 Why 41 Dont you feel a bit overdressed?
10 Bad 42 Couldnt we ask for some more?
11 Mine 43 Have you finished your essay?
12 Yours 44 Did you remember to tell her?
13 Good 45 Can you speak French?
14 Time 46 Are you going to complain?
15 Nice 47 Is the water hot enough?
16 Stop 48 Did he apologize?
17 Right 49 Was she pleased to see you?
18 Thanks 50 Were the children there?
19 Test 51 Have you vacuumed the carpets?
20 Always 52 Dont worry.
21 Thousands 53 You could have coffee, | or tea...
22 This one 54 Is that my library book?
23 Carrots 55 Can I get you anything?
24 Are you ready to answer? 56 Could you give me some, please? As well?
25 You want to talk to who? 57 Could I borrow some sugar?
26 All of us? 58 Are you sure? she asked.
27 What did you say her name was? 59 Chocolate, anyone?
28 Youll be coming to dinner? 60 Did you see Big Brother on television last night?
29 You took his passport? 61 This is how to close it.
30 Whats your name? 62 Is that your partner?
31 When did you arrive? 63 Thats the end of the weather forecast.
32 Whats the time?
81 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 8: (track 36)


Listen to these exchanges. Imitate the drill, i.e. Bs part.
1 A: This money is Johns. B: Johns?
2 A: This money is Johns. B: Whose?
3 A: Id like some chicken, please. B: Chicken?
4 A: Id like some chicken, please. B: Grilled?
5 A: She was reading the Times. B: The Times?
6 A:
You oughtnt to eat that pie... B: You mean its poisonous?
7 A: So there were three of them. B: Are you asking me, | or telling me?
8 A: Do you sell stamps? B: We do.
9 A: You havent brought the milk. B: I have.
10 A: It was brilliant! B: It wasnt.
11 A: You havent brought the milk. B: Yes, | I have!
12 A: It was brilliant! B: No, | it wasnt!
13 A: Have a cup of tea. B: Thats very kind of you.
14 A: Any problems with the builders? B: I dont think so.
15 A: Any problems with the builders? B: Not really.
16 A: Any problems with the builders? B: No, everythings OK.
17 A: Got the keys? B: Are you ready? Is that the time?
18 A: What did you think of my song? B: Do you always sing as flat as that?
19 A: What a lovely dress! B: You like it,| do you?
20 A: Im thinking |of taking a break. B: Are you?
21 A: She wont be at all pleased... B: Wont she?
22 A: They finished the job. B: Finished the job?
23 A: I was talking to James Smith. B: James | Smith?
24 A: She took a tonga. B: She took a what?
25 A: I do find this difficult... B: Dont worry, | its nearly over...
26 A: Ive got something to tell you. B: Go on.
27 A: Unscrew the cylinder head. B: Right, | and what next?
28 A: Im off | now. Goodbye.
29 A: Ive just been into town. B: Uhum.
30 A: What can I do for you, sir? B: Id like this tie, | please.
31 A: And for you, madam? B: Some paper, | if youd be so kind.
32 A: Im going to Sheffield. B: Really? My mothers | from Sheffield.
33 A: Like a cup of coffee? B: No, I dont drink coffee, | myself.
34 A:
Itll be ready tomorrow. B: Will it?
35 A: I cant stand prawns... B: Cant you?
36 A: Mr. Smith! How are you? B: Im fine, Ms. Jones.| And you?
37 A: Id like a pound of apples, please. B: Here you are, sir.
38 A: I want a taxi. B: Here you are, madam. Theres one waiting.
39 A: Red or white? B: Ill have the white, | please.
40 A: Would you like coffee | or tea? B: Tea, | please.
41 A: What are you doing tonight? B: Ive got a meeting, | actually.
42 A: Whats Ruperts driving like? B: Pretty poor, | if you ask me...
43 A: What can I get you? B: One of those delicious cakes you make, | please.
44 A: We ought to be going | soon. B: Theres plenty of time, isnt there?
45 A: We could set off at about | seven. B: We dont need to be there early, do we?
46 A: Yes, | what is it? B: Keep the noise down, would you please?
47 A: Could I borrow your pen? B: If you must...
48 A: Do you ever eat in the canteen? B: Sometimes...
82 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 9: (track 37)


Predict whether a fall or a rise is more suitable for each intonation phrase. Then, compare your choices
with the recording.

An Invitation
JANICE: !Why dont you come and see us?
JOHN: !Where do you live?
JANICE: In an !old house | by the river.
JOHN: Id !probably come by train.
JANICE: Its only a !short w
alk from the station.
JOHN: And if I !came by bus?
JANICE: Its !five minutes | from the bus stop.
JOHN: Its in !Mill Lane, | isnt it? !Where e xactly?
JANICE: The !first house on the left.

Task 10: (track 38)


Predict whether a fall or a rise is more suitable for each intonation phrase. Then, compare your choices
with the recording.

Gossiping at University
JOHN: !Whos that over /there?
JILL: Its Jim, | I think.
JOHN: !Whats he like?
JILL: Oh, hes !one of our best students.
JOHN: !Whats he studying?
JILL: !Modern languages.
JOHN: Which /languages?
JILL: English, | French | and Spanish.
JOHN: That | sounds interesting!
83 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 11: (track 39)


Listen to the text. Mark the onsets, nuclei and tones in each tone unit.

Central Station
Youll arrive | at Central Station. Wh en you get off the train | turn left |
along the platform. At the end | o f th e platform | theres an escalator.
Go up it | and youll be in the main square. Theres a fo untain |
in the square |and Ill be waiting for you there.

Task 12: (track 40)

Confusing Surnames
JOHN WATT: Hello. Are you there?

WILL KNOTT: Yes. Whos that?

JOHN WATT: Watt.

WILL KNOTT: Whats your name?

JOHN WATT: Watts my /name.

WILL KNOTT: What?

JOHN WATT: My names John Watt.

WILL KNOTT: John Watt?

JOHN WATT: Yes. Thats right. Are you Jones?

WILL KNOTT: No,| Im Knott.

JOHN WATT: Well, tell me your name, /then.

WILL KNOTT: Will Knott.

JOHN WATT: Why not?

WILL KNOTT: My names Knott.

JOHN WATT: Not what?

WILL KNOTT:
Not Whatt,| Knott!
84 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Pitch height: high, mid & low


Task 13: high rises in repetition questions (nucleus on interrogative)
1 A: I think this is Jamess IPod. B: Whose?
2 A: Gulliver | went to Laputa. B: Where?
3 A: Well need a dozen | at least. B: How many?
4 A: That was Prat Gay. B: What was his name?
5 A: He flies on the thirty first. B: What date does he fly?
6 A: Thats Billys cousin. B: Whose cousin did you say that was?
7 A: Shes home by five, in general. B: What time is she normally home?
8 A: His arms broken, | so he cant play. B: Why cant he play?
9 A: I like my tea | at five sharp. B: When do you like your tea?
10 A: These roses | are for Graham. B: Who are they for?

Task 14: high rises in echo questions


1 A: What is it? B: What is it? Well, its a memory stick.
2 A: How many children has he got? B: How many? Seven.
3 A: How old is his wife? B: How old, did you say? Younger than his daughter!
4 A: We start tomorrow afternoon. B: You start tomorrow afternoon?
5 A: Marks quite tired these days. B: Marks quite tired, did you say?
6 A: The children | took what they wanted. B: They took what they wanted?
7 A: Is it raining? B: Is it raining? Of course it is.
8 A: Does your shop open at weekends? B: Does my shop open at weekends? Its always open.
9 A: Whats that bowl for? B: Whats it for? Its for the cream youre whipping.
10 A: Whats the rabbit looking at? B: Whats the rabbit looking at? Your carrots!

Task 15: contrast high, mid and low


1 Ready?
2 Ready?
3 Ready?
4 Is it clear?
5 Is it clear?
6 Is it clear?
7 Can I clean the board?
8 Can I clean the board?
9 Can I clean the board?
10 Have you all finished?
11 Have you all finished?
12 Have you all finished?
13 Is that the direct object?
14 Is that the direct object?
15 Is that the direct object?
16 Can I go to the toilet?
17 Can I go to the toilet?
18 Can I go to the toilet?
19 Can I help you?
20 Can I help you?
21 Can I help you?
85 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 16: Long tails & low head


1 How long are you planning to keep it? 11 Who on earth told him to come here?
2 Did you finish first, in fact? 12 Where did you get that idea from, Nathan?
3 Im not responsible for any of that. 13 I think it may have been you who did that.
4 Is this seat free now, madam? 14 We might as well try to do it for them.
5 Why, may I ask? 15 As long as it is convenient for you all.
6 We didnt let him down. 16 Couldnt it be cancelled, you silly fool?
7 Even Jonathan can see through this. 17 Wouldnt it be better to wait a bit more?
8 What number did you phone in the end? 18 They dont let us down often, do they?
9 What seeds did you plant, my darling? 19 She can be a bit more interesting, you see.
10 Maybe Sam can give you a hand with that. 20 Twelve, |thirteen, | fourteen, | fifteen, |
sixteen, | seventeen, | eighteen, | nineteen,
| twenty.
Task 17: First sight reading
Decide whether a fall or a rise would be more suitable in each intonation phrase.

Text 1: Sad news.

JENNIFER: Hi. How are you doing, Sandy?

SANDY: Hi, | Jennifer. Im great, | thanks. How are you?

JENNIFER: Well, | Im a bit tired, you see. Last Monday | my son came

back. His wife, | Susan, | has decided to split up.

SANDY: What happened? Theyve always looked so happy together.

JENNIFER: As a matter of fact, | she never quite liked my son. In my

o pinion, | she was after his money.

Text 2: Problems at work.

MIRANDA: Can I talk to you for a second?

JOAN: Yes,| come in, Miranda. How can I help you?

MIRANDA: Ive been quite worried lately, you see. I have checked the

records we have | and some money is missing. Its quite a

lot of money, | Im a fraid.


JOAN: Oh, | that is serious. Whose ac counts are affected?

MIRANDA: According to my info, | there are four clients involved: Robert

Brooks, |Cliff Howard, |Steve Green | and Kimberly

Quinn.
86 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Communicative activities!

Task 18: (track 41)

Operating
Operating a printer
FIONA: Close the box,
box, |thats
| right. Right. Now
Now you can close the

whole programme.
programme. I think were online | now. Now,
| type the

dress | in the box at the top. Now look


address look at the whole page |

and see if it looks


looks OK.
O OK? Now you can print!
print!

Task 19:

Get pairs and choose one appliance or technological device. Instruct your partner on how to do something
with it. Make sure you rise and fall at will
87 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Fall-Rise

Awareness raising (track 42):

Task 1:
When you meet and old friend, the conversation is often about the people and places you both
used to know, and you like to find out about what has changed. Several years ago, Tony left the
office where Sue works, so when they happen to meet one day, there is a lot of catching up to do.
Listen to part of their conversation.

Conversations like this one can be a bit confusing for anyone who isnt in the know. For instance, it
is sometimes difficult to keep track of the names of other peoples friends! Complete the table
below with what you can remember about each of the people mentioned in the conversation.

A senior member of staff who is rather secretive and


Arthur
set in his ways.

Jane

Ted

Mary

Sarah

Jane Harrison

Angela

John Fellows

(Brazil 1994, p.30)


88 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Focus
ocus on form (track 43):
4

The fall-rise in detail

rise glide occurs within the nuclear syllable. If there is a tail made up of unstressed
If there is no tail, the fall-rise
syllables, the nuclear syllable may be a falling glide (especially if the vowel is long) and the rise will spread
through the tail. If there are prominent syllables in the tail, the rise will start on the last prominence. The
normal onset before a fall-rise
rise is a falling head. This consists of a narrow glide on the onset syllable
followed by stepping
tepping syllables in the head. This glide is not as marked as a falling nuclear tone.

Focus on meaning:
The Fall-Rise:
Fall Basic Meanings & Uses
School of London School of Birmingham
Implicational (statement) Old information

Im quite hungry.
hungry. (I.e. Lets eat!) Go is a verb. Verbs | tend
tend to show actions.

Minor information (dependent) Checking questions


Sometimes, | I cheat at exams.
xams. (Leading) Can you give me a hand,
hand, please?
I cheat at exams | sometimes.
sometimes. (Trailing)
Convergence (togethernes
togetherness)
Politeness (e.g. corrections) Well, | congratulations
lations on your new baby!
A: Paris is the capital of Canada.
B: Its the capital of France.
France.

Continuation

Our university | is one
one of the best.

Contrast
I was single, | but now
now Ive got two wives!

Semantic criterion: the fall-rise


sounds like something is fishy
(but...), or too obvious.
Hes gorgeous | (but stinks!)
Duh
89 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 2: (track 44)


Listen to these two texts. Think whether a fall or a fall-rise would be more appropriate in each of the boxes.
Why?

TONY: There was the post room | and | then there was Arthurs place.
And | there was the photocopying room.
Wheres Arthur | now?
SUE:
At the top of the stairs | was the coffee room | and opposite

that | was the photocopying room. Just beyond there |
was the post room | and Arthurs room | was about three
doors along.

Task 3: (track 45)


Contrast: fall, rise & fall-rise.

1 Chair. Chair? Chair


2 Monkey. Monkey? Monkey
3 It was remarkably good. It was remarkably good
4 You mustnt worry. You mustnt worry. You mustnt worry.

Task 4: (track 46)


1 Mine 61 I wont tell anyone
2 Nearly 62 Theyre not Chinese, | theyre Japanese.
3 Probably 63 It wasnt really red, | just reddish.
4 Partly 64 She hasnt done very well, | has she?
5 True 65 The trouble is, | that were broke.
6 Soon 66 She doesnt smoke. Not nowadays, |
anyhow.
7 No 67 If youre feeling unwell, | just say so.
8 Today 68 She felt that her mother-in-law | always
looked down on her.
9 Again 69 I said | pick them up.
10 Vertually 70 This train | terminates at Edgeware.
11 Happily 71
When I say stop, | stop.
12 Regrettably 72 Thats the end of the weather forecast |
now we go on to the news.
13 Reportedly 73
Bill threatened Jim |and then he hit him.
14 Allegedly 74
Bill threatened Jim |and then he hit him.
15 I think so 75
Bill threatened Jim |and then he hit him.
16 I wish I was rich 76
You and I | could sort it out quickly.
17 Ill try 77
Bill told Mary | and then she told Jennifer.
18 She might 78 The weather | will probably | be awful
again.
19 They could 79 We need some more rain
20 He says so 80 Im nearly | ready.
90 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

21 I hope so 58 You may have started your essay, |but have


22
Do be careful you finished your essay?
23
Not at the moment 59 Youve | got better, | but I | havent.
24
Im awfully sorry 60 Youve got better, |but I havent.
25 Well, make up your mind 81 Theyre virtually | indistinguishable.
26
Dont forget the salt 82 Im sure hes wrong.
27
I dont think its mine 83 Fortunately, | I was wrong.
28
Ive re paired the windows 84 Then | I saw a dog.
29 You can try the salmon 85 Today, | were going to do grammar.
30 He was only joking 86 Mrs Aston | will be taking the children.
31
Theyre only staying for ten minutes 87
As for you, | Ill deal with you later.
32 It wasnt really bad 88 Before you jump to conclusions, | listen to
33 Im free today what I have to say.
34 She could read a book 89 I thought | the science exam would be
35
I can let you have two hard, | but it was the Maths | that I found
36 They could go on foot difficult.
37 Will you be able to write a reference for me? 90 I didnt decide not to buy the hat because it
38
I dont suppose youd like to buy one was too expensive, | I just didnt like the
39 You couldnt do me a favour colour.
40
Do you want to borrow my umbrella? 91 I didnt buy the car | because it was cheap
41
Couldnt you come another day? | so I guessed | it wouldnt be reliable.
42
Can I open the door for you? 92 She didnt fail the exam because she was
43
She didnt do it because she was tired lazy |she was really ill | on the day.
44
She didnt do it | because she was tired. 93 The figures Ive presented so far, |and will
45 I dont want to sound rude, | but is that go on to present, |show that the company
your dog? is | in a strong financial position.
46 She didnt say she would do it, |she said 94
Some of our major exports | coffee, | for
she wouldnt. example, | would be hit badly | by climate
47 She said that she wouldnt do it, | not that change.
she would 95 Learning about pronunciation, | in
48
After lunch, | we could call on Mary. particular English pronunciation, |can be a
49 If I were you, | Id reject it. difficult | job.
50 On the table, | youll find a jug. 96 Professor David Campbell, | the famous
51
If I were you, | Id wait and see what historian, |will be giving | next weeks
happens. lecture.
52 Unfortunately, | Ive lost your letter. 97 Lima, | as Im sure you know, | is the
53 Andy isnt the only one interested, | Neils capital | of Per.
interested, | too. 98 If a complaint is made, | and theres no
54 If Martha wants to come, | as well, |well certainty | at the moment | that this will be
need a bigger car. the case, | we will take it seriously.
55 Why not go for a walk? Thats what Mary 99 Id rather meet at ten, | if you can make it.
does.
56 The made the outhouse into a bathroom |
and installed running water.
57 Weve solved that problem.
91 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 5: (track 47)


In these examples, B partially agrees with something A has just said and then goes on to add more
information.

1 A: Its important to get it right.


B: Of COURSE its important to get it right, | but its VERy difficult!
2 A: We dont agree with you.
B: I KNOW you dont a gree with me, | but IM right!
3 A: The islands beautiful.
B: Of COURSE its beautiful, | but its TOO far.
4 A: She likes diamonds.
B: Of COURSE she likes diamonds, | but they COST a fortune!
5 A: This hats a bargain!
B: I KNOW its a bargain, | but I DONT need it!
6 A: Hes a difficult person to work with.
B: Of COURSE hes a difficult person to work with, | but hes VERy famous!

Task 6: (track 48)


In these examples, the same words are used as responses to two different contexts. First listen to each
context, predict the answer and contrast it with the audio.

1 Theres a very good fish restaurant where we could have dinner tonight.
I HAD fish | for lunch.
2 We wont have time to eat later. So I hope youve had something already.
WELL I had fish | for lunch.
3 My cousins coming to stay in April. Id like you to meet him.
IM going to France | in April.
4 So youre going to France and Italy for your holidays next year. Paris is lovely in
May and June.
Im GOing to France | in April.
5 I always meet John when I go to the swimming pool. He must go there every day, I
think.
Hes TAKen up swimming | to KEEP fit.
6 I dont know how Alan is going to keep in shape, working such long hours at the
office.
Hes TAKen up swimming | to KEEP fit.
7 I think I should write to the managing director but I dont know where to send the
letter.
The FIRMS head office | in London.
8 I complained to the shop in the High Street but the letter I got in reply came from
London.
The FIRMS head office | in London.
9 His exam results were good. What did he do when he got them?
He apPLIED for uni versity | when he KNEW he had passed.
10 So, hes hoping to go to university. Has he applied yet?
He apPLIED for uni versity | when he KNEW he had passed.
92 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 7: (track 49)


Listen to the following utterances, which you will hear twice. In each case, mark the onsets and tones in the
transcript and decide which of the questions, (a) or (b), provides a suitable context for what you hear.

1 I met Robert | this morning.


A: Who did you meet today?
B: When did you meet Robert?

2 He told me | he was in love.


A: What did he tell you?
B: How do you know he was in love?

3 She started to worry | a bout her e xams.


A: How does Sue feel about her exams?
B: What is Sue worrying about?

4 I learned Spanish | at school.


A: Where did you learn to speak Spanish?
B: Did you learn any languages at school?

Task 8:
Carl is trying to persuade Brenda to go out for a drink but Brenda has something arranged every night and
cant accept. Choose the appropriate tone in Brendas answers. The onsets have been capitalized and in
bold.

(track 50) Busy Brenda.


CARL: How about coming out for a drink on Tuesday?
BRENDA: Un fortunately, | Ive got some letters to write | on Tuesday.
CARL: Why dont we go on Wednesday, then?
BRENDA: Im aFRAID I have to go to a meeting | on Wednesday.
CARL: Can you go on Thursday?
BRENDA: Sorry, | Ive GOT to do some homework | on Thursday.
CARL: Well, lets go on Friday, after work.
BRENDA: I cant! Ive GOT to wait for a phone call | on Friday.
CARL: Could you manage Saturday, then?
BRENDA: Im aFRAID not! Im GOING to the theatre | on Saturday.
CARL: Oh, dear. Sunday, perhaps?
BRENDA: Its im possible! Im GOIng to visit my sister | on Sunday.
CARL: Well, that just leaves Monday!
BRENDA: Sorry, | Ive GOT things to do | on Monday. I need | some time
| for my self!
93 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 9:
Carl and Brenda have finally arranged to meet. What they dont know yet is what to do. Whatever Carl
suggests Brenda has either done already or is going to do soon. This time, choose the appropriate onset
and tone. Then check your answers against the recording.

(track 51) Busy Brenda.


CARL: Lets go to the theatre.
BRENDA: Im going to the theatre | on Saturday.
CARL: Lets go to the sports centre, then.
BRENDA: Im going to the sports centre | to morrow.
CARL: Would you like to see a film?
BRENDA: Im going to the cinema | this evening.
CARL: Shall we visit Janet? She keeps inviting us
BRENDA: Im going to visit Janet | next Monday.
CARL: We could try the new Italian restaurant.
BRENDA: I went there | last Saturday.
CARL: Why dont we drive to the coast?
BRENDA: We drove to the coast | on Thursday.
CARL: Well, lets just stay in and listen to some music.
BRENDA: We stayed in | last night! Thats what we always do in the
end.

Task 10:
Decide on the type of onset and tone.

(track 52) Tea time


GLENN: What can we have for tea.

BOB: Weve got some strawberries.


GLENN: So, whats the problem?
BOB: We havent got any cream.
94 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

(track 53) Cancellation


SARAH: Im not really sure, | but I think I may have to
cancel our /meeting.
IAN: Oh, Im sorry about that. Whats the trouble?
Has something come up?
SARAH: Well, actually, | its my mother. She needs to go into
hospital | and she wants me | to take her /there.

(track 54) Cornwall

PAUL: Planning to go a way this year?


TILLY: Weve just been away. We had a Week in Cornwall.
PAUL: And how was it?
TILLY: Oh, we had a marvellous time. The only problem | was
the weather. Un fortunately, | it rained most of the time.
PAUL: So what did you do during all this rain?
TILLY: Well, the great at traction | was the Eden Project. I found
it utterly fascinating.

Task 11:
Listen to this text. Provide the intonation marks needed.

(track 55) Bel Amis


WAITER: Welcome to Bel Amis restaurant, ladies and gentlemen. Im
your waiter this evening and Id like to go through the menu
with you. The first course offers a wide choice of starters. Id
particularly recommend the angels on horseback, the pumpkin
soup, or the celery soup. For the main course, we have steak,
lamb or fish or also a vegetarian alternative. I believe the
rump steak is particularly good tonight.
95 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 12: The fall rise in the classroom!


1 Listen, | why dont we () 13 Any questions?
2 Excuse me, | () 14 Can I go to the toilet?
3 Can you repeat, please? 15 Can you lend me your pen?
4 Sorry, | but () 16 Is this right?
5 Today, | () 17 Is this Ok?
6 First, |() and then, |() Finally, |() 18 Can you speak louder?
7 Last class, |() 19 Can I have your attention, please?
8 Is it clear? 20 Any volunteers?
9 Have you finished? 21 Next week, | ()
10 Ready? 22 Careful
11 Are you ready? 23 Are you sure?
12 Does it ring a bell? 24 Is that correct?

Task 13: First sight reading


TEXT 1 On the road
BENJAMIN: The road to her house is on the left.
STELLA: Not left, right.
BENJAMIN: I dont want to argue, but I am absolutely sure.
STELLA: Dont you remember that cottage?
BENJAMIN: It was after that cottage!
STELLA: You know it wasnt
BENJAMIN: All right if you say so

TEXT 2 Double checking


SALLY: Andy, did you say 10.30?
ANDY: Yes, Sally. Why?

SALLY: Nothing, really. I thought it was at 11.30.


ANDY: Not as far as I know, but you can never be too sure.
SALLY: Do you think Mary will know?

ANDY: You can ask her, but shes quite forgetful.

TEXT 3 On the phone


TELEPHONIST: Dr. Smithson is not in, Im afraid.
MS NEWELL: I understand that, but is he coming back today?
TELEPHONIST: Im sorry, I dont know.
MS NEWELL: Well, let me think. Can I leave a message for him?
TELEPHONIST: By all means.
96 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

TEXT 4 Raising funds


CLAIRE: In my opinion, we should charge for participation.

WILLIAM: Are you sure thats a wise idea?

CLAIRE: As you know, we have to cover our costs.

WILLIAM: I agree with you, but there are other ways.

CLAIRE: For example?

WILLIAM: Like asking for contributions, that sort of thing.

TEXT 5 Warm, not hot


TOBY: Well, you told me to soak it in hot water

CHARLES: I never said that!


TOBY: I even wrote it down, Charles. Look!

CHARLES: I said nothing about hot water. What I told you was to dip it in warm
water.
TOBY: Thats exactly what I did!

CHARLES: Thats not what you did. Warm is not a synonym for hot!

TEXT 6 Wrong solution


ROSE: You told me to leave them in the solution, and thats what I did.

SYBIL: I didnt tell you to leave them in the solution.

ROSE: You know you did!


SYBIL: I certainly did not. What I told you was to leave the first lot in the
solution, not these ones.
ROSE: Thats what you think you said, but thats not what you actually said.
SYBIL: Lets agree to disagree.

TEXT 7 Footing the bill


HUGH: Well, whats it come to? Was it expensive?

TONY: Hm? Oh, no leave it to me. I insist.


HUGH: No please. It was my idea.
TONY: Doesnt matter. Its on me today.
HUGH: Look, I cant possibly let you pay it all. Lets split the bill.
TONY: Well if youre absolutely sure. Thank you very much.
97 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 14: Communication activity

Student A:
Youve just come back from holiday in the south of Spain. You meet Student B who you know has been on
holiday in Italy. Ask your friend about his/her holiday assuming that he/she did the same sort of activities
as you.
E.g. You stayed ed in a hotel, so ask about student Bs hotel.
You travelled by air, so ask what his/her flight was like.

Using the information below, answer As questions about your holiday. Do not offer information until
youre asked about that part of your holiday.

Information:
You travelled by air It was a charter flight and was crowded and uncomfortable.
Your holiday lasted two weeks you got home yesterday.
You stayed in a big hotel It was new and didnt have much character.
The hotel was near the beach You spent all your time sunbathing and swimming.
You didnt do any sightseeing In fact, you didnt travel at all while you were there.
You didnt eat any local/traditional food the hotel gave you international tourist food.
You enjoyed a really good night life varied and exciting.
Now, you have no money left.

Student B:
Youve just come back from holiday in the south of Italy. You meet Student A who you know has been on
holiday in Spain. Ask your friend about his/her holiday assuming that he/she did the same sort of
activities as you.
E.g. You did part of the journey by boat, so ask him/her if the sea was calm.
You visited lots of interesting places, so ask student A about the paces he/she visited.

Using the information below, answer As questions about your holiday. Do not offer information until
youre asked about that part of your holiday.

Information:
You made the journey by boat and train and took your bicycle.
You were away for three weeks arrived back last week.
You camped
d in a small tent which you took with you.
You stayed in a different place every night always somewhere quiet.
You spent all your time visiting places of historical interest your special interest is art.
You ate good country food enjoyed the regional specialties.
You were not at all interested in any night life you spend the evenings reading about the places you
planned to visit.
Now, you feel fit and healthy you spent very little, so you have a lot of money left.
98 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Level

Awareness raising

Focus
ocus on form (track 56):

The level tone in detail

If there is no tail, the nuclear syllable is lengthened. If there is a tail, all its syllables remain at the same level
as the nucleus.
99 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Focus on meaning:
The Level: Basic Meanings & Uses
School of London School of Birmingham
Continuation & Minor information Oblique orientation (shift from attention
(dependent) from the listener towards the language)
Sometimes, | I want to kill
kill you. (Leading) Pre-coded discourse
We got up, | we had breakfast,
breakfast, | we Ready, |steady, |go!
grabbed our stuff, | and went
went to school. I declare you | husband
husband | and wife.
Boredom, lack of involvement Hesitations
Ok. I would like to order | um
um | er | some
Do as you wish. sushi.
Building up suspense Continuation (avoidance of R tones)
The winner is | The Big Bang
Bang Theory.
Theory How long | do you think
think that the president
| will spend abroad?

Semantic criterion: the fall-rise


sounds like a robot.
Stop it
Oh, no
Maybe

Task 1: (track 57)


1 I cant stand it.
2 What do I do now.
3 Oh, Lord | open thou our lips.
lips.
4 Are you ready to answer.
5 Silly old fool.
6 There he sat,| drinking his bear
bear, |
7 He only plays
plays | when theres a lot of prize money.
8 First we have one thing,| then
then we have another!
a
9 Thats the end of the weather
weather forecast, | now we go on to the news.
10 And the name for this process
process is | electrolysis.
11 Id like you to note particularly
ticularly | the spelling of the word | definitive.
12 Er |emmm | Oh, | er...
er... | a cheese sandwich, please, Christina?
13 One beef sandwich, | two
two | cheese sandwiches, | and | three teas.
14 Hi, Gina. Hi, Bill.
15 Weve got these | three free tickets
|
16 Its about | the six best | Olympic
lympic | gymnastic
gym competitions.
17 The history | of English cricket.
cricket.
18 There was this | er | smelly
smelly | anchovy and salad sandwich | you left
left on your desk,
Aaron.
100 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

19 She says you create | a bad atmosphere.


20 You have to keep your desk | spick and span.
21 This is | Antony. I | have to contact you | about the maps.
22 She said | you had it | on Saturday.
23 I | have to let you know | whats happened | at the travel agency.
24 Send a message | with your fax number.
25 I want a holiday | from this horrible job | of washing socks.
26 Well, | it was awful.
27 Could you tell me | where youve put my book, Bronwen?
28 Im going to put | all my books | in a box | and lock it.
29 The two | rudest students in the school.
30 Could you tell me | where I can get some shoe laces?
31 Can you buy | something for me | at the newsagents?
32 Well, | what do you want?
33 Some chocolates, | and a tin of sweets, | and an address book.
34 Snow | in October.
35 What is it, Joanna?
36 Have you looked | carefully | everywhere?
37 Upstairs, | downstairs, | everywhere!
38 Passports, please.
39 I think | Ive lost the passports.
40 Perhaps you put them | in the plastic bag.
41 Put the things | in the plastic bag.
42 I want to buy | a skirt
43 Where can I get | some Thai food?
44 The next counter | on your left.
45 Could you tell me | where the | er | travel agents is?
46 Please, leave a message | and well get back to you.
47 Give us a call, | bye!
48 News | Update!
49 Charles told me | two jeeps | crashed on it | in January.
50 I saw | William again on Wednesday.
51 I want to buy | the hat in the window.
52 Do you want the one | with the feathers?
53
Im going to the bar | to order some more | German beer.

Task 2: (track 58)


Compare these two texts related to the covering of a football match. Mark the onsets and tones you hear:

TEXT 1:
In Barce lona today, | sup porters clashed | when England played | their
World Cup match | a gainst Spain, | the present cup holders. England had
held the champions | to one- one | until half time, | but soon after play was
re sumed | a penalty was awarded | a gainst them. Ac cording to our re porter, |
Jim Bullock, | the de cision caused | uproar | among a group | of England
fans, | and this in turn | triggered an angry response | from some op posing
supporters | in an ad joining | section of the stand.
101 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Text 2:

Sup porters clashed | during play | in the World Cup match | here
to day. England | had held the champions | to one- one | un til half time,
| but soon | after play was re sumed | a penalty | was a warded a gainst
them. The de cision | caused uproar | a mong a group | of England fans.
And this in turn | pro voked | and angry re sponse | from some op posing |
sup porters | in an adjoining section | of the stand.

Task 3: (track 59)


Listen to this recording. Provide the intonation of the sections in bold.

Flight to Birmingham

VERNON: Id like to reserve
serve a seat | on the ten thirty flight | to Birmingham, |
on Thursday.
Thursday. My name is Vernon.
ASSISTANT: Thursday May the twenty first? Certainly, sir. Theres a seat
in the third row.
VERNON: Thats fine. And Im returning | on May the twenty
twenty third.
ASSISTANT: The first flight
flight | leaves Birmingham | at eight thirty.
thirty.
VERNON: Thats a bit early.
early.
ASSISTANT: Or theres twelve thirty, or four thirty.
VERNON: Four thirtys
thirtys | too late. Twelve thirty, please.
ASSISTANT: On the twelve
twelve |
thirty flight | on
May the twenty
twenty third, | theres
only a seat free
free | in row | thirteen.
VERNON: Row thirteen?
teen? No, thanks. Ill go at eight thirty.

Task 4: Proverbs and sayings


1 Too many hands | ____________________________________________

2 Jack of all trades


trades | ____________________________________________

3 One mans meat


meat | _____________________________________________

4 When the going gets tough


tough | __________________________________

5 Hope for the best


best | ____________________________________________

6 If it aint broke
broke | ______________________________________________
102 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 5: First sight reading


TEXT 1 Lords Prayer
Our Father who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name.
Thy kingdom come.
Thy will be done
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread,
and forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those who trespass against us,
and lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from
fro evil.

TEXT 2 Humpty Dumpty


Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.
All the king's horses and all the king's men
Couldn't put Humpty together again.

TEXT 3 US Presidential Oath


I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of
the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect
and defend the Constitution of the United States

TEXT 4: UK Sworn Testimony Presidential Oath


I swear by Almighty God that the evidence I shall give shall be the truth,
the whole truth and nothing but the truth.

TEXT 5: Solomon Grundy


Solomon Grundy,
Born on a Monday,
Christened on Tuesday,
Married on Wednesday,
Took ill on Thursday,
Grew worse on Friday,
Died on Saturday,
Buried on Sunday.
That was the end,
Of Solomon Grundy.
103 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Sequences of tones: leading and trailing tones


LEADING TONE MAJOR INFORMATION USE
Minor info - Dependent Major info - Independent Tone
Topic Comment
1 Archibald,
2 Archibald, where are the towels Ive just bought? Topicalization
3 Archibald,

4
Last Sunday,
5 Last Sunday, my whole family visited Granny. Fronting
6 Last Sunday,

MAJOR POINT OF INFORMATION TRAILING TONE USE


Independent tone Dependent tone
1
last Sunday.
Separate IP
2 My whole family visited Granny last Sunday.
Non nuclear time marker
3 last Sunday.
as tail.

Task 1:
Decide which part of Bs intervention is the major point of info and which are leading or trailing tones. Choose the
leading tone you like and ask your partners to say what tone it was. Each nucleus is already undelined.

1 A: What was your weekend like? B: Saturday | was absolutely fantastic | you know.
2 A: Im most grateful for your B: If thats all, | I think Ill be going.
/help.
3 A: So you did go to their /house. B: Yes and when I arrived, | there was nobody in.
4 A: I thought of going for a walk. B: Ill come too, | if I may.
5 A: Who was the best? B: Graham, | in my opinion.
6 A: Imagine going out in this B: Rain or shine, | they always go out on Sunday
/weather! afternoon.
7 A: I dont really trust him... B: !Whether you trust him or not, | weve just got to
believe him.
8 A: Whats the weather gonna /do? B: Its gonna rain | according to the forecast.
9 A: Hes supposed to be back B: If hes not here in a ten minutes, | Ill leave
soon... without seeing him | Im afraid.
10 A: How much did George /know? B: Nothing | his brother says.
11 A: I think | James /broke it. B: If thats so, | what can we do about it now?
12 A: Sorry, | hes out, Im a/fraid. B: When he comes back, | please tell him I phoned.
13 A: Shall I fetch them? B: If youre sure you dont mind | go ahead.
14 A: What a dreadful summer. B: January | was terrible. It was nice in February |
though.
15 A: Whose fault was it, /then? B: Dad says | it was yours | as a matter of fact.
16 A: Can I lend you a hand? B: Ive just finished, | thank you very much.
17 A: It looks like rain, | Im afraid. B: Then lets stay at home | in that case.
18 A: Which one can I take? B: You can take both, | as far as Im concerned.
19 A: Is she still married? B: Yes she is, | as far as I know.
104 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Rise-Fall

Awareness raising (track 60)


Whos talking to whom?
Whats the problem?
How does the speaker feel?
How does she make you feel?
Why?

Focus
ocus on form (track 61)

The rise-fall in detail

Cruttenden (2008, p. 275) states that a fall may be reinforced by an introductory rise, being realized as a
continuous glide. The different variants are:

If there is no tail, the nuclear syllable is manifested as a rise-fall


rise fall glide.
If the tail consists of one syllable, there are two possibilities:
o the nucleus may be heard as an accented syllable followed by a falling glide that
starts on a higher pitch level.
o the nucleus may be heard as a rising glide followed by a low syllable.
If the tail consists of more than one syllable, the nucleus may be an accented syllable on a
mid-level
level pitch, the first syllable in the tail is higher than the nucleus and the remaining
syllables are pitched low.
105 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Focus on meaning:
The Rise-Fall:
Rise Basic Meanings & Uses
School of London School of Birmingham
A reinforced variety of fall Information that is new to listener
The speaker may be impressed AND SPEAKER
Her house is huge! Its like a palace!
palace! This bag is full of gold!

The speaker may be challenging Linguistic control


He can think what he likes. I know
know Im Youre late. Tell me where
where youve been.
better than him. Divergent (separateness)
Well, | so you finally decided
cided to turn up.

Task 1 (track 62)

Think about these two phrases. What punctuation marks would you use? Why?

Justin

Dudley

Todos!
dos! (Julieta Prandi)
Correcto!
recto! (Susana Gimnez)

NOTE:
There are two allotones in English, each of them
corresponds to a different phonological tone in Spanish.
Spanish
Be careful!!!

Susana!
Susana?

Use this tone with care (if at all)!

Greatest source of interference (L1 > L2)


106 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 2 (track 63)

1 Now! 30 Take two!

2 Nice! 31
Its an electric | cuckoo clock!

3 Heavens! 32 Its American!

4 Awesome! 33 It was very | expensive.

5 Wonderful! 34 So youre in Portugal!

6
Bill threatened /Jim | and then he hit him. 35 Surprises | in the post office.

7 We are planning to fly to Italy. 36 This parcel | contains | six | mice!

8 What a surprise! 37 But the sheets | have shrunk!

9 He thought Id finished the /essay. 38 Oh, | yes!

10 But how do you want to pay for it? 39 Oh, | dear!

11 So will you /do it? 40 We just love living here.

12 What do you think it was? 41 William again!

13 Patients | are now en couraged | to exercise | 42 Oh, no!


instead of rest.
14 But in fact, | hes from Canada. 43 Yes!

15 Karls | given up his college /course! 44 Theres been a horrible accident.

16 How embarrassing! 45 Whats happened?

17 How cool! 46 How awful!

18 The view is magnificent | isnt it? 47 I thought | he was a mathematician!

19 I dont like anyone borrowing my bike. 48 Samantha gave me | nothing to drink!

20 Ill be staying for a month! 49 Whats that banging noise, Sharon.

21 Onwash | is so popular! 50 No!

22 Its on the floor | next to your foot! 51 Shes running | to our house!

23 Mmm! 52 Now shes ringing | our bell!

24 Ill be late | for my appointment! 53 Youre very early | for lunch.

25 Wake up, Joe! 54 Its only | eleven oclock.

26
His beard | has nearly | disappeared into 55 Be sensible, Paul!

his beer.

27 Somebody gave me | this blouse for my 56


Oh, no. Roland | is a pilot, Lara.

birthday.

28 Its got | mmm | er... | blue butterflies 57 Wonderful!

on it.
29 So | I | er | decided to stay at home!
107 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 3 (track 64)


1 A: She came top of the class. B: Did she just! Well well!
2 A: I paid fifty dollars for it. B: Fifty!
3 A: Janes left her husband. B: Terrible, | isnt it?
4 A: Sallys just had triplets. B: My goodness!
5 A: I
dont want to antagonize her. B: But youve got to be firm.
6 A: I need a break. B: Dont we all!
7 A: What colour shall I choose? B: Please yourself.
8 A: I dont
want to take chemistry. B: Take physics, then.
9 A: May I take this newspaper? B: Do.
10 A: The boss | wants the re port | by B: Tomorrow?
tomorrow.
11 A: Karen says | she wants to be a vet. B: Really?
12 A: Theyve got diamonds in them. B: Diamonds!
13 A: Im going to read | The Riders | next. B: Thats the book I wonted.
14 A: Jane | has left Adam. B: Youre kidding.
15 A: Hes bought a Porsche. B: A Porsche!
16 A: Dan got | the job. B: Great!
17 A: Its incredible | to think that its | over a B: Amazing!
hundred years old.
18 A: Jacks just /bought | a new car! Its pink. B: Pink?
19 A: This cheese | is frozen! B: Frozen?
20 A: You love my cousin. B: Justin?
21 A: No, | his brother. B: Dudley?
22 A: The forwards. B: The forwards?

Task 4 (track 65)

My brothers birthday
DEIRDRE: !What can I give my brother | for his birthday?
ANGUS: What does he do for a living?
DEIRDRE: Hes a van driver.
ANGUS: Give him some driving gloves.
DEIRDRE: He doesnt wear gloves | when he drives, | not even in winter.
ANGUS: What does he do as a hobby?
DEIRDRE: In w
; arm weather,| he goes swimming.| And he plays golf.
ANGUS: Give him some golf clubs!
DEIRDRE: Hes already got a bag | full of golf clubs.| His golf bag | is so heavy |
he can hardly move it.
ANGUS: What does he do in the winter?
DEIRDRE: He belongs | to a football club. | But he spends more time | drinking
beer in the bar | than playing football.
ANGUS: That solves your problem! | Give him a big | bottle of beer!
108 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Task 5 (track 66)

I havent seen you | for ages


SOPHIE: Mike? Im over here.
MIKE: Sophie! You look great! You havent changed | a bit!
SOPHIE: Oh, | I dont know Its been over ten years! Im definitely older, | if

not wiser
MIKE: Well, | you look just the same to me.
SOPHIE: Aw
MIKE: Come on, | weve got over ten years | to catch up on, | and not | a lot
of time. My plane leaves | at seven | this evening.
SOPHIE:
Tell me about you, first. How long have you been working in Madrid?
What are you doing there?
MIKE: Well, | I work | for a big international IT company. And at the
moment, | Im based in Madrid. Ive been there about | eighteen
months, | now.
SOPHIE: Wow! That sounds important! Are you | enjoying it?
MIKE: Yeah, | very much. But theres a chance | that Ill have to move to
Germany | in three months. Thats where the headquarters are.
SOPHIE: That sounds interesting, | too!
MIKE: Yeah, | but | I have a Spanish girlfriend, | now.
SOPHIE: Ahhh! I see! Whats her name?
MIKE: Rosa. Youd like her! Shes great fun | Weve been going out | nearly a
year | now.
SOPHIE: Whoa! That sounds serious! Does she | speak English?
MIKE: Oh, yes. Her English | is much better than my Spanish. I started
going | to Spanish lessons | six months ago, | but | I still find |

Spanish pronunciations | really difficult.
SOPHIE: Mmm. I know.
MIKE: Oh, | yeah, | you studied languages, | didnt you?
SOPHIE: Yes, | I studied French and German | at university | but, | Ive also been
trying to learn Swedish | for the last few years.
MIKE: Swedish! Why? Come on, | now is your turn, Sophie. Tell me about
you.
109 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Rise-Fall tone in River Plate Spanish:

The Greatest Source of Tone Interference

Do you think we use the rise-fall in River Plate Spanish? Probably you dont think so, although the very title
of this article states the opposite. We actually do use this tone, and a lot!!! We are totally unaware of this,
as usual. Remember that we are normally aware of the existence of sounds because we have been trained
at school to relate what we hear to what we write, but we have never been trained to listen to intonation
in an analytical way.

First of all, I want to test you! Read out the following phrase in a colloquial way. Lets imagine that you are
talking to a friend of yours:

Susy, ya terminaste toda la tarea?

Can you read the following chunks, please?

Susy| ya terminaste| toda la tarea?|

You are likely to have used three rise-falls. The first and second tone units may take a leading tone that
shows continuity. The last tone unite may take another rise-fall to show that this is a checking question
(this is typical of yes-no questions).

Susy| ya termi naste| toda la ta rea?|

Now which tone would you use in its English counterpart?

Suzie| have you finished | all your homework?

Definitely, a rise-fall would be out of the question. If the speaker does not want to sound divergent and
dominant (see Brazil), or challenging (see OConnor) a rise-fall would be wrong. Maybe a fall-rise is a nicer
option. Actually, we may say that many times a rise-fall in River Plate Spanish is the equivalent of a Fall-Rise
in Standard British English.

2 ;Suzie| have you ;finished | all your ;homework?

Where is the danger?


We dont always use a rise-fall in Spanish. We only use this tone in paroxytone words (i.e. palabras graves)
or pro-paroxytone words (i.e. palabras esdrjulas) when they bear the nucleus. In other words, the rise-fall
emerges when there are syllables in the tail. We normally use this tone in checking yes-no questions or as a
continuative tone. In nuclear oxytone words (i.e. palabras agudas) we normally use a rise, as there are no
syllables in the tail to spread the rise-fall (this is similar in English).
110 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

E.g.

Spanish English

S? See?

Vens por m? Is that for me?

Est al re vs? Is that for Bess?

Conocs a Betty? Do you know Betty?

Termi naste? Have you finished?

Sabs lo ltimo? Is that your uniform?

Also, we may use this same tone to express surprise or irony (this use is similar in English).

Think of Antonio Gasalla. When he becomes the old lady and talks to Susana Gimnez he is likely to use:

Declaratives: Su sana.

Yes-No Questions: Su sana?

Exclamations: Su sana!

Negative Transfer
Make sure that you do not use a rise-fall in English unless you know that you really want to.

E.g.

You should say You should avoid

Are you ready? Are you ready?

Have you finished? Have you finished?

;Billy| do you understand this? Billy| do you under stand this?


111 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Unit 3: Tonicity

Aims:
To expand your knowledge of nucleus placement
To compare and contrast different approaches to this topic
To practise tonicity intensively

Contents:
Tonicity: definition. Neutral and marked tonicity
Tonicity as seen from the different models: the traditional model, the semantic model, the
discoursal model and the focal model
Intonational, lexical and grammatical focussing
Focus and tonicity
Broad and narrow focus
Newness and givenness
Exceptions to the LLI
Fixed tonicity

Compulsory Bibliography:
Ortz Lira, Hctor (1998). Word Stress and Sentence Accent. Santiago de Chile: Universidad
Metropolitana de Cs de la Educacin. Facultad de Cs., Geografa y Letras. Chapter 4: Sentence
accent
Wells, J (2006). English Intonation. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Chapter 3: Tonicity
Brazil et. al. (1980). Discourse Intonation and Language Teaching . Longman: London. Chapter 3
The tone unit
Brazil (1994). Pronunciation for Advanced Learners of English. CUP: Cambridge. Pages 17-18.

Further Reading:
Cruttenden, Alan (1997). Intonation. Second edition. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Section 4.3: Nucleus placement
112 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Nucleus Placement in Detail


Cruttenden (1997) discusses the different focusing devices that are available in the language. It is
interesting to note that this point presents marked differences between Spanish and English. These
focusing differences are manifested phonologically in the choice of tonicity. Each language makes use of
the intonation, grammar and lexis to show focus:
1. Intonational focusing The focus structure of an intonation phrase is manifested by the
placement of the nucleus.

2. Grammatical focusingCertain grammatical structures are used to handle the focused


material in specific ways. For example, the passive voice, cleft sentences and pseudo-cleft
sentences are used to bring material into focus. In general, the nucleus is placed on the
focalized elements.E.g.:

!Granny was accosted by a po liceman. (Focus on the agent)


It is pho netics that drives us crazy. (Focus on the real subject)
What you !need is a good rest. (Focus on the object)

3. Lexical focusing Some words can be used to bring material into focus. These words
govern the placement of the nucleus. E.g.:

Even: The nucleus falls on the item it governs


!Even J
esus had /enemies.

Too: It is always nuclear if it is in final position. Optionally, it can be chunked off.


!I want holidays, too. / !I want holidays, | too.

If Spanish and English syntactic structure is compared, it will become evident that Spanish has a greater
freedom of constituent mobility. The nucleus tends to fall on the last lexical item in Spanish almost
exclusively because this syntactic flexibility allows many elements to be in nuclear final position. In English,
however, the number of syntactic constraints has an impact on the phonological nucleus: the more
restricted the syntactic freedom, the freer the placement of the nucleus. To illustrate this, lets compare
the behaviour of event sentences:
Es!t so nando tu celu lar. Is !ringing your phone.
Your phone is /ringing.
113 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The noun phrase can be placed at the end of the intonation phrase in Spanish, but not in English. Therefore,
Spanish allows most items to be move to the end to take the nucleus. English, on the other hand, keeps the
order fixed but moves its intonation focus, which is manifested as an early nucleus.

The intonation device to signal focus is always at work. As every intonation phrase needs a nuclear syllable,
it is evident that there will always be an intonational manifestation of focus. However, there may also be
other focusing devices at play at the same time:
It was y
ou who /let the /dog out. (Grammatical focusing + intonational focusing)
!Even y
ou can be of /use. (Lexical focusing + intonational focusing)

Broad and Narrow Focus


Semantically, an intonation phrase contains different elements. These elements are linked to the whole
text and the context. The interplay between these relationships and the intonation phrase has a bearing on
the focus domain (i.e. the scope of the focus). In the next example, the question is too open to restrict the
answer in any way:
A: What happened?
B: [I have !just had a bath.]

All the items in the answer are new. The whole intonation phrase is in focus. In other words, this IP is in
broad focus.

Now, the next context is different:


A: Who has just had a bath?
B: [ I] have /just had a /bath.

This time, only part of the answer is in focus. The nucleus falls on the only new item, the pronoun. Narrow
focus occurs when only part of the information is in focus: generally, the last new item in the focus
receives the nucleus while the elements that are old remain out of focus and are deaccented.

Old Information
Old (or given) information is normally left out of focus. The big question is, then, what information can be
categorized as old information. In real-time native speech, this question does not present much difficulty:
each speaker discriminates between new and old information according to what they think that their
interlocutor knows or ignores at that very instant. A word of caution is called for here: a speaker can
choose to present information as old or new, even if it is not like that (just like politicians!). The greatest
stumbling block, however, becomes evident when speakers need to analyze a ready-made text, for they
114 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

have to act it out.. In real life, participants are aware of contextual information (i.e. time, place,
relationships between the participants, etc.), but in reading aloud, the speaker has to infer what is new and
what
at is old in that particular context.

Ortiz Lira (1998) provides the following


following taxonomy of old information. The examples illustrate cases in which
the old information is out of focus:

(On a sunny day)


Situationally I [love] dry weather.

Repetition Synonymy
A: Are you glad? A: Are you a politician?
B: I'm [very] glad B: Im
m [not] a criminal.
Linguistically
Hyponymy
A: Do you have a pet?
B: I[am allergic to] animals.
Sense relations
Converse
The cop was away | so the
[thieves] started to work.

Activity 4

Decide what type of old information is presented in each answer. Tick the right box.
Situational

Hyponymy
Repetition

Synonymy

Converse

Example
1 A: Shall we !buy some cans cans of Coke?
B: [Have] we [run ;out] out] of /fizzy /drinks?
2 A: !Where shall we sit?
B: [!What a bout]
b
out] those [ modern] /stools?
3 A: !What are your viewsv
iews on the Royal Family?
B: I [!cant under stand]
stand] the/British/monarchy.
the
4 A: Do you !like that guy guy over there?
B: I [!dont] like [ any]
any] of the /guys over /there.
5 A: !Why did you stop talking
talking to your sister?
B: Because I [!never got got on w ell with] /Sandra.
6 A: !Why did you leave
leave your w ife?
B: I [ live with] my /wife!
wife!
7 A: !Dont you w ant a burger?
burger?
B: I [ hate] meat.
115 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Nucleus on Old Information


Sometimes, old information is made nuclear. First, if the whole chunk is old,, the nucleus will naturally fall
on old information (the focus will be broad,, as the whole of the IP has the same informational status).
Second, if there is contrast,, this may imply the accenting of information that has been given before. Finally,
when a statement is followed by a Wh-question,
Wh , the nucleus in the latter may fall on old information.
1.- Customer: I /want a !pizza
pizza and a beer.
Waiter: [A !pizza
pizza and a beer.]
2.- A: Do you !want tea
tea | or coffee?
B: [ Coffee, /please.]
3.- A: Shes a !good doctor.
doctor.
B: Shes not really
really a ;doctor | shes a nurse.
4.- A: I have !split up.
plit up?] (In Spanish we would say [Por qu]
B: [!Why have you split
s q
u] te sepa/raste?).

Exceptions to the Last Lexical Item Rule

Broad focus is realized phonologically by placing the nucleus on the last lexical item (LLI rule). In general,
the focus is narrow if this is not the case. For instance:
a-.. The nucleus falls on a grammatical item.
E.g. Im [ from]
f; rom] Rome, [!not
[ in] Rome.
b-.. The nucleus falls on a grammatical item other than the last one.
E.g. A: [!Wheres
Wheres your car?]
B: I [!dont have]
have] a car.

Exceptionally, there are intonation phrases in broad focus in which the nucleus does not fall on the last
lexical item. These exceptions to the LLI rule may (a) have the nucleus in an early argument (nouns, in
general); (b) end in items that are deaccented due to their low semantic weight.

Notice!
Most of the exceptions to the LLI imply that a noun is nuclear,, in spite of the following lexical items. For
some reason, nouns are preferred in English, while verbs may be preferred in Spanish. Be on the alert! A
practical memorable tip is to think of the Supernoun.
. If you follow this hero, you will definitely
transcribe and use tonality satisfactorily.

Reading - Ortiz Lira (1998): Exceptions to the LLI (pages 59-68).


59
116 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Activity 5

After reading Ortiz Lira (1998, pages 59-68), complete the chart with the examples below.

Exceptions to the LLI Rule


1. Nucleus on the last Noun
a. Event Sentences: __________________________
b. Noun + Infinitives: __________________________
c. Nouns + Adjectives: __________________________
d. Causative constructions: __________________________
e. Wh-questions ending in a verb: __________________________
f. Final relative clauses: __________________________
g. Separable Phrasal Verbs: __________________________
h. Subject + passive verb: __________________________

2. Final elements of low semantic weight


a. Final objects of general reference: __________________________
b. Final vocatives: __________________________
c. Final reporting clauses: __________________________
d. Final comment clauses: __________________________
e. Final adverbials:
i. General time adverbials: __________________________
ii. General place adverbials: __________________________
iii. Of courtesy: __________________________
__________________________
iv. Downtoners: __________________________
v. Non-assertive proper functioning: __________________________
vi. Non-reinforcing sentence adverbials: _________________________

1. Are you FREE tonight? 11. Leave the DOOR open.


2. Can you HEAR me well? 12. Put your TOYS away.
3. GIVE me that thing. 13. Shes not MARried, I guess.
4. Hes hadhis HAIR cut. 14. The MEETings been put off.
5. Hurry UP, honey. 15. The TEACHers arrived.
6. I like the SCARF you knitted. 16. WAIT a bit.
7. I want a CHEESE burger, please. 17. We can LEAVE it, though.
8. Ill DO it, he said. 18. Weve got a TASK to finish.
9. Ill take the CALL, thank you. 19. What BOOK did you buy?
10. Its FREEZing out there.
117 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Typically Non-nuclear Expressions


Gussenhoven (1986) discusses a class of typically [-Focus] expressions. Unlike Ortiz Lira (1998),
Gussenhoven believes that the expressions concerned refer to aspects that are somehow inherently
present in the discourse model, like time, or the relationship with the interlocutor (page 93). Since opinion
seems to be divided, you should not worry about whether these expressions are really in or out of the focus
domain. However, you should be aware of the fact that, regardless of their focal status, these expressions
are normally non-nuclear. Some have been discussed above (e.g. vocatives and time and place markers)
but others are more clearly defined by Gussenhoven.

1. Time-space markers
a. Time: they may refer to the idea of when something happened, its duration or its
frequency. These expressions are extremely frequently non-nuclear.
Shes coming in a /minute.
!Lets go out to/night.
Shes ill from /time to /time.
She !stays at home a /lot.
She was !walking by the pond the /other /day.

b. Space: Only very general space markers are non-nuclear (as opposed to the highly
frequent non-nuclear time-markers).
Its !too damp in /here.
I !cant find my books /anywhere.

2. Cohesion markers
They show the relationship between the content of the IP and the context in which it
appears.
a. Additive
Its !toolate, in /fact.
Im !quitehungry, as a /matter of /fact.
Hes !not very at tractive, /really.
Shes !really mean, /actually.
You could !get a discount, for e/xample.
She may !call a doctor, for /instance.
Shes !getting tired of him, in /other /words.

b. Inferential
He !must be coming, /then.
She !cant be right, of /course.

c. Concessive
She !could have been happy, /though.
d. Reinforcing
!Dont use that language, /thank you /very /much.
Shell fail, of /course.
Ill !take you home, if /necessary.
118 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

e. Contrastive
Lets !go to a restaurant, for a /change.
Its time con/suming, on the /other /hand.

3. Hearer-appeal markers (or solidarity modifiers)


a. Softeners
Its !pretty hard, you /know.
It !cant be true, I /mean.
!Thats e nough, /thanks.
!Pass the salt, /please.
Its a !bit ex pensive, you /see.
She !wont flicker, /mind you.
b. Vocatives
;Hello, /Sandra.
Its me, Dad.
Stop it,you /two.
!Dont worry,my sweetie pie.

4. Textual markers (or parentheticals)


a. Reporting clauses.
You are w rong, she /said.
!Did you do that? Iasked.
!How terrible! he e/xclaimed.

b. Comment clauses.
Shes !not following, I /think.
It !may be difficult, I sup/pose.
!Thats life, I /know.
It was be!ginning to be dark, I /realised.
Is !that the end, I /wonder.
It !cant be true, I /hope.
She !must be glad, I i/magine.

5. Approximatives
I ;am, in a way.
She can !buy it for twenty dollars or /more.
Ill be a!round for a day or two.
Shes busy or /something.
Theyre !focused on the w edding and /all /that.
They !got >married, |!had a baby and /so on.
119 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Notice!
Veliz (2001) compares the post-nuclear patterns of Standard British English and Chilean Spanish. He finds
that the LLI is indeed preferred, but there are some exceptions anyway. Some points of contact have been
found.
1-.Final softeners: Por a c, porfa/vor. Cf. !Over here, /please.
2-.Final vocatives: !No grites, Ma/m. Cf. !Dont shout, /Mother.
3-.Some time markers: !Hizo ca lor estos/das. Cf. Its been hot these /days.
4-.Some place markers: !Hace ca lor ac. Cf. Its hot in /here.
5-. Cohesionmarkers: Es grande, de /hecho. Cf. Its big, in /fact.
6-.Textual markers: Es!t can sada, pa/rece. Cf. Shes tired, it /seems.

Activity 7

Decide the tonicity in each IP. What rule can you use to account for each choice?

1 Garys a cute baby. 14 What tone should I use?


2 Garys coming. 15 Ive got a text to transcribe.
3 Open the window, please. 16 Shush, you stupid fool.
4 Shes a cow, Sally whispered. 17 Im fine, thanks.
5 The projects been turned down. 18 I dont understand much.
6 I cant get any word you say. 19 Leave your husband, then.
7 Dont let the dog loose. 20 I cant draw very well.
8 Shall I put the kettle on? 21 Uncle Sam has just texted me.
9 Hes not frank, I guess. 22 My head aches.
10 Its too hot in BA. 23 Ive got to have the walls painted.
11 Ill pick you up tonight. 24 Sally comes from Ireland.
12 I should have this mole removed. 25 Shes got a screw loose.
13 Dont buy cheap things. 26 My sisters coming to see me
tomorrow.

Activity 8

Decide the tonicity in each IP. What rule can you use to account for each choice?

1 A: Can I see your boarding pass, please?


B: Certainly, officer.
A: How much luggage do you have?
B: I havent brought much. Just a carry on.
A: Youre travelling on business, I guess.
B: Youre right. Ill get to Paris at six thirty a.m. | and I will be
returning at six thirty p.m.
A: What airline have you chosen?
B: American Airlines.
A: All right, Mr. Brown. You can leave now. You have a plane to
catch.
120 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

2 A: Can I help you, Madam?


B: Can I see that DVD player? The silver one.
A: You cant, Im afraid. Thats just for display.
B: Oh, Im sorry to hear that. What other models do you have?
A: The new Sony has just arrived. Its a wonderful device.
B: How much is it? Very expensive?
A: Its quite inexpensive, as a matter of fact. Its just one hundred
dollars.
B: Do you take debit cards?
3 A: Are you there, Dad?
B: Im here, darling. Im free right now.
A: I need a hand | with the camera Ive just bought. I cant take the
battery out.
B: Wait a second. Youd better read the manual first. Here it says |
that you cant open the lid | when the red light is on.

4 A: Hi, Hillary. This is Emma speaking.


B: Hi, Emma. Is everything OK?
A: Im at the bank at the moment. Theres some money missing.
B: Thats sounds bad,| terribly bad. Is that the companys money?
A: Theres a problem with the deposit you made.

5 A: The computers crashed.


B: Its happened three times today. Have you had the system
checked?
A: I do want to have it checked, of course. Ive found the IT guys,|
but they never come.
B: I hate technicians. I think they enjoy our suffering. What does
your boss say?
A: He wants to have their manager fired.

6 A: Look, the paint is peeling off. And theres a leak in that corner.
B: We should get the house painted. If not, we wont be able to sell
the place.
A: How much money do we need?
B: It depends. Do you want to get a permanent | or a temporary
repair?
A: I dont care if the repairs dont last. I just want to get rid of this
property.
121 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Fixed Tonicity
Some cases of nucleus placement are more difficult to account than the previous ones. Many times, the
tonicity has become fixed as an idiomatic expression. Some other times, certain lexical items demand a
specific accentual treatment. In this section, a number of fixed expressions presented by Wells (2006) are
presented:

1. Pronouns in nuclear position


a. Verb TO BE + nuclear pronominal complement
Its me.
Thats it.
This is it.

b. Nuclear pronouns that are not contrastive


!Followme. !Get her! (= Look at her putting on airs)
ou! (genuine congratulation)
!Good for y ou! (sarcastic congratulation)
!Bully y
!What are y
ou doing here? !Blow me! (=Im very surprised)
!What do I care? !Search me! (Ive no idea)

c. Nucleus + of mine/his/hers/yours/theirs/ours
Shes a friend of /mine.
/his.
/hers.
/yours.
/ours.
/theirs.

d. Final nuclear demonstratives


!Look at this!
Id !like some of those, /please.

e. Locative THERE.
!Hold it right there. (Nuclear: it refers to a new location and it is a complement.)

!Look at that dog there.(Non-nuclear: it works as a setting because it is an adjunct.)

f. Reflexive pronouns
!He did it all by him self. (Nuclear: it is an emphatic reflexive porsimismo)

ut him/self.(Non-nuclear: it is just a reflexive se cort)


Hes c
122 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

2. Operators in nuclear position: Short questions and short answers


A: Did he? B: Yes, | he did. / B: Yes, he did.
B: Has she? B: No, | she hasnt./ B:No, she hasnt.

3. Prepositions in nuclear position


a. Wh- word + nuclear preposition
!What of it? !What a bout it? !Who w
ith?

b. Wh- word + BE + pronoun + nuclear preposition


!Whats it for? !Whats it a bout?

4. TOO, AS WELL, EITHER


When these occur at the end of a clause, they may alternatively be nuclear or take a separate
chunk.
I love you, | too. I !love you, too.
Can you come | as well? Can you !come, as well?
She !cant sing | either. She !cant sing, either.

5. ENOUGH
a. Nuclear adjective + ENOUGH
Shes !not smart e/nough. Your !test wasnt good e/nough.

b. Nuclear adjectival or nominal ENOUGH


!Thats e nough. You !havent studied e nough.

6. AGAIN at the end of an IP


a. Nuclear if it explicitly means one more time
You !have to call her a gain.

b. Non-nuclear if it does not specifically mean one more time


I !havent seen her a/gain.

7. INDEED at the end of an IP


a. Nuclear reinforcing adverb
!That was very good in deed.

b. Non-nuclear comment
Has he, in/deed?
123 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

8. TO BE in nuclear position
a. Wh- word + nuclear TO BE + pronoun / Wh- word + pronoun + nuclear TO BE
!How are you? !Tell me how you are.
!Who w
ere they? !Tell me w
ho they w
ere.

b. HERE + pronoun + nuclear TO BE


!Here they are. !Here it is. !Here you are.

c. TO BE acting as a separable phrasal verb


The nucleus may fall on the object or the adverb
Is the television on? Is the !television on?
!Whats the book a/bout? !Whats the book about?

d. Fossilized expressions
The !trouble is | that we !need more cash.
!problem
!thing
!difficulty

9. SOME in nuclear position to express a fossilized contrast


In ;some /cases | its !hard to j ump to a con clusion.
For ;some /reason | this !doesnt seem to be agood so lution.

10. ONE:
a. Not accented after an adjective
!Press the red one. !Bring me the big one.

b. Nuclear in the following fixed expressions


( right)
( w
rong)
!Marys the ( first) one.
( last)
( only)
!Which one?
124 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

11. Single stressed phrasal verb


TO !POUR DOWN It was !really pouring /down.

12. Double stressed prepositional verbs (they take long prepositions)


$LOOK !AFTER !Who are you looking after?
$DO WI!THOUT !What can you do wi thout?
$BUMP !INTO !Who did you bump into?

13. Nouns in nuclear position


a. Fossilized idiomatic expressions
!Pizza makes my mouth /water. !Dont get your fingers /burnt.
Shes !got a screw /loose. Lets !wait for the dust to /settle.
!Keep your fingers /crossed. It !makes my hair stand on /end.

Theyll !get on like a house on /fire. The !pot c


alling the k
ettle /black.
Hell !have his w
ork cut /out. !Whats that sup/posed to /mean?
You can !say that a/gain. T
heres a /clever/boy.
They were at it. She !threw a spanner in the /works.
!Whats that when its at /home? !Who let the cat /out?
You can !wait till the cows come /home.
!Wait and see w
hich way the w
ind is /blowing.
She looked like !something the cat had brought /in.

b. Nuclear proper noun + BE UP TO


I !wonder what Samanthas /up to.

c. Nucleus on expected items


!Marys an in telligent girl.
!London is a lively city.
Its a !beautiful day.

14. Repetition
a. Repetition of the same information for emphasis

I 1cant ac cept it | I 1simply cant ac cept it.

b. Idiomatic expressions
Its not what he ;said | its the !way that he said it.
Ill !see you when I see you.
125 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

c. [X and X] or [X + preposition + X]
She !shouted more and more.
We !talked for hours and hours.
She !does it a gain and a gain.
Lets !talk face to face.
She got !fatter from day to day.
We !walked for miles and miles.
She got !louder and louder

Reading
After reading Ortiz Lira (1998, pages 59-68), read Wells (2006, chapter 3). The two texts complement each
other: Ortiz Lira will give you a broader perspective that focuses on the needs of Spanish speakers learning
English intonation. Wells will give you a more detailed analysis with lots of idiomatic expressions. Also,
Wells provides you with plentiful activities.
126 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Unit 4: Tone in Detail

Aims:

To explore the contributions of the Schools of London and Birmingham


To uncover the meanings associated to each tone
To compare this system to Spanish

Contents:

Abstract and local meanings


The School of London
o Sentence types: statements, questions, exclamations, commands, interjections and
greetings
o Sequences of tones
The School of Birmingham
o Transaction and interaction
o The general and social meanings of tone
o Proclaiming and referring
o Convergence and divergence
o Dominant and non-dominant tones

Compulsory Bibliography:

Brazil, D., M. Coulthard, C. Johns. (1981) Discourse Intonation and Language Teaching. Essex:
Longman.
Wells, J (2006). English Intonation. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Chapter 2: Tone: going
up and going down

Further Reading:

Cruttenden, Alan (1997). Intonation.Second edition. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.


127 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Tone in Detail

In the second unit you were introduced to the shape and configuration of the English tones. The
information there was mainly phonetic so as to guide you in the process of recognition and production of
English intonation. Also, you were provided with a list of possible meanings derived from the two major
schools of thought: the School of London and the School of Birmingham. In this unit, the focus will be
placed on the semantic and pragmatic use of the subsystem of tone.

The abstract and local meanings of the English tones


It is in the area of tone that the greatest differences between the School of London and the School of
Birmingham become evident. As you might have realised in the previous chapter, the Discoursal approach
to nucleus placement is perhaps too broad. The selection of prominences based on the speakers
assumption of what is part of the common ground and what is not does not seem to account for the whole
range of possibilities and constraints available in the tonicity subsystem. It is clear that the more
prescriptive rules presented by the traditional approach may be more beneficial for a foreign learner of
English. However, the contributions of the discoursal approach to the analysis of tone are thorough and
extremely useful.

Traditionally, the choice of tone is accounted for by two major factors: the grammatical structure of an
intonation phrase and the attitudes conveyed. For instance, yes/no questions are expected to take a rise
a low rise is thought to be neutral, while a high rise is thought to be more casual or livelier. The
circumscription of tone choices to grammatical categories such as statement, yes/no question, wh-
question, etc., may at first be interesting for a learner because this would entail a matching exercise.
However, as the system unfolds, the list of combinations becomes endless and cumbersome. Also, the
attitudes conveyed by the tones may even seem contradictory as they are normally also connected to the
choice of lexis.
128 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The discoursal approach has uncovered the phonological value of tone. In other words, the number of
contrasts has been reduced to the basic ones that can be systematized in a meaningful way. Therefore, the
more abstract meanings of each tone are presented. This means that instead of focussing on labelling the
attitude a falling tone conveys in one particular utterance, this model focuses on the meaning that a falling
tone has when applied to any utterance.

All in all, the attitudinal approach is useful to understand the local meanings of tones (i.e. the meaning
that is exploited in a particular context where both the intonation and the lexis are taken into account)
while the discoursal approach comes in handy to comprehend the abstract meanings of tones (i.e. the
more general meanings that can be applied to all occurrences of a tone).

The School of London the traditional approach

The starting point is the study of the model presented by Wells (2006). Although he belongs to the School
of London, he has minimized the episodic tendency that the attitudinal approach had. He presents the most
typical combinations of sentence-types and tone-choices. In other words, he is neither too general nor too
specific.

First, Wells (2006) describes the tone choices in intonation phrases that are made up of one chunk. From
this analysis, he derives the rules that govern statements, questions, commands, interjections, etc. After
having worked at the IP-level, he moves on to discuss the behaviour of IPs that are closely connected he
calls this sequences of tones.

Reading
Read chapter 2: Tone: going up and going down from Wells, J (2006). English Intonation. CUP: Cambridge.
129 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Activity 1
Complete the chart with the examples below.

TONE

1. Independent
a. Fall
i. The Definitive Fall
1. Statement /answer ________________________________________
2. Wh- question ________________________________________
3. Exclamation ________________________________________
4. Command ________________________________________
5. Interjection ________________________________________
6. Greeting ________________________________________
ii. Insistent
1. Yes/no question
a. Full ________________________________________
b. Elliptical ________________________________________
c. Tag ________________________________________
iii. Reinforcing adverbial ________________________________________
b. Fall-Rise
i. Implicational
Uses: implication, contrast, reservation, tentative, polite correction, partial statement, negative,
warning
1. Statement ________________________________________
2. Command ________________________________________
c. Rise
i. Encouraging
1. Statement ________________________________________
2. Wh-question ________________________________________
3. Command ________________________________________
4. Interjection ________________________________________
5. Greeting ________________________________________
ii. Non-supportive
1. Statement ________________________________________
iii. Yes/no
1. Full question ________________________________________
2. Tag question ________________________________________
3. Elliptical question ________________________________________
4. Pardon question ________________________________________
iv. Uptalk ________________________________________
2. Dependent
a. Leading ________________________________________
b. Trailing ________________________________________
c. Lists/Alternative questions
i. Open ________________________________________
ii. Closed ________________________________________
130 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Examples:

1. !Come in. 15. (Youre !travelling to Greece,)arent you?


2. !Good morning. 16. Do you need me| or can I leave?
3. !Good bye. 17. Is Mary coming?
4. !How in credible! 18. Is it far?
5. Right. 19. My !namesLilly.
6. !Sit down, /please. 20. My !names Her mione Granger.
7. ;Sometimes, (I feel gloomy.) 21. Shes leaving,| isnt she?
8. S ure. 22. We need tea,|coffee,|sugar.
9. Take ;care. 23. You !look wonderful.
10. (The !weather will im prove,) I guess. 24. You $should have /known better.
11. W hat did you say? 25. You !want to leave me alone?
12. !Wheres your glass? 26. You are busy?
13. !Whose pen is /this? 27. You may ;phone. (But)
14. (You must sue them,)|of course.

Activity 2
Decide what use of the implicational fall rise is at play. Tick the boxes.
Reservation

statement
correction
Tentative

Negative
Contrast

Warning
Partial
Polite

Example

1 A: !Look how I climb this tree, /Dad.


B: ;Careful.
2 A: Is !this the shortest w ay to the station?
B: I ;guess so. (But Im !not sure.)
3 A: !Why did you go to Spain?
B: My w ; ife /wanted to | !I w
anted to stay.
4 A: !Finish the re port by Friday, /please.
B: Ill ;try. (But Im !not sure Ill finish it.)
5 A: Are your !children married?
B: J; anice is. (But !not the others.)
6 A: !What was the party /like?
B: It wasnt very a ;musing.
7 A: !Two times five | is twelve.
B: T; en.
8 A: Should !I talk to the manager?
B: You ;may. (If he !comes to the office.)
131 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Sequences of Tones

On average, a tone unit normally takes up to seven syllables. A 7-syllable-long chunk will surely be
manageable for you in terms of sounds and intonation, without sacrificing your fluency.What can you do if
you think that one tone unit is meaningfully complete but too long? Simple: you can chunk it. For instance,
non-nuclear expressions in the tail can alternatively be chunked off. Now, a new question arises: if you
have already decided on the tonicity and tone of the original chunk, what should you do with the resulting
one?

First of all, it is necessary to think about the information value of the tones. When a long intonation phrase
is chunked into two parts or more, you should focus on what type of information is important and what is
not as important. You should normally use a falling tone on the major point of information and a non-fall
on the dependent tone unit.

Leading tones:
If the tone unit that contains a minor point of information precedes a tone unit that has a major point of
information, then the first tone unit takes a leading tone (a dependant non-fall). The most frequent
leading tone is a fall-rise; a rise is possible too, as well as a level tone.
E.g.

LEADING TONE MAJOR INFORMATION USE


Minor info. Major info.
Dependent Independent Tone
Topic Comment
;Charlie
Charlie !where are the towels Ive just /bought? Topicalization
>Charlie

Last ;Sunday
!Last Sunday my!whole family visited Granny. Fronting
!Last >Sunday

Long subjects (or any subject that you want to highlight) may be topicalized i.e. they may be chunked off.
When final elements, such as adverbs, are fronted the same may happen. These are typical examples of
minor points of information that take a leading tone.
132 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Trailing tones:
If the tone unit that contains a minor point of information follows a tone unit that has a major point of
information, then the final tone unit takes a trailing tone (a dependant non-fall). The most frequent
leading tone is a rise; a fall-rise is possible too. The level tone is ruled out as it cannot normally be final.
Minus-focus tails may be granted a separate tone unit provided they take a dependent non-fall.
E.g.

MAJOR POINT OF INFORMATION TRAILING TONE USE


Independent tone Dependent tone

last ;Sunday.
Separate IP
My !whole family visited Granny !last Sunday.
Non nuclear time marker
/last /Sunday.
as tail.

The Intonation of Questions in Detail


A more detailed description of the intonation of questions is found in Lee (1963). This author classifies the
different types of questions according to their grammatical form.
1. Yes/No Questions: They normally take a rise.
Would you !like some coffee?
Have you finished?
Are you ready now?

2. Tagquestions:
a. Fall: This is not really a question. The speaker suggests that the listener will agree with
him/her. Still, the listener may agree or disagree.
A: It was !very interesting,| w
asnt it? (B: !Yes, it w
as.) (Optional)

b. Rise: This is a type of Yes/no question. The speaker thinks the listener will agree, but he
wants to check whether this is true.
A: It was !very interesting,| wasnt it?
B: !Yes, it w
as.

3. Wh-questions: They normally take a fall. A rise may also be possible, especially if the speaker
wants to show a deferential attitude towards the hearer.
!Whats your name? (Normal)
!Whats your name? (Deferential)
133 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

4. Choice questions: These are also called alternative questions (Wells, 2006). The speaker
demands limited information. The hearer has to choose from the options given by the speaker.
The final element takes a fall, while the initial element (or elements, for that matter) normally
takes a rise (see notes on Sequences of Tone). It is possible, also, to have only one tone unit
where the initial element is the onset. These questions seek for one of the items offered to be
chosen.
A: Is that tea| or coffee? B: T
ea.
A: Is that !tea or coffee? B: T
ea.

A: Is he French| or German| or Dutch? B: F


rench.
A: Is he !French or !German or Dutch? B: French.

5. Example questions: They look like choice questions, but they do not seek for one item to be
chosen as the answer. They demand a yes/no answer to the whole thing. The question can take
a sequence of the same tone (e.g. all falls, or all rises).
A: So, youve !visited Paris. Did you !see the Louvre,| the !Eiffel Tower,| !Notre
Dame? (i.e. Did you go to all the famous places?)
B: Yes,| I did.

A: Did you !finish it last w


eek| or esterday? (i.e. Have you finished it?)
y
B: No. Im a!fraid I havent.

6. Repeated Questions: A question of any type (be it a wh-question or yes/no question) may be
repeated if the speaker has not heard properly, or has forgotten it, or because he is surprised.
The repetition does not need to be verbatim. The nucleus is normally placed on the first
stressed syllable (normally the wh-word or the operator). They are said on a rise.
A: How old is your /wife?
B: Four teen.
A: How old did you say she w
as?
B: Four teen.

7. Echoed questions: The speaker may echo a question he has just been asked by repeating the
same words or making a slight change of words. The original nucleus is kept, but the tone is
almost invariably a rise. These questions are normally used to gain time to think, as well as
when the speaker needs time to evaluate the content of the question.
A: !When are you going to buy me a wedding ring?
B: !When am I going to buy you a w edding ring?
134 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

8. Rhetorical questions: They are similar to exclamations. The answer is normally obvious, so
they do not need an answer. They take a fall.
!Dont be a fool. !How can a dead man /chase you?
A stalker /started to /follow me and !was I scared?

Notice! Tone and style


According to Davy (1968, cited in Gussenhoven 1986), the choice of tone changes depending on whether
the speaker is reading or talking. These are the percentages he found:

Fall Fall-rise Rise Level Rise-Fall


Reading 50.5% 16.6% 24.9% 5.5% 2.1%
Conversation 58.9% 12.5% 16.3% 8.0% 4.2%

Activity 3:

Lets recycle your previous transcription work. In unit 3 you have worked on the tonicity, now decide what
tone to use in each chunk. What rules have you followed?

1 A: Can I see your boarding pass, please?


B: Certainly, officer.
A: How much luggage do you have?
B: I havent brought much. Just a carry on.
A: Youre travelling on business, I guess.
B: Youre right. Ill get to Paris at six thirty a.m. | and I will be
returning at six thirty p.m.
A: What airline have you chosen?
B: American Airlines.
A: All right, Mr. Brown. You can leave now. You have a plane to
catch.

2 A: Can I help you, Madam?


B: Can I see that DVD player? The silver one.
A: You cant, Im afraid. Thats just for display.
B: Oh, Im sorry to hear that. What other models do you have?
A: The new Sony has just arrived. Its a wonderful device.
B: How much is it? Very expensive?
A: Its quite inexpensive, as a matter of fact. Its just one hundred
dollars.
B: Do you take debit cards?
135 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

3 A: Are you there, Dad?


B: Im here, darling. Im free right now.
A: I need a hand | with the camera Ive just bought. I cant take the
battery out.
B: Wait a second. Youd better read the manual first. Here it says |
that you cant open the lid | when the red light is on.

4 A: Hi, Hillary. This is Emma speaking.


B: Hi, Emma. Is everything OK?
A: Im at the bank at the moment. Theres some money missing.
B: Thats sounds bad,| terribly bad. Is that the companys money?
A: Theres a problem with the deposit you made.

5 A: The computers crashed.


B: Its happened three times today. Have you had the system
checked?
A: I do want to have it checked, of course. Ive found the IT guys,|
but they never come.
B: I hate technicians. I think they enjoy our suffering. What does
your boss say?
A: He wants to have their manager fired.

6 A: Look, the paint is peeling off. And theres a leak in that corner.
B: We should get the house painted. If not, we wont be able to sell
the place.
A: How much money do we need?
B: It depends. Do you want to get a permanent | or a temporary
repair?
A: I dont care if the repairs dont last. I just want to get rid of this
property.

Reading
Wells, J (2006). English Intonation. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Section 6.3: Passages for
analysis.

Wells integrates the content of his book in these short passages. A discussion of chunking, nucleus and
onset placement, and tone for each IP is presented. Transcribe these texts and then check them against the
key in the book.
136 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The School of Birmingham the discoursal approach

Reading
Brazil et. al. (1980).Discourse Intonation and Language Teaching .Longman: London. Chapters 1 Tone & 4
More on tone.

Brazil (1994).Pronunciation for Advanced Learners of English. CUP: Cambridge. Pages 7-30.

Brazil (1980, 1994) believes that the intonation choices speakers make are not derived from the grammar
but from the speakers appraisal of the state of affairs in the context of interaction. These choices take
place in real time as the conversation unfolds. At this point, two functions of intonation come in handy: the
transactional function and the interactional function. The transactional function is concerned with the
exchange of information, while the interactional function is connected with the social side to
communication. These functions will first be analyzed in the discussion of tone selection for statements.

Transactional function of intonation: the general meaning of tones


When two participants interact, their worlds meet. The intersection between these two worlds is the
common ground, which is made up of whatever they share. This is the area of convergence of their worlds.
The area of divergence between these participants consists of what they do not share. For example, the
first time I meet students in class they are likely to know that we are members of an institution, my name
and surname, the fact that I am male, and other physical data. However, they are likely to ignore other bits
of information, such as my address, marital status, favourite colour, etc.

We can base our analysis on the world that the speaker and hearer build together. They may talk about
events that are already part of their common ground: i.e. what they share. The speaker may refer to this
material. The speaker may also decide to introduce a new topic, something he presumes the hearer does
not know, so he proclaims something that is new to his hearer. As he does so, their common ground
becomes larger because they share more. When the information is presented as new, the speaker will use a
proclaiming tone (a fall or a rise-fall). When the information is presented as shared, the speaker will use a
referring tone (a fall-rise or a rise).
137 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Lets imagine that you are presenting a topic in a class. If the information is new, you will step forward in
the conversation ( ): you will proclaim this information.

Teacher: !This is a gnat.

The moment an item is proclaimed, it becomes part of the common ground. Once you have established this
topic, which is part of the common ground now, you can refer to it. When you refer to something already
shared, you do not step forward in the conversation, you just loop in the same place ( ).
Teacher: ;Gnats | are !very small insects.

Compare:
;Sally | will be at school | this Saturday.
We both know her. Im telling you about time and place, which I presume you ignore.

;Sally | will be at ;school | this Saturday.


We both know who she is, and that she is at school. Im telling you when shell be there, which I presume you
ignore.

;Sally | will be at school | this ;Saturday.


We both know who she is, and that we are talking about this Saturday. Im telling you where shell be there,
which I presume you ignore.

Interactional function of intonation: the social meaning of tones


Some of the things people say are not informative. Their function is just to show social interaction. The
speaker may choose different tones to express togetherness or detachedness from his hearer. We can
show convergence (i.e. togetherness) with a referring tone (fall-rise or rise). We can show divergence (i.e.
separateness) with a proclaiming tone (fall or rise-fall). This is all the more evident in semantically empty
elements like oh, hm, well, etc.

Oh | (so your mothers /coming to/night, /Love.)


Oh isnt informative. Yet, it shows I am detached.

Oh | (my !little babys /here at /last!)


Oh isnt informative. Yet, it shows I am showing solidarity.
138 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Linguistic control: dominance


Some speakers can exploit linguistic dominance in the conversation. These speakers are in control because
they may perform a social role of authority (such as a doctor, a judge, a teacher, a parent) or they may
have greater knowledge about something (such as a shop assistant when you need their help to get
something you want). They have the greater freedom to use both dominant (+ tones: p+, r+: rise fall and
rise, respectively)and non dominant tones (p, r: fall and fall-rise, respectively). A non-dominant speaker is
supposed not to use the dominant tones. However, a non-dominant speaker may claim dominance anyway
(e.g. a naughty child talking to the head of the school, etc.). The dominant role may change in a
conversation: for example, a shop assistant may be dominant when he/she offers help and assists the
customer, but the customer is dominant when it comes to the final decision of choosing to buy an item or
not.

Activity 6:

Mark the tones that are missing. Who is the dominant speaker in this conversation? Is Lisa convergent or
divergent? (Bradford 1988, page 29).

Track 67

The Suit
LISA: But Tony | surely | you realised | !everybody would be
w
earing suits. A job like |that! !Such a good salary | with !so
much re sponsibility. You ought to have known better than to
/wear /jeans!
TONY: !Dont remind me. I know it was ;stupid.
LISA: >Well, |what was the problem? I know youve ;got a /suit.
TONY: Oh,| y es. Ive got /one. It was at the cleaners.
LISA: It was where?
TONY: At the cleaners. It still is.
139 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

This chart summarizes the treatment of statements from a discoursal perspective. Follow the different
paths that will guide you to a deep analysis of the text.

New Is the speaker claiming


linguistic dominance?
No Fall.
Sense Selection Whats the status of Yes Rise-Fall.
the information?

Is the selected Is the speaker claiming


Shared linguistic dominance?
material informing? No Fall-Rise.
Togetherness
Yes Rise.

Social Selection What bond does the


speaker show? Is the speaker claiming
linguistic dominance?
No Fall.
Separateness Yes Rise-Fall.

Notice!
Do not confuse dominance with divergence/convergence.
Dominant does not mean aggressive.

Activity 7:
Mark the tones that are missing. Is the information missing proclaimed or referred? IS the speaker
dominant or not? Why? (Brazil 194, page 23).

Track 68

Giving instructions
The !thing to look out for | is the playing /fields.
And !soon after youve passed them, | youll !go under
an
underpass. !After that | !hang on | youll !be in
Hospital Lane. Youll know | its $Hospital Lane |
be!cause of the hospital. Its a !big Vic torian/building
| on your left. And at the ;end of /there | youll !come
to some
traffic/lights.
140 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The intonation of questions


Again, Brazil does not focus on the grammar structure of a question to determine its tone.
He is interested in the function of these questions: is the speaker checking a presupposition or does he
really need to find out what the answer is, as he has not got a preconceived idea on his mind? Is this
question triggered by a social need for convergence?

Although this view seems to contradict the traditional approach, this is not really a contradiction. Very
often, speakers ask yes-no questions when they want to confirm whether they are right in thinking that a
certain state of affairs is true. In other words, yes-no questions tend to originate when a speaker wants to
check whether his/her idea is right. Conversely, when a speaker feels there is a gap of information, and
he/she needs to find out something he/she ignores completely, he/she is likely to ask a wh-question this
wh- element seeks for an answer that is informative.

Checking questions to make sure


[T]he meaning of the referring tone is something like this: the speaker expects that what the other person
will say in reply will not be new to the speaker. (Brazil 1994, page 41) In other words, the speaker has a
presupposition in mind which he/she expects to be confirmed by the listener.

E.g.: Lets suppose you meet a girl at a party. You look at this person and pass judgment on her
appearance. If she is wearing lots of black items of clothing, you may infer that black is indeed her favourite
colour. You can check that presupposition by means of a making sure question. Either of these will have
the same effect:
A: !Whats your favouritecolour? B: Black.
A: Is black your favourite colour? B: Yes.

Questions to find out


Brazil (1994, 43) states that [i]f we use a proclaiming tone when we are asking, we expect the reply will be
new to us. We use proclaiming tones to find out. To, put it differently, when a speaker does not have a
preconception in his/her mind there is nothing to check. On the contrary the speaker wants to fill that gap
of information with new material. For example, if you phone your bank because there is a problem with
your credit card the assistant will ask find out questions to learn what has gone wrong.
A: !What was the problem, /sir?
B: My debit card /doesnt /work.
A: !When did this error start?
B: !Yesterday morning. I found an AT ;M | but I !couldnt operate.
A: Has this !happened be fore?
B:No. I dont ;think so.
141 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

This chart summarizes the treatment of questions from a discoursal perspective. Follow the different paths
that will guide you to a deep analysis of the text.

No: r tone (fall-rise)

Is the speaker claiming linguistic dominance?


TO CHECK

Whats the purpose of this Yes: r+ tone (rise)


question?
No: p tone (fall)

Is the speaker claiming linguistic dominance?


TO FIND OUT

Yes: p+ tone (rise fall)

Notice!
Brazil (1994, 44) [I]n informal social conversations ... [w]e quite often ask questions in order to be
friendly, rather than because the answer is of any real importance, or even interest, to us. When we do
this, it is usually better to seem to be making sure than to seem to be finding out. This means that we
show convergence in many social questions.

Activity 8: Account for the choice of tone in each chunk. (Brazil 194, page 35).

Track 69

What youre looking for...



IONA: (1) You know where my ;room is?
ROY: (2) Yes.
IONA: (3) Well | (4) immediately ;facing you | (5) when you go ;in
| (6) youll !see a cupboard.
ROY: (7) OK.
IONA: (8) And in ;there | (9) youll see a tin.
ROY: (10) !What kind of /tin?
IONA: (11) Its a !sort of flat tin.(12) I !think it >says |(13) throat
/pastilles | (14) on the lid. (15) And if you look in ;side | (16)
youll !find a key | (17) to the bookcase.
ROY: (18) Right.
IONA: (19) And on the second ;shelf | (20) youll !find what youre
looking /for.
ROY: (21) !Thanks a lot. (22) Ill !go and get it.
142 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Activity 9:
Listen to this dialogue (Marks 2007, page 107). Do the following tasks:
1. Mark tones you hear in the empty boxes.
2. Account for :
a. Tonality
b. Onset placement
c. Nucleus placement
d. Tone
i. School of London (Wells)
ii. School of Birmingham (Brazil)
Track 70

Asking for directions


Jess: E xcuse me.
Rick: Yes

Jess: Can you tell me | the way to the ;station, /please?
Rick: Yes, | you just go a!long this road, | !cross the bridge
|!over the river | and theres a !big park | on your l eft, |
you know? Well, | you go !through the park |
and the stations | !just on the other side.
Jess: Is it far?

Rick: No, | not ;very /far.
Jess: OK, | >so | I !go along this road, | !cross the bridge |
!and through the park , | right?
Rick: !Thats right.
Jess: !Thanks very much.
Rick: Youre w
elcome, | bye.
Jess: ;Bye.
143 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

How to go about FIRST SIGHT READING


You have already studied the Three Ts: Tone, Tonality and Tonicity. Now, its time to put them into
practice!

This guideline is useful for transcription practice as well as for reading practice. You will find an example at
the end of this document.

First things first: Go global


The first thing you have to do when you are going to work on a text is to get the gist of it. You can do
nothing unless you know what the text is about: reading it is essential! Do not think about intonation, just
read it for the sake of meaning. If you fail to understand a text you will surely not be able to work on its
intonation. Once you have the global picture, you will be able to analyze the following items:

1. What type of text is it?


As you may know, the genre of a text will affect the uses of intonation. Informal dialogues normally
contain a lot of prefabricated language (e.g. greetings, phatic questions) but they are not scripted.
Speakers dont prepare conversation pieces in advance! This means that there may be false starts,
rephrasing of ideas, etc. The chunks are likely to be short, because the intonation phrase is thought
to be the unit of thought (i.e. we think in terms of one tone unit at a time, or two at a time if we
have already decided to contrast certain items).
Prose, for example, is much more loaded with descriptions and longer phrases. Its more common
to find complex and compound sentences in literary prose, which is intended to fulfill an aesthetic
function. Good readers do not abound, and even those who are really gifted need to rehearse
before reading out! If you rehearse a text, you will get to know it well enough so as to use longer
chunks.
Warning: remember that the listener takes in the info one chunk at a time. You need to give the
listener time to process the info.

2. Does it start in medias res?


If a text starts in medias res you should imagine what has happened before. Remember that
discourse is built bit by bit, so you should try to picture what was going on so as to establish what is
shared and what is new.

3. Who are the participants?


Some pieces of discourse involve just one participant (e.g. monologues, soliloquies, speeches, etc.).
Some other times, there may be two or more participants. The relationship between them can help
you account for who holds the floor for a longer period of time, who decides on turn-taking, and so
on.

4. What roles may the participants take?


Some types of discourse involve a more rigorous interaction scheme. A doctors appointment
normally requires a dominant physician and a non-dominant patient. Now, a conversation among
friends may imply that the speakers are on an equal footing. You should try to picture what the
relationships between the speakers are like.
Warning: although we normally think that one speaker is linguistically dominant, you should not
forget that this means that this speaker can choose to use a dominant tone or not. They are not
forced to use dominant tones all the time! Also, sometimes dominance may switch from speaker to
speaker. When you go shopping, the shop assistant may be dominant when he offers a customer
his help and knowledge, but the customer will be dominant when he or she wants to pay or
complain about something.
144 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

5. What is the context like?


It is very important to imagine what the when and where are like. This will shed light on several
aspects that can build to the common ground. For example, people may refer to objects in their
vicinity which are evidently part of the common ground to them. That is to say, if the speakers are
in a hospital they may deaccent information that is given by the very context (e.g. [The
ambulance is coming] is an event sentence that normally expresses that all the info is new, but
in a hospital ambulances are quite normal, so the focus is likely to be narrow: The ambulance
[is coming]).

Tonality
The next step is to decide on how to chunk the material. You should bear in mind that according to the
context of interaction some items may need to stand out while some other things, which might be
predictable, may be sent to the background. Shared information can be part of tails or preheads, but
information that is highlighted may sometimes be granted a whole intonation phrase.

If you are transcribing a text, it is useful to chunk it and describe your choice.

Tonality:

a. Neutral or unmarked: one intonation phrase corresponds to one clause.


My name is Sam.| I am 25 years old.| I live in Bristol.|
I left my husband | to start my life again.

b. Marked: a clause is split into several IPs or two or more clauses are included in one IP.
(Marked Tonality) On Sundays| I normally go to church. (Neutral Tonality)
(Neutral Tonality)Shes a funny girl,| Rose. (Marked Tonality)
I think that my children will never succeed.| (Marked Tonality)

Tonicity:
Once you know the boundaries of the chunk you are dealing with, you need to focus on whether this fulfils
a transactional function or an interactional function (see notes on Brazil, The Discoursal Approach). If what
is at stake in the chunk is the information value of its elements, then you need to consider what info is new
and what is old. This is linked to the construct of Focus. Establishing the focus domain (i.e. what info is new)
will help you see where the nucleus should go because it normally signals the end of the focus domain.

Tonicity:

a. Neutral or Unmarked: Last Lexical Item Rule


[I have always loved jazz.|] Broad Focus
[Have you seen the juice maker?] Broad Focus

b. Marked: The nucleus is placed in a lexical item that is not the last one or it may be placed
on a grammatical item.
[How could you] betray me? Narrow Focus (Context: I understand why other may
betray me, but you of all people?)
[Shall we buy] a flat in Miami? Narrow Focus (Context: We can rent a flat in
Miami, but shall we buy one?)
145 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

[Dont talk to me, you fool.] Broad Focus (Context: A wife is angry at her husband
because hes been foolish.)

Note: Marked tonicity does not necessarily imply narrow focus. Neutral tonicity does not necessarily imply
broad focus.

Tip: you should always analyze the chunk backwards! You should start on the very last word and decide
whether this is a suitable nucleus. If it is not, you go on doing this till you spot the right place for the
nucleus.
E.g.
Do you love me?
Not suitable: Its a gramar Word.

Suitable: Its the last lexical item.

Stop it, Charles, she said.

Not suitable: Its a final reporting clause.

Not suitable: Its a final vocative.

Not suitable: Its a grammar word.

Suitable: Its the last lexical item in direct


Onset Choice speech.

The choice of onset is not a straightforward process. In contrast with the placement of the nucleus, the
onset is not subjected to the same principles. It is true, though, that the first lexical item that is new tends
to be selected as the onset.

My !dogs called Rusty. Rusty is !quite old now.


First new lexical item

Not suitable: Its old information

First new lexical item

Some grammar words may become the onset so as to contribute to special meanings. They can be
contrastive.

!You like dogs| but !we love kittens.

There are optional cases, too. For example, yes no questions may take a strong operator.

!Were you present when the accident happened?

Optional strong form

Were you !present when the accident happened?

First new lexical item


146 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Tone
The choice of tone is highly dependent on the context of interaction (see notes on the Discoursal
Approach). The first thing you need to think of is whether the nucleus is the result of a sense selection or a
social selection. Once you know that, you would be able to apply a referring or a proclaiming tone. A
referring tone may be used for shared information (sense selection) or convergence (social selection)
while a proclaiming tone may be used to show that the information is new (sense selection) or to create
divergence (social selection). You will be able to resort to another system according to the roles the
speakers take: you could choose a dominant or a non-dominant variant of referring or proclaiming tones.

Sample Transcription
This is an example of the kind of analysis we want you to provide. You will be using this format in
your tests and transcription practice.

At the Shoe Shop


Assistant: Can I help you, madam?
Customer: Oh, yes. How much is this pair of shoes?
Assistant: Its $120. These are really good shoes. This type of leather is of an exceptional
quality.
Customer: Have you got them in brown?
Assistant: Let me see. We dont, Im afraid.
Customer: Thats a pity. I liked this model, but Ive already bought black shoes.

KEY:
Type of text: This is a short dialogue. The chunks are likely to be short because this is not rehearsed speech.
There is likely to be some formulaic discourse because this is a well-defined type of interaction (i.e. there
are fixed roles and expectancies in this routine situation).
Context: At the shoe shop. The country is not specified, and theres no information about the time.
Speakers: A customer and an assistant. We dont know if they are male or female. The assistant is likely to
be the dominant speaker because he knows about the items the shop has.

1. [At the Shoe Shop]


Tonality: Marked. This is a phrase, not a clause.
Focus: Broad. Nothing can be taken for granted. All the info is new.
Tonicity: Neutral. LLI rule. (shoe shop is an early stressed compound word).
Onset: Theres no onset. The first two words are not meaningfully rich.
Tone: A fall is likely. This is all new information that is being proclaimed (Brazil). This is a statement (OConnor).

2. [!Can I help you, madam?]


Tonality: Neutral. This is just one clause.
Focus: Broad. Nothing can be taken for granted. All the info is new.
Tonicity: Marked. The nucleus falls in a lexical item that is not the last one. The word madam cant be nuclear because
its a final vocative. The word you cant be nuclear because it is a grammar word. The word help is nuclear because it is
the LLI before the vocative.
147 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Onset: Yes/No questions always present a choice of onset. The auxiliary verb may be the onset, thus becoming a
strong form. The speaker may choose not to make the operator the onset, so it would be a weak form.
Tone: A rise is likely. The assistant presupposes that he will be able to help the customer, so this is a checking
question; he is using a dominant variant of the referring tone because he wants to show he can be in command of the
situation (offers of help tend to take a dominant tone because the speaker shows he is capable of helping) (Brazil).
This is a yes-no question (OConnor, Lee, Wells).

3. [Oh, y
es.]
Tonality: Neutral. This tone unit corresponds to one clause. Yet, the interjection could have taken a separate
intonation phrase.
Focus: Broad. Nothing can be taken for granted. All the info is new.
Tonicity: Neutral. LLI rule.
Onset: The speaker has chosen not to have an onset. However, this interjection may have been the onset.
Tone: A fall is likely. This is all new information that is being proclaimed (Brazil). This is a statement (OConnor).

4. [!How much is this pair of shoes?]


Tonality: Neutral. This tone unit corresponds to one clause.
Focus: Broad. Nothing can be taken for granted. All the info is new. Even though they may see the shoes, the speaker
is presenting this as new info.
Tonicity: Neutral. LLI rule.
Onset: The wh-interrogative word is likely to be the nucleus because it stands for the information gap.
Tone: A fall is likely. The customer wants to find out the price, he/she has no presuppositions about this (Brazil). This is
a wh-question (OConnor, Lee, Wells).

5. Its [a !hundred and twenty dollars.]


Tonality: Neutral. This tone unit corresponds to one clause.
Focus: Narrow. The pronoun it replaces the idea of pair of shoes, which is old.
Tonicity: Neutral. LLI rule.
Onset: The word hundred is the first lexical item.
Tone: A fall is likely. This is all new information that is being proclaimed (Brazil). This is a statement (OConnor).

6. These are [really good] shoes.


Tonality: Neutral. This tone unit corresponds to one clause.
Focus: Narrow. The two items in focus show are the only new bits of information.
Tonicity: Marked. The word shoes is deaccented because it has already been mentioned. The nucleus falls on the last
new lexical item.
Onset: Not applicable.
Tone: A fall is likely. This is new information that is being proclaimed (Brazil). This is a statement (OConnor).

7. [This type of ;leather]


Tonality: Marked. This is not a clause but a phrase. This topicalization may be useful to highlight the subject and to
break the original sentence into two chunks so as to ease pronunciation and to give more time to the listener to take
in the information.
Focus: Broad. All the info is new.
Tonicity: Neutral. LLI rule.
Onset: The demonstrative this carries meaning related to the here and now (deixis).
Tone: A fall-rise is likely. This is the typical tone used in topicalization. The info in this chunk is dependent on the next
chunk, so this is a minor point of information. This chunk is given a leading tone (Wells). The fall rise expresses
continuity (OConnor).
148 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

8. [is of an ex!ceptional quality.]


Tonality: Marked. This clause lacks its subject.
Focus: Broad. Everything is presented as new info.
Tonicity: Neutral. LLI rule. The speaker has chosen to present the idea of quality as new, even though it may be argued
that he has already commented on the value of the shoes before (in tone unit number 6, the word good was
introduced).
Onset: the word exceptional is the first lexical item.
Tone: A fall is likely. This is all new information that is being proclaimed (Brazil). This is a statement (OConnor).

9. [Have you !got] them [in brown?]


Tonality: Neutral. This tone unit corresponds to one clause.
Focus: Narrow. The pronoun them refers back to the word shoes, which is old information.
Tonicity: Neutral. LLI Rule.
Onset: The onset is the first lexical item. The word have might have been the onset because this is a yes-no question.
(See IP 2)
Tone: A rise is likely. The customer may presuppose that there may be brown shoes, so this is a checking question; he
is using a dominant variant of the referring tone because he is the customer and he wants to choose what to buy
(Brazil). This is a yes-no question (OConnor, Lee, Wells).

10. [!Let me see.]


Tonality: Neutral. This tone unit corresponds to one clause.
Focus: Broad. All the info is new.
Tonicity: Neutral. LLI rule.
Onset: The word let is the first lexical item.
Tone: A fall is likely. This is all new information that is being proclaimed (Brazil). This is a statement (OConnor).

11. We [ dont, Im afraid.]


Tonality: Marked. There are two clauses in this tone unit.
Focus: Narrow. The word we is old info because it refers back to the word you in IP 9.
Tonicity: Marked. I am afraid is a final comment clause, so it isnt likely to carry the nucleus. The nucleus falls on the
word dont because it is semantically rich: it carries the negative adverb, so this operator indicates polarity.
Onset: Not applicable. The word we is not likely to be the onset because of its low informational value.
Tone: A fall is likely. This is new information that is being proclaimed (Brazil). This is a statement (OConnor).

12. !Thats [a pity.]


Tonality: Neutral. This tone unit corresponds to one clause.
Focus: Narrow. The expression thats refers to the content of the previous sentence, so this makes it old information.
Tonicity: Neutral. LLI rule.
Onset: The word that is the first semantically rich item because it is a demonstrative. However, it might have been
unaccented if the speaker wished so.
Tone: A rise is likely. This tone unit does not contain much information: this may be a case where social selection
prevails. The speaker may want to create convergence, especially when he is aware of the fact that he wont be
buying the shoes (this is what comes next in the text) (Brazil). OConnor would say that a rising tone is used to express
kindness.

13. [I ;liked] this model


Tonality: Neutral. This tone unit corresponds to one clause.
Focus: Narrow. The expression this model is old info because it refers to the pair of shoes that they can see in the
physical world. Besides, they have been talking about these shoes all the time.
Tonicity: Marked. The word model is deaccented because it is a kind of hyponym for the idea of shoes. The word this is
deaccented because this refers to the shoes that they have been talking about. The word liked is the last new lexical
item, so it will bear the nucleus.
149 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Onset: Not applicable.


Tone: A fall-rise is likely. Brazil would argue that the speaker presents this information as shared: the fact that the
customer liked that model is evident because he has been trying to get a pair in brown. Wells and OConnor would say
that a fall-rise can be used to express continuity this is a leading tone, because the major point of information is
about to come. There is a kind of cause and effect relationship: even though the customer likes the design, he is not
buying the shoes because he already has another pair of black shoes. This is an implicational fall-rise which anticipates
an adversative construction (i.e. it anticipates a but).

14. [but Ive al!ready bought] black shoes.


Tonality: Neutral. This tone unit corresponds to one clause.
Focus: Narrow. The words black and shoes are old information.
Tonicity: Marked. The words black and shoes are shared information, so they get deaccented. The nucleus falls on the
word bought because it is the last new lexical item.
Onset: The word already is the first lexical item.
Tone: A fall is likely. This is all new information that is being proclaimed (Brazil). This is a statement (OConnor).
150 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

FSR & Analysis: Snapshot Pre-Intermediate

1 Track 71
Text 1: At the restaurant

2 MAN: Excuse me. Ive got an early train to catch tomorrow morning.

3 Could I have breakfast at six oclock, please?

4 NICOLA: Im afraid that isnt possible, sir. Breakfast isnt served until seven.

5 MAN: But I only want coffee, toast and marmalade. Surely thats

possible?

6 NICOLA: Im afraid theres nothing I can do about it, sir.

7 MAN: Oh, forget it!

8 NICOLA: Well, its not my fault!

9 MORRIS: Nicola, youre expected to be polite and helpful to our guests at all

10 times. Is that clear?

11 NICOLA: Yes. Sorry, Morris.


151 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

1 Track 72
Text 2: The Bully

2 TOM: Jamie, can you take this video back to the rental shop for me,

please?

3 JAMIE: Sorry, Im reading my book.

4 TOM: Youve been reading that book for days!

5 JAMIE: So? Anyway, Im going to have a shower in a moment.

6 TOM: Oh, come on, Jamie! Do me a favour for once! Its not far to the

shop.

7 JAMIE: No!

8 TOM: Why not?

9 JAMIE: Well, if you must know, I dont want to go past Rick Wards house.

10 TOM: Rick Ward! That creep! Why?

11 JAMIE: Because he and his friends always pick on me when I go past.

12 TOM: What do you mean pick on you?

13 JAMIE: They call me names and push me around.

14 TOM: How long has this been going on?

15 JAMIE: Since the beginning of term.

16 TOM: Would you like me to go and sort them out?

17 JAMIE: No, its OK. Give me the video. Shall I get another one for you?

18 TOM: No, dont bother. Jamie, are you sure youll be all right?

19 JAMIE: Ill be fine.


152 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

1 Track 73
Text 3: You ought to try them

2 TOM: Well, what do you fancy to eat? What about hot dogs? We can grill

3 some sausages and weve got some rolls.

4 NICOLA: Yum! Sounds great! Can I give you a hand?

5 TOM: Yes, OK. Could you turn the grill on?

6 LOUISE: No hot dogs for me, thanks.

7 TOM: But these sausages are really nice. You ought to try them.

8 LOUISE: No, thanks. Im a vegetarian. Ill just have a cheese salad. Have you

9 got any grated cheese?

10 TOM: Yes, I think so. You should eat more, Louise. Youre too thin. Turn

11 the grill up higher, Nicola.

12 NICOLA: You shouldnt have it too hot. The sausages will burn.

13 TOM: Relax! I know what Im doing. Lets go and watch TV.

14 A few minutes later

15 JAMIE: Ive got hiccups. I must get a glass of water. Hey! Whats that

smell?

16 TOM: Oh, no! The sausages have caught fire!

17 NICOLA: Quick! Turn off the gas!

18 TOM: Pass me that tea towel!

19 NICOLA: Well, Jamie. I hope you like burn sausages.

20 JAMIE: I dont. But at least my hiccups have stopped!


153 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

1 Track 74
Text 4: He said hed been away

2 BEN: Hello. Cliff Hotel. Can I help you? Yes. One moment, please. Ill get

3 her. Louise, theres a phone call for you!

4 LOUISE: Oh, thanks!

5 Some minutes later

6 LOUISE: That was my boyfriend Joe on the phone.

7 NICOLA: So what did he say? Why hasnt he kept in touch?

8 LOUISE: He said hed been away with his parents.

9 NICOLA: Why didnt he phone to tell you?

10 LOUISE: He said he phoned before he went away, but he couldnt get

through.

11 TOM: Oh, yeah? I bet! They always say that. Hes probably having a great

12 time without you.

13 LOUISE: Not at all. He said he was missing me and that he wanted me to go

14 up to Manchester to see him when I get back home.

15 NICOLA: And you said you would, of course.

16 LOUISE: No, I havent made up my mind yet. I said Id tell him at the

weekend.

17 TOM: So youre playing hard to get, are you?


154 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

1 Track 75
Text 5: Someone had dropped it

2 NICOLA: This is a beautiful place for a theatre!

3 TOM: Yes. Its great to hear the sea and the music at the same time.

4 LOUISE: And it was a great concert!

5 TOM: Yes. It was, wasnt it?

6 NICOLA: Thanks for inviting us, Tom.

7 TOM: Thats OK. I enjoyed it, too.

8 NICOLA: Oh, no! Ive left my jacket behind! Ill just go and get it.

9 TOM: Well tell the driver to wait.

10 A few minutes later

11 NICOLA: Guess what! Someone had dropped a twenty pound note on the

12 steps. I found it on the way out. I gave it in at the box office.

13 TOM: What did they say?

14 NICOLA: They asked me to phone next week to see if anyone had claimed it.

15 If not, I can have it. So keep your fingers crossed!


155 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

1 Track 76
Text 6: TV interview

2 NICOLA: You look very pleased with yourself.

3 MATT: Ive just done a TV interview with Sue Turner.

4 NICOLA: What was it about?

5 MATT: Oh, the surf competition. And me, of course.

6 NICOLA: Fame at last! What did they ask you?

7 MATT: They asked me where I was from, how long Id been surfing you

8 know, just general stuff.

9 NICOLA: Next stop, Hollywood! Have you got your surfboard back, by the

way?

10 MATT: No, worse luck! Im getting really worried.


156 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

1 Text 7: At St Michaels Mount

2 TOM: Look! The tides going out. You can see the road.

3 LOUISE: Great. Lets walk out to the island and climb up to the castle.

4 NICOLA: But its such a long way to walk!

5 LOUISE: No, it isnt. Dont be so lazy!

6 TOM: Its really worth it, Nicola. Theres such an amazing view from the

top.

7 NICOLA: Cant we go at the weekend instead?

8 TOM: No, nows a good time because its a weekday. The place is so

9 crowded at the weekend that you can hardly move.

10 LOUISE: Is it that bad?

11 TOM: Yes, some friends of mine came last Sunday but there were such

12 long queues that they left.

13 NICOLA: OK, but can we buy an ice cream first?

14 TOM: No! you can get one at the castle. Lets hurry before the tide starts

15 to turn!
157 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

1 Track 77
Text 8: If I were you

2 NICOLA: You seem a bit fed up, Louise.

3 LOUISE: Yes, I am. I havent heard from my boyfriend Joe for ages.

4 NICOLA: Cant you forget about him for a while?

5 LOUISE: Thats easier said than done! What do you think I should do?

6 NICOLA: If I were you, I wouldnt do anything. Or Id go out with

somebody else, just to teach him a lesson.

7 LOUISE: Maybe I will.

8 NICOLA: Oh, no! Here comes Jake!

9 JAKE: Hi, Nicola! Did you enjoy the disco the other night?

10 NICOLA: Sorry, Jake, I must go. Bye, Louise. See you later.
158 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

1 Track 78
Text 9: Youre Nicola, arent you?

2 TOM: Hi, Nicola! This is your first morning in the restaurant, isnt it?

3 Hows it going?

4 NICOLA: Its a disaster! Ive already done something wrong!

5 TOM: Whats the matter? What have you done?

6 NICOLA: Look. Im so clumsy! Ive just spilt coffee on the sleeve of my

blouse.

7 TOM: Have you seen Morris yet?

8 NICOLA: No, I havent. Hes the deputy manager, isnt he?

9 TOM: Yes. Hes quite fussy. Youd better go and change. Whoops! Too

10 late! Here he is now!

11 MORRIS: Morning, everybody! Hello, youre Nicola, arent you?

12 NICOLA: Yes, thats right.

13 MORRIS: Have you worked in a restaurant before?

14 NICOLA: No, Im afraid I havent.

15 MORRIS: Well, we all work very hard, dont we, Tom? Just a minute, Nicola.

16 That isnt a stain on your blouse, is it?

17 NICOLA: Yes. Im sorry. Its only coffee.

18 MORRIS: Well, please go and change. I like my staff to look smart.


159 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

1 Track 79
Text 10: Surfing in Newquay

2 NICOLA: Hello, Jake! Do you remember me Nicola?

3 JAKE: Sure I do!

4 NICOLA: These are some friends from the hotel. Louise and Tom.

5 TOM: Hi! Whats the surfing like today?

6 JAKE: Ah, the waves are great! Theyre much better than yesterday.

7 TOM: How long have you been here in Newquay?

8 JAKE: Since last Friday. I arrived the same day as Nicola.

9 LOUISE: How do you like it?

10 JAKE: Its OK. But its not as lively as Cape Town. Have you ever been to

11 South Africa?

12 TOM: No, never. Is the surfing good?

13 JAKE: You bet! Its got the best surfing beaches youve ever seen!

14 NICOLA: Are the beaches better than the ones in Hawaii?

15 JAKE: Yes, absolutely! Have any of you ever been to Hawaii?

16 TOM: No.

17 JAKE: Ah, its radical! The waves are the highest in the world and you

get...

18 TOM: Really? How wonderful! Does anyone fancy a hot dog?


160 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

1 Track 80
Text 11: Im here to work

2 JAKE: Excuse me. Which bus do I take to get to Fistral Beach?

3 NICOLA: You need a number fifty three.

4 JAKE: Are you waiting for the fifty three too?

5 NICOLA: Yes, I am. Are you a surfer?

6 JAKE: Yes, Im here for the surfing championships.

7 NICOLA: Where do you come from?

8 JAKE: Cape Town. Im in the South African surfing team.

9 NICOLA: Are you? Brilliant!

10 JAKE: What about you? Do you live here?

11 NICOLA: No, I live in London.

12 JAKE: Do you? Are you in Newquay on holiday?

13 NICOLA: No. I usually come here on holiday with my parents but this time

14 Im here to work.

15 JAKE: Really? Hard luck!

16 NICOLA: I dont mind. Its a part-time holiday job at a hotel. My aunts the

17 manager there. Oh, here comes our bus!


161 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Ear Training & Reading of Tonetic Marks


A) Read these IPs aloud.

A Fall B Rise C Fall-Rise D Level E Rise-Fall


1 Bob Bob ;Bob Bob Bob
2 Sally Sally ;Sally Sally Sally
3 Actually Actually ;Actually Actually Actually
4 No he cant No he cant ;No he cant No he cant No he cant

5 !Peter Atkinson !Peter Atkinson Peter ;Atkinson Peter Atkinson Peter Atkinson

6 !Ron bought the car !Ron bought the car Ron bought the ;car Ron bought the car Ron bought the car

B) Read these sentences aloud. Then contrast them with the recording. Think of possible contexts for each one.
1. I de/test snob /people.
2. I detest snob /people.
3. I de!test snob /people.
4. I de test snob /people.
5. I de ;test snob /people.
6. I detest snob /people.
7. I !detest snob people.
8. I !detest snob /people.

9. I detest ;snob /people.
10. The phones /ringing /now.
11. The phones ringing /now.
12. The !phones ringing /now.
13. The !phones ringing now.
14. The phones /ringing /now.
15. The phones ringing now.
16. The ;phones /ringing /now.
17. The !phones ringing now.
18. The !phones ringing now.

19. The phones ringing ;now.
20. Ms Scott has /bought the /tea for you.
21. Ms Scott has /bought the /tea for you.
22. Ms !Scott has bought the /tea for you.
23. Ms !Scott has bought the tea for you.
24. Ms !Scott has bought the tea for you.
25. Ms Scott has /bought the /tea for you.
26. Ms ;Scott has /bought the /tea for you.
27. Ms Scott has bought the tea for you.
28. Ms !Scott has bought the tea for you.
29. Ms Scott has bought the ;tea for you.
30. Ms !Scott has bought the tea for you.
31. Ms !Scott has bought the tea for you.
32. Ms !Scott has bought the tea for you.
33. Ms Scott has bought the tea for ;you.
34. Ellen may /visit /Danny on /Tuesday.
35. ;Ellen may /visit /Danny on /Tuesday.
36. Ellen may visit Danny on Tuesday.
37. !Ellen may visit /Danny on /Tuesday.
162 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015


38. Ellen ;may visit /Danny on /Tuesday.
39. !Ellen may visit Danny on Tuesday.
40. !Ellen may visit Danny on /Tuesday.

41. Ellen may visit ;Danny on /Tuesday.
42. !Ellen may visit Danny on Tuesday.
43. !Ellen may visit Danny on Tuesday.
44. !Ellen may visit Danny on Tuesday.

45. Ellen may visit Danny on ;Tuesday.

C) Assign the intonation you hear see the key below.


1. The bus is not dark red.
2. The bus is not dark red.
3. The bus is not dark red.
4. The bus is not dark red.
5. The bus is not dark red.
6. The bus is not dark red.
7. The bus is not dark red.
8. The bus is not dark red.
9. Simon Burns is in Paris now.
10. Simon Burns is in Paris now.
11. Simon Burns is in Paris now.
12. Simon Burns is in Paris now.
13. Simon Burns is in Paris now.
14. Simon Burns is in Paris now.
15. Simon Burns is in Paris now.
16. Simon Burns is in Paris now.
17. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
18. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
19. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
20. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
21. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
22. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
23. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
24. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
25. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
26. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
27. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
28. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
29. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
30. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
31. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
32. Sallys son is a horror story writer.
163 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Fall & Rise

1 Text 1: Interviewing Tony


2 INTERVIEWER: What's your name?
3 TONY: It's Tony Cooke.
4 INTERVIEWER: How do you spell Cooke? Has it got an E?
5 TONY: Yes. C | double 0 |K | E.
6 INTERVIEWER: Thanks. Now, | can you drive, Tony?
7 TONY: Yes, I can.
8 INTERVIEWER: Can you play a musical instrument?
9 TONY: Yes, | I can play the saxophone.
10 INTERVIEWER: Can you speak any foreign languages?
11 TONY: Yes, | German | and Spanish.
12 INTERVIEWER: Can you cook?
13 TONY: No, | I never cook!
14 INTERVIEWER: Can you play any sports?
15 TONY: Yes, | I can play football, | tennis, | golf, |and rugby.
16 INTERVIEWER: Can you swim?
17 TONY: No, | I can't.
18 INTERVIEWER: Thank you, | Tony.

1 Text 2: Martin and Julia


2 We live | in a small old house | in Oxford. Our house | is quite near

3 the centre. Weve got a living room, | a dining room, | a small kitchen,

4 | two bedrooms | and a bathroom. And theres a small hall. Weve got a

5 big front garden. We prefer to be near the city centre | its close to the

6 shops | and its very convenient | for the cinema. Weve got a car | but

7 we havent got a garage | we have to park it | in the street.


164 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Fall & Fall-Rise

1 Text 3: Making arrangements


2 JENNY: Hello. Jenny Mills.
3 SECRETARY: Hello, Jenny. I've got the manager for you.
4 JENNY: Oh, | OK.
5 MANAGER:
Jenny. We've got a bit of a problem. Can you go to the
6
BAG conference | on Tuesday?
7 JENNY: The BAG conference? Can't Stephen go?
8 MANAGER:
No, | I'm afraid he can't. He has to go to Spain | on
9
Monday night.
10 JENNY: Well. Tuesday? Yes, | that's OK.
11 MANAGER: Good. Thanks very much, Jenny.

Fall, Rise & Fall-Rise

1
Text 4: Making an appointment
2 RECEPTIONIST: Good morning. Can I help you?
3 MR SMITH: Yes, | can I make an appointment | with
Doctor Wall,
4
please?
5 RECEPTIONIST: Yes. Can you come at ten to three | on Wednesday
6 afternoon?
7 MR SMITH: No, | I'm sorry. I can't. What about the evening?
8 RECEPTIONIST: Doctor Wall | isn't here in the evening on Wednesday, |
9 I'm afraid. I can put you in | at half past six | on
10
Thursday evening.
11 MR SMITH: Yes, | that's fine.
12 RECEPTIONIST: What name is it, please?
13 MR SMITH: It's Tom Smith.
14 RECEPTIONIST: Thank you, Mr Smith. Goodbye.
15 MR SMITH: Goodbye.
165 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

1
Text 5: Margaret | the spinster

2
I live on my own | in a small modern house | in a village | near
3 Southampton. Ive got a big living room downstairs | and a small
4 kitchen | with a washing machine. There isnt a hall. Theres a
5 bedroom | and a bathroom | upstairs. I havent got a very big garden,
6 | but its very nice. I really like | the house. Its very near to the
7 shops, | and the neighbours | are very friendly. Now Im old | thats
8 very | important.

1
Text 6: Cheap Labour

2 Sanjit Ray | works for a computer company | in Los Angeles,


3 |California. He writes computer programs, | but he doesnt go to Los
4 Angeles | every day. In fact, | he doesnt live | in the USA. He lives |
5 in India.

6 Sanjit: Every day | I take the bus into Bombay | and I go to an office
7 there. The computer company | sends information to me | by e-mail. I
8 work on the information | on the computer | and then | I send the
9 program back | to California.

10 The computer company | doesnt do the work | in the USA | because it


11
costs less | to do it in India. Salaries there | are lower. Also, | India |
12 is twelve hours ahead | of California. So | the computer company |
13
sends information at the end of the day | and Sanjit works on it |
14 when its night time in the USA. When he sends the programs back, |
15 they arrive in California | before the computer company | starts in the
16 morning.
166 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Fall, Rise, Fall-Rise & Level


1 Text 7: Karens Week end
2 BEN: Hi, Karen.
3 KAREN: Hello, Ben. How are you?
4 BEN: I'm fine, thanks. And you?
5 KAREN: Fine.
6 BEN: Were you and Josh away | at the weekend?
7 KAREN: Yes, | we were at WOMAD.
8 BEN: WOMAD? What's that?
9 KAREN: Oh, | it's a music festival: World of Music, | Arts, | and Dance.
10 BEN: Oh, I see. Where was that?
11 KAREN: It was in Reading.
12 BEN: Oh, | right. Was it good?
13 KAREN: Yes, | it was fantastic. There were bands | and singers | from all
14 over the world. My favourite band | was from Thailand. They were so
15 good. And there was lots | of wonderful food: | Indian, | North

16 African, | Mexican, | Japanese.

17 BEN: Do you think | that there were loads of people there?


15 KAREN: Yes, | thousands of people.
19 BEN: It sounds great
20 KAREN: Yes, | it was the only problem | was the weather!
21 BEN: Why? What was the weather like?
22 KAREN: Wet. Too wet.
23 BEN: Oh, really? It
wasn't too bad here. It was a
bit cloudy, | but it was
24 dry.
25 KAREN: Well, | it was OK | on Saturday morning in Reading,| too. It
26
wasn't very sunny, | but it was quite warm, you see. But then the
27 rest of the time | it was very wet, | and cold, | too.

28 BEN: Oh, that's a pity.


29 KAREN: Yes, but at least | we were in a caravan, | so we were all right, | but
30 a lot of people | were in tents, | so it wasn't very nice for them.
31 BEN: No, | I bet it wasn't. Were you there all weekend?
32 KAREN: Yes, | from Friday evening | till Sunday evening. And how was your
33 weekend?
167 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Fall, Rise, Fall-Rise, Level & Rise-Fall

1
Text 8: Holiday in Scotland
2 WILLIAM: Hi, Julia. Did you have a good holiday?
3 JULIA: Yes, thanks. It was very nice.
4 WILLIAM: Where did you go?
5 JULIA: We went | to Scotland.
6 WILLIAM: Really? That sounds really great! Whereabouts were you?
7 JULIA: We were in Edinburgh.
8 WILLIAM: Very nice. How long | were you there for?
9 JULIA:
Just a week, | but we wanted to stay longer!
10 WILLIAM: What was the weather like?
11 JULIA: Well, it rained | for the first couple of days, | but
after that | it was
12 OK. It was cloudy, but it was dry.
13 WILLIAM: That's not too bad. Did you drive?
14 JULIA: No, | we didn't. We don't like | driving long distances, | so we went
15 by train.

16 WILLIAM: How long did the journey take?


17 JULIA: Oh, about | five hours, I think. We got to Edinburgh | at about
18 7.00 in the evening.
19 WILLIAM: Did you stay in a hotel?
20 JULIA: No, | we didn't. We stayed with some friends. They've got a new flat
21 | in the city centre.
22 WILLIAM: Oh, right. What things did you do?
23 JULIA: We did quite a lot, | as a matter of fact. We visited the castle, |
24 some museums, | quite a number of pubs, | and we did a lot of
25 shopping, | too!
26 WILLIAM: Great. So when did you get back?
27 JULIA: Two days ago.
28 WILLIAM: Well, | nice to see you again. See you around.
29 JULIA: OK. Bye!
168 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

1
Text 9: Trip to Mi lan
2 Jake Cruise | woke up in his hotel in Paris | and looked at his alarm clock.

3 It was eight thirty. It was late! He had a flight to Milan | at ten thirty, |and

4 an important meeting | with Signor Rossini. He would have loved to have a

5 shower, | but there was no time to waste. He got dressed quickly, | didnt eat

6 any breakfast, | packed his bag | and hurried downstairs. As he checked

7 out of the hotel, | the receptionist | gave him a message | but he didnt look

8 at it. He put it in his pocket, | ran out of the hotel | and got into a taxi. The

9
traffic on the way to the airport | was terrible | and the taxi | cost a lot | of

10 money. He didnt arrive at the airport | until ten past ten. He checked in, |

11 showed his boarding pass and ticket | and rushed to the plane. He got on the

12 plane | just in time. He found his seat | and sat down. Five minutes later |

13 the plane took off. He remembered the message in his pocket. He took it out |

14 and read it. It was from his secretary | and the content was: Dont go to Milan

15 today. Our deal is off.


169 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Stress: Suffixes
Stress Stress
Neutral
Attracting Rejecting

Origin: Anglo Saxon Origin: French Origin: Latin

The primary stress is Where's the main


taken by this syllable. stress? Grally. 1
The original stress
Oxitone words. syllable before the
pattern is kept
Secondary stresses? suffix, or 2 syllables
Rule of Derivation! before.

Stress on previous
Examples Examples: syllable:
-hood: 'likelyhood -ese: Chi'nese -ic(s): ro'botic(s)
-ful: 'beautiful -nique: u'nique -ify: in'tensify
-less: 'limitless -ree: refe'ree -ion:
ion: pronunci'ation
pro
-ness: u'niqueness -aire: millio'naire -ish: de'molish
-ish: 'yellowish -ette: ciga'rette -city: au'dacity
-ship: 'citizenship -oon: car'toon -id: 'solid
-ly: 'plainly -oo: sham'poo -ety: va'riety
-or: 'governor -eer: engi'neer -ity: com'munity
-er: 'teacher -esque: pictu'resque -ify: i'dentify
-ing: 'fantasizing -esce: coa'lesce
-ed: 'dedicated -ate: (2 syl.) nar'rate
-ive: com'municative Stress 2 syllables
-able: re'liable before:
-al: 'digital -ate: cer'tificate
-dom: 'boredom -ude: 'solitude
-ward: 'backward -ate: (polisyllabic)
e'valuate
-wise: 'moneywise
-ise: 'recognize
-ble: re'sponsible

Exceptions:
-ic:
ic: 'lunatic, 'arithmetic,
'rhetoric, 'catholic,
'heretic, 'arsenic, 'arabic
(all nouns)

Adapted from Prof. Roxana Basso


170 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015
171 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015
172 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015
173 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

The Logical Song


By Supertramp

When I was young, it seemed that life was so wonderful,


a miracle, oh it was beautiful, magical.
And all the birds in the trees, well they'd be singing so happily,
Oh, joyfully, oh playfully watching me.
But then they send me away to teach me how to be sensible,
logical, responsible, practical.
And they showed me a world where I could be so dependable,
Oh clinical, oh intellectual, cynical.

There are times when all the world's


asleep,
the questions run too deep
for such a simple man.
Won't you please, please tell me what
we've learned
I know it sounds absurd
please tell me who I am.

Now watch what you say or they'll be calling you a radical,


liberal, fanatical, criminal.
Won't you sign up your name, we'd like to feel you're
acceptable, respecable, presentable, a vegetable!

At night, when all the world's asleep,


the questions run so deep
for such a simple man.
Won't you please, please tell me what we've learned
I know it sounds absurd
please tell me who I am.
174 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Californication
Psychic spies from China
Try to steal your mind's elation
Little girls from Sweden
Dream of silver screen quotations
And if you want these kind of dreams
It's Californication

It's the edge of the world


And all of western civilization
The sun may rise in the East
At least it settles in the final location
It's understood that Hollywood
sells Californication

Pay your surgeon very well


To break the spell of aging
Celebrity skin is this your chin
Or is that war your waging

[Chorus:]
First born unicorn
Hard core soft porn
Dream of Californication
Dream of Californication

Marry me girl be my fairy to the world


Be my very own constellation
A teenage bride with a baby inside
Getting high on information
And buy me a star on the boulevard
It's Californication

Space may be the final frontier


But it's made in a Hollywood basement
Cobain can you hear the spheres
Singing songs off station to station
And Alderon's not far away
It's Californication

Born and raised by those who praise


Control of population everybody's been there
and
I don't mean on vacation

[Chorus]

Destruction leads to a very rough road


But it also breeds creation
And earthquakes are to a girl's guitar
They're just another good vibration
And tidal waves couldn't save the world
From Californication

Pay your surgeon very well


To break the spell of aging
Sicker than the rest
There is no test
But this is what you're craving
175 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Compound Words
Single Stressed /Early Stressed
1. N1 (DO)+N2(agent) = N
a. !Record $player !lie de$tector.
b. but: $stage !manager, $school !governor.

2. N1 + N2=N (N1 delimits the meaning of N2 what type of N2 it is)


a. N1 has no specific reference (!school $boy). If it had specific reference, it is double stress ($school
!secretary).
b. !family $name (surname) $family !name (reputation).

3. N1+N2=N (N1 material, the compound is something unintentionally created)


!raindrop.

4. N + V[ing] = N or Adj ( N is the DO of V !sight$seeing is X sees sights)


a. !sight $seeing (n) !time-con$suming (adj).
b. but: $family !planning, $zebra !crossing.

5. V[ing] + N = N (N is not the subject of V. If it is, the action is not in progress)


a. !walking $stick ($walking !stick a stick that is walking).
b. !lending $library (it is the subject, but it is not a library that is lending, but that lends).

6. Adj + N = N (restricted group. One or two-syllable adjectives with little semantic value).
!blackboard, !redhead, !black $people, !English $teacher, !White $House.

7. N + Participle = N generally subject of Participle


!horror $stricken, !air-con$ditioned, !red-$coloured.

8. N + Adj (adj). (few cases)


!homesick, !accident-$prone, !colorblind, !streetwise.

9. V+N=N
!talk $show, !playboy.

10. N + V = N
!sunshine.

11. V + Particle = N
!take-$off.

12. Adverb + N = N
!background, !underground, !supermarket, !overtime.

13. X + street, X + gate


!Oxford $Street, !South $Gate.

14. V + Adverb = N
!get-to$gether, !know-$how, !Stand$still.

15. V + V = V, N or Adj
!touch-$type (V), !Make-be$lieve (N).

16. Abbreviation + N = N
!A-$level, !u-$turn, !v-$neck.
176 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Double Stressed/Late Stressed


1. N1 + N2 = N
a. N1 (with specific reference) + N2= N
$kitchen !sink.
b. N1 (a place) + N2= N
$shop !window.
c. N1 (an organization) + N2 = N
$Academy A!ward.
d. N1 (time) + N2 = N
$morning !paper.
e. N1 (a value) + N2 =N
$pound !note, $dollar !bill.
f. N1 + N2 = Noun in the genitive
$teachers !pet.

2. N1 + N2 = N (both nouns are the referent)


$baby !boy (Its a baby and a boy), $twin !sister (Shes a twin and a sister).

3. N1 + N2 = N (N1 is a proper name places, street names- or proper nouns in the genitive).
a. $Buckingham !Palace, $Cambridge Uni!versity, $Addams !Apple, $Madison !Avenue.
b. But: !Lake $District, !Labour $Party, !Home $Office.

4. N1 + N2 = N (N1 is a mass noun with which N2 is made with, it is intentionally created).


a. $Apple !pie, $brick !wall (intentionally created !raindrop, unintentionally created).
b. But: !cornflakes, !X $juice (!orange $juice, !lemon $juice), !X $cake (!sponge $cake, !chocolate $cake).
c. Compare: $paper !bag (made of paper) !paper $bag (for newspapers).

5. Adjective + N (typically $ !)
a. $compact !disk, $second !hand, $direct !object, $civil !war, $front !door.
b. Proper names: $Old !Testament, $New !York.
c. But: !White $House, !Holly $Week.

6. N + Adj = Adj
$user !friendly, $crystal !clear, $world !wide (this is $world !wide, the $world wide !web).

7. Adj + N[ed]
$old !fashioned, $absent !minded ($absent minded !children), $blue !eyed.

8. N + N[ed] or N + Participle
$home !made, $hand !made, $middle !aged, $self !centered.

9. V[ing] + N(subject of the V)= N


$rolling !stone, $flying !saucer, $working !class, $running !water, $weeping !willow.

10. Adj1 + Adj2 = Adj (by default)


$Latin A!merican, $Anglo!Saxon, $Light !blue, $red !hot.

11. Adj + V [ing]


$good !looking, $easy !going.

12. Self + V[ing] = adj


$self sup!porting.

13. N (agent) + Adverb = N


$passer !by, $runner !up.

14. Adv + Participle = Adj


$far !fetched, $far !flung, $far !gone.
177 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Key and Termination


System: Relative Pitch Level
Linguistic choice within a system. (i.e. NOT emotional, cultural, indexical choices).
Relative Vs. Absolute Pitch Level
o HIGH
o MID
o LOW
Pitch sequence
Position choices:
o KEY: Onset Syllable (Points backwards: related to what has been said)
o TERMINATION: Tonic Syllable (Points forwards: related to what will be said)
o KEY + TERMINATION: Coterminous if there is a minimal tonic segment.

Internal Significance of Key and Termination:

Context Example
Susana Gimnez got married | and shes 7HAPpy now |
My cousin got married | and shes 8HAPpy now |
Susanita got married | and shes 9HAPpy now |

1. HIGH KEY: Binary opposition


a. CONTRASTIVE: X not Y
b. PARTICULARIZING: X not the rest
2. MID KEY: Additive and X
3. LOW KEY:
a. EQUATIVE: X = Y
b. LOGICAL RELATIONSHIP
i. Cause-effect X so Y
ii. Effect-cause Y because X

Key Context Example Analysis


Contrastive Peters problem is | that hes 7MARried | married not single
Titanic not the rest (e.g.
High
As Good as it Gets / The
Particularizing And the winner is | ti 7TANic |
Full Monty / Good Will
Hunting / LA Confidential)
Mid Additive Look for the icon | 8CLICK on it| and then wait a bit.
Equative Phone Mr. Brown | the 9HEADmaster | Mr Brown = Headmaster
He was unfaithful so she
Cause-Effect He was unfaithful | she 9DUMPED him |
Low dumped him
She dumped him because
Effect-Cause She dumped him| he was un9FAITHful|
he was unfaithful

External significance of Key and Termination:


Concord:
1. HIGH TERMINATION projects ADJUDICATION on the part of the listener (i.e. the speaker
invites the listener to pass judgment).
2. MID TERMINATION projects CONCURRENCE on the part of the listener (i.e. the speaker
expects agreement).
178 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

3. LOW TERMINATION projects the end of the Pitch Sequence.


Sequences Example Analysis
Termination Key
Speaker A wants speaker
B to pass judgment, i.e. to
High
A: did she ACTually adjudicate. Speaker Bs
Adjudication Termination B: She 7DID |
7SAY that? | answer matches the
High Key
expectation: She DID =
Not She didnt.
Speaker A wants speaker
Mid
B to agree with a
Concurrence Termination A: can i wHELP you?| 8YES please|
presumed shared opinion.
Mid Key
Speaker B confirms this.
Speaker A has ended the
pitch sequence, i.e. hes
Low
End of pitch brought the topic to a
Termination A: so THAT was 9IT.|
sequence close. Speaker B is free to
Any Key
choose any key to start a
new pitch sequence.

Concord breaking:
Although a speakers termination choice projects a certain type of response, the interlocutor can choose to
do otherwise. For example, a speaker may project concurrence by choosing mid termination. In other
words, this speaker projects a context of interaction where he expects his interlocutor to agree. However,
the interlocutor is may challenge this and answer in a contrastive key, thus showing adjudication.

Sequences Example Analysis


Termination Key

Speaker A wants speaker B to


Mid Termination
A: will you tMARry him ? B: 8SURE. | agree with a presumed shared
Mid Key (Concord)
opinion. Speaker B confirms this.

Speaker A wants speaker B to


Mid Termination agree with a presumed shared
High Key (Concord A: will you tMARry him ? B: 7NO. | opinion. Speaker B passes
Breaking) judgment, but this is of a
contrastive nature. NO = not S.
179 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Phonetics II Questionnaire
Stress

1. Word stress: How does the presence of stress affect the structure of a syllable? Discuss weak and strong
vowels. Can Spanish vowels be reduced and obscured like their English counterparts?
2. Sentence stress: What kinds of words are stressed? What kinds of words are unstressed? What is the
relationship between stress and rhythm?
3. Polysyllabic word stress: Why is it important to find the stressed syllables in a polysyllabic word? What kinds
of vowels are used in the unstressed syllables? What kinds of vowels are used in the stressed syllables?
Define and exemplify the use of the Teutonic Rule and the Rule of Alternation.
4. Explain and exemplify the middle of three rule.
5. Discuss stress attracting, stress rejecting and neutral suffixes. Provide examples.
6. Discuss early or single stressed compound words. Which rules are the most productive ones? Provide
examples.
7. Discuss late or double stressed compound words. Which rules are the most productive ones? Provide
examples.
8. What is stress shift? How do double stressed words behave when they occur in the attributive and
predicative positions?
9. What is the traditional difference between stress and accent?
10. How is rhythm in Spanish and English supposed to differ?
11. Why can we say that stress can be lexically distinctive?
12. Provide examples of words whose stress pattern varies according to their grammatical category.
13. Provide examples of words whose stress pattern is variable.

Introduction

14. Define the concept of intonation.


15. What are the prosodic features?
16. Define pitch. What causes pitch? What is its linguistic significance?
17. Define tone. How many nuclear tones are there in English? How does Wells group them? Why?
18. What are the functions of Intonation? Name them and describe them.
19. What are the Three Ts? Why is it useful to talk about them?
20. Describe the anatomy of a tone unit. Define and illustrate pre-head, onset, head, nucleus and tail.
21. What is the difference between a tune and a tone, according to OConnor and Arnold (1973)?

Tonality

22. Define tonality. Define and illustrate marked and unmarked tonality.
23. Comment on the connection between speech planning and tonality. Why is it important for the listener if the
speaker chunks his/her speech properly? How long are intonation phrases on average?
24. What is the connection between tonality and grammar? What kinds of boundaries normally suggest the end
of a chunk?
25. What is topicalization? Provide examples.
26. What is fronting? Provide examples.
27. What is the connection between chunking and tone assignment? What kind of tones are used when a
speaker chooses to segment one potential long tone unit into smaller pieces?
28. How does chunking disambiguate defining and non-defining relative clauses?
29. Compare and contrast the treatment of initial elements such as yes, oh, well, no in English and Spanish.
30. Compare and contrast the treatment of final elements such as please, thanks, thank you, or vocatives in
English and Spanish.
180 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Tone

31. Describe the production of a fall in detail. Focus on the nuclear syllable and the tail.
32. Describe the production of a rise in detail. Focus on the nuclear syllable and the tail.
33. Describe the production of a level tone in detail. Focus on the nuclear syllable and the tail.
34. Describe the production of a fall-rise in detail. Focus on the nuclear syllable and the tail.
35. Describe the production of a rise-fall in detail. Focus on the nuclear syllable and the tail.
36. What tone is the default choice for a statement according to Wells? Exemplify.
37. What is an implicational fall-rise according to Wells? Exemplify.
38. Define and illustrate uptalk.
39. According to Wells, what is the typical intonation used in exclamations?
40. According to Wells, what is the typical intonation used in commands?
41. According to Wells, what is the typical intonation used in greetings and interjections?
42. According to Wells, what is an independent rise? What is a dependent rise?
43. What is a sequence of tones? What possibilities are available? What is a leading tone? What is a trailing
tone? What kind of material typically takes a leading tone? What kind of material typically takes a trailing
tone? Why is the level tone not a good choice for a trailing tone?
44. What is the typical intonation of a list? Compare and contrast an open and a closed list. Illustrate.
45. What is tone concord? What kinds of structures demand this?
46. Discuss the intonation of Yes/No, Wh- and Tag questions according to Wells.

Tonicity

47. Explain why Wells (2006:93) says that phonetically we accent a syllable (...) pragmatically we accent a
word.
48. Define tonicity. Define neutral and marked tonicity. Provide examples. Do you think that the exceptions to
the LLI rule are instances of marked or neutral tonicity? Why?
49. Define focus. What is it related to?
50. Define broad focus. Provide examples.
51. Define narrow focus. Provide examples.
52. What is contrastive focus? Is it related to broad or narrow focus? Provide examples.
53. Account for the assertion contrast breaks all rules.
54. What happens when all the information in the intonation phrase is old?
55. What is the LLI Rule?
56. What is the treatment of compound words as regards the placement of the nucleus and the LLI Rule?
Exemplify.
57. Define deaccentuation. Compare and contrast this in English and Spanish.
58. Define and illustrate prospective and implied givenness?
59. Exceptions to the LLI Rule. Provide a list of these exceptions, describe and illustrate them. What kinds of
words are normally nuclear in these exceptions?
60. Discuss typical non-tonic expressions (or [-FOCUS] expressions).
61. Whats the intonational treatment of vocatives? How does the position in which they occur in the utterance
affect tonicity and tone?
62. What kinds of time and place adverbials in final position are nuclear and which are not? Why? Exemplify this.
63. Describe the treatment of prepositional, phrasal-prepositional and phrasal verbs in final position. What
about separable phrasal verbs?
64. When can old material be accented again?

Discourse Intonation: Brazil

65. Why does Brazil prioritize the function of a tone over its phonetic shape?
66. Describe the anatomy of the tone unit in Brazils theory. What is the tonic segment?
67. Why is intonation systematic?
68. What is a paradigm?
69. What is a syntagm?
70. Define the transactional and the interactional functions of intonation.
71. Define the system of prominence. What is selection? What does it depend on? How many selective choices
are available in a tone unit?
181 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

72. Compare and contrast sense and social selection.


73. Define the concept of context of interaction.
74. What is the common ground? What is the area of convergence in the diagram? What is the area of
divergence? What do convergence and divergence mean from the social meanings of tone?
75. Define the system of tone. What do P and R stand for? What do p, p+, r and r+ stand for? Whats the
meaning of plus here?
76. Define the concept of linguistic dominance. Who can be dominant? Will a dominant speaker always use
dominant tones? What happens if a non-dominant speaker claims dominance?
77. Compare and contrast the concepts of dominance and divergence. Compare and contrast the concepts of
non-dominance and convergence.
78. Describe the system of pitch level. Is pitch level absolute or relative in speech? Why?
79. Compare and contrast Key and Termination.
80. What is the meaning of High, Mid and Low Key?
81. What is the meaning of High, Mid and Low Termination?
82. What do we associate the term solidarity with?
83. What do we associate the term world-changing with?
84. Intonation of questions:
a. Brazils view on Checking questions.
b. Brazils view on Finding-Out questions.
c. Compare Brazils view with Wells view on Yes/No questions and Wh- questions.
85. Orientation: discuss oblique and direct orientation. Provide examples.
86. How can intonation mark old or shared information? Provide three possibilities.
182 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Phonetics II Sample Test


1
Laundry
2
SARAH: Sarah Mills.
3
DANIEL: Hi, Sis! This is Dan. Are you free this afternoon?
4
5 SARAH: Oh, | I am, | I think. Whats the matter?
6 DANIEL: I dont know how to put it, but I had a silly problem at home. I
7 was doing the laundry. I got hold of the laundry-basket, I
8 sorted out white and coloured items, and I filled the washing
9 machine.
10 SARAH: Youre learning at last! Congrats!
11 DANIEL: I wouldnt be that happy... What do you think happened next?
12 I turned the machine on, and left. When I came back, I saw the
13 water was blue, dark blue.
14 SARAH: Hows that possible? Was the machine empty when you filled it
15 in?
16 DANIEL: I hadnt realized, Im afraid. All my white underwear, T-shirts
17 and shirts are ruined now, so I need to get some new stuff.
18 SARAH: Are we going on a shopping spree? Count me in, please!
19 DANIEL: I thought you would agree.

Written Exam:

Transcribe the text into phonemic script. Assign tonality, tonicity, onset and tone appropriately.
Leave one line in between.

Oral Exam:

1. Comment on the text. Retell the story and tell us what you think of it.
2. Read the text aloud.
3. Analyse the words that have been underlined. Comment on their stress pattern.
4. Discuss tonality, tonicity, onset and tone.
183 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Phonetics II Checklist:
Single stress compound
Double stress compound
Polysyllabic word
Deaccentuation
Contrast
Nucleus on the last Noun
o Event Sentences: The TEACHers arrived.
o Noun + Infinitives: Weve got a TASK to finish.
o Nouns + Adjectives: Leave the DOOR open.
o Causative constructions: Hes had his HAIR cut.
o Wh-questions ending in a verb: What BOOK did you buy?
o Final relative clauses: I like the SCARF you knitted.
o Separable Phrasal Verbs: Put your TOYS away.
o Subject + passive verb: The MEETings been put off.
Final objects of general reference: GIVE me that thing.
Final vocatives: Hurry UP, honey.
Final reporting clauses: Ill DO it, he said.
Final comment clauses: Shes not MARried, I guess.
Final adverbials:
o General time adverbials: Are you FREE tonight?
o General place adverbials: Its FREEZing out there.
o Of courtesy: I want a CHEESE burger, please. Ill take the CALL, thank you.
o Downtoners: WAIT a bit.
o Non-assertive proper functioning: Can you HEAR me well?
o Non-reinforcing sentence adverbials: We can LEAVE it, though.
Any- words:
o Broad Focus (non-nuclear): I dont DATE anybody.
o Narrow Focus (nuclear): I dont date ANybody.
self:
o Reflexive pronouns (non-nuclear): Dont HURT yourself.
o Emphatic pronouns (nuclear): Youll have to do it yourSELF.
Adverbials:
o Sentence Adverbials (non-nuclear): I speak ENGlish, naturally.
o Non-sentence Adverbials (nuclear): I speak English NATurally.
o Reinforcing (nuclear): Im tired, TOO.
o Non-reinforcing (non-nuclear): Im TIRED, though.
o Specific time/place (nuclear): I saw your mother yesterday at ten THIRty.
o Non-specific time/place (non-nuclear): I saw your MOTHer the other day.
Intonation of questions (Wells & Brazil)
Sense and social selection.
Proclaiming and referring tones.
184 Prof. Francisco Zabala - 2015

Shared and new information.


Convergence and divergence.
Dominant and non-dominant tones.
The intonation of lists.
Major and minor points of information.
Sequences of tones: leading and trailing tones.
Topicalization.
Fronting.
Grammatical, intonational and lexical focusing.
Implicationa fall-rise.
Oblique and direct orientation.
Teutonic rule.
Rule of alternation.
Rule of derivation.
Stress-shift.
The middle-of-three rule.