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Atlas of

Time-Temperature Diagrams
for Nonferrous Alloys

Edited by
George F. Vander Voort
Carpenter Technology Corporation
Reading PA

ASM International
Copyright 1991
by
ASM International
All rights reserved

No part of this book may be reproduced. stored in a retrieval


system. or transmitted. in any form or by any means. electronic.
mechanical, photocopying. recording. or otherwise. with the prior
written permission of the publisher.

Nothing contained in this book is to be construed as a grant of any right of


manufacture. sale. or use in connection with any method. process. apparatus. product. or
composition. whether or not covered by letters patent or registered trademark. nor as a
defense against liability for the infringement of letters patent or registered trademark.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 91-055574

ISBN: 0-87170-428-5
SAN: 204-7586

Production coordination by
Veronica Flint. ASM International

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


Preface
Transformation diagrams, chiefly those developed under isothermal or continuous cooling
conditions, that is, isothermal transformation (IT) or continuous cooling transformation (CCT)
diagrams, have been of enormous value to the ferrous physical metallurgist and to the heat
treater. Instrumental in establishing an understanding of non-equilibrium phase
transformations, they have brought heat treating from a confused art, at best, to a
reproducible, predictable science. Despite our vastly improved knowledge since the 1930
publication of Davenport and Bain's epic paper, these diagrams are still the mainstay for
planning or troubleshooting heat treatment practices.
The writer has compiled iron and steel IT (TTT) and CCT diagrams published worldwide as
well as other useful time-temperature type diagrams, e.g., time-temperature-precipitation, -em-
brittlement, or -sensitization. This collection has been published by ASM International as the
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams for Irons and Steels.
The need for a similar compilation of nonferrous IT, CCT and allied time-temperature
diagrams has been evident to the writer for some time. There are a few nonferrous systems
with heat treatment characteristics similar to steels, aluminum bronzes and titanium alloys,
for example. Other alloys can be strengthened by precipitation of submicroscopic particles,
such as certain aluminum, copper, nickel or magnesium alloys. Still other systems exhibit
allotropic transformations of commercial significance. High temperature exposure or service
may result in precipitation or oxidation reactions. These processes can be followed in
graphical format, either under isothermal or continuous cooling conditions. Alternatively,
resultant property changes or behavior may be shown graphically, for example, as iso-property
lines, the start of intergranular attack, or the change to cracking under certain conditions.
Obviously, the wide range of nonferrous alloy systems available and the wide range of
possible time-temperature plots make such a compilation a formidable task!
This is the first compilation of time-temperature type plots for nonferrous alloys. Despite our
best efforts, it is impossible for anyone person to find all of the available published diagrams
and there were works that we tried to obtain but could not. Nevertheless, we have made a
valiant first try and we hope that knowledgeable readers will forward literature containing
things that were missed.
The editor would like to thank the many people who helped him collect diagrams. In
particular, I would like to acknowledge Dr. James T. Staley of the Alcoa Laboratories for his
help with the aluminum section and Daniel K. Wells of Carpenter Technology Corporation for
his help with the nickel section. I would also like to acknowledge the excellent support from
the ASM staff, particularly ivlrs. Veronica Flint who coordinated many of the acquisitions, all
of the permissions to republish the diagrams, and who handled the mechanics of publication.
She was a delight to work with on this project! I would also like to thank the management of
Carpenter Technology Corporation for their understanding and support throughout this work.

George F. Vander Voort, Editor


Carpenter Technology Corporation
Reading PA, USA
Table of Contents
ALUMINUM-BASE ALLOYS

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
AI- 4% Li 3
Al - 2.7% Cu - 1.6% Li - 0.09% Zr - 0.05% Fe - 0.05% Si - 0.10% Ti 10
Al - 2.7% Cu - 1.6% Li - 0.09% Zr - 0.05% Fe - 0.05% Si - 0.10% Ti 11

Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy
Al - 12.5 (at.%) Mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Aluminum-Zinc Alloys
Al - 21.6 at.% Zn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Al - 22 at.% Zn - 0.1 at.% Sn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Al - 22.5 at.% Zn - 0.1 at.% Mg 7

Aluminum-Manganese Alloys
Al - 0.9% Mn - 0.35% Fe - 0.04% Si 8
Al - 0.9% Mn - 0.35% Fe - 0.04% Si 8
Al - 0.9% Mn - 0.35% Fe - 0.04% Si 9

2024 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12
2036 Alloy 15
2219 Alloy 15

6007 Alloy
Al - 0.81% Mg - 1.18% Si - 0.14% Cr - 0.09% Zr - 0.14% Mn - 0.39% Fe - 0.02% Cu -
0.01% Zn - 0.03% Ti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

6010 Alloy 16

6061 Alloys
Al - 0.55% Mg - 0.68% Si - 0.01% Cr - 0.014% Mn - 0.11% Fe - 0.036% Cu - 0.01% Ti - 0.002% B ..... 17
Al - 0.98% Mg - 0.66% Si - 0.12% Cr - 0.12% Mn - 0.38% Fe - 0.23% Cu - 0.07% Zn -
0.014% Ti - 0.001% B 17

6063 Alloy
Al - 0.60% Mg - 0.30% Si - 0.02% Mn - 0.16% Fe - 0.01% Zn - 0.02% Ti ....................... 18

6205 Alloy
Al - 0.53% Mg - 0.76% Si - 0.12% Cr - 0.109% Zr - 0.11% Mn - 0.138% Fe - 0.04% Zn - 0.01% Ti ..... 18

A-U4G Alloy
Al - 4.08% Cu - 0.72% Mg - 0.62% Mn - 0.60% Si - 0.27% Fe - 0.03% Ti 19

A-U4SG Alloy
Al - 4.19% Cu - 0.46% Mg - 0.78% Mn - 0.82% Si - 0.33% Fe - 0.05% Ti 20-22

6351 Alloy 23
7075 Alloy 23-25
7017 Alloy 26

8090 Alloy
Al - 2.28% Li - 0.86% Cu - 0.90% Mg - 0.13% Zr - 0.13% Fe - 0.06% Si 27-30

Experimental Aluminum Alloys


Al - 2.7% Cu - 1.6% Li - 0.09% Zr - 0.05% Fe - 0.005% Si - 0.1% Ti 31-37

AI-Zr-Mg Alloy
Al - 4.5 (at.%) Zr - 2.25 (at.%) Mg 38

ix
AI-Cu-Mg-Mn Alloys
Al - 4.64% Cu - 1.48% Mg - 0.82% Mn - 0.02% Si - 0.49% Fe 39
Al - 4.08% Cu - 0.009% Mg - 0.008% Mn - 0.006% Si - 0.002% Fe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 40, 42
Al - 4.60% Cu - 0.007% Mg - 0.009% Mn - 0.010% Si - 0.002% Fe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 40
Al - 8.70% Cu - 11.70% Mg - 0.08% Mn 40.42
Al - 4.60% Cu - 0.89% Mg - 0.02% Mn - <0.01% Si - <0.01% Fe 40.42
Al - 4.28% Cu - 1.28% Mg - 0.02% Mn ............................................... 40. 42
Al - 4.72% Cu - 0.12% Mg - 0.71% Mn - <0.06% Si - <0.01% Fe 40
AI - 4.19% Cu - 1.80% Mg - 0.06% Mn - 0.47% Si - <0.01% Fe .............................. 40
Al - 4.60% Cu - 1.40% Mg - 0.90% Mn - 0.01% Si - 0.01% Fe 40
Al - 4.64% Cu - 1.48% Mg - 0.82% Mn - 0.02% Si - 0.49% Fe 40, 42
Al - 4.74% Cu - 1.80% Mg - 0.38% Mn - 0.11% Si - 0.08% Fe ............................ 41
AI - 4.76% Cu - 1.74% Mg - 0.96% Mn - 0.16% Si - 0.09% Fe ............................. 41,42
Al - 4.30% Cu - 1.66% Mg - 0.66% Mn - 0.13% Si - 0.07% Fe '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 41, 42
Al - 8.77% Cu - 1.74% Mg - 0.88% Mn - 0.13% Si - 0.10% Fe 41
Al - 8.88% Cu - 1.83% Mg - 0.86% Mn - 0.12% Si - 0.12% Fe 41
Al - 8.82% Cu - 1.16% Mg - 0.43% Mn - 0.10% Si - 0.09% Fe ............................... 41, 42
Al - 8.62% Cu - 1.20% Mg - 0.86% Mn - 0.08% Si - 0.10% Fe ............................... 41

COBALT -BASE ALLOYS

Co-Cr Alloy
Co - 20% Cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 46

Co-W Alloy
Co - 26% W ................................................................ 46

Co-5W-O.23C Alloy
Co - 4.69% W - 0.23% C : 46

Co-IOW-0.49C Alloy
Co - 9.38% W - 0.49% C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 47

Co-IOW-O.75C Alloy
Co - 9.37% W - 0.76% C ....................................................... 48

Co-15W-O.71C Alloy
Co - 14.10% W = 0.71% C 49

Co-Cr-Ti-Alloys
Co - 16.0% Cr - 6.0% Ti - 8.0% Mo - 0.006% C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 60
Co - 17.6% Cr - 4.4% Ti - 3.0% Mo - 0.016% C 60
Co - 16.0% Cr - 6.0% Ti - 3.0% Mo - 0.006% C 51-53
Co - 17.3% Cr - 4.4% Ti - 3.0% Mo - 11.6% Ni - 0.017% C 53

Wrought Cobalt-Base Alloy


Co - 20.2% Cr - 16.8% Ni - 14.8% W - 1.2% Ti - 0.63% Al - 0.07% Mn - 0.05% Si - 0.25% Fe - 0.11% C. 63

Co-Cr-Mo-C Investment-Cast Implant Alloy


Co - 0.26% C - 0.60% Mn - 0.60% Si - 27% Cr - 3% Ni - 6% Mo - 1% Fe 64

Co-W Heat-Resisting Alloy


Co - 26% W - 1.0% Ti - 0.6% Zr - 3.0% Cr - 0.6% C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Haynes Alloy No. 188, Cobalt-Base Superalloy


Co - 20-24% Cr - 20-24% Ni - 13-16% W - 0.06-0.15% C - 0.03-0.16% La -
0.20-0.60% Si - up to 3% Fe - up to 1.26% Mn 56

L-605, Cobalt-Base Superalloys


Co - 0.06% C - 20.06% Cr - 9.81% Ni - 14,88% W - 1.66% Mn - 0.86% Si - 0.23% Fe 66
Co - 20.0% Cr - 14.84% W - 10.02% Ni - 3.12% Fe - 1.39% Mn - 0.47% Si - 0.003% P - trace Zr 67

x
Co-Fe Alloys
Co - 60% Fe ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 68
Co - 48.8% Fe - 2.6% V 68
Co - 49.8% Fe - 0.4% Cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 68
Co - 47.34% Fe - 2.00% V - 0.007% C - 0.106% Si - 0.22% Ni 69
Co - 48% Fe - 3.6% Ni - 1.6% V 60

AI-Ni-Co Alloys
Fe - 8% AI - 14% Ni - 3% Cu - 18-32% Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 61
Fe - 8% AI - 12-16% Ni - 3% Cu - 24% Co 62

COPPER-BASE ALLOYS

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Cu - 11.87% AI - 0.06% Fe - 0.02% Si - 0.01% Sn ....................................... 66
Cu - 11.89% AI - 0.02% Fe - 0.01% Mn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Cu - 11.9% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Cu - 13.6% AI ................................................................ 68
Cu - 11.3% AI ................................................................ 68
Cu - 12.0% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Cu - 12.36% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 69
Cu - 12.4% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 70
Cu - 12.7% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Cu - 13.0% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 72
Cu - 11.8% AI - 0.19% Fe - 0.07% Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 73
Cu - 10.6% AI , 73
Cu - 11.87% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Cu - 13.6% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 74
Cu - 11.2% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 76
Cu - 11.7% AI 76
Cu - 12.4% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 76
Cu - 11.06% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Cu - 11.60% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 78
Cu - 12.16% AI 79
Cu - 12.78% AI 80
Cu - 13.31% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 81
Cu - 11.8% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 83
Cu - 10.6% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 84
Cu - 10.6% AI - 4.8% Fe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 85
Cu - 10.6% AI - 6% Ni 86
Cu - 10.5% AI - 4.6% Fe - 5.0% Ni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Cu - 8.8% AI - 6.4% Fe - 6% Ni - 0.9% Mn 88
Cu - 9.9% AI - 5.3% Fe - 6.1% Ni - 0.9% Mn 89
Cu - 11.5% AI - 6.3% Fe - 5.1% Ni - 0.9% Mn 90
Cu - 12.5% AI - 4.9% Fe - 5.1% Ni 91
Cu - 8% AI - 6% Mn - 3% Fe - 2% Ni 92
Cu - 12% Mn - 8% AI - 3% Fe - 2% Ni 93
Cu - 8% AI- 1% Be - 0.6% Co 94
Cu - 11.64% AI - 0.08% Fe - 0.59% Ag 96
Cu - 11.66% AI - 0.08% Fe - 1.08% Ag 96
Cu - 11.68% AI - 0.08% Fe - 2.63% Ag 96
Cu - 11.83% AI - 0.06% Fe - 0.026% Cd 96
Cu - 11.68% AI - 0.06% Fe - 0.43% Cd 96
Cu - 11.21% AI - 0.06% Fe - 0.64% Cd 96
Cu - 11.73% AI - traces Fe - 0.63% In 97
Cu - 11.79% AI - traces Fe - 0.97% In 97
Cu - 11.84% AI - traces Fe - 2.44% In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Cu - 11.74% AI - 0.01% Fe - 0.62% Sn 98
Cu - 11.84% AI - 0.01% Fe - 1.18% Sn 98
Cu - 11.68% Al - 0.01% Fe - 2.63% Sn 98
Cu - 12.06% AI - 0.06% Fe - 0.1% Sb 99
Cu - 11.96% AI - 0.06% Fe - 0.45% Sb 99
Cu - 11.96% AI - 0.06% Fe - 0.73% Sb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Cu - 11.76% AI - traces Fe - 0.48% Be 100
Cu - 11.71% AI - traces Fe - 0.88% Be 100
Cu - 11.42% AI - traces Fe - 2.14% Be 100
Cu - 11.66% AI - traces Fe - 0.69% Zn 101
Cu - 11.69% AI - traces Fe - 1.06% Zn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Cu - 11.44% AI - traces Fe - 2.42% Zn 101
Cu - 11.04% AI - 0.01% Fe 102
Cu - 10.67% AI - 0.02% Fe - 1.02% Ni-trace Si 102
Cu - 10.54% AI - trace Fe - 3.03% Ni 103

xi
Cu - 12.20% AI - 0.04% Fe - trace Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 104
Cu - 12.41% AI - 0.87% Ni - trace Fe 105
Cu - 12.07% AI - 3.08% Ni - trace Fe 106
Cu - 11.9% AI 107
Cu - 11.7% AI - 0.50% Mn 108
Cu - 11.6% AI - 0.96% Mn 108
Cu - 11.7% AI - 0.52% Co 109
Cu - 11.8% Al - 1.1% Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Cu - 11.7% AI - 0,41% Fe 110
Cu - 11.6% AI - 0.93% Fe 110
Cu - 10.6% Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 114
Cu - 11.2% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 116
Cu - 11.8% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 116
Cu - 12.0% Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Cu - 12.4% Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 118

ASTM B148-954 Alloy


Cu - 10.50% Al - 4.1% Fe 82

Aluminum-Bronze Alloy
Cu - 12.31% Al - 3.68% Fe - 0.28% Ni - 0.03% Mn ..................................... 107

Copper-Aluminum-Zinc Alloys
Cu - 10.6% Al - 3.0% Zn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 111
Cu - 11.0% Al - 3.1% Zn 112
Cu - 11.6% Al - 3.1% Zn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Copper-Aluminum-Nickel Alloy
Cu - 12.8% Al - 7.7% Ni 119

Beryllium-Bronze Alloy
Cu - 6.965% Be - trace Fe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 119

Copper-Beryllium Alloys
Cu - 1.77% Be - 0.24% Co 120
Cu - 1.99% Be - 0.09% Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 120
Cu - 1.87% Be - 0.14% Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 120
Cu - 1.81% Be - 0.20% Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Cu - 1.77% Be - 0.24% Co 120
Cu - 1.5% Be 121-122
Cu - 2% Be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 121-122
Cu - 1.8% Be - 0.2% Co 121-122
Cu - 6.39% Be 123

Copper-Gallium Alloy
Cu - 23.7 at.% Ga 123

Copper-Indium Alloys
Cu - 31.36% In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 124
Cu - 32.3% In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 125

Copper-Antimony Alloy
Cu - 30.6% Sb 126

Copper-Silicon Alloy
Cu - 8.35% Si 126

Copper-Tin Alloys
Cu - 32.5% Sn 127
Cu - 16.5 at.% Sn 127-128
Cu - 23.6% Sn - 0.02% Pb - 0.01% Fe - 0.01% Ni - 0.02% Zn - <0.01% P 128

Copper-Zinc Alloys
Cu - 40.5% Zn 129
Cu - 41.6% Zn 130
Cu - 43.0% Zn 131
Cu - 44.1% Zn 132
Cu - 39.8% Zn 133
Cu - 39.5% Zn 133

xii
Copper-Gold-Zinc Alloys
Cu - 39.9% Zn - 4.2% Au 134
Cu - 40.1% Zn - 9.3% Au 134

Copper-Zinc-Aluminum Alloys
Cu - 27.4% Zn - 8.72% AI 185
Cu - 28.2% Zn - 8.14% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 135

GOLD-BASE ALLOYS
Au-Co Alloy
Au - 4.8 at.% Co ............................................................... 139

MAGNESIUM-BASE ALLOYS
Magnesium-Manganese Alloy
Mg - 1.58% Mn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 148

Magnesium-Thorium Alloy
Mg - 5.1% Th 143

Magnesium-Zinc Alloys
Mg - 52% Zn ................................................................. 144
Mg - 55% Zn ................................................................... 144

NICKEL-BASE ALLOYS

Nickel-Indium Alloys
Ni - 5.52 at.% In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 147

Nickel-Titanium Alloys
Ni - 12.2 at.% Ti - <0.02 at.% AI - <10 ppm B - 0.02 wt.% Si - 0.03 wt.% Fe -
0.01-0.02 wt.% C - <0.01 wt.% Co - <0.005 wt.% Mn - <0.001 wt.% Mg - <0.001 wt.% Cu 148
Ni - 48 at.% Ti ............................................................... 149-150

Nickel-Tungsten Alloys
Ni - 45% W ............................................................... 150
Ni - 45% W - 10% Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 150

Nickel-Aluminum-Molybdenum Alloy
Ni - 6.8% AI - 14.4% Mo - 6.1% W - 0.04% C 151

IN-tOO
Ni - 0.17% C - 10.80% Cr - 14.80% Co - 2.89% Mo - 4.73% Ti -
5.79% AI - 0.016% B - 0.076% Zr - 0.98% V 152
Ni - 0.17% C - 10.80% Cr - 15.00% Co - 2.93% Mo - 4.68% Ti -
6.58% AI - 0.016% B - 0.082% Zr - 0.94% V 158
Ni - 15% Co - 10% Cr - 5.5% AI - 4.7% Ti - 8% Mo - 0.95% v 232-235
Ni - 0.18% C - 14.26% Co - 10.26% Cr - 2.97% Mo - 5.35% Ti - 5.60% AI -
0.80% Fe - 0.92% V - 0.012% B - 0.05% Zr ............................................. 236

IN-tOO Nb-modified (PM)


Ni - 11.9% Cr - 17.7% Co - 3.3% Mo - 5.2% AI - 4.2% Ti - l.4% Nb - 0.024% B - 0.06% Zr - 0.09% C .. 238

IN-tOO Nb-modified (CE)


Ni - 12.1% Cr - 17.4% Co - 3.2% Mo - 5.3% AI - 4.4% Ti - 1.5% Nb - 0.Q28% B - 0.06% Zr - 0.08% C .. 238

B-1900
Ni - 0.10% C - 7.96% Cr - 9.70% Co - 5.89% Mo - 1.08% Ti - 6.06% AI -
0.015% B - 0.084% Zr - 4.25% Ta . . . . . . . . . . . .. 154
Ni - 0.10% C - 8.25% Cr - 9.50% Co - 5.89% Mo - 1.07% Ti -
5.98% AI - 0.016% B - 0.10% Zr - 4.19% Ta 155
Ni - 10% Co - 8% Cr - 6% Mo - 6% AI - 4% Ta - 1% THC+Zr+B 156-158

xiii
Inconel 702
Ni - 0.08% C - 0.6% Ti - 3.2% Al - 15.5% Cr - 1.0% max Fe 158

Udimet-700
Ni - 0.08% C - 15.0% Cr - 18.5% Co - 5.2% Mo - 3.5% Ti - 4.3% Al - 0.030% B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 159
Ni - 0.07% C - 15.10% Cr - 18.30% Co - 5.33% Mo - 3.34% Ti - 4.29% Al - 0.024% B 160

Rene' 80
Ni - 14% Cr - 9.5% Co - 4% Mo - 4% W - 5% Ti - 3% Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 161

Rene' 41
Ni - 0.08% C - 19.31% Cr - 10.82% Co - 9.77% Mo - 2.34% Fe - 3.23% Ti - 1.51% Al - 0.006% B 162
Ni - 0.08% C - 0.50% Fe - 19.00% Cr - 11.00% Co - 9.75% Mo - 3.15% Ti - 1.50% Al - 0.006% B 163
Ni - 0.08% C - 19.31% Cr - 10.82% Co - 9.77% Mo - 3.23% Ti - 1.51% Al - 0.006% B - 2.34% Fe . . . . .. 164

Unitemp AF2-1D
Ni - 0.35% C - 11.92% Cr - 14.05% Co - 4.94% Mo - 4.87% W - 3.02% Ti - 4.60% Al -
0.013% B - 0.10% Zr - 1.56% Ta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 165
Ni - 0.33% C - 11.93% Cr - 14.20% Co - 5.05% Mo - 3.04% Ti - 4.60% Al - 4.93% W -
0.014% B - 0.10% Zr- 1.48% Ta 166

Inco 713C
Ni - 0.12% C - 13.25% Cr - 4.28% Mo - 0.81% Ti - 6.40% Al - 0.009% B - 0.05% Zr - 2.66% Nb . . . . .. 167

MAR-M200
Ni - 0.14% C - 9.51% Cr - 10.3% Co - 2.06% Ti - 5.05% Al - 12.15% W - 0.010% B -
0.048% Zr - 0.99% Nb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 168

MAR-M246
Ni - 0.15% C - 9.00% Cr - 10.0% Co - 2.50% Mo - 1.50% Ti - 5.50% AI - 10.0% W -
0.010% B - 0.05% Zr - 1.5% Ta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 168

TRW-NASA IVY
Ni - 0.15% C - 5.85% Cr - 4.82% Co - 2.04% Mo - 1.08% Ti - 6.25% AI - 5.36% W -
0.023% B - 0.039% Zr - 8.17% Ta - 0.89% Nb - 2.01% He - 0.90% Re ............ 169

TRW-NASA VIA
Ni - 0.16% C - 6.03% Cr - 7.19% Co - 2.24% Mo - 0.98% Ti - 5.26% AI - 5.78% W -
0.018% B - 0.12% Zr - 8.32% Ta - 0.34% Nb - 0.46% He - 0.57% Re ................. 170
Ni - 0.13% C - 5.92% Cr - 2.05% Mo - 1.01% Ti - 5.27% Al - 7.46% Co - 0.38% He -
8.97% Ta - 5.92% W - 0.32% Re - 0.10% Zr - 0.020% B - 0.47% Nb 171-172

Incone1 718
Ni - 0.06% C - 18.86% Cr - 2.99% Mo - 0.93% Ti - 0.57% Al - 5.25% Nb - 17.48% Fe 173
Fe - 53% Ni - 0.05% C - 1.0% Ti - 0.7% Al - 19.0% Cr - 3.0% Mo - 5.3% Nb+Ta-
0.006% B - 0.03% Zr - 0.2% Mn - 0.3% Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Fe - 52% Ni - 19% Cr - 3% Mo - 5% Nb+Ta - 0.8% Ti - 0.6% Al - 0.05% C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 196
Ni - 18.49% Cr - 16.79% Fe - 5.07% Nb+Ta - 3.11% Mo - 0.95% Ti - 0.51% Al - 0.30% Si -
0.28% Mn - 0.05% Cu - 0.04% C - 0.011% P - 0.007% S - 0.0023% B ...................... 197
Ni - 19% Cr - 18% Fe - 5% Nb - 3% Mo - 0.15% Si - 0.10% Cu - 0.20% Mn - 1.0% Ti -
0.4% Al - 0.04% C - 0.007% S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 198-201
Fe - 53.8% Ni - 18.0% Cr - 3.00% Mo - 5.24% Nb+Ta - 1.00% Ti - 0.59% Al - 0.05% C -
0.003% S - 0.004% B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 202
Ni - 0.04% C - 0.20% Mn - 0.30% Si - 18.6% Cr - 3.1% Mo - 5.0% Nb - 18.5% Fe - 0.9% Ti - 0.4% Al .. 203
Ni - 18.16% Cr - 19.5% Fe - 2.96% Mo - 0.82% Ti - 0.70% Al - 5.18% Nb 204
Ni - 18.59% Cr - 21% Fe - 2.85% Mo - 0.72% Ti - 0.63% Al - 3.99% Nb 204
Ni - 18.97% Cr - 17% Fe - 7.03% Mo - 0.59% Ti - 0.63% Al - 3.41% Nb ........................ 204
Ni - 18.90% Cr - 16.4% Fe - 7.00% Mo - 0.90% Ti - 0.74% Al - 3.85% Nb 204
Fe - 52.5% Ni - 0.04% C - 19.0% Cr - 0.90% Ti - 0.50% Al - 0.005% B - 3.05% Mo - 5.30% Nb 205
Fe - 0.08% max C - 0.35% max Mn - 0.35% max Si - 0.015% max P - 0.015% max S -
17.0-21.0% Cr - 1.0% max Co - 2.80-3.30% Mo - 4.75-5.50% Nb+Ta - 0.65-1.15% Ti -
0.20-0.80% AI - 0.30% max Cu - 50.0-55.0 Ni+Co - 0.006% max B 206
Ni - 17.58% Fe - 18.83% Cr - 0.98% Ti - 2.97% Mo - 5.13% Nb - 0.53% Al - 0.05% Ta -
0.30% Co - 0.09% Mn - 0.04% C - 0.004% S - 0.01% P - 0.17% Si - 0.09% Cu ................... 207
Ni - 0.95% Ti - 0.46% Al - 5.26% Nb - 18.25% Fe - 3.05% Mo - 18.00% Cr - 0.031% C -
0.003% B - 0.001% Mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Ni - 1.34% Ti - 0.63% Al - 5.28% Nb - 18.30% Fe - 3.05% Mo - 17.80% Cr - 0.028% C -
0.004% B - 0.001% Mg 208

xiv
Ni - 0.96% Ti - 0.68% Al - 4.82% Nb - 18.80% Fe - 8.02% Mo - 18.16% Cr - 0.031% C -
0.008% B - 0.004% Mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Ni - 0.96% Ti - 0.87% Al - 6.42% Nb - 18.00% Fe - 8.02% Mo - 17.80% Cr - 0.081% C -
0.004% B - 0.001% Mg 208
Ni - 17.8-19.1% Fe - 0.08-0.06% C- 0.21-1.12% Si - 17.9-18.8% Cr - 8.0-8.06% Mo _
6.11-6.17% Nb+Ta - 0.96-1.0% Ti - 0.42-0.47% Al ...................................... 209
Cast alloy 718 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 210
Ni - 20.2% Fe - <0.06% Co - 8.20% Mo - 6.28% Nb+Ta - 0.94% Ti - 0.46% Al - 0.04% Mn _
0.06% Si - 0.08% C - 0.008% B - 0.007% S - 0.004% P - <0.01% Cu 212, 212
Ni - 9.8% Fe - <0.06% Co - 8.20% Mo - 6.18% Nb+Ta - 0.96% Ti - 0.68% Al - 0.04% Mn _
0.06% Si - 0.02% C - 0.001% B - 0.006% S - 0.002% P - <0.01% Cu 212, 216
Ni - <0.06% Fe - <0.06% Co - 8.02% Mo - 6.14% Nb+Ta - 0.93% Ti - 0.63% Al - 0.04% Mn _
0.06% Si - 0.08% C - 0.008% B - 0.008% S - 0.004% P - <0.01% Cu ......................... " 218. 216
Ni - 10.1% Fe - 8.6% Co - 8.10% Mo - 6.06% Nb+Ta - 0.90% Ti - 0.48% Al - 0.04% Mn _
0.06% Si - 0.08% C - 0.008% B - 0.006% S - 0.006% P - 0.01% Cu ............................ 218, 216
Ni - 0.26% Fe - 17.6% Co - 8.19% Mo - 6.81% Nb+Ta - 0.92% Ti - 0.48% Al - 0.08% Mn _
0.04% Si - 0.04% C - 0.008% C - 0.006% S - 0.006% P - 0.01% Cu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 214, 216
Ni - <0.06% Fe - 8.8% Co - 3.0% Mo - 6.09% Nb+Ta - 0.86% Ti - 0.47% Al - 0.04% Mn _
0.06% Si - 0.08% C - 0.002% B - 0.006% S - 0.004% P - 0.01% Cu ............................ 216-216
Ni - 20.2% Fe - <0.06% Co - 8.20% Mo - 6.28% Nb+Ta - 0.94% Ti - 0.46% Al - 0.04% Mn _
0.06% Si - 0.08% C - 0.008% B - 0.007% S - 0.004% P - <0.01% Cu ........................... 216
Ni - 17.4% Cr - 18.7% Fe - 6.16% Nb - 2.96% Mo - 0.99% Ti - 0.48% Al - 0.06% C _
0.07% Mn - 0.10% Si - <0.01% B - 0.008% S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Ni - 19.9% Fe - 18.2% Cr - 6.1% Nb - 2.9% Mo - 1.16% Ti - 0.67% Al - 0.036% Cr ................ 218-220

Waspaloy
Ni - 0.06% C - 19.80% Cr - 14.60% Co - 4.89% Mo - 8.08% Ti - U2% Al - 0.061% Zr ............. 176

A-286
26.1% Ni - 14.6% Cr - 1.20% Mo - 2.00% Ti - 0.80% V - 0.26% sol. Al - 0.062% C -
0.11% Mn - 0.20% Si - 0.009% S - 0.007% P - 0.0028% N ............................. 176
Fe - 24.7% Ni - 14.4% Cr - 2.2% Ti - 1.1% Mo - 0.26% Al ................................ 177

ATS 28 - X-5NiCrTi 26 IS, (similar to A-286)


Fe - 26% Ni - -16% Cr - 1.8% Mo - 1.8% Ti - 0.08% Ca - 0.8% V ........................... 178

Pyromet CTX-I
Fe - 87.7% Ni - 16.0% Co - 8.0% Nb - 1.76% Ti - 1.0% Al - 0.008% B - 0.03% C 179

Incoloy 909
Fe - 88.8% Ni - 12.9% Co - 4.70% Nb - 1.68% Ti - 0.86% Si - 0.04% Al - 0.01% C - 0.01% Cr ....... 179

Incoloy 800
Fe - 81.86% Ni - 0.28% Cu - 0.06% C - 0.81% Mn - 0.007% S - 0.82% Si - 21.81% Cr 180
Fe - 81.1% Ni - 21.4% Cr - 0.90% Mn - 0.28% Si - 0.087% C - 0.02% N - 0.01% P -
0.007% S - 0.6% Al - 0.8% Ti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181-184

Inconel 600
Ni - 7.92% Fe - 0.16% Cu - 0.06% C - 0.17% Mn - 0.007% S - 0.22% Si - 15.40% Cr 186
Ni - 16.6% Cr - 8.1% Fe - 0.2% Ti - 0.08% Mo - 0.03% N - 0.08% Cu - 0.16% Al -
0.040% C - 0.27% Si - 0.18% Mn 186-189
Ni - 0.08% C - 0.6% Mn - 8% Fe - 0.26% Cu - 16.6% Cr 264-267
Ni - 0.04% C - 16.36% Cr - 9.98% Fe - 0.40% Mn - 0.17% Si - 0.38% Cu -
0.17% Al - 0.20% Ti - 0.06% Co - 0.011% S 268

Inconel 706
Ni - 87% Fe - 16% Cr - 2.9% Nb - 1.8% Ti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

Nimonic PEI6
Fe - 17.1% Cr - 42.6% Ni - 8.1% Mo - 1.2% Ti - 1.8% Al - 0.03% Zr - 0.06% Mn -
0.0008% B - 0.08% C 191

Incoloy 825
Ni - 0.08% C - 0.66% Mn - 29.59% Fe - 0.27% Si - 1.71% Cu - 21.18% Cr -
0.11% AI - 0.99% Ti - 2.61% Mo 192-194

xv
Inconel X-750
Ni - 0.06% C - 0.67% Mn - 6.66% Fe - 0.26% Si - 0.06% Cu - 16.66% Cr - 0.70% Al -
2.86% Ti - 0.92% Nb 194

IN 939
Ni - 0.16% C - 22.6% Cr - 19.0% Co - 2.0% W - 1.0% Nb - 1.4% Ta - 8.7% Ti - 1.9% AI-
0.1% Zr - 0.01% B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

Udimet 700
Ni - 14.6% Cr - 17.6% Co - 6.1% Mo - 8.7% Ti - 4.1% Al - 0.016% B - 0.08% C 221
Ni - 16.0% Cr - 0.16% Fe - 19.0% Co - 6.16% Mo - 8.49% Ti - 4.46% Al - 0.10% Si -
0.10% Mn - 0.028% B - 0.06% C ................................................... 226-227

IN-700
Ni - 16.0% Cr - 0.1% C - 8.0% Mo - 29.6% Co - 2.6% Ti - 8.0% Al 222
Ni - 16.0% Cr - 0.07% C - 6.8% Mo - 18.6% Co - 8.6% Ti - 4.8% Al - 0.08% B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 222

Udimet-520
Ni - 0.08% C - 18.8% Cr - 11.8 Co - 6.0% Mo - 0.9% W - 2.9% Ti - 2.1% Al - 0.02% B 228

Udimet-710
Ni - 0.06% C - 17.7% Cr - 16.1% Co - 8.0% Mo - 1.4% W - 4.8% Ti - 2.4% Al - 0.02% B 228

Rene/41
Ni - 19.06% Cr - 0.71% Fe - 10.98% Co - 9.91% Mo - 8.10% Ti - 1.48% Al - 0.06% Si -
0.06% Mn - 0.004% B - 0.11% C - 0.008% S 224-226
Ni - 20.10% Cr - 2.08% Fe - 0.089% C - 0.26% Si - 11.66% Co - 0.06% Mn - 10.17% Mo -
1.60% Al - 8.17% Ti - 0.0066% B - 0.016% S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228-229
Ni - 18.64% Cr - 0.20% Fe - 0.076% C - 0.06% Si - 10.76% Co - 0.06% Mn - 9.76% Mo -
1.62% Al - 8.18% Ti - 0.009% B - 0.008% P - 0.007% S ......................... . . . . . . . . . .. 229
Ni - 19.02% Cr - 0.80% Fe - 0.07% C - 0.06% Si - 10.84% Co - 0.04% Mn - 9.84% Mo -
1.46% Al - 8.18% Ti - 0.0066% B - 0.006% P - 0.006% S .................................. 280-281
Ni - 19.78% Cr - 2.08% Fe - 0.067% C - 0.18% Si - 11.12% Co - 0.06% Mn - 10.09% Mo -
1.60% Al - 8.10% Ti - 0.0046% B - 0.020% S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 280

Waspaloy
Ni - 20% Cr - 14% Co - 4% Mo - 8% Ti - 1% Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Ni - 0.071% C - 0.014% Si - 0.062% Mn - 0.002% P - 0.004% S - 19.86% Cr -
18.9% Co - 0.20% Fe - 1.10% Mo - 1.66% Al - 8.98% Ti - 0.62% Zr 282

Alloy 713C
Ni - 12.77% Cr - 0.07% Fe - 0.10% C - 0.22% Si - 0.012% B - 4.62% Mo - 6.94% Al -
0.80% Ti - 2.08% Nb+Ta - 0.12% Zr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 287

AF-2-1DA Nb-C-modified (PM)


Ni - 12.1% Cr - 10.0% Co - 6.7% W - 2.9% Mo - 4.8% Al - 8.1% Ti - 1.6% Nb - 1.6% Ta -
0.018% B - 0.08% Zr - 0.09% C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 288

AF-2-1DA Nb-C-modified (CE)


Ni - 12.0% Cr - 10.8% Co - 6.6% W - 2.9% Mo - 4.7% Al - 2.9% Ti - 1.4% Nb - 1.6% Ta -
0.020% B - 0.11% Zr - 0.09% C 288

IN-738
Ni - 0.12% C - 16.86% Cr - 8.40% Co - 1.98% Mo - 2.60% W - 8.42% Al - 8.60% Ti - 0.92% Nb -
1.80% Ta - 0.070% Zr - 0.0106% B 289
Ni - 0.086% C - 18.67% Cr - 7.88% Co - 1.80% Mo - 2.68% W - 8.86% Al - 8.48% Ti -
0.92% Nb - 1.72% Ta - 0.048% Zr - 0.0116% B 289
Ni - 0.078% C - 16.61% Cr - 8.89% Co - 1.99% Mo - 8.82% W - 8.82% Al - 8.42% Ti -
0.89% Nb - 1.76% Ta - 0.048% Zr - 0.0118% B 289
Ni - 0.077% C - 16.60% Cr - 8.40% Co - 1.76% Mo - 2.66% W - 8.66% Al - 8.70% Ti -
1.16% Nb - 1.86% Ta - 0.06% Zr - 0.0116% B 289

xvi
Inconel 625
Ni - 0.03% C - 0.10% Mn - 0.26% Si - 0.008% S - 0.011% P - 22.1% Cr - 1.89% Fe - 0.20% AI -
0.22% Ti - 9.1% Mo - 3.36% Nb-l-Ta - 0.20% W - 40 ppm B - 60 ppm 0 - 480 ppm N 239
Ni - 0.016% C - 0.3% Si - 0.06% Mn - 0.006% P - 0.006% S - 21.8% Cr - 0.027% Co - 9.06% Mo -
0.2% Ti - 0.1% AI - 2.4% Fe - 0.023% Cu - 3.7% Nb+Ta - 1 ppm B 240
Ni - 0.029% C - 0.34% Si - 0.38% Mn - 0.009% P - 0.004% S - 22.67% Cr - 1.33% Fe -
8.76% Mo - 0.17% Ti - 3.72% Nb - 0.16% AI - 0.0071% N 241
61.0% NHCo - 21.6% Cr - 9.0% Mo - 3.66% Nb-l-T'a - 2.6% Fe - 0.06% C - 0.26% Mn -
0.008% S - 0.26% Si - 0.2% AI - 0.2% Ti 242-246
60.96% Ni - 22.21% Cr - 3.61% Fe - 8.97% Mo - 3.60% Nb+Ta - 0.19% AI - 0.27% Ti -
0.26% Si - 0.06% Mn - 0.006% P - 0.004% S - 0.08% Cu - 0.03% C ........................... 246
60.64% Ni - 0.02% C - 0.09% Mn - 0.19% Si - 22.14% Cr - 4.06% Fe - 9.0% Mo -
3.39% Nb+Ta - 0.22% AI - 0.24% Ti - 0.001% B - 0.06% Co 247-248
60.96% Ni - 0.02% C - 0.12% Mn - 0.31% Si - 21.94% Cr - 3.82% Fe - 8.94% Mo -
3.47% Nb+Ta - 0.21% AI - 0.20% Ti - 0.06% Co - 0.001% B 249
Ni - 0.06% C - 3% Fe - 21.6% Cr - 9% Mo - 4% Nb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 260

Custom Age 625 PLUS


61% Ni - 0.01% C - 21% Cr - 8% Mo - 3.4% Nb - 1.3% Ti - 0.2% AI - 6% Fe 260

Alloy 625 (Nicrof'er 6020 hMo)


Ni - 22.26% Cr - 9.27% Mo - 2.06% Fe - 0.1% Mn - 0.04% Si - 0.3% Ti - 3.42% Nb+Ta -
0.14% AI - 0.011% C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Ni - 21.9% Cr - 8.94% Mo - 1.4% Fe - 0.03% Mn - 0.04% Si - 0.18% Ti - 3.74% Nb+Ta-
0.16% AI - 0.03% C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 261

Alloy 625
Ni - 20.6% Cr - 8.2% Mo - 4.3% Fe - 3.6% Nb - 0.1% Co - 0.1% AI - 0.1% Ti -
0.1% Si - 0.1% Mn - 0.03% C .................................................... 262

Inconel X-750
Ni - 0.03% C - 0.66% Mn - 6.61% Fe - 0.007% S - 0.27% Si - 0.06% Cu - 16.24% Cr -
0.76% AI - 2.60% Ti - 0.86% Nb+Ta ................................................ 263
Ni - 0.06% C - 0.19% Mn - 7.82% Fe - 0.001% S - 0.40% Si - 0.37% Cu - 14.82% Cr-
0.86% AI - 2.49% Ti - 0.98% Nb+Ta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 264

Hastelloy C
Ni - 17% Mo - 16% Cr - 4.6% W - 6% Fe ............................................ 266
Ni - 0.04% C - 0.60% Si - 0.010% P - 0.010% S - 16.00% Mo - 4.00% W - 1.00% Co -
6.00% Fe - 0.36% Mn - 16.00% Cr - 0.20% V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 268
Ni - 14.94-16.46% Cr - 16.47-16.47% Mo - 3.38-4.02% W - 6.06-6.77% Fe - 0.74-1.86% Co -
0.42-0.69% Mn - 0.42-0.73% Si - 0.22-0.32% V - 0.04-0.08% C - 0.004-0.012% P - 0.006-0.011% S ..... 269

Hastelloy C-4
Ni - <0.016% C - <2% Co - 16% Cr - 16.6% Mo - <0.7% Ti - <3% Fe - <1% Mn - <0.08% Si 266
Ni - 16% Cr - 0.16% W - 0.3% Fe - <0.01% C - 0.03% Si - 0.1% Co - 0.06% Mn -
0.03% V - 16% Mo - 0.46% Ti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 267

Hastelloy Alloy C-276


Ni - 13% Cr - 16% Mo - <2.6% Co - 3.76% W - 6.6% Fe - <0.02% C - <1% Mn 266
Ni - 16% Cr - 3.4% W - 6% Fe - 0.01% C - 0.02% Si - 1% Co - 0.46% Mn - 0.2% V - 16% Mo 266
Ni - 0.004% C - <0.01% Si - 0.010% P - 0.003% S - 0.22% AI - 16.26% Mo - <0.01% Zr-
3.70% W - 0.04% Cu - 1.08% Co - 6.98% Fe - 0.34% Mn - 16.38% Cr - 0.21% V - 0.026% Mg 268

Hastelloy B-2
Ni - 1.00% max Co - 1.00% max Cr - 26.00%-30.00% Mo - 2.00% max Fe - 0.10% max Si -
1.00% max Mn - 0.02% max C - 0.040% max P - 0.030% max S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 260-261

Hastelloy B-282
Ni - 0.40% Cr - 4.80% Fe - 0.02% C - 0.31% Si - 0.62% Mn - 37.60% Mo - 0.33% V 261

Single Crystal Alloy 800


Ni - 8.0% Cr - 7.6% Co - 1.6% Mo - 4.0% W - 5.0% Ta - 1.6% Ti - 6.8% AI - 3.0% Re . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 262
Ni - 7.6% Cr - 6.0% Co - 2.0% Mo - 3.0% W - 12.0% Ta - 1.0% Ti - 6.0% AI - 1.0% Re . . . . . . . . . . . .. 262
Ni - 7.6% Cr - 6.0% Co - 2.0% Mo - 2.0% W - 12.0% Ta - 1.0% Ti - 6.0% AI - 2.0% Re 262
Ni - 7.6% Cr - 6.0% Co - 2.0% Mo - 1.0% W - 12.0% Ta - 1.0% Ti - 6.0% AI - 3.0% Re 262
Ni - 7.6% Cr - 6.0% Co - 2.0% Mo - 12.0% Ta - 1.0% Ti - 6.0% AI - 4.0% Re 262

xvii
Nimonic 80A
Ni - 0.08% C - 20% Cr - 2.4% Ti - 1.4% Al 268

Alloy 600
Ni - 0.029% C - 0.211% Mn - 8.05% Fe - 0.008% S - 0.180% Si - 0.219% Cu - 14.09% Cr -
0.464% Al - 0.259%Ti - 0.084% Co - 0.007% P - 0.002% B - 0.026% Mg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 269

NIOBIUM-BASE ALLOYS

Niobium-Zirconium Alloys
Nb - 88 at.% Zr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278-275
Nb - 25 at.% Zr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

PLUTONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

Beta Plutonium 279


Electrorefined Plutonium 280
Pure Plutonium , 281

Dilute Plutonium Alloys


Unalloyed plutonium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 282
Pu - 0.82 at.% Ti ........................................................... 288
Pu - 1.8 at.% Np ...................................................... 284
Pu - 0.90% Ti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 285
Pu - 1.8% Np ............................................................. 286

Plutonium-Titanium Alloys
Pu - 0.28 at.% Ti ....................................................... 286
Pu - 1.05 at.% Ti ............................................................ 287

SILVER-BASE ALLOYS

Ag-AI Alloy
Ag - 7.02% Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 291

Ag-Cd Alloy
Ag - 49.2% Cd ............................................................... 291

Ag-Cu Alloys
Ag - 88.8% at.% Cu ........................................................... 292
Ag - 28.2 at.% Cu .............................................................. 298

Ag-Sb Alloy
Ag - 26.0% Sb ............................................................. 298

TITANIUM-BASE ALLOYS

TTT Diagrams
Ti-AI Alloy
Ti - 8% Al 297

Titanium Alloys
Ti - 8.1% Bi .................................................................... 298
Ti - 5.2% Co ..................................................................... 298
Ti - 4.6% Cu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 298
Ti - 4.5% Fe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 298
Ti - 8.6% Mn 298
Ti - 8.8% Ni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 298

xviii
Ti - 6.8% Pb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 298
Ti - 8.0% Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 299
Ti - 14.0% Cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 299
Ti - 6.6% Cu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 299
Ti - 18.0% Fe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 299
Ti - 6.1% Ni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

Ti-Cr Alloys
Ti - 2.86% Cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 300
Ti - 4.64% Cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 300
Ti - 7.64% Cr 301
Ti - 6.0% Cr 302
Ti - 7.0% Cr 302
Ti - 9.0% Cr 308
Ti - 17.0% Cr 308
Ti - 8.0% Cr 304-306
Ti - 7.6% Cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307-308
Ti - 12.0% Cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 809
Ti - 7.22% Cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 810
Ti - 8.0% Cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 810
Ti - 10.8% Cr 311
Ti - 17.42% Cr 311

Ti-Cu Alloy
Ti - 6% Cu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 312

Ti-Mn Alloys
Ti - 2.91% Mn 312
Ti - 7.72% Mn 812
Ti - 12.8% Mn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Ti - 6.0% Mn 818
Ti - 10.0% Mn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813

Ti-Mo Alloys
Ti - 1.0% Mo 814
Ti - 8.0% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814,817
Ti - 6.0% Mo 316
Ti - 7.0% Mo 316, 318
Ti - 9.0% Mo 316
Ti - 11.0% Mo 316, 819
Ti - 6.16% Mo 320
Ti - 6.21% Mo - 0.46% C 320
Ti - 11.0% Mo VB 0 821
Ti - 12% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 322
Ti - 18.0% Mo 822
Ti - 16.0% Mo 828
Ti - 4.67% Mo 868

Ti-Mo-Pd Alloy
Ti - 16% Mo - 0.2% Pd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 828

Ti-Mo-Zr Alloy
Ti - 16% Mo - 5% Zr 324

Ti-V Alloys
Ti - 12.6% V . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 826
Ti - 16.0% V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 826-328
Ti - 20.0% V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 328-329
Ti - 24.0% V . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 829

Ti-Ni Alloys
Ti - 7 at.% Ni : 830
Ti - 10 at.% Ni 830
Ti - 8.03% Ni 368

Ti-Nb Alloy 831

Ti-V-Al Alloys
Ti - 16.0% V - 2.6% Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 332-336

xix
Ti-AI-Cr Alloys
Ti - 2.0% Al - 2.0% Cr 336
Ti - .0% Al - 2.0% Cr 336
Ti - 6.0% Al - 2.0% Cr 336
Ti - 2.0% Al - .0% Cr 337
Ti - .0% Al - .0% Cr 337
Ti - 6.0% Al - 4.0% Cr 337
Ti - 2.0% Al - 6.0% Cr 338
Ti - .0% Al - 6.0% Cr 338
Ti - 6.0% Al - 6.0% Cr 338

Ti-AI-Mo Alloys
Ti - 2.0% Al - 2.0% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 339
Ti - 4.0% Al - 2.0% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 339
Ti - 6.0% Al - 2.0% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 339
Ti - 2.0% Al - 6.0% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 340
Ti - 4.0% Al - 6.0% Mo 340
Ti - 6.0% Al - 6.0% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 340
Ti - 2.0% Al - 10.0% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3.1
Ti - .0% Al - 10.0% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3.1
Ti - 6.0% Al - 10.0% Mo " 3.1
Ti - 2.6% Al - 7.6% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 361

Ti-Al-V Alloys
Ti - 3.1% Al - 2.4% V - 0.006% C - 0.064% Fe 342, 369
Ti - 6.0% Al - .0% V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 342

Ti-Cr-Mo Alloys
Ti - 4.0% Cr - 2.0% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 343-344

Ti-Cu-Al Alloys
Ti - 6.0% Cu - 3.0% Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 346
Ti - 8.0% Cu - 3.0% Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 346

Ti-V-Cr-Al Alloy
Ti - 12.6% V - 11.1% Cr - .1% Al 346
Ti - 12.8% V - 11.1% Cr - 4.1% Al 347
Ti - 13.6% V - 10.6% Cr - 2.9% Al . 348
Ti - 13.2% V - 11.2% Cr - 3.16% Al 349

Ti-lAl-8V-5Fe
Ti - 0.8-1.8% Al - 7.5-8.6% V - 4.0-6.0% Fe - max 0.06% C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 346

Ti-lO-2-3
Ti - 10% V - 2% Fe - 3% Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

Ti-AI-Mo-V Alloys
Ti - .1% Al - 2.9% Mo - 1.0% V 349-360
Ti - 7.6% Al - 1.0% Mo - 1.0% V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 363

Ti-Cu-Al-Sn Alloys
Ti - 6.0% Cu - 6.0% Al - 2.0% Sn 360
Ti - 8.0% Cu - 3.0% Al - 2.0% Sn 361

Beta III
Ti - 11.6% Mo - 6% Zr - 4.6% Sn - 0.17% 361
Ti - 11.6% Mo - 6.0% Zr - .6% Sn ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 362
Ti - 11.6% Mo - 6.0% Zr - .6% Sn - 0.28% 02 363

Ti-V-Fe Alloy
Ti - 9.70% V - 2.08% Fe - 2.98% Al ............................................... 36.

Ti-6242
Ti - 6% Al - 2% Sn - .% Zr - 2% Mn 36.

xx
Ti-17
Ti - 4.6-6.6% AI - 2.6-2.6% Sn - 1.6-2.6% Zr - 3.6-4.6% Mn - 3.6-4.6% Or -
0.08-0.13% 0 - max 0.30% Fe 366

Ti-AI-V-Cr-Mo-Zr Alloy]
Ti - 8.4% AI - 8.8% V - 6.8% Or - 4.2% Mo - 3.9% Zr 866

Ti- V -Cr-Sn-AI Alloys]


Ti - 14.62% V - 8.04% Or - 2.90% Sn - 3.40% AI .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 366
Ti - 16.26% V - 2.47% Or - 3.06% Sn - 3.19% AI 866
Ti - 11.76% V - 2.28% Or - 8.03% Sn - 8.49% AI 366

Ti-679
Ti - 10.60-11.60% Sn - 4.00-6.00% Zr - 2.00-2.60% AI - 0.80-1.20% Mo - 0.16-0.27% Si -
max 0.12% Fe - max 0.04% 0 867

Ti-AI-Sn Alloy
Ti - 4.76% AI - 2.6% Sn 360

Ti-15Al-2INb
Ti - 14.80% AI - 21.80% Nb - 0.066% Fe - 0.068% 0 - 0.006% N 362

CCT Diagrams

IMI 685
Ti - 6.17% AI - 4.07% Zr - 0.49% Mo - 0.22% Si - 0.10% 0 - 0.029% N ....................... 364
Ti - 6.17% AI - 4.97% AI - 4.97% Zr - 0.49% Mo - 0.22% Si - 0.10% 0 - 0.029% N 366-368

IMI550
Ti - 3.93% AI - 8.18% Sn - 3.97% Mo - 0.60% Si - 0.22% 0 - 0.022% N 369-873

Ti-6242
Ti - 6% AI - 2% Sn - 4% Zr - 2% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 374-376
Ti - 6.68% AI - 2.08% Sn - 8.91% Zr - 1.99% Mo - 0.066% 02 876-380

Ti-6246
Ti - 6.1% AI - 2.1% Sn - 4% Zr - 6.3% Mo - 0.10% 02 381-384

Ti-6248
Ti - 6.9% AI - 1.93% Sn - 3.90% Zr - 7.96% Mo - 0.076% Fe - 0.004% H - 0.124% 0 386-391

Ti-17
Ti - 4.62% AI - 2.41% Sn - 2.11% Zr - 3.78% Mo - 8.99% Or - 0.063% 0 -
0.031% 0 - 0.102% Fe - 0.0010% N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892-398

Ti-ll
Ti - 6.86% AI - 2.06% Sn - 1.69% Zr - 1.01% Mo - 0.316% Bi - 0.102% Si - 0.067% Fe -
0.097% 0 - 0.006% N - 0.0180% H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 399-401

URANIUM-BASE ALLOYS

Uranium-Chromium Alloys
U - 0.3 at.% Or .............................................................. 406
U - 0.46 at.% Or .......................................................... 406
U - 0.6 at.% Or ........................................................ 407
U - 1.8 at.% Or ........................................................... 408
U - 4.0 at.% Or ......................................................... 408
U - 0.96% Or ................................................................ 409-410

Uranium-Gallium Alloy
U - 1.6 at.% Ga ............................................................. 411

xxi
Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys
U - 6 at.% (2.6 wt.%) Mo ........................................................ 412-413
U - 6.4% Mo 414,417
U - 6.4 to 12% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416-416
U - 8% Mo .................................................................. 418-419
U - 10% Mo ................................................................. 420
U - 10.8% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 421
U - 14.3% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 421
U - 16.1% Mo ................................................................ 422

Uranium-Niobium Alloys
U - 10% Nb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423-424
U - 20% Nb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423-424

Uranium-Platinum Alloy
U - 1 at.% Pt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

U rani um-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloys


U - 0.26 at.% Cr - 0.6 at.% Mo 425
U - 0.6% Cr - 0.6% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 426

Uranium-Niobium-Molybdenum Alloys
U - 0.6% Nb - 0.6% Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 426
U - 8% Mo - 1.5% Nb 427-429
U - 8% Mo - 3% Nb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427-429

Uranium-Molybdenum-Platinum Alloy
U - 8% Mo - 1% Pt .......................................................... 428-430

Uranium-Molybdenum-Titanium Alloys
U - 8% Mo - 0.5% Ti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
U - 8% Mo - 1% Ti 432

Uranium-Niobium-Platinum Alloy
U - 1.66% at.% Nb - 0.36 at.% Pt 433

ZINC-BASE ALLOYS

Zinc-Aluminum Alloys
Zn - 22.6% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 437
Zn - 22.6% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 438
Zn - 22% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Zn - 22% AI 440
Zn - 22% AI - 0.16% Mg - 0.5% Cu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 441
Zn - 22% AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Zn - 22% AI - 0.16% Mg - 0.6% Cu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 442
Zn - 23% AI - 0.92% Cu - 0.034% Mg - 0.026% Ca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Zn - 18% AI - 0.87% Cu - 0.037% Mg - 0.024% Ca ..................................... , 443
Zn - 23% AI - 0.92% Cu - 0.034% Mg - 0.026% Ca , 444

Zinc-Nickel Alloy
Zn - 43.7% Ni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

Zirconium-Molybdenum Alloys
Zr - 1.3% Mo 449
Zr - 3.3% Mo 449
Zr - 5.4% Mo 460
Zr - 7.6% Mo 460

xxii
Zirconium-Uranium Alloys
Zr - 8.86% U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 461
Zr - 11.1% U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 462
Zr - 14.S% U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 463
Zr - 20.7% U 46S

Zirconium-Uranium-HYdrogen Alloy
Zr - 0.92% H - 0.0876% 0 - 0.0038% N - 0.0909% Fe - 0.0048% Si - 0.0062% AI - 0.0026% Mn . . . . . .. 464

AMORPHOUS METALS

Copper-Cadmium Alloy
CU60Cd40' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

Copper-Zirconium Alloy
CU60Zr40 467

Iron-Boron Alloys
Fe80B20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 468

Nickel-Titanium Alloy
Ni86Ti16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

Niobium-Silicon Alloy
Nb80Si20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460

Palladium-Nickel-Silicon Alloys
Pd70Nil0Si20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 460
Pd60NisoSi20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 461-462
Pd66Ni30Si16 461

Palladium-Silicon Alloys
Pd80Si20 463, 466
Pd82SiO.18 " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 464

Palladium-Silicon-Copper Alloy
Pdo.776SiO.166cuO.06 464

Iron-Phosphorus-Carbon Alloy
Fe80P1SC7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 466-466

Cobalt-Silicon-Boron Alloy
c076Si16BI0 466

Nickel-Silicon-Boron Alloy
Ni76Si8B17 466

Salol 467
Si0 2 Silica 468
Salol-Like Material 468

INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS

Cobalt-Platinum Alloy
CoPts (24.9 at.% Co) 471

Iron-Aluminum Alloys
FesAI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 471-472

Nickel-Molybdenum Alloys
Ni - 20% Mo 47S
Ni4Mo 474

xxiii
Aluminum-Base Alloys
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 3

Aluminum-Lithium Alloy
Composition: Al - 4% Li
Treatment: Alloys containing 4.0% lithium were prepared by
melting euperpurity aluminum and 99.99% lithium under argon
in an induction furnace. The chill-cast ingots were extruded,
homogenised, and cold rolled to 1.25 mm strip. All sontion-
treatments were carried out at 5SOC (1076F) under argon,
followed by a quench into water at 20C (88OF)

Time-temperature precipitation diagram


LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
delta = AlLi
delta prime = AlgLi

SOURCE: B. Noble, G.E. Thornpeon, Precipitation Characteristica of Aluminium-Lithium Alloyr, Metal Science Journal, Vol 5,
1971, pp 114-120
4 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy
Composition: Al - 12.5 (at.%) Mg

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Times required to attain a certain rtage of precipitation, an a function of aging-temperature

0 = time to attain an initial energy increase of 2 kJ/kg-l


x = time to finirh all of energy increaee
@= time to begin age-hardening
a= time to attain the maximum hardneea

SOURCE: R. Norato, S. Iehihara, Calorimetric Study of Precipitation Procare in ALMg Alloyn, Trane. Japan htitute of
Metals, Vol 21, No. 9, September 1980, pp 580-588
A t/as of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 5

Aluminum-Zinc Alloys
Composition: Al - 21.6 at.% Zn
Treatment: Specimen8 were homogenised in air at 400C
(762OF) for approx. SO min and then quenched into a water or
oil bath located directly beneath the homogenisation furnace.
Isothermal aging WM accomplished in a silicone oil bath
controlled to with lo over the temperature range 50 to 240C
(122 to 464F). Room temperature aging was carried out in an
inrulated oil bath and a OC (320F) aging treatment was done
in an alcohol bath immemed in a slurry of ice and water

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
TTT curve for discontinuour precipitation
X = fraction transformed (i.e. 0.05 = 596, 0.60 = SO%, 0.95 = 95%)
L = 10x10-2 cm, average intercept distance (meaclure of the grain sise)

SOURCE: U.K. Malhotra, K.B. Rundman, Discontinuous Precipitation in Aluminum-Base Zinc Alloyr, Met. Tranr. Vol 5, June
1972, 1521-1528
6 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Aluminum-Zinc Alloys
Composition: Al - 22 at.% Zn - 0.1 at.% Sn
Treatment: Specimen6 were homogenired in air at 400C
(752F) for approx. 30 min and then quenched into a water or
oil bath located directly beneath the homogeniration furnace.
Isothermal aging was accomplished in a clilicone oil bath
controlled to with lo over the temperature range 60 to 24OC
(122 to 464OF). Room temperature aging WM carried out in an
inrulated oil bath and a OC (320F) aging treatment wee done
in an alcohol bath immemed in a slurry of ice and water

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
TTT curve for discontinuous precipitation of the cellular alpha + beta phases in water quenched and aged alloya for a volume
fraction transformed ot:
x = 20%
L = lOx1O-3 cm, average intercept distance (measure of the grain aise)

SOURCE: U.K. Malhotra, K.B. Rundman, Dircontinuour Precipitation in Aluminum-Base Zinc Alloyr, Met. Trans. Vol 3, June
1972, 1521-1628
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 7

Aluminum-Zinc Alloys
Composition: Al - 22.6 at.% Zn - 0.1 at.% Mg
Treatment: Hot rolled to a thickness of 0.317 cm and then cold
rolled to a final thickness of 0.0081 cm. Polyerystslline
specimens 1.02 x 12.7 cm were cut from the center of the cold
rolled material, homogenised within !f at JOOC (762OF) for 1
h, and quenched into an ice bath directly below the furnace. All
isothermal heat treatmenta were made at 76, 100, 125, 160, and
17SC (184, 212,257,392, and 3410P) in a silicone oil bath
controlled to within lo

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram

- the horisontal lined area represents the TTT diagram for the cellular alpha + beta transformation in the binary Al-22 at.% Zn
alloy
- the solid C-curves represent the TTT diagram for the formation of the beta phase in the Al-22 at.%Zn 0.1 at.% Mg alloy
-the straight lines cutting across both of the TTT diagrama represent isowavelength plots

SOURCE: T.L. Bartel, K.B. Rundman, Decomposition in Al-Zn Alloys: Part 1. Isothermal Decomposition in an Al-22 At. Pet
Zn-0.1 At. Pet Mg Alloy, Met. Trans. A, Vol6A, October 1976, pp 1887-1893
8 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Aluminum-Manganese Alloys
Competition: Al - 0.9% Mn - 035% Fe - 0.04% Si
A commercially strip-caet AlMn alloy exhibiting a uniform
primary particle rtructure with a recondary dendrite spacing
rimilar to that reported by Merits and Oatermann *
Heat treatment: Material annealed to 570C (lOSSoF) for 6 h,
resulting in a reristivity drop of 26%, or about 0.5% Mn in aolid
solution, then reduced 85% at room temperature, and
recryatalliced at different temperature8 and times

Time-temperature recryatallisation and precipitation diagrama

Shaded region = range for recryatalli%ation


Solid line = rtart of decomporition of the rupersaturated AI-Mn matrix

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Composition: Al - 0.9% Mn - 0.85% Fe - 0.04% Si


A commercially rtrip-cast AlMn alloy exhibiting a uniform
primary particle structure with a secondary dendrite spacing
similar to that reported by Merits and Ostermann *
Heat treatment: Material annealed at 670C (10580F) for 4 h,
then cooled to S20cC (968OF) at a rate of about 100C
(212OF)/h and kept at this temperature for 17 h. This gave a
reduction in resistivity of about 91% or a manganese
concentration in rolution of about 0.4%. The material was then
reduced 85% at room temperature, and recryrtalli~ed at
different temperatures and timen

Time-temperature recryrtallisation and precipitation diagram

Shaded region = range for recryrtalli%ation


Solid line = start of decomporition of the supersaturated Al-Mn matrix

* The Effective and Economic use of the Special Characteristica of Aluminium and its Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London
1972, p 54

SOURCE: E. Nw, The Concept of a Grain SiEe Diagram in the Analysis of the Recryetallication Behaviour of AlMn Alloya,
Aluminium, Vol 52, No. 9, September 1976, pp 560-563
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 9

Aluminum-Manganese Alloys
Composition: Al - 0.9% Mn - 0.35% Fe - 0.04% Si
A commercially &rip-caet AlMn alloy exhibiting a uniform
primary particle structure with a secondary dendrite spacing
similar to that reported by Moritn and Ostermann *
Heat treatment: Material annealed at 670 (1058OF) for 6 h,
then cooled at a rate of about 100C (212F)/h to 450C
(842F) and kept at thin temperature for an additional period
of 41 h. The resulting decrease in reairtivity wan 36%, or about
0.3% Mn in solid rolution. The material wan then reduced 85%
at room temperature, and recryrtallired at different
temperaturea and times

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
* The Effective and Economic use of the Special
Characteristics of Aluminium and its Alloys, The Institute of
Metala, London 1972, p 64

Time-temperature recrystallication and precipitation diagrams

Shaded region = range for recryata!lk.ation


Solid line = start of decomposition of the aupematurated AI-Mn matrix

SOURCE: E. Nes, The Concept of a Grain Site Diagram in the Analysis of the Recrystallization Dehaviour of AlMn Alloyr,n
Aluminium, Vol 52, No. 9, September 1976, pp 560-663
10 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
Comporition: Al - 2.7% Cu - 1.6% Li - 0.09% Zr - 0.05% Fe -
0.05% Si - 0.10% Ti
Treatment: Panelr of the 3.5 mm thick eection were taken from
the midthickneee of the plate and solution treated at 550C
(1022OF) for SO min in molten metal, then transferred to molten
metal bathe operating at either 500, 450, 400, 350 or 300C
(932, 842, 752,662, or 572OF) for timer ranging to 10,000 s.
They were then quenched in cold water

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram

Tl = Al2CuLi
TR = AlFu4Li

SOURCE: J.T. Staley, R.D. Doherty, Quench Sensitivity of an Al-Cu-Li Alloy Plate, proceedin@ of the 5th International
Aluminum-Lithium Conference, Williamsburg VA, 27-31 March 1989, Aluminum-Lithium Alloya, T.H. Sandem, Jr., E.A. Starke,
Jr., edr., Materials and Component Engineering Publications Ltd., 1989, pp 345-354
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams II

Aluminum-Lithium Alloys
Compoaition: Al - 2.7% Cu - 1.6% Li - 0.09% Zr - 0.05% Fe -
0.05% Si - 0.10% Ti
Treatment: Panela of the 3.5 mm thick section were taken from
the midthickneaa of the plate and solution treated at 550C
(1022oF) for 30 min in molten metal, then transferred to molten
metal batha operating at either 500, 450, 400, 350 or SOOOC
(932, 842, 752, 662, or 572OF) for times ranging to 10,000 a.
They were then quenched in cold water

Time-temperature-property diagram

KRlO = toughneaa indicator


YS = yield atrength
TS = tensile atrength

Slow aging, temperature plur time for maximum properties - toughneaa and strength

SOURCE: J.T. Staley, R.D. Doherty, Quench Sensitivity of an Al-Cu-Li Alloy Plate, proceedings of the 5th International
Aluminum-Lithium Conference, Williamsburg VA, 27-31 March 1989, Aluminum-Lithium Alloya, T.H. Sandem, Jr., E.A. Starke,
Jr., eda., Material8 and Component Engineering Publications Ltd., 1989, pp 345-354
12 A t/as of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

2024 Alloy

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-eorrororion diagram
Effect of temperature and time in interrupted-quenching experiment8 on type of corrosion attack developed in 2024-T4 sheet by
an accelerated corroeion teat

SOURCE: LA. Willey, Alcoa Research Laboratories, aa publirhed in Aluminum, Vol 1, Properties, Phyrical Metallurgy and Phaee
Diagrama, Kent R. Van Horn, ed., MM, 1967
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 13

2024 Alloy
Treatment:
Sequence A = Specimenr were quenched directly into a salt
bath at 260-47SC (482-886F)
Sequence B = Specimens were first quenched to room
temperature, then heated in the salt bath
All BpehmenS were quenched in cold water to complete the
sequences after hold times of 2 s to 1 h, stretched to 5% phtic
strain, and then aged for 16 h at 172OC (342OF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-property diagram
Compariron of yield strength (0.2% offset) C-curver for requence A and B treatmentr of AA 2024-T851, M 2024-TS51, and AA
2219-787

Corresponding yield strengths are QO% of values obtained from direct quench
415 MN mm2 for AA 2024-T851
346 MN mm2 for M 2024-TS51
S45 MN mm2 for M 2219-T-87

SOURCE: I. Ives, et al., Processing/Microstructure/Property Reiationships in 2024 Aluminium Alloy Platen, Report NBS
83-2889, National Bureau of Standards, Washington DC, 1983 and J.T. Staley, Quench Factor Anaiyrin of Aluminium Alloys,
Materiah Science and Technology, Vol3, November 1987, pp 923-935
14 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

2024 Alloy
Treatment:
Sequence A = Specimens were quenched directly into a ralt
bath at 260-476OC (482-886OF)

Time-temperature-nucleation diagram
Schematic reprerentation of nucleation curves for sequence A

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Treatment:
Sequence B = Specimens were first quenched to room
temperature, then heated in the salt bath
All specimenr were quenched in cold water to complete the
sequences after hold timen of 2 s to 1 h, stretched to 5% plastic
strain, and then aged for 16 h at 172OC (342OF)

Schematic representation of nucleation curves for sequence B treatment

SOURCE: I. Ives, et al., Processing/Microstructure/Property Reiationehipe in 2024 Aluminium Alloy Plates, Report NBS
83-2889, National Bureau of Standardr, Washington DC, 1983 and J.T. Staley, Quench Factor Analysis of Aluminium Alloys,
Materials Science and Technology, Vol3, November 1987, pp 923-936
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 15

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-property diagram
Effect of aging time and temperature on longitudinal yield strength of 2036-T4

SOURCE: Aluminum Properties and Physical Metallurgy, John E. Hatch, ed., ASM, 1984

2219 Alloy
Treatment:
Sequence A = Specimens were quenched directly into a salt
bath at 260-476 oC (482-886 0F)
Sequence B = Specimens were first quenched to room
temperature, then heated in the salt bath
All specimens were quenched In cold water to complete the
sequences after hold times of 2 s to 1 h, stretched to 6% plastic
strain, and then aged for 16 hat 1720C (342 0F)
500.------,--.....,....-~---.,....-----,r-------,

Sequence

<-> ~OO
o
-
'"
;>

.
."

'"
0-
E
'" 300
.....

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
200 '--_ _----'- -'-:::--_ _...I....:-_~---'~_ _----l
1 10 10 2
Critical time,s

Time-temperature-property diagram
C-curve for AA 2219-T87 of 370 MN m- 2 yield strength

SOURCE: L. Swartzendruber, et al., "Nondestructive Evaluation of Nonuniformities in 2219 Aluminium Alloy Plate -
Relationship to Processing," Report NBSIR 80-2069, National Bureau of Standards, Washington DC, 1980, and J.T. Staley,
"Quench Factor Analysis of Aluminium Alloys," Materials Science and Technology, Vol 3, November 1987, pp 923-936
16 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

6007 Alloy
Composition: Al - 0.81% Mg - 1.18% Si - 0.14% Cr - 0.09% Zr -
0.14% Mn - 0.39% Fe - 0.02% Cu - 0.01% Zn - 0.03% Ti
Treatment: Solution heat-treated at 5500C (1020 0F) for 1 to
1.5 h, down quenched to various temperatures into molten salt,
held at temperature for varying times, water quenched, and
aged

eo<>
(48.1

soo
(210

400
lZ04

10 100 1000

Time of Isothermal Hold, a

Time-Temperature-property diagram (I-T)


Maximum quenched and aged yield strength 47.5 ksi (328 MPa)
Iso-yield curve is 90% of quenched and aged yield strength

SOURCE: D.V. Gullotti, J. Crane, W.C. Setzer, "Isothermal Transformation Characteristics of Several 6XXX Series Alloys,"
proceedings of 2nd International Aluminum Extrusion Technology Seminar, 15-17 November, 1977, Atlanta, Vol 1, Billet and
Extrusion, pp 249-256

6010 Alloy
500,....-------.----------r------------,
6010-T4 234 MPa (34 ksl) 250
450 .-"";;:O"'...:--~......".._+_--.,;::..........::----"";;:O"'~-4_...262 MPa (38 ksi ),----1
u. 290 MPa (42 ksl) 225 u
o
e 400 ~~~""""oi:~~rl.....-:::.....~_......:::__~"""==:__-P'''''''':::ll--_:
317 MPa (46 ksi)
175
0

lI!
:J 331 MPa (48 ksl) ....10::J
~
Q) 338 MPa (49 ksi) ...
Q)
a.
~ 350 345 MPa (50 ksi) 200 E
~
Q)
338 MPa (49 ksl) I-
300 207 MPa (30 ksi)+--~.__-~-=--~~~~-331 MPa (48 ksl)
150
234 MPa (34 ksi) 317 MPa (46 ksi)
250 '-- 262 _--'-_--'-_
--'-_ MPa (38 ksi) 290 MPa (42 ksl)
_....L..- ---' 125
1 10 102
LIVE GRAPH Time, h
Click here to view

Time-temperature-property diagram
Effect of aging time and temperature on longitudinal yield strength of 6010-T4

SOURCE: Aluminum Properties and Physical Metallurgy, John E. Hatch, ed., ASM, 1984
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 17

6061 Alloy
Composition: Al - 0.55% Mg - 0.08% Si - 0.01% Cr - 0.014%
Mn - 0.11% Fe - 0.036% Cu - 0.01% Ti - 0.002% B
Treatment: Solution heat-treated at SSOC (102OOF) for 1 to
1.5 h, down quenched to various temperatures into molten salt,
held at temperature for varying times, water quenched, and
aged

Time-temperature-property diagram (I-T)


Maximum quenched and aged yield rtrength 38.4 ksi (264 MPa)
Do-yield curve is QO% of quenched and aged yield strength

6061 Alloy
Composition: AI - 0.98% Mg - 0.66% Si - 0.12% Cr - 0.12% Mn
- 038% Fe - 0.23% Cu - 0.07% Zn - 0.014% Ti - 0.001% B
Treatment: Solution heat-treated at 54OC (1OOOOF) for 1 to
1.5 h, down quenched to variour temperatures into molten salt,
held at temperature for varying times, water quenched, and
aged

Time-temperature-property diagram (I-T)


LIVE GRAPH Maximum quenched and aged yield strength 40.5 ksi (280 MPa)
Click here to view
Lo-yield curve is QO% of quenched and aged yield strength

SOURCE: D.V. Gullotti, J. Crane, W.C. Setaer, Isothermal Transformation Characteristics of Several 6XxX Series Alloys,
proceedings of 2nd International Aluminum Extrusion Technology Seminar, 15-17 November, 1977, Atlanta, Vol 1, Billet and
Extrusion, pp 249-256
18 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

6063 Alloy
Composition: Al - 0.60% Mg - 0.30% Si - 0.02% Mn - 0.16% Fe
- 0.01% Zn - 0.02% Ti
Treatment: Solution heat-treated at S40C (1OOOF) for 1 to
1.6 h, down quenched to various temperatures into molten salt,
held at temperature for varying times, water quenched, and
aged

Time-temperature-property diagram (I-T)


Maximum quenched and aged yield strength 26.9 ksi (178 MPa)
Iso-yield curve is 90% of quenched and aged yield strength

6205 Alloy
Composition: Al - 0.63% Mg - 0.76% Si - 0.12% Cr - 0.109% Zr
- 0.11% Mn - 0.138% Fe - 0.04% Zn - 0.01% Ti
Treatment: Solution heat-treated at S40C (lOOOF) for 1 to
1.6 h, down quenched to various temperatures into molten salt,
held at temperature for varying times, water quenched, and
aged

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-property diagram (I-T)


Maximum quenched and aged yield etrength 37.2 ksi (266 MPa)
Lo-yield curve is 90% of quenched and aged yield strength
SOURCE: D.V. Gullotti, J. Crane, W.C. Setser, Isothermal Transformation Characteristics of Several 6XxX Series Alloys,
proceedings of 2nd International Aluminum Extrusion Technology Seminar, 16-17 November, 1977, Atlanta, Vol 1, Billet and
Extrusion, pp 249-266
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 19

A-U4G Alloy

lition: Al - 4.0896 Cu - 0.72% Mg - 0.62% Mn - 0.60% Si Comporition: Al - 4.08% Cu - 0.72% Mg - 0.62% Mn - 0.60% Si
- 0.2% Fe - O.OS% Ti - 0.27% Fe - O.OS# Ti
Treatment: 4 mm diameter wire rpecimena solution annealed at Treatment: 4 mm diameter wire rpecimenr solution annealed at
600C (QSZOF) for SO min, irothermally aged for various times SOOC (932'F) for SO min, isothermally aged for varioucl times
between 175 and 475OC (347 and 88pF), then naturally aged between 176 and 476C (347 and 88loF), then naturally aged
at about 20C (68OF) for 7 days before testing at about 20C (68OF) for 7 daya before tenting

Time-temperature-properties diagram Time-temperature-properties diagram


Curvea show constant valuer of the elantic limit, E, in kg/mm2 Curves rhow con&ant values of ultimate tensile strength, R, in
kthm2

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: M. Ftenouard, Value of Time-Temperature-Properties Diagrama for Heat-Treatment of Light Alloyr, Mem. Sci. Rev.
Met., Vol 56, 1959, pp 617-522
20 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

A-U4G Alloy
Compoeition: Al - 4.08% Cu - 0.72% Mg - 0.62% Mn - 0.60% Si
- 0.27% Fe - 0.03% Ti
Treatment: 4 mm diameter wire rpecimenr rolution annealed at
500C (QSZF) for SO min, isothermally aged for variour timer
between 176 and 475C (347 and 887oF), then naturally aged
at about 20C (68F) for 7 daya before testing

Time-temperature-propertiea diagram
Curver rhow con&ant valuer of the % elongation, A
Gage length ir 8.16 fi where a ir the wire diameter

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: M. Renouard, Value of Time-Temperature-Propertien Diagrama for Heat-Treatment of Light Alloya, Mem. Sci. Rev.
Met., Vol 66, 1969, pp 617-522
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 21

A-U4SG Alloy
Composition: Al - 4.19% Cu - 0.46% Mg - 0.78% Mn - 0.82% Si Comporition: Al - 4.19% Cu - 0.46% Mg - 0.78% Mn - 0.82% Si
- 0.X3% Fe - 0T.05% Ti - 0.33% Fe - 0.05% Ti
Treatment: 4 mm diameter wire rpecimenr rolution annealed at Treatment: 4 mm diameter wire rpecimenr solution annealed at
SOSC (941OF) for 30 min, irothermally aged for various time8 50SC (Q41F) for SO min, irothermally aged for variour timer
between 175 and 47SC (347 and 887oF), then artificially aged between 175 and 475OC (547 and 887oF), then naturally aged
at about 175C (47SF) for 7 daya before testing at 20C (68F) for 7 days before terting

Time-temperature-properties diagram Time-temperature-propertiea diagram


Curvea ahow constant values of the elastic limit, E, in kg/mm2 Curvea rhow conrtant valuea of the ultimate tensile strength, R,
in kg/mm

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: M. Renouard, Value of Time-Temperature-Properties Diagramn for Heat-Treatment of Light Alloys, Mem. Sci. Rev.
Met., Vol 56, 1959, pp 517-622
22 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

A-U4SG Alloy
Composition: Al - 4.19% Cu - 0.46% Mg - 0.78% Mn - 0.82% Si
- 0.33% Fe - 0.06% Ti
Treatment: 4 mm diameter wire specimens solution annealed at
606C (Q41F) for 30 min, isothermally aged for various times
between 176 and 476C (347 and 887oF), then artificially aged
at 176OC (476OF) for 7 dayr before tenting

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-properties diagram
Curves show constant values of the ultimate tensile strength, R, in kg/mm2

SOURCE: M. Renouard, Value of Time-Temperature-Properties Diagrams for Heat-Treatment of Light Alloys, Mem. Sci. Rev.
Met., Vol 66, 1969, pp 617-622
Atlas of Time-Temperature DIagrams 23

6351 Alloy
Treatment: T6 condition (aged at 1730C (3400F) for 8 h

500

. 400
c...>

...
CIJ
::>

~
CIJ

E 300
.....
CIJ

200

10 10 2
Critical time.s
Time-temperature-property diagram
C-curve for 99.5% maximum yield strength of AA 6351-T6 extrusion

SOURCE: J.W. Evancho, "Effects of Quenching on Strength and Toughness of 6351 Extrusions," Report 13-73-HQ40, Alcoa
Laboratories, 1973, and J.T. Staley, "Quench Factor Analysis of Aluminium Alloys," Materials Science and Technology, Vol 3,
November 1987, pp 923-985

7075 Alloy

LL 700 ~---/;L-f-=jf--ij<F-:-.......---=S~+--==-----J
.
Q) 100%
.....~ 600 I--------!i--'rr--+~-~~--"<,____---t--------l
o.....
~ 500 I-------t~~-.......,..~,____--.....;;::-''''''''''=,.--f'~----\
E
~ 400 1-------t----'-"-0\;2""""-:=-=-........;:---+-:::::----'=--__=:::---1

30 0 I-----t-----t------'----=-=--;
- - - Tensile strength
- -Yield strength
20 0 L..-...1.-.JL.....L...I...I..LU.L-~.J........L.L.L.I..1.1.l__l_....L...1...L..L.U.lL-___l._-L.-l...LL.LW

0.1 1.0 10 100 1000


LIVE GRAPH Time. sec
Click here to view
Time-temperature-property diagram
Effect of time and temperature in interrupted quenching experiments on tensile and yield strength of alloy 7075, expressed as
percentages of strengths obtained by quenching without interruption

SOURCE:. W.L. Fink, L.A. Willey, Trans. AIME, Vol 175, 1948, pp 414-427
24 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

7075 Alloy
F K
BOD m"TTl'-'T"-r-l"'T"IrTT'I,--r-r"T"1'TTrTr-r-,-T"T'T"I",,",-~~~"""'"
-- - 100

100
I
jI~~' --
1015 __ -

I
\ , 600

....
~ 600
C
""
II:
...... ""
......~ SOD

SOD
400

10 100
IME, SECONDS
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-property diagram
Comparison of yield strength C-curves for 7050-T76 and 7075-T6 sheet

SOURCE: J.W. Evancho, J.T. Staley, "Kinetics of Precipitation in Aluminum Alloys During Continuous Cooling," Met. Trans.,
Vol 5, ASM, January 1974, pp 48-47

425 tr===+::::::::::'''''<j~---r---t---t1
400 t+---,--+-~==----+'~~-+-
200
u.. 375 t-+~t-t-r---=---'~~.q---t-
o
u
e 350 t---\--T-t--\--"r---t::::=-----=""""'=~~-.I-_+-t 0
175 al
....:J ...
e 325 t----"I[-+-'lr-+--+-_=---.::lk--t?)goo..;:~~H'-- ....ro
:J
Q)
a. Q)
...
E 300 F----"tl-T-"'t"~:-+-"\_\""""'oo;;;;::::_-+-~~~~~;;;::_; 150 a.
....
Q)
E
~ 275
Q)
....
Cl
Cl 125 c
250 t--~:-- Cl

225
100
200 "'----''---''---''-------'-----''-------'--''
0.1 100 1000

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Tim~temperature-propertydiagram
Iso yield strength curves

SOURCE: Aluminum Properties and Physical Metallurgy, John E. Hatch, ed., ASM, 1984
A t/as of T/me-Temperature Diugrums 25

7075 + Ag Plate

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-property diagram
Effect6 of precipitation treatment time and temperature on strength of 7075 plate quenched directly to the precipitation
treatment temperature

SOURCE: J.T. Staley, R.H. Brown, R. Schmidt, Heat Treating Characteristic6 of High Strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloya With and
Without Silver Additionr, paper pre6ented at 1970 Western Metal and Tool Conference, Los Angeles, 11 March 1970
26 A t/us of Time-Temperature Diagrams

7075,7017,6061 and 6063 Alloys

A = 7075 c=6061
(W.L. Fink, L.A. Willey, Trans. AIME, Vol 175, 1948, pp (D. Marchive, R. Derchamps, Rev. Metall., Vol 76, 1979, p 18)
414-427)
D=6063
B = 2017 (D.V. Gulati, et al., in Proc. 2nd Int. Tech. Sem. on Ahuninium
(M. Renouard, Mem. Sci. Rev. Metall., Vol 56, No. 5, 1959, p Bxtruaion, Aluminum Association, Vol 1, 1977, p 249)
517)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-property diagram
Curvea at 95% of maximum tenrile strers for various alloys

SOURCE: T. Sheppard, Prerr Quenching of Aluminium Alloys, Materials Science and Technology, Vol 4, July 1988, pp 635-643
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 27

8090 Alloy
Composition: Al - 2.28% Li - 0.80% Cu - 0.90% Mg - 0.13% Zr
- 0.13% Fe - 0.06% Si

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Nucleation start curvea

Composition: Al - 2.28% Li - 0.86% Cu - 0.90% Mg - 0.13% Zr


- 0.13% Fe - 0.06% Si

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Volume fractions of the 72 phace
LEGEND:
S phase = Al2CuMg
T2 phase = AlgCuLig

SOURCE: GM. Calvin, E.A. Starke, Jr., SAMPE Q., July 1988, Vol 19, No. 4, pp 10-21, aa published in Aerospace Structural
Handbook for Nonferrous Alloys, June 1990
28 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

8090 Alloy
Comporirion: Al - 2.28% Li - 0.86% Cu - 090% Mg - 0.13% Zr
- 0.13% Fe - 0.06% Si

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Volume fraction6 of the S phase (Al2CuMg)

Compoairion: Al - 2.28% Li - 0.86% Cu - 0.90% Mg - 0.13% Zr


- 0.13% Fe - 0.06% Si

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-embrittlement diagram
Lone in Charpy V energy relative to ae-quenched condition for isothermal aging

SOURCE: GM. Colvin, E.A. Starke, Jr., SAMPE Q., July 1988, Vol 19, No. 4, pp 10-21, ae published in Aerorpace SLrucrural
Handbook for Nonferrour Alloye, June 1990
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Dlagrams 29

8090 Alloy
Composition: Al 2.68% Li - 1.36% Cu - 0.89% Mg - 0.13% Zr
- 0.17% Fe - 0.04% Si

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Nucleation atart curvea

Composition: Al - 2.68% Li-lX%Cu- 0.89% MI- 0.13% Zr


- 0.17% Fe - 0.04% Si

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Volume fractions of the T2 pheee

LEGEND:
S pheee = Al2CuMg
T2 phme = ~&t&i3

SOURCE: G.M. Colvin, E.A. Starke, Jr., SAMPE Q., July 1988, Vol 19, No. 4, pp 10-21, aa published in Aerorpace Structural
Handbook for Nonferrous Alloyr, June 1990
30 Atlas of Time-Temperature Olagrams

8090 Alloy
Compoeition: Al - 2.68% Li - l.SS% Cu - 0.89% Mg - 0.13% Zr
- 0.17% Fe - 0.04% Si

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Volume fractions of the S phaee (Al2CuMg)

Composition: Al - 2.68% Li - 1.36% Cu - 0.89% Mg - 0.13% Zr


- 0.17% Fe - 0.04% Si

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-embrittlement diagram
Loee in Charpy V energy relative to ae-quenched condition for isothermal aging

SOURCE: GM. Colvin, E.A. Starke, Jr., SAMPE Q., July 1988, Vol 19, No. 4, pp 10-21, an published in Aerospace Structural
Handbook for Nonferrous Alloys, June 1980
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 31

Experimental Aluminum Alloys


Composition: Al - 2.7% Cu - 1.6% Li - 0.09% Zr - 0.05% Fe -
0.005% Si - 0.1% Ti
Treatment: Solution annealed at 5SOC (1022OF) for 30 min,
then transferred to a molten metal bath for the isothermal
holds, water quenched, stretched 6% and aged at 163C
(32SF) for 24 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-property diagram
Yield strength C-curve
Results shown are a percentage of the theoretical maximum

SOURCE: James T. Staley, Aluminum Company of American, Alcoa Center PA, to be published
32 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Experimental Aluminum Alloys


Composition: Al - 2.7% Cu - 1.6% Li - 0.09% Zr - 0.06% Fe -
0.005% Si - 0.1% Ti
Treatment: Solution annealed at 5SOC (1022OF) for 30 min,
then transferred to a molten metal bath for the isothermal
holds, water quenched, stretched 6% and aged at 163OC
(325OF) for 24 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-property diagram
Tensile strength C-curves
Results shown are a percentage of the theoretical maximum

SOURCE: James T. Staley, Aluminum Company of American, Alcoa Center PA, to be published
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 33

Experimental Aluminum Alloys


Composition: Al - 2.7% Cu - 1.6% Li - 0.09% Zr - 0.05% Fe -
0.005% Si - 0.1% Ti
Treatment: Solution annealed at 5SOC (1022OF) for 30 min,
then transferred to a molten metal bath for the isothermal
holds, water quenched, stretched 6% and aged at 163OC
(325OF) for 24 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-property diagram
Toughness C-curves
Result6 shown are a percentage of the theoretical maximum

SOURCE: James T. Staley, Aluminum Company of American, Alcoa Center PA, to be published
34 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Experimental Aluminum Alloys


Composition: Al - 2.7% Cu - 1.6% Li - 0.09% Zr - 0.05% Fe -
0.005% Si - 0.1% Ti
Treatment: Solution annealed at SSOC (1022OF) for 30 min,
then transferred to a molten metal bath for the isothermal
holds, water quenched, stretched 6% and aged at 163OC
(325OF) for 24 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-property diagram
C-curves for hardness
Graph shows iso-hardness lines where the numbers given are Vickers hardness values determined with a 5 kgf test load

SOURCE: James T. Staley, Aluminum Company of American, Alcoa Center PA, to be published
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 35

Experimental Aluminum Alloys


Composition: Al - 2.7% Cu - 1.6% Li - 0.09% Zr - 0.05% Fe -
0.00596 Si - 0.1% Ti
Treatment: Solution annealed at SSOC (1022OF) for 30 min,
then transferred to a molten metal bath for the isothermal
holds, water quenched, stretched 6% and aged at 163OC
(325OF) for 24 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-property diagram
C-curves for solution potentials
Information developed according to the method described in ASTM G 69-81

SOURCE: James T. Staley, Aluminum Company of American, Alcoa Center PA, to be published
36 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Experimental Aluminum Alloys


Composition: Al - 2.7% Cu - 1.6% Li - 0.09% Zr - 0.05% Fe -
0.005% Si - 0.1% Ti
Treatment: Solution annealed at 550C (1022OF) for 30 tin,
then transferred to a molten metal bath for the isothermal
holds, water quenched, stretched 6% and aged at 163OC
(325OF) for 24 h

Time-temperature-property diagram
C-curves for % Cu in solution
Information determined from the data in the preceding figure

SOURCE: James T. Staley, Aluminum Company of American, Alcoa Center PA, to be published
At/as of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 37

Experimentah Aluminum Alloys


Composition: Al - 2.7% Cu - 1.6% Li - 0.09% Zr - 0.05% Fe -
0.005% Si - 0.1% Ti
Treatment: Solution annealed at S50C (1022F) for 30 min,
then transferred to a molten metal bath for the isothermal
holds, water quenched, stretched 6% and aged at 163OC
(325OF) for 24 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
C-curves for fimt indication of Ty and TR by x-ray

T1 phase = Al2CuLi
TR phase is either = Al6Cu4Li 0 AI7Cu4Li

SOURCE: James T. Staley, Aluminum Company of American, Alcoa Center PA, to be published
38 A t/us of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Al-Zr-Mg Alloy
Composition: Al - 4.5 (at.%) Zr - 2.25 (at.%) Mg
Treatment: Solution treated at 490% (91rF) for 1 h and
water quenched. A rpecial DTA (differential thermal analysis)
device was used to heat specimens at various rates after they
had been aged at room temperature for 1 h. The solid lines are
for heating rates from room temperature; the 2 dotted curves
are for heating rates that started at -50C (-58oF).
Characteristic points on the DTA curves were plotted on the
heat rate curves and then connected to represent the lower limit
of formation or dissolution of precipitates or phase
transformations

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Dynamic time-transition-temperature diagram

SOURCE: E. Becker, W. Heyroth, The Dynamic TTT-Diagram of an AI-4.Sat.%Zn-2.25at.q6Mg Alloy Attained from Thermal
Analysis, Crystal Research & Technology, Vol 20, No. 2, 1985, pp 263-288
T

Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Al - 4.64% Cu - 1.48% Mg - 0.82% Mn - 0.49%
Fe - 0.02% Si

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: V.G. Davydov, 1.1. Novikov, E.D. Zakharov, C-Curves of the Decomposition of a Supersaturated Solid Solution in
Duralumin-Type Alloys, Monk. Innt. Stali Splavov, Moscow, USSR, Icv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Tsvet. Met. Vol 11, No. 4, 1968,
pp 117-123
40 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Aluminum Alloys
Compoeitionr:
Alloy 1: Al - 4.08% Cu - O.OOQ% Mg - 0.008% Mn - 0.006% Si - 0.002% Fe
Alloy 2: AI - 4.60% Cu - 0.007% Mg - 0.009% Mn - 0.010% Si - 0.002% Fe
Alloy 3: Al - 3.70% Cu - 1.70% Mg- 0.03% Mn
Alloy 4: Al - 4.60% Cu - 0.89% Me - 0.02% Mn - ~0.01% Si - ~0.01% Fe
Allo; 6: Al - 4.28% Cu - 1.23% Me - 0.02% Mn
Alloy 6: Al - 4.72% Cu - 0.12% Mg - 0.71% Mn - ~0.06% Si - ~0.01% Fe
Alloy 7: Al - 4.19% Cu - 130% Mg - 0.06% Mn - 0.47% Si - <O.Ol% Fe
Alloy 8: Al - 4.60% Cu - 1.40% Mg - 0.90% Mn - 0.01% Si - 0.01% Fe
Alloy 9: Al - 4.64% Cu - 1.48% Mg - 0.82% Mn - 0.02% Si - 0.49% Fe

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-property diagram for aluminum alloys overaged to
produce a 5% decrease from the ultimate tensile strength

SOURCE: V.G. Davydov, 1.1. Novikov, E.D. Zakharov, C-Curves of the Decomposition of a Supersaturated Solid Solution in
Durahunin-Type Alloyr, Mork. Inst. Stali Splavov, Moscow, USSR, IGV. Vyrsh. Ucheb. Zaved., Tsvet. Met. Vol 11, No. 4, 1968,
pp 117-125
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 41

Aluminum Alloys
Comporitionr:
Alloy 10: Al - 4.74% Cu - 1.80% Mg - 038% Mn - 0.11% Si - 0.08% Fe
Alloy 11: Al - 4.75% Cu - 1.74% Mg - 0.95% Mn - 0.16% Si - 0.09% Fe
Alloy 12: Al - 4.30% Cu - 1.56% Mg - 0.65% Mn - 0.13% Si - 0.07% Fe
Alloy 13: Al - 5.77% Cu - 1.74% Mg - 0.38% Mn - 0.13% Si - 0.10% Fe
Alloy 14: AI - 3.83% Cu - 1.83% Mg - 0.86% Mn - 0.12% Si - 0.12% Fe
Alloy 16: AI - 5.82% Cu - 1.16% Mg - 0.43% Mn - 0.10% Si - O.OQ% Fe
Alloy 16: AI - 3.62% Cu - 1.20% Mg - 0.85% Mn - 0.08% Si - 0.10% Fe

Time-temperature-property diagram for aluminum alloys overaged to


produce a 5% decrease from the ultimate tenrile strength

SOURCE: V.G. Davydov, 1.1. Novikov, E.D. Zakharov, C-Curve8 of the Decomposition of a Supersaturated Solid Solution in
Duralumin-Type Alloyr, Mask. In&. Stali Splavov, Moscow, USSR, Irv. Vyerh. Ucheb. Zaved., Tsvet. Met. Vol 11, No. 4, 1968,
pp 117-123
42 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Aluminum Alloys
Comporition:
Alloy 3: Al - 3.70% Cu - 1.70% Mg - 0.03% Mn
Alloy 4: Al - 4.60% Cu - 0.89% Mg - 0.02% Mn - ~0.01% Si - <O.Ol% Fe

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Tenrile properties of alloy8 aged at 2SOC (482OF)

Comporitionr:
Alloy 1: AI - 4.08% Cu - 0.009% Mg - 0.008% Mn - 0.006% Si - 0.002% Fe
Alloy 5: Al - 4.28% Cu - 1.23% Mg - 0.02% Mn
Alloy 9: AI - 4.64% Cu - 1.48% Mg - 0.82% Mn - 0.02% Si - 0.49% Fe
Alloy 11: Al - 4.75% Cu - 1.74% Mg - 0.95% Mn - 0.15% Si - OX@% Fe
Alloy 12: AI - 4.30% Cu - 1.56% Mg - 0.65% Mn - 0.13% Si - 0.07% Fe
Alloy 15: Al - 3.82hhhCu - 1.16% Mg - 0.43% Mn - 0.10% Si - 0.09% Fe

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-renritication diagram
Cooling eurver A to D are for aluminum sheet8 of 1.2, 3.1, 6.0 and 9.3 mm thickness, respectively

SOURCE: V.G. Davydov, 1.1. Novikov, E.D. Zakharov, C-Curves of the Decomposition of a Supersaturated Solid Solution in
Duralumin-Type Alloyr, Mark. Inst. Stali Splavov, Moscow, USSR, Irv. Vylrh. Ucheb. Zaved., Tsvet. Met. Vol 11, No. 4, 1968,
pp 117-123
Cobalt-Base Alloys
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 45

Co-Cr Alloy
Composition: Co - 20% Cr

-----1---
y 80011---------1--------1- 1
1
W 1
0:: I
:::> 7001----..~-.o""=--+--,~=------+- I
~
0::
Co 20Cr Cr-
W
a.. <l+E
~ ~
w , ~. I
I- Transformatlon __ ~50.~ Completion _~I Trans,formatlon
500 Start I Finish
I

1 10
TIME, minutes

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Obtained from quenching-dilatometer studies

SOURCE: A.F. Giamei, J. Burma, S. Rabin, M. Cheng, E.J. Freise, "The Role of the Allotropic Transformation in Cobalt-Base
Alloys," Cobalt, Vol 40, Cobalt Development Institute, Slough UK, September 1968, pp 140-155

Co-W Alloy
Composition: Co - 25% W

~w
I
10001---;--------+------+

U
o
9001----t---
W
0:: 800 1--7'q:.....-------,,~+___....,_..::::::..--__I_
:::>
~ w-
0:: 700I---.3oo,d---~--.v_----:!..---+
W
a..
~
w 600
I-

500'1--+-------+---

1000 10000 100000


LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view TIME, seconds

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: T. Toda, Trans. Japan Inst. Metals, Vol 6, 1965, p 139


46 A ~ICIS of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Co-5W-0.23C Alloy
Composition: Co - 4.69% W - 0.23% C
Treatment: Solution treated at 1260C (2282OF) for 2 h and
quenched before aging. The interval between the aging
temperaturea was 50C (122F); the aging times were I/4, 1, 4,
16, 64, and 256 h at each temperature (when appropriate, larger
intervals were used)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-aging diagram
Showing the occurrence of the various phases after an isothermal treatment

SOURCE: H. Jonsson, B. Aronsson, Microstructure and Hardness of Cobalt-Rich Co-W-C Alloys after Ageing in the
Temperature Range 400-1000C, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 97, 1969, pp 281-288
Atlas of Time-Temperature DiagramsT 47

Co-lOW-0.49C Alloy
Composition: Co - 9.38% W - 0.49% C
Treatment: Solution treated at 125OC (2282F) for 2 h and
quenched before aging. The interval between the aging
temperatures was 50C (122F); the aging times were l/4, 1, 4,
16, 64, and 256 h at each temperature (when appropriate, larger
intervals were used)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-aging diagram
Showing the occurrence of the various phases after an isothermal treatment

SOURCE: H. Jonsson, B. Aronsson, Microstructure and Hardness of Cobalt-Rich Co-W-C Alloys after Ageing in the
Temperature Range 400-1000C, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 97, 1969, pp 281-288
48 A t/as of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Co-IOW-0.75C Alloy
Composition: Co - 9.37% W - 0.75% C
Treatment: Solution treated at 125OC (2282F) for 2 h and
quenched before aging. The interval between the aging
temperatures was SOC (122OF); the aging times were l/4, 1, 4,
16, 64, and 256 h at each temperature (when appropriate, larger
intervals were used)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-aging diagram
Showing the occurrence of the various phases after an isothermal treatment

SOURCE: H. Jonsson, B. Aronsson, Microstructure and Hardness of Cobalt-Rich Co-W-C Alloys after Ageing in the
Temperature Range 400-1000C, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol97, 1969, pp 281-288
Atlas of T/me-Temperature DiagramsT 49

Co-15W-0.71C Alloy
Composition: Co - 14.10% W - 0.71% C
Treatment: Solution treated at 125OC (2282F) for 2 h and
quenched before aging. The interval between the aging
temperatures was 50C (122OF); the aging times were l/4, 1, 4,
16, 64, and 266 h at each temperature (when appropriate, larger
intervals were used)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-aging diagram
Showing the occurrence of the various phases after an isothermal treatment

SOURCE: H. Jonsson, B. Aronsson, Microstructure and Hardness of Cobalt-Rich Co-W-C Alloys after Ageing in the
Temperature Range 400-1000C, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol97, 1969, pp 281-288
50 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Co-Cr-Ti Alloys
Base alloy - Composition: Co - 16.0% Cr - 5.0% Ti - 3.0% MO -
0.005% c
Low Ti - Composition: Co - 17.6% Cr - 4.4% Ti - 8.0% MO -
0.015% c
Treatment: Converted to powder, the powdera were
encapsulated, homogenkation treated at 1200C (2192OF) for
16 h, extruded at 105OC (1922F). The as-extruded alloys
were heated treated between 600 and 800C (1112 and 1472F)
and water quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
For overall traneformation (diecontinuous + hcp) in baee alloy and low Ti alloy

SOURCE: N.-G. Ingeeten, R. Warren, M. Dahlen, Microstructural Stability of Gamma-prime Strengthened Co-Cr-Ti Alloyn,
Metal Science, Vol 17, April 1988, pp 159-166
Atlas of Tlme-Temperature Diagrams 51

Co-Cr-Ti Alloys
Base alloy - Composition: Co - 16.0% Cr - 5.0% Ti - 3.0% MO -
0.005% c
Treatment: Converted to powder, the powdera were
encapsulated, homogenization treated at 1200C (2192OF) for
16 h, extruded at 1050C (1922OF). The as-extruded alloys
were heated treated between 600 and 800C (1112 and 1472F)
and water quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Effect of gamma grain sise on overall transformation of base alloy

SOURCE: N.-G. Ingesten, R. Warren, M. Dahlen, Microstructural Stability of Gamma-prime Strengthened Co-Cr-Ti Alloyr,
Metal Science, Vol 17, April 1983, pp 159-166
52 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Co-Cr-Ti Alloys
Baee alloy - Composition: Co - 16.0% Cr - 5.0% Ti - 3.0% MO -
0.005% c
Treatment: Converted to powder, the powdere were
encapsulated, homogenication treated at 1200C (2192F) for
16 h, extruded at 1050C (1922F). The as-extruded alloys
were heated treated between 600 and 800C (1112 and 1472OF)
and water quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature transformation diagram


Effect of cold work (30% reduction by rolling) on overall transformation of base alloy

SOURCE: N.-G. Ingesten, R. Warren, M. Dahlen, Microstructural Stability of Gamma-prime Strengthened Co-Cr-Ti Alloys,
Metal Science, Vol 17, April 1983, pp 159-166
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 53

Co-Cr-Ti Alloys
Base alloy - Composition: Co - 16.0% Cr - 5.0% Ti - 3.0% MO -
0.005% c
Ni-Modified - Composition: Co - 17.3% Cr - 4.4% Ti - 3.0% MO
- 11.6% Ni - 0.017% C
Treatment: Converted to powder, the powders were
encapsulated, homogenization treated at 12OOC (2192OF) for
16 h, extruded at 1050C (1922OF). The as-extruded alloys
were heated treated between 600 and 800C (1112 and 1472F)
and water quenched

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view For overall transformation
Base vs Ni-modified alloy

SOURCE: N.-G. Ingesten, R. Warren, hf. Dahlen, Microstructural Stability of Gamma-prime Strengthened Co-Cr-Ti Alloys,
Metal Science, Vol 17, April 1983, pp 159-166

Wrought Cobalt-Base Alloy


Composition: Co - 20.2% Cr - 15.8% Ni - 14.8% W - 1.2% Ti -
0.53% Al - 0.07% Mn - 0.05% Si - 0.25% Fe - 0.11% C

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Summarising the structural changes that take place on prolonged aging

SOURCE: P. Viatour, J.M. Drapier, D. Coutsouradis, L. Habraken, Structure and Properties of CM-7, a Wrought Precipitation-
Hardening Cobalt-Base Alloy, Cobalt, Vol 51, Cobalt Development Institute, Slough UK, June 1971, pp 67- 76
54 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Co-Cr-MO-C Investment-Cast Implant Alloy


Nominal Composition: Co - 0.25% C - 0.60% Mn - 0.60% Si -
27% Cr - 3% Ni - 5% MO - 1% Fe
Treatment: Solution treatment consisting of a 2 h soak at
1250C (2282OF) followed by water quenching. After aging all
specimens were rapidly quenched in water

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-precipitation diagram


Click here to view Indicates the various changes in morphology of the M23C3 carbide on aging

LEGEND:
x = grain boundaries only
S = intragranular rtriatione
A = change to a blocky morphology
R = rpheroidiration of the precipitate8
D = dirrolution
G = grain-boundary carbides (M23C6) preeent

SOURCE: R.N.J. Taylor, R.B. Waterhouse, The Metallography of a Cobalt-Based Implant Alloy After Solution Treatment and
Ageing, Journal of Materials Science, Vol 21, No. 6, June 1986, pp 1990-1996
Atlas of Tlme-Temperature Diagrams 55

Co-W Heat-Resisting Alloy


Nominal Compoeition: Co - 25% W - 1.0% Ti - 0.5% Zr - 3.0%
Cr - 0.5% c
Treatment: Annealed at 1290C (2355OF) for 30 min and water
quenched then held at temperatures between 700 and 1lOOC
(1290 and 2OlOOF) for times up to 3000 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Showing the structural reactions that occur during high-temperature aging

SOURCE: J.M. Drapier, P. Viatour, D. Couteouradis, Structural Stability of a Co-W Heat-Resisting Alloy, Cobalt, Vol 52,
Cobalt Development Institute, Slough UK, September 1971, pp 147-155
56 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Haynes Alloy No. 188, Cobalt-Base Superalloy


Nominal Composition: Co - 20-24% Cr - 20-24% Ni - 13-16%
W - 0.06-0.16% C - 0.03-0.16% La - 0.20-0.60% Si - up to 3%
Fe - up to 1.26% Mn

1800 I-----t MsC i I .",,-

, i ! I! ',." ,
! ~'"
~ 1S00 r---------.;--+-t---i!'++---+j------f,
, ,-,
i ,
".
MSC
,
,
------:o.=---'---~
.
u
W

~ ! I !,: +M 23CS
0:::
:::)
I-
ffi -W-h---
il!!1
! __ Laves
r-~,:
",-+
<
0:::
W
D..
~ : :... ~
D..
'1: I ~
I- ' ! ........ 700 ~
........ ........

: ' SOD
, ,

1000 10000
TIME, hours
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram on aging

SOURCE: R.B. Herchenroeder, S.J. Matthews, J.W. Tackett, S.T. Wlodek, "Haynes Alloy No. 188," Cobalt, Vol 64, Cobalt
Development Institute, Slough UK, March 1972, pp 3-18

L-605, Cobalt-Base Superalloy


Composition: Co - 0.06% C - 20.06% Cr - 9.81% Ni - 14.88% W
- 1.66% Mn - 0.86% Si - 0.23% Fe
Treatment: Solution treated at 1230 0C (2246 0F) for 30 min,
water quenched
1200

1100

1000

u too

....
.;
:::l 800

! 700

800

&00 t - - - - + -.....-:-----4-~.....~-+--O---6J
o---+-o......;;:::a...~L.::
I
M2..,.~.CO ...W(a 12)
~OO C Mn SI Cr HI W Fe Co--- .......--""'1~~'__t-~--~--4
ooe 1!6 OM 2006 981 1488 Q23 bal
SOO
I.T. 0& & 10 eo 100 eoo 1000
Tlmt, hr
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Beginning and ending of the various phases

SOURCE: S. Takeda, N. Yukawa, Nippon Kinzoku Gakkai-ho, 6, 11, 12, 1967, pp 786-802, 860-866
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 57

L-605, Cobalt-Base Superalloy


Composition: Co - 20.0% Cr - 14.84% W - 10.02% Ni - 3.12%
Fe - 1.39% Mn - 0.47% Si - 0.003% P - trace Zr
Grain size: 2 to 6
Treatment: Solution-annealed at 1232 0C (2250 0F) for 30 min

2400

-180 IBO-
100-
2000
BO.~

1600
~::~
35-

40.
20-
40'
46'

60~
eo~
zo'
100-....;:
1200 180-. IBO.~
HEAT 'A'
1.5 T BENO 180. e180

LIVE GRAPH 10 100 1000


Click here to view
AGING TIME HOURS

Time-temperature-embrittlement diagram
Loss of ductility is due to precipitation of Laves phase
Note evidence of slight return of 1.5T bend ductility in samples aged at 982 0C (1800 0F) for about 1000 h

SOURCE: S.T. Wlodek, "Embrittlement of a Co-Cr-W (L-605) Alloy," Trans. ASM, Vol 56, 1963, pp 287-303

L-605, Cobalt-Base Superalloy

(3)
", Linear

2000
Parabolic
..........
---

1600L-----L.-----="------'::---""'----:-'::---=-=-----"
10

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-oxidation diagram

SOURCE: S.T. Wlodek, "The Oxidation of L-606 and X-40," General Electric Report R64FPD12, Cincinnati, 1964
58 A t/us of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Co-Fe Alloys
CoFe - Comporition: Co - 60% Fe
CoFeV - Composition: Co - 48.8% Fe - 2.5% V
CoFeCr - Compoeition: Co - 49.8% Fe - 0.4% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-ordering diagram

SOURCE: R.A. Buckley, Microstructure and Kinetics of the Ordering Transformation in Iron-Cobalt Alloye, FeCo,
FeCo-0.4%Cr, FeCo-Z.S%V, Metal Science, Vol 9, 1975, pp 243-247
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 59

Fe-Co-2% V Alloy
Composition: Co - 47.34% Fe - 2.00% V - 0.007% C - 0.105% Si
- 0.2!2% Ni

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
For an annealed and cold-worked alloy
These curves do not include grain-boundary precipitation and refer exclusively to the much finer precipitate dispersions which
form within the grains in the temperature range 477-6210C (890-1160F)

SOURCE: J.A. Aehby, H.M. Flower, R.D. Rawlinge, Gamma Phaee in an Fe-Co-2%V Alloy, Metal Science, Vol 11, March 1977,
pp Ql-Q6
60 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Fe-Co-V-Ni Alloy
Composition: Co - 48% Fe - 3.6% Ni - 1.6% V
Treatment: Quenched from 800C (1472oF) and aged for
various times between 500 and 750C (932 and 1382F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

* this refers to the diagrams on previous page (p 59)

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
For annealed Fe-Co-V-S.S%Ni alloy compared with ternary Fe-Co-V

The curve refers to the fine-precipitate dispersions which were formed within the grains
Comparison with the corresponding TTT curve for the annealed ternary alloy shows that nickel increases the rate of precipitation
and raises the temperature of the nose of the curve to about SOOOC (1112OF)

SOURCE: C.D. Pitt, R.D. Rawlings, Microstructure of Fe-Co-2V and Fe-Co-V-Ni Alloys Containing 1.8-7.4 wt-%Ni, Metal
Science, Vol 15, August 1981, pp 369-376
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 61

Al-Ni-Co Alloys
Composition: Fe - 8% Al - 14% Ni - 3% Cu - 18-32% CO
Treatment: Homogeniz.ed at 135OC (24620F) for 1 h, rapidly
cooled to holding temperature6 ranging from 1280 to 900C
(2336 to 1652OF) and held from 5 I to 120 min and water
quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Start of the alpha to gamma isothermal decomposition

SOURCE: G. Marcon, C. Bronner, R. Peffen, Study of the Influence of Cobalt on the Kinetics of the Alpha to Gamma
Transformation in Al-Ni-Co Alloys, Cobalt Vol 51, Cobalt Development Institute, Slough UK, June 1970, pp 99-104
62 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Dlagrams

AI-Ni-Co Alloys
Standard comporition: 24% Co - 12-16% Ni - 8% Al - 3% Cu -
bal Fe; nickel content modified at the expense of iron in 1%
increment6 between 11% and 16%
Treatment: Specimens were homogenired at 13OOOC (2372F)
for 30 mine, cooled very rapidly to temperatures between 1180
and 850C (2156 and 1562oF), held for 30 e to 2 h, then water
quenched

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Effect of nickel on alpha to gamma transformation

SOURCE: T. Tran Due, C. Bronner, G. Marcon, R. Peffen, Influence of Nickel on the Kinetics of the Alpha to Gamma
Transformation in Al-Ni-Co Alloya, Cobalt, Vol 2, Cobalt Development Institute, Slough UK, 1974, pp 45-48
Copper-Base Alloys
64 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Designa tlon Description Alloy Crystallographic


System Structure

Equilibrium Phases in Cu-AI Alloy Systems


a Copper-rich nolid solution All cu-Al-x fee

B High-temperature nolid solution All cu-Al-x bCC

Y2 Intermetallic compound with wide solubility range cu-Al Cubic. y-brass type
Cu-Al-Fe
Cu-Al-Ni
cu-Al-co
Cu-Al-Mn

a, Perltecroid a-Phase cu-Al Supersaturated a


Cl&Al-X? Short-range ordered

6 FC &iron Cu-Al-Fe bee

FqAI Intermetallic compound Cu-Al-Fe BiF8 type


FeAl (K] Intermetallic compound with wide solubility range Cu-Al-Fe CSCI type
Nil (ICI Intermetallic compound with wide solubility range Cu-Al-Ni CSCI type

K Intermetallic compound with wide solubility Cu-Al-Fe-Ni CSCI type


range (Fe, Ni, Cu)Al Cu-Al-Mn-Fe-Ni
Cu-Al-Co-Fe, and others

=, Intermetallic compound Cu-Al-Mn bCC


Ye. or #3 Intermetallic compound Cu-Al-Be C&l type
Ys, Intermetallic compound Cu-Al-Si P-h we
KS, Intermetallic compound Cu-Al-Si hcp
FeSi Intermetallic compound Cu-Al-Si Cubic
FesSi8 Intermetallic compound Cu-Al-Si Hexagonal

Metastable Phases in Cu-AI Alloy Systems

a Bainilic a Phase supersahnaled cu-Al .....


Cu-Al-Fe fee
Cu-Al-Ni ... ..

Intermetallic compound CugAl cu-Al bCC


Cu-Al-Fe ordered
Cu-Al-Ni ... ..
Cu-Al-Mn .. ..

Massive martensite cu-Al .. .


= I ... .. cu-Al .....
B Non-ordered martensite cu-Al fee
Cu-Al-Fe with periodical stacking
Cu-Al-Ni faults of high density
Cu-Al-Fe-Ni

Ordered martenaite cu-Al Orthorhombic ordered


Cu-Al-Fe with periodic stacking
Cu-Al-Ni faults of high density
Cu-Fe-Ni
B, ..... cu-Al .....
71 Ordered Al-rich martensite cu-Al Orthorhombic ordered
Cu-AI-Fe
Cu-Al-Ni
Cu-AI-Fe-Ni
Geneml designation for all transformation produc% of l3 Phase consisting mainly of p. p,. p: p,. y*,. a: cg. bainile. elc.
Intermetallic compound (Fe, Ni, Cu)AI Cu-Al-Fe-Ni . .. .
Precipitated from melt ...
Precipilaled from l3 CrCl type
Eu[ecloid component from p - a ,+ K,,, CsCl type
Globular precipilate from a CsCI type
bh precipitate from a .... .

SOURCE: P. Bresina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Bronces, International Metals Reviews, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982; pp
77-120
Atlas of lime-Temperature Diagrams 65

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.87% Al - 0.06% Fe - 0.0256 Si - 0.01% Sn
Treatment: Annealed at QOOC (1662OF) for 1 h, quenched into
salt at deeired temperature, held at temperature, quenched in
ice water

LIVE GRAPH
Time-temperature-transformation diagram Click here to view

SOURCE: C.S. Smith, W.E. Lindlief, A Micrographic Study of the Decomposition of the Beta Phaee in the Copper-Aluminum
System, Trane. AXME, Vol 104, 1933, pp 69-116
66 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.89% Al - 0.02% Fe - 0.01% Mn

Revised Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram following discussion of original work

SOURCE: D.J. Mack, The Isothermal Transformation of a Eutectoid Aluminum Bronee, Trans. AIME, Vol 175, 1948, pp
241-261
At/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 67

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.9% Al
Treatment: Heated at 950C (1742OF) for 10 min, quenched at
desired temperature, held, and quenched in a 10% aqueoue
solution of eodium hydroxide

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: E.P. Klier, S.M. Grymko, The Transformations in Beta-CuAl Alloys, Trans. AIME, Vol 185, September 1949, pp
611-620
68 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Comporition: Cu - lS.S% Al
Treatment: Heated at 95OC (174zF) for 10 min, quenched at
desired temperature, held, and quenched in a 10% aqueous
solution of rodium hydroxide

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: E.P. Klier, S.M. Grymko, The Transformations in Beta-CuAl Alloys, Trans. AIME, Vol 185, September 1949, pp
611-620

Composition: Cu - 11.3% Al
Treatment: Solution treated at 800cC (1472F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: D. Lloyd Thomae, Metaetable Systems Involving Beta and Beta-One Phases in Copper-Aluminium Alloyr, Journal of
the Institute of Metals, Vol 94, 1986, pp 250-254
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 69

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12.0% Al
Treatment: Solution treated at 800C (1472OF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation dingram

Composition: Cu - 12.85% Al
Treatment: Solution treated at 800C (1472OF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: D. Lloyd Thomas, Metaatable Syetema Involving Beta and Beta-one Phases in Copper-Aluminium Alloyr, Journal of
the Institute of Metalr, Vol 94, 1988, pp 250-254
70 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12.4% Al
Treatment: Solution treated in an air furnace at 820C
( 1508F) for SO min, then quenched at various temperature8
between 570 and 460C (1068 and 8@F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: II. Butler, A.J. Fletcher, The Decomposition of the Beta Phase in Certain Hypereutectoid Copper-Aluminium Alloys,
Journal of the Inrtitute of Metals, Vol 98, 1970, pp 16-19
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 71

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12.7% Al
Treatment: Solution treated in an air furnace at 820C
(1508F) for SO min, then quenched at various temperatures
between 570 and 460C (1058 and 860F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: II. Butler, A.J. Fletcher, The Decomposition of the Beta Phase in Certain Hypereutectoid Copper-Aluminium Alloys.,
Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol98, 1970, pp 16-19
72 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - lS.096 Al
Treatment: Solution treated in an air furnace at 820C 1508F)
for 30 min, the quenched at various temperatures between 570
and 460C (1058 and 860F)

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: H. Butler, A.J. Fletcher, The Decomposition of the Beta Phase in Certain Hypereutectoid Copper-Aluminium Alloys,
Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol98, 1970, pp 16-19
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 73

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.8% Al - 0.19% Fe - 0.07% Si
Treatment: Water-quenched from 850C (1562F) and
tempered in salt baths between 400 and 550C (752 and
1022F)

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-aging diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: E.R. Petty, H. ONeill, Hardness and Structural Transformations in Eutectoid Copper-Aluminium and Copper-
Beryllium Alloys, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 89, 1961, pp 281-286

Composition: Cu - 10.5% Al

LIVE GRAPH Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram


Click here to view Standard cooling conditions are indicated

SOURCE: J. Jelliaon, E.P. Iflier, The Cooling Transformations in the Beta Eutectoid Alloys of the Cu-AI System, Trans. AIME,
Vol 233, September 1965, pp 1694-1702
74 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.87% Al

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram
Standard cooling conditions are indicated

Composition: Cu - 13.6% Al

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram
Standard cooling conditions are indicated

SOURCE: J. Jellieon, E.P. Klier, The Cooling Transformations in the Beta Eutectoid Alloys of the Cu-AI System, Trans. AIhfE,
Vol 233, September 1965, pp 1694-1702
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 75

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.2% Al
Treatment: Specimens quenched into cold water from selected
temperature points along the cooling curves; the maximum
cooling rate of 2QO@C/r (3632F/s) was attained by quenching
in a blast of argon

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

Composition: Cu - 11.7% Al
Treatment: Specimens quenched into cold water from selected
temperature points along the cooling curves; the maximum
cooling rate of 2QQ0C/r (3632OF/r) was attained by quenching
in a blast of argon

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: J.R. Moon, R.D. Garwood, Tradlrformation during Continuous Cooling of the Beta Phase in Copper-Aluminium
Alloys, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 96, 1968, pp 17-21
76 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12.4% Al
Treatment: Specimen8 quenched into cold water from selected
temperature pointa along the cooling curves; the maximum
cooling rate of 2000C/r (3632F/r) wm attained by quenching
in a blaet of argon

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: J.R. Moon, R.D. Garwood, Transformation during Continuous Cooling of the Beta Phase in Copper-Aluminium
Alloyr, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 96, 1968, pp 17-?l
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 77

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.06% Al
Treatment: Solution treated 860C (15SZF) for 30 min

LEGEND:

a or yz start of proeutectoid

P formation of pearlite

T. temperature for the start of ordering

precipitation of a phase without martenrite transformation


aP
a formation of the o phase with martenrite formation

MS start of marteneite transformation

Ta temperature for the start of ordering of the phase

Continuour-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: Suck-joong L. Kang, hf. Staei, P. Asou, Transformation au Refroidissement Continu dee Alliages Binairer Cuivre-
Aluminium, Metaux Corrorion-Induetrie, Vol 64, No. 762, February 1989
78 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.60% Al
Treatment: Solution treated 850C (1562OF) for 30 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time of cooling from an initial 850C

LEGEND:

a or y? start of proeutectoid

P formation of pearlite

TC temperature for the start of ordering

precipitation of a phase without martensite transformation


ap
a formation of the a phase with martensite formation

MS start of martensite transformation

Ta temperature for the start of ordering of the phase

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: Suck-joong L. Kang, M. Staei, P. Aeou, Transformation au Refroidissement Continu des Alliages Binaires Cuivre-
Aluminium, Metaux Corrosion-Indurtrie, Vol 64, No. 762, February 1989
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 79

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12.16% Al
Treatment: Solution treated 850C (15620F) for 30 min

Time of cooling from an initial SS@C


LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
LEGEND:

a or -y? start of proeutectoid

P formation of pearlite

TC temperature for the start of ordering

UP precipitation of a phase without martensite transformation

a formation of the Q phase with martensite formation

MS start of martensite transformation

Ta' temperature for the start of ordering of the phase

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: Suck-joong L. Kang, M. Stasi, P. Aeou, Transformation au Refroidissement Continu des Alliages Binaires Cuivre-
Aluminium, Metaux Corrosion-Industrie, Vol 64, No. 762, February 1989
80 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12.78% Al
Treatment: Solution treated 850C (lS6ZF) for 30 min

LIVE GRAPH Time of cooling from an initial 850C


Click here to view

LEGEND:

a or Y? start of proeutectoid

P formation of pearlite

TC temperature for the start of ordering

nP precipitation of a phase without martensite transformation

a formation of the a phase with martensite formation

MS start of martensite transformation

Ta' temperature for the start of ordering of the phase

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: Suck-joong L. Kang, M. Stasi, P. Arou, Transformation au Refroidissement Continu des Alliages Binaires Cuivre-
Aluminium, Metaux Corrosion-Industrie, Vol 64, No. 762, February 1989
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 81

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 1881% Al
Treatment: Solution treated 850C (1562OF) for 80 min

Time of cooling from an initial 850C

LEGEND:

a or y? start of proeutectoid

P formation of pearlite

T. temperature for the start of ordering

aP precipitation of a phase without martensite transformation

a formation of the o phase with martensite formation

MS start of martensite transformation

TU temperature for the start of ordering of the phase

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: Suck-joong L. Kang, M. Stasi, P. Asou, Transformation au Refroidissement Continu des Alliages Binaires Cuivre-
Aluminium, Metaux Corrosion-Industrie, Vol 64, No. 762, February 1989
82 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

ASTM B148-954 Alloy


Composition: Cu - 10.50% Al - 4.1% Fe

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: Roque Calderon, Continuous Cooling Transformation of a Commercial Aluminum Bronze, MS Thesis, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem PA, 1975
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 83

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.8% Al
Treatment: Solution treated at 900C (1662F) for 1 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation disgram

SOURCE: P. Brecina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Bronces, International Metals Reviews, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982, pp
77-120
84 Atlas of lime-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Comporition: Cu - 10.6% Al
Treatment: Solution treated at 8SOC (1562F) for 1 h,
simulated cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: P. Breaina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Bronsea, International Metals Reviewr, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982, pp
77-120
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 85

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 10.6% Al - 4.8% Fe
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832OF) for 1 h,
simulated cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: P. Brecina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Bronres, International Metals Reviews, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982, pp
77-120
86 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 10.5% Al - 5% Ni
Treatment: Solution treated at QSOC (1742F) for 1 h,
simulated cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: P. Bresina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Bronsee, International Metals Reviews, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982, pp
77-120
Atlas of Time-Temperature Dlagfams 87

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 10.5% Al - 4.6% Fe - 5.0% Ni
Treatment: Solution treated at 950C (1742F) for 1 h,
simulated cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: P. Brerina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Bronees, International Metals Reviews, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982, pp
77-120
88 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Comporition: Cu - 8.8% Al - 5.4% Fe - 5% Ni - 0.9% Mn
Treatment: Solution treated at 950C (1742F) for 1 h,
simulated cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: P. Brecina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Bronzes, International Metals Reviews, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982, pp
77-120
A t/us of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 89

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 9.9% AI - 5.8% Fe - 6.1% Ni - 0.9% Mn
Treatment: Solution treated at QSOC (1742F) for 1 h,
simulated cooling

SOURCE: P. Brecina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Bronces, International Metals Review, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982, pp
77-120
90 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diugrums

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.6% Al - 5.3% Fe - 5.1% Ni - 0.9% Mn
Treatment: Solution treated at QSOC (1742OF) for 1 h,
simulated cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: P. Brecina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Broncee, International Metals Reviews, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982, pp
77-120
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 91

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12.5% Al - 4.9% Fe - 5.1% Ni
Treatment: Solution treated at 9SOC (1742F) for 1 h,
simulated cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: P. Bresina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Bronzes, International Metals Reviews, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982, pp
77- 120
92 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 8% Al - 6% Mn - 3% Fe - 2% Ni
Treatment: Solution treated at 950C (1742OF) for 1 h,
simulated cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: P. Bresina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Bronses, International Metals Reviews, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982, pp
77-120
Atlas of Time-Temperuture Diagrams 93

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12% Mn - 8% Al - 8% Fe - 2% Ni
Treatment: Solution treated at 95OC (1742F) for 1 h,
simulated cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: P. Bresina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Bronres, International Metals Reviews, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982, pp
77-120
94 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 8% Al - 1% Be - 0.6% Co
Treatment: Solution treated at 950C (1742F) for 1 h,
simulated cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: P. Bresina, Heat Treatment of Complex Aluminium Bronces, International Metals Reviews, Vol 27, No. 2, 1982, pp
77-120
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 95

Copper-Aluminum Alloys

Composition: Cu - 11.54% Al - 0.08% Fe - 0.59% Ag


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (15OOOF) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-aodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 450C
(1022, 932, or 842F)

Composition: Cu - 11.55% Al - 0.08% Fe - 1.08% Ag


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (1500F) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 450C
(1022,932, or 842F)

Composition: Cu - 11.58% Al - 0.08% Fe - 2.63% Ag


Treatment: Solution treated at 815OC (15OOF) in a tube
furnace and rubjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 450cC
(1022, 932, or 842F)

LEGEND:
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Curve 1: 8 start
Curve 2: Q start on grain boundary
Curve 3: Q start within grains
Curve 4: eutectoid start
Curve 5: reaction end
Curve 6: yI start

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Silver bearing eutectoid aluminum bronzes

SOURCE: T.V. Philip, David J. Mack, Effect of Ternary Elements on the Eutectoid Transformation in Aluminum Bronse,
Trans. AWE, Vol 224, February 1962, pp 34-42
96 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys

Composition: Cu - 11.83% Al - 0.06% Fe - 0.025% Cd


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (15OOF) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 450C
(1022, 932, or 842F)

Composition: Cu - 11.68% Ai - 0.05% Fe - 0.43% Cd


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (1500F) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 450C
(1022,932, or 842F)

Composition: Cu - 11.21% Al - 0.05% Fe - 0.64% Cd


Treatment: Solution treated at 815OC (1500OF) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 650, 500, or 450C
(1022,932, or 842OF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
LEGEND:

Curve 1: 8 start
Curve 2: u start on grain boundary
Curve 3: 0 start within grains
Curve 4: eutectoid or pearlite start
Curve 5: eutectoid or pearlite end
Curve 6: a-y2 rhythmic precipitation start
Curve 7: a-~2 rhythmic precipitation end

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Cadmium bearing eutectoid aluminum bronses

SOURCE: T.V. Philip, David J. Mack, Effect of Ternary Elements on the Eutectoid Transformation in Aluminum Bronze,
Trans. AWE, Vol 224, February 1962, pp 34-42
Atlas of Time-Temperature Dlagrams 97

Copper-Aluminum Alloys

Composition: Cu - 11.73% Al - traces Fe - 0.63% In


Treatment: Solution treated at 815OC (15OOF) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 45OC
(1022,932, or 842OF)

Composition: Cu - 11.79% Ai - traces Fe - 0.97% In


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (1500OF) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 45OC
(1022,932, or 842F)

Composition: Cu - 11.84% Ai - traces Fe - 2.44% In


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (15OOF) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 450C
(1022,932, or 842OF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view LEGEND:

Curve 1: 8 start
Curve 2: y2 start
Curve 3: 01 start on grain boundary
Curve 4: Q start within grains
Curve 5: eutectoid or pearlite start
Curve 6: eutectoid or pearlite end

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Indium bearing eutectoid aluminum bron6ee

SOURCE: T.V. Philip, David J. Mack, Effect of Ternary Elements on the Eutectoid Traneformation in Aluminum Bronre,
Trans. AIME, Vol 224, February 1962, pp 34-42
98 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys

Composition: Cu - 11.74% Al - 0.01% Fe - 0.52% Sn


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (1500F) in a tube
furnace and 6ubjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 450C
(1022,932, or 842OF)

Composition: Cu - 11.84% Al - 0.01% Fe - 1.18% Sn


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (15OOOF) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 4SOC
(1022, 932, or 842OF)

Composition: Cu - 11.56% Al - 0.01% Fe - 2.53% Sn


Treatment: Solution treated at 815OC (15OOOF) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 450C
(1022,932, or 842OF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
LEG END:
Curve 1: 8 start
Curve 2: yz start
Curve 3: Q start on grain boundary
Curve 4: (Y start within grains
Curve 5: pearlite or eutectoid start
Curve 6: reaction end
Curve 7: y, end

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Tin bearing eutectoid aluminum bron::er

SOURCE: T.V. Philip, David J. Mack, Effect of Ternary Elements on the Eutectoid Traneformation in Aluminum Bronx,
Tranr. AIME, Vol 224, February 1962, pp 34-42
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 99

Copper-Aluminum Alloys

Composition: Cu - 12.08% Al - 0.05% Fe - 0.1% Sb


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (1500F) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 450C
(1022, 932, or 842F)

Composition: Cu - 11.95% Al - 0.05% Fe - 0.45% Sb


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (1500F) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 500, or 450C
(1022,932, or 842OF)

Composition: Cu - 11.95% Al - 0.05% Fe - 0.73% Sb


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (1500F) in a tube
furnace and rubjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-sodium nitrite salt bath at 650, 500, or 45OC
(1022, 932, or 842F)

LEGEND:
Curve 1: 8 start
Curve 2: (Y start on grain boundary
LIVE GRAPH Curve 3: (Y start within grains
Click here to view Curve 4: y2 start
Curve 5: pearlite start
Curve 6: reaction end

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Antimony bearing eutectoid aluminum bronres

SOURCE: T.V. Philip, David J. Mack, Effect of Ternary Elements on the Eutectoid Transformation in Aluminum Bronze,*
Trans. AWE, Vol 224, February 1962, pp 34-42
100 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys

Comporition: Cu - 11.75% Al - trace8 Fe - 0.48% Be


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (16OOOF) in a tube
furnace and subjected to isothermal transformation in a
potaanium nitrate-radium nitrite ealt bath at 550, 500, or 450C
(1022, QS2, or 842OF)

Compoeition: Cu - 11.71% Al - traces Fe - 0.88% Be


Treatment: Solution treated at 816C (1500F) in a tube
furnace and Bubjected to isothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-rodium nitrite salt bath at 660, 500, or 450C
(1022,932, or 842OF)

Composition: Cu - 11.42% Al - trace8 Fe - 2.14% Be


Treatment: Solution treated at 816OC (15OOF) in a tube
furnace and rubjected to irothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-rodium nitrite salt bath at 550, 600, or 450C
(1022,932, or 842OF)

LEGEND:
Curve 1: yz start
Curve 2: yz end
Curve 3: (Y start
Curve 4: eutectoid start
Curve 5: reaction end

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Beryllium bearing eutectoid aluminum bronrea

SOURCE: T.V. Philip, David J. Mack, Effect of Ternary Elements on the Eutectoid Transformation in Aluminum Bronre,
Tranr. AIME, Vol 224, February 1962, pp 54-42
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 101

Copper-Aluminum Alloys

Composition: Cu - 11.05% Al - trace6 Fe - 0.59% Zn


Treatment: Solution treated at 815C (16OOF) in a tube
furnace and 6ubjected to irothermal transformation in a
potassium nitrate-rodium nitrite 6alt bath at 560, 500, or 460C
(1022, 932, or 842OF)

Comporition: Cu - 11.68% Al - trace6 Fe - 1.05% Zn


Treatment: Solution treated at 815OC (15OOOF) in a tube
furnace and rubjected to i6othermal tran6formation in a
pota66ium nitrate-radium nitrite ralt bath at 560, 500, or 450C
(1022, QS2, or 842OF)

Composition: Cu - 11.44% Al - trace6 Fe - 2.42% Zn


Treatment: Solution treated at 816C (15OOF) in a tube
furnace and rubjected to inothermal tranlrformation in a
pota66ium nitrate-radium nitrite 6alt bath at 650, 500, or 450C
(1022,932, or 842OF)

LEGEND:
Curve 1: 8 start
Curve 2: cy start on grain boundary
Curve 3: Q start withln grains
Curve 4: y2 start
Curve 5: pearlite start
LIVE GRAPH Curve 6: reaction end
Click here to view
Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram
Zinc bearing eutectoid aluminum bron6ee

SOURCE: T.V. Philip, David J. Mack, Effect of Ternary Elements on the Eutectoid Traneformation in Aluminum Bronre,
Tranr. AWE, Vol 224, February 1962, pp 34-42
102 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.40% Al - 0.01% Fe
Treatment: Annealed at 890 to QIOC (16S4 to 165ZF), and
held within 2o, for 1 h in air before immersion in a molten bath
containing about 100 lb of pure lead which was held within 2
of the desired transformation temperature, water quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Composition: Cu - 10.57% Al - 0.02% Fe - 1.02% Ni - trace Si


Treatment: Annealed at 890 to QOOOC (16S4 to 16520F), and
held within 2O, for 1 h in air before immersion in a molten bath
containing about 100 lb of pure lead which was held within 2O
of the desired transformation temperature, water quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: R. Haynes, Isothermal Transformations of Hypo-Eutectoid Aluminium Rroncee, Journal of the Institute of Metals,
Vol 82, lQSS, pp 495-497
A t/as of T/me-Temperature Dlagrams 103

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 10.54% Al - trace Fe - S.OS% Ni
Treatment: Annealed at QOOto Q50C (1652 to 1742oF), and
held within 2O, for 1 h in air before immersion in a molten bath
containing about 100 lb of pure lead which was held within 2O
of the desired transformation temperature, water quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diegram

Composition time-temperature-transformation diagram of the


three preceding alloys

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: R. Haynes, Isothermal TraIIBfOrmatiOnB of Hypo-Eutectoid Aluminium &once& Journal of the Institute of Metals,
Vol82, 1953, pp 493-497
104 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12.20% AI - 0.04% Fe - trace Si
Treatment: Annealed at 890 to QOOC (1684 to 16520F), and
held to within 2, for 1 h before isothermal transformation in a
bath of pure molten lead held within 2O of the transformation
temperature

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

LEGEND:

* The symbol on the left has been used to enable a curve to be


drawn in this figure

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: It. Haynes, Isothermal Transformations of Eutectoid Aluminium Bronses, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 85,
1954, pp 106-115
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 105

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Al - 0.87% Ni - trace Fe
Cu - 12.46%
Treatment: Annealed at 890 to SOOOC (1634 to 1052OF), and
held within 2O, for 1 h before isothermal transformation ill a
bath of pure molten lead held within 2O of the transformation
temperature

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

LEGEND:
0 8 A a+Bt&
0 at8 0 8-k 81t YI

* 8tYr 6 ~tBt81tvr
A a teutectid. 0 a+/3tB,teutectoid
0 Y1-t" n 0 at&
6 a+y,+eut-xtdd w at&+eutcctoid
* at8t .. I. 0 &+r
T B+Y,+ l. m at&t8
+ atBty,tnrtaroid 0 at8,+8'tco~~~

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: R. Haynea, Isothermal Traneformationa of Eutectoid Aluminium Bronces, Journal of the Institute of Metalr, Vol 82,
1954, pp 105-115
106 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12.07% Al - S.O8% Ni - trace Fe
Treatment: Annealed at 890 to 900C (1652F), and held
within 20, for 1 h before isothermal tranclformation in a bath of
pure molten lead held within 2 of the transformation
temperature

LEGEND:

0 8 A =+8+8,
0 a+8 0 8+ 8, +v,
* B+Y, 0 =+B+&+vr
A or+eurectoid. 0 a+/3+,9,+eutectoid

0 Yr + 11 n 0 a+&
+ a + y, + eutectoid 0 a + 8, + eutectoid

* a+B+ ,. m 0 l%+c
LIVE GRAPH v B+rr+ n I. l a+&+F
Click here to view
+ a+ 8 + y, + eutecr01d. Q a+8,+B+dectold

v 8+-B,

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: R. Haynea, Isothermal Transformations of Eutectoid Aluminium Bronees, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 83,
1954, pp 105-11s
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 107

Aluminum-Bronze Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12.31% Al - 3.68% Fe - 0.28% Ni - 0.03%
Mn
Treatment: Soaked at 800C (1472OF) for 20 min in air and
quenched in the isothermal salt bath, and water quenched

0.090 mm grain sise


LIVE GRAPH -- - 0.010 mm grain nice
Click here to view - - - -- uncertain portions

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: A.H. Kasberg, Jr., D.J. Mack, Isothermal Transformation and Properties of a Commercial Aluminum Bronze, Trans.
AIME, October 1961, pp 903408

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.9% Al
Treatment: Specimens heated at 8OOC (1472F) for 46 min
and quenched into a lead bath maintained at a selected
temperature within the range SSO-4QOC (1022-914F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Binary eutectoid alloy

SOURCE: G.V.T. Ranaetta, D.R.F. West, Kinetics of the Beta to (alpha + gamma2) Transformation in Certain Binary and
Ternary Ahuninium Bronses, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 92, 1963, pp 12-17
108 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys

Composition: Cu - 11.7% Al - 0.50% Mn


Treatment: Specimens heated at 800C (1472F) for 45 min
and quenched into a lead bath maintained at a selected
temperature within the range SSO-4QOC (1022-914OF)

Composition: Cu - 11.6% Al - 0.96% Mn


Treatment: Specimens heated at 800C (1472OF) for 45 min
and quenched into a lead bath maintained at a selected
temperature within the range SSO-49OC (1022-914F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Manganese-containing alloys

SOURCE: G.V.T. Ransetta, D.R.F. Welt, Kinetics of the Beta to (alpha + gamma2) Transformation in Certain Binary and
Ternary Aluminium Broncer, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 92, 1963, pp 12-17
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 109

Copper-Aluminum Alloys

Comporition: Cu - 11.7% Al - 0.62% Co


Treatment: Specimena heated at 600C (1472F) for 45 min
and quenched into a lead bath maintained at a selected
temperature within the range SSO-490C (1022-914F)

Comporition: Cu - 11.8% AI - 1.1% Co


Treatment: Specimen8 heated at 8OOC (1472F) for 45 min
and quenched into a lead bath maintained at a selected
temperature within the range SSO-49OC (1022-914F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Cobalt-containing alloya

SOURCE: G.V.T. Rancetta, D.R.F. Went, Kinetics of the Beta to (alpha + gamma2) Transformation in Certain Binary and
Ternary Aluminium Bronser, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol92, 1963, pp 12-17
110 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys

Compoeition: Cu - 11.7% Al - 0.41% Fe


Treatment: Specimens heated at 800C (1472F) for 45 min
and quenched into a lead bath maintained at a selected
temperature within the range 550-496C (1022-914+[o]F)

Composition: Cu - 11.6% AI - 0.93% Fe


Treatment: Specimens heated at 800C (1472F) for 45 min
and quenched into a lead bath maintained at a selected
temperature within the range MO-490C (1022-914+[o]F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Iron-containing alloys

SOURCE: G.V.T. Ransetta, D.R.F. West, Kinetics of the Beta to (Alpha + Gamma21 Transformation in Certain Binary and
Ternary Ahuninium Bronsea, Journal of the Institute of Metalr, Vol 92, 1963, pp 12-17
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 111

Copper-Aluminum-Zinc Alloys
Composition: Cu - 10.6% Al - 3.0% Zn
Treatment: Solution treated at 800C (1472OF) for 30 min in
air, tranrferred to a bath of molten salt at 6elected
temperature6 below 566OC (1051F). After irothermal

specimen6 were water-quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-trangformation diagram

SOURCE: A.J. Fletcher, D. Lloyd Thomas, Solid-State Transformations in Certain Copper-Aluminium-Zinc Alloyr, Journal of
the Institute of Metals, Vol98, 1970, pp 188-192
112 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum-Zinc Alloys
Comporition: Cu - 11.0% Al - 3.1% Zn
Treatment: Solution treated at 800C (1472OF) for 30 min in
air, trangferred to a bath of molten gall at 6elected
temperatures below 566C (1051F). After i6othermal
transformation in the ralt bath for predetermined times, the
6pecimen6 were water-quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: A.J. Fletcher, D. Lloyd Thomas, Solid-State Tran6fOmatiOn6 in Certain Copper-Aluminium-Zinc Alloyr, Journal of
the Inrtitute of Metalr, Vol98, 1970, pp 188-192
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 113

Copper-Aluminum-Zinc Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.6% Al - 9.1% Zn
Treatment: Solution treated at 8OOC (1472F) for 30 min in
air, transferred to a bath of molten salt at selected

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: A.J. Fletcher, D. Lloyd Thomas, Solid-State Transformations in Certain Copper-Aluminium-Zinc Alloye, Journal of
the Institute of Metalr, Vol 98, 1970, pp 188-192
114 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 10.5% Al
Treatment: Martenrite formed by water quenching from 950C
(1742OF). Specimens were then tempered in a lead bath and
aged at variour time6 and temperature6

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-tempering diagram

SOURCE: R.G. Cope, The Tempering of Martensite in Copper-Aluminium Alloys, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 87,
1958, pp 330-336
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 115

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 113% Al
Treatment: Martensite formed by water quenching from 950C
(1742OF). Specimens were then tempered in a lead bath and
aged at various times and temperatures

LEGEND:
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-tempering diagram

SOURCE: R.G. Cope, The Tempering of Martensite in Copper-Aluminium Alloys, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 87,
1958, pp 330-336
116 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 11.8% Al
Treatment: Martensite formed by water quenching from Q50C
(1742F). Specimens were then tempered in a lead bath and
aged at various timer and temperatures

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-tempering diagram

SOURCE: R.G. Cope, The Tempering of Martensite in Copper-Aluminium Alloys, Journal of the Institute of Metalr, Vol 87,
1968, pp 8SO-836
A t/as of T/me-Temperature Dlagrams 117

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12.0% Al
Treatment: Martensite formed by water quenching from 950C
(1742F). Specimens were then tempered in a lead bath and
aged at various times and temperatures

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-tempering diagram

SOURCE: R.G. Cope, The Tempering of Martensite in Copper-Aluminium Alloys, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 87,
1958, pp 330-336
118 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 12.4% Al
Treatment: Martensite formed by water quenching from QSQC
(1742F). Specimenr were then tempered in a lead bath and
aged at various times and temperatures

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-tempering diagram

SOURCE: R.G. Cope, The Tempering of Martensite in Copper-Aluminium Alloys, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 87,
1958, pp 320-236
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 119

Copper-Aluminum-Nickel Alloy
Composition: Cu - 12.8% Al - 7.7% Ni
Treatment: Solution treated at 950 0C (1742 0F) and quenched
drastically into a 10% solution of caustic soda to prevent the
decomposition of the body-centered cubic beta phase during
cooling. Samples were reheated in a nitrite/nitrate salt bath
maintained at constant temperature to within 20

Completely transformed
c Approx. 25% transformed
0 Approx. 75% transformed
400
0 Untransformed
U
0
w
0

'"
:J
I-
0 0

0
'"
w leo
0..
:r:
0

w
I- 0 0 0

0 0
0 0

LIVE GRAPH 200


Click here to view 0 0

0 2 3
LOG TIME (SECONDS)

Time-temperature-aging diagram
Effect of tempering quenched beta-phase alloy and then recooling to room temperature to induce transformation in gamma-prime
martensite

SOURCE: D. Hull, R.D. Garwood, "The Martensite Transformations of the Beta Phase in Copper-Aluminium-Nickel Alloys,"
Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 86, 1957, pp 485-492

Beryllium-Bronze Alloy
Composition: Cu - 5.965% Be - trace Fe
Treatment: Solution treated at 7880C (1450 0F), in a vertical
tube furnace, quenched into an adjacent molten salt bath and
held for a definite time, quenched into water at room
temperature
Eutectoid Transformation Temperature

600!-'----,.-----=!:;::;:-.
o
o 550 1 - - - -~,q_-____,,d
~.
e 500I-B_e_t_a--'i'_+--'l.:

~
~ 4501----~+::.
1:1
o
~ 4001----+----==;~;:_--+-?"".:::....--+-----==-.....

E
~ 3501------+

~
...... 300!-'-----f--- - - - j - - .. -
(4% F.P.)
~. ~ ~
..c: til til til til
o '0 '0'0'0
...... N C') &t.I

10 10 5 10 6
Time, s
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: R.H. Fillnow, D.J. Mack, "The Isothermal Transformation of a Eutectoid Beryllium Bronze," Trans. AIME, Vol 188,
October 1950, pp 1229-1286
120 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Beryllium Alloys

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view
At 10% transformation

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
The effect of grain rise on the TTT curve at 2 and 10%
transformation

SOURCE: A.R. Entwisle, J.K. Wynn, Precipitation in Commercial Copper-Beryllium Alloys, Journal of the Institute of Metals,
Vol 89, 1960, pp 24-29
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 121

Copper-Beryllium Alloys

Composition: Cu - 1.5% Be
Treatment: Solution treated at 800C (1472OF) for 20
min under argon and quenched in iced water, then aged
from 200-500C (392-932F) for 10 to lo6 s. An oil bath
was used for aging at 200 and 250C (392 and 4820F),
and salt mixtures of NaNO2 and NaNO3 for aging over
the temperature region from 300 to 500C (572 to 932oF)

Composition: Cu - 2% Be
Treatment: Solution treated at 800C (1472F) for 20
min under argon and quenched in iced water, then aged
from ZOO-500C (392-932F) for 10 to 10 8. An oil bath
was used for aging at 200 and 25OC (392 and 482oF),
and salt mixtures of NaNO2 and NaNO3 for aging over
the temperature region from 300 to SOOC (572 to 932oF)

Composition: Cu - 1.8% Be - 0.2% Co


Treatment: Solution treated at 800C (1472F) for 20
min under argon and quenched in iced water, then aged
from ZOO-500C (392-932OF) for 10 to lo6 II. An oil bath
was used for aging at 200 and 25OC (392 and 48zF),
and salt mixtures of NaNO2 and NaNO3 for aging over
the temperature region from 300 to 500C (572 to 932oF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Undeformed specimens
Curve I = relationships between aging time and
temperature to start hardening
Curve II = and to attain peak hardness

SOURCE: M. Jovanovic, B. Djuric, D. Drobnjak, 0. Ncaic, R. Kostic, Aging of Cu-Be Alloys with and without Cobalt
Addition, Materials Science and Technology, Vol 2, February 1986, pp 122-128
122 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Beryllium Alloys

Composition: Cu - 1.5% Be
Treatment: Solution treated at 8OOC (1472F) for 20
min under argon and quenched in iced water, then aged
from 200-SOOC (392-932F) for 10 to lo6 s. An oil bath
was used for aging at 200 and 25OC (392 and 482F),
and salt mixtures of NaN02 and NaNO3 for aging over
the temperature region from 300 to 500C (572 to 932oF)

Composition: Cu - 2% Be
Treatment: Solution treated at 800C (1472OF) for 20
min under argon and quenched in iced water, then aged
from ZOO-500C (392-932OF) for 10 to 10s. An oil bath
was used for aging at 200 and 25OC (392 and 48zF),
and salt mixtures of NaNO2 and NaNO3 for aging over
the temperature region from 300 to 500C (572 to 932oF)

Composition: Cu - 1.8% Be - 0.2% Co


Treatment: Solution treated at 800C (1472F) for 20
min under argon and quenched in iced water, then aged
from 200-500C (392-932OF) for 10 to lo6 s. An oil bath
was used for aging at 200 and 2SOC (392 and 48zF),
and salt mixtures of NaNO2 and NaNO3 for aging over
the temperature region from 300 to 500C (572 to Q3ZcF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Deformed specimens
Curve1 = relationships between aging time and
temperature to start hardening
Curve II = and to attain peak hardness

SOURCE: M. Jovanovic, B. Djuric, D. Drobnjak, 0. Nesic, R. Kostic, Aging of Cu-Be Alloys with and without Cobalt
Addition, Materials Science and Technology, Vol 2, February 1986, pp 122-128
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 123

Copper-Beryllfum Alloys
Composition: Cu - 6.39% Be

\
660,
\
\
0
0
600 ,
\
\
:f \ \
:l
\ \
~ 460 f3 -,
~
\
~
~
<,
<,
Eo<
400 -.. ........

360 Broken line shows results


of Fillnow & Mack t 280 VPN
Start of reaction level

1 10 102 103
Time,s
LIVE GRAPH
Time-temperature-aging bascd on hardness Click here to view
SOURCE: E.R. Petty, H. O'Neill, "Hardness and Structural Transformations in Eutectoid Copper-Aluminium and Copper-
Beryllium Alloys," Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 89, 1960, pp 281-286

Copper-Gallium Alloy
Composition: Cu - 23.1 at.% Ga
Treatment: Specimens were held at 1'/6 0C (1428 0F) for 1 h in
an air furnace, then transferred to a salt bath for isothermal
transformation for the desired length of timc, then quenched in
water at room temperature or in iced brine
650 r---,r----,r----,r---.,.-~-_r_--r_,

EUTECTOID TEMPERATURE 618 11C

600

u
o
ui 550
'"
:>
!(
w
...I:
, \
\

...w 500
, ,,
3 \ 4
\
\
"75C

0
10- 1 10 10 I 10 2 10 3 10" 105 10 6 10 7
LIVE GRAPH TIME. SECONDS
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: C.W. Spencer, D.J. Mack, "Decomposition of the Beta Phase in a Copper-Gallium Eutectoid Alloy," Journal of the
Institute of Metals, Vol 84, 1956, pp 461-461
124 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Indium Alloys
Composition: Cu - 31.36% In
Treatment: Specimens held in an isothermal salt bath of SO:60
potassium nitrate and sodium nitrite for a predetermined
period, then quenched into water at 21C. All specimens were
held at SSOC (1202OF) for 2 h before undergoing further heat-
treatment, i.e. quenching, isothermal transformation, or
continuous cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: C.W. Spencer, D.J. Mack, The Copper-Indium Eutectoid at 31.36 wt.% Indium, Jounal of the Institute of Metals,
Vol 82, 1953, pp 81-87
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 125

Copper-Indium Alloys
Composition: Cu - 32.3% In
Treatment: Homogeniaed at 626C (1168OF) for 24 h, then
solution annealed at SSOC (1202OF) for 2 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: J.A. Street, H.I. Aaroneon, C.W. Spencer, Formation and Dissolution of Widmanatatten Structures in a
Hypereutectoid Copper-Indium Alloy, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 88, 1959, pp 381-384
126 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Antimony Alloy
Comporition: Cu - 30.5% Sb
Treatment: Isothermal tranrformation studies were carried out
in fured-ralt media, using the familiar interrupted-quench
method. Uniformity of temperature in the salt baths wee
maintained by continuous stirring with a rtainlees-steel agitator

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagrnm

Copper-Silicon Alloy
Composition: Cu - 835% Si
Treatment: Isothermal transformation studies were carried out
in fused-salt media, using the familiar interrupted-quench
method. Uniformity of temperature in the salt baths WYBS
maintained by continuous stirring with a stainless-steel agitator

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: RD. Reiswig, D.J. Mack, A Study of the Peritectoid Transformation, Trans. AIME, Vol 215, April 1959, pp 301-307
Atlas of lime-Temperature Dlagrams 127

Copper-Tin Alloys
Composition: Cu - 92.3% Sn
Treatment: Isothermal transformation studies were carried out
in fused-salt media, using the familiar interrupted-quench
method. Uniformity of temperature in the salt bathe was
maintained by continuous stirring with a stainless-steel agitator

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: R.D. Reiewig, D.J. Ma&, A Study of the Peritectoid Transformation, Trans. AIME, Vol 216, April 1959, pp 301-307

Time-temperature-translormation diagram

SOURCE: M. de Bondt, A. Deruyttere, Pearlite and Bninite Formation in a Cu-16.5 at.% Sn Alloy, Acta Metallurgica, Vol 15,
June 1967, pp QQS-1006
128 Atlas of l/me-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Tin Alloys
Composition: Cu - 16.6 at.% Sn

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: M. de Bondt, A. Deruyttere, Pearlite and Bainite Formation in a (31-16.5 at.% Sn Alloy, Acta Metallurgica, Vol 16,
June 1967, pp QQS-1006

Composition: Cu - 25.6% Sn - 0.02% Pb - 0.01% Fe - 0.01% Ni


- 0.02% Zn - <O.Ol% P
Treatment: Isothermal heat treatment8 were carried out using a
betatiring temperature of 7OOC (1292F) and molten metal
bathe with temperatures between 146 and SSOC (296 and
1022OF). Specimen6 were finally quenched into iced brine

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-traneformation diagram
Statirtically derived diagram for the decomposition of the beta
phase

SOURCE: M.B. Cortie, C.E. Mavrocordator, The Decomposition of the Beta Phaee in the Copper-Tin System, Met. Tranr. A.,
Volume 22A, January 1991, pp 11-18
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 129

Copper-Zinc Alloys

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: P.E.J. Flewitt, J.M. Towner, The Decomposition of Beta Prime in Copper-Zinc Alloys, Journal of the Institute of
Metals, Vol 95, 1967, pp 273-280
130 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Dlagrams

Copper-Zinc Alloys

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: P.E.J. Flewitt, J.M. Towner, The Decomposition of Beta Prime in Copper-Zinc Alloys, Journal of the Institute of
Metals, Vol95, 1967, pp 273-280
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 131

Copper-Zinc Alloys

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: P.E.J. Flewitt, J.M. Towner, The Decomposition of Beta Prime in Copper-Zinc Alloys, Journal of the Institute of
Metals, Vol 95, lQ67, pp 273-280
132 Atlas of Time-Temperature Dlagrams

Copper-Zinc Alloys

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: P.E.J. Flewitt, J.M. Towner, The Decomposition of Beta Prime in Copper-Zinc Alloys, Journal of the Institute of
Metals, Vol 95, 1967, pp 273-280
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 133

Copper-Zinc Alloys

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-aging


Click here to view

SOURCE: P. Doig, P.E.J. Flewitt, Solute Redistributions Associated with Nucleation and Growth of A!phal Plates in Cu-Zn
and Au-Cu-Zn Alloys, Metal Science, Vol 17, December 1983, pp 601-608

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Beta phase transformation

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: Erhard Hombogen, Legierungen mit Formgedachtnis, (Shape Memory Alloys), Praktische Metallographie, Vol 26,
1989, pp 279-294
A t/as of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Copper-Gold-Zinc Alloys
Composition: Cu - 39.9% Zn - 4.2% Au
Treatment: Solution treated at 800C (1472OF) for 2 min in an
argon atmorphere furnace and quenched into iced brine.
Subsequent isothermal heat treatment8 were carried out in
nitrite-nitrate ealt baths controlled to within l.S

TIME: s
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-aging

Composition: Cu - 40.1% Zn - 9.3% Au


Treatment: Solution treated at 8OOC (1472F) for 2 min in an
argon atmosphere furnace and quenched into iced brine.
Subsequent isothermal heat treatments were carried out in
nitrite-nitrate ralt baths controlled to within l.S

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-aging


Click here to view

SOURCE: P. Doig, P.E.J. Flewitt, Solute Redistribution8 Associated with Nucleation and Growth of Alpha1 Plates in Cu-Zn
and Au-Cu-Zn Alloyr, Metal Science, Vol 17, December 1983, pp 601-608
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Dlagrams 135

Copper-Zinc-Aluminum Alloys
Alloy A Compoeition: Cu - 27.4% Zn - 3.72% AI
Alloy B Compoeition: Cu - 28.2% Zn - S.l4% AI
Treatment: Specimen6 were directly quenched into water within
So at 20C (&F) after eolution treatment, then immediately
up-quenched into an oil bath at 100C (212F) for 10 min and
quenched again in water within So at 20C (68OF). Isothermally
aged at relected temperatures in the range of 160 to SOO*C (SO2
to llltF) for various periods of aging

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Start of transformation of beta to alpha or alpha1

SOURCE: S.S. Leu, C.T. Iiu, The Aging Effect on Cu-Zn-Al Shape Memory Alloys with Low Contents of Aluminum, Met.
Trans. A, Vol 22A, January 1991, pp 26-33
Gold-Base Alloys
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 139

Au-Co Alloy

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Curves show the degree of precipitation at 6%, 50% and 95%

Zeta = fraction of solute precipitate

SOURCE: F. Schlawne, H. Alexander, A Study of the Precipitation Kinetics of a Gold-Cobalt-Alloy, Z. Metallkd., Vol 72,
No. 2, February 1981, pp 105-108
Magnesium-Base Alloys
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 143

Magnesium-Manganese Alloy
Composition: Mg - 1.58% Mn
Treatment: Samples were aged at temperatures between 390
and 530C (734 and 986F) in a salt bath furnace and
subsequently water quenched. The bath temperature was
controlled within 2

C-l
o 500
UJ
a: .
=
t-
oe!
a:
UJ
Q..
::::E
~ 400

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
10' : 10 2 i 10 3 10 4
, min 10min GOmin
ANNEALING TIME, S

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
The precipitation of Mn is a rapid transformation, starting after only 7 s and being complete after 10 min aging at 500C (932F)

SOURCE: P.M. Skjerpe, C.J. Simensen, "Precipitation in Mg-Mn Alloys," Metal Science, Vol 17, August 1983, pp 403-407

Magnesium-Thorium Alloy
Composition: Mg - 3.1% Th
Treatment: Solution treatment consisted of heating the alloy at
575C (1065 0F) for 1 h and quenching into water at 20C
(68F)

r-
12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _fl_sll.1v.us_1W"1l_ - - 550

0,,- p

16

r
0 0

.....--0--------- --0 0_ _ _ _

0_
[,00

300
u
o
~

\..0 fl"
l&J
II:
:::I
I-
O' _____0 <t
~II- 20 a:
l&J

~
Q.
200 ~
0 __ I-
2[,

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view 10 101 10J
TiME FOR ~OI. PRECIPIT~TION, MIN

Time-temperature-precipitation on aging
Precipitation of beta double prime Mg3Th and beta Mg23Th6

SOURCE: B. Noble, A. Crook,"A Kinetic and Electron-Microscope Study of Precipitation in Magnesium-Thorium Alloys,"
Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 98, 1970, pp 375-380
144 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Magnesium-Zinc Alloys

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: W.J. Kitchingman, I.M. Vesey, The Mechanism and Kinetics of Transformation of the Eutectoidal Decomposition of
MgTZng, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 98, 1970, pp 52-54
Nickel-Base Alloys
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 147

Nickel-lndium Alloys

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

TTT diagram
Showing the time of reaching l%, 50% and 99% of volume transformation as a function of the temperature of aging

SOURCE: S. Budurov, V. Bojinov, Kr. Russew, On the Volume Transformation Kinetics of Cellular Precipitation in f.c.c. Nickel-
Indium Alloys, Crystal Research and Technology, Vol 13, No. 4, 1978, pp 435-440
148 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Nickel-Titanium Alloys
Composition: Ni - 12.2 at.% Ti - <0.02 at.% Al - <lo ppm B -
0.02 wt.% Si - 0.08 wt.% Fe - 0.01-0.02 wt.% C - <O.Ol wt.%
Co - cO.006 wt.% Mn - <O.OOl wt.% Mg - CO.001 wt.% Cu
Treatment: Solution treated at 1204OC (2200F) for 2 h in tank
argon, water quenched, and aged isothermally at 649 to 871C
(1200 to 1600F) for timer up to 1000 h

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram

Electron and optical micrographs superimposed on TTT diagram


Aging timeo are marked on each ret of micrographs

SOURCE: JR. Mihaliein, R.F. Decker, Phaee Transformationa in Nickel-Rich Nickel-Titanium-Aluminum Alloys, Trans.
AIME, Vol 218, June 1960, pp 607-516
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 149

Nickel-Titanium Alloys
Compoeition: Ni - 12.2 at.% Ti - <0.02 at.% Al - <lo ppm B -
0.02 wt.% Si - 0.03 wt.% Fe - 0.01-0.02 wt.% C - CO.01 wt.%
Co - <O.OOS wt.% Mn - ~0.001 wt.% Mg - <O.OOl wt.% Cu
Treatment: Solution treated at 1201C (22OOOF) for 2 h in tank
argon, water quenched, and aged isothermally at 649 to 871C
(1200 to 1600F) for times up to 1000 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram

Aluminum and boron additionm and cold work had the effect of changing the rater of the transformations, but not the
tranrformationr themeelver

SOURCE: J.R. Mihalhin, R.F. Decker, Phase Transformations in Nickel-Rich Nickel-Titanium-Aluminum Alloys, Tranr.
AlME, Vol 218, June 1960, pp 507-516
150 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Nickel-Titanium Alloys
Composition: Ni - 48 at.% Ti
Treatment: Specimens were annealed at 1000 0C (1832F) for 1
. h in evacuated quartz capsules, quenched into ice water without
breaking the capsules, and aged under several conditions

o TINI +Tl1,NI,4
ATINI+ThNh
TiNI +TINh_

u o
r

LIVE GRAPH 100 10000


Click here to view Time (hrs )
Time-temperature-aging diagram

SOURCE: M. Nishida, C.M. Wayman, T. Honma, "Precipitation Processes in Near-Equiatomic TiNi Shape Memory Alloys," Met.
Trans. A, Vol 17A, September 1986, pp 1505-1515

Nickel-Tungsten Alloys
Composition: Ni - 45% W
Composition: Ni - 45% W - 10% Co
Treatment: Annealed and cold worked
2000 r - - - - : - -__~__-_:__----~~___r__r__----r---r-.....,.......,.....,
! !
I !I !
!
LL.

Ii
I
1- BOO

I
I !
i
I I I
1.0 10
LIVE GRAPH TIME, hours
Click here to view TTT diagram
Initiation of precipitation upon. aging

SOURCE: F.F. Schmidt, D.N. Williams, H.R. Ogden, "Effects of Cobalt on Nickel-Tungsten Alloys," Cobalt, No. 45,
Development Association, Slough UK, 1969, pp 171-176
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 151

Nickel-Aluminum-Molybdenum Alloys
Composition: Ni - 6.8% Al - 14.4% MO - 6.1% W - 0.04% C
TTreatment: Materials were prepared from rapidly solidified
powders. Stainless steel cans were filled with powder, sealed,
outgassed, and extruded at a temperature just below the
gamma prime solvus. Slices 1 to 2 mm thick were cut from the
as-extruded bars and sealed in quarts in vacuum. Specimens
were cycled twice above and then below the gamma prime
solvus before being exposed at 3092C (1700OF) for 500 h and
air cooled

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Needle-like phase from a rapidly solidified Ni-AI-MO alloy

SOURCE: K.A. Williams, D.B. Miracle, H.A. Lipsitt, Partitioning and Precipitation of TCP Phases in Rapidly Solidified Alloys,
Rapid Solidification Processing. Principles and Technologies, II, R. Mehrabian, B.H. Kear, M. Cohen, Eds., Claitors Publications
Division, Baton Rouge, 1980, pp 129-134
152 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

IN-100
Composition: Ni - 0.17% C - 10.30% Cr - 14.30% Co - 2.89%
MO - 4.73% Ti - 6.79% Al - 0.016% B - 0.076% Zr - 0.93% V
Treatment: Solution treated aa cent, aged at 780 to 1204OC
(1400 to 22OOO) for varying timer

Minor phase concentration an a function of aging temperature

SOURCE: H.E. Collinr, R.J. Quigg, Carbide and Intermetallic Instability in Advanced Nickel-Base Superalloys, Trans. ASM,
Vol61, 1968, pp 139-148
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 153

IN-100
Comporition: Ni - 0.17% C - 10.30% Cr - 15.00% Co - 2.93%
MO - 4.68% Ti - 6.53% Al - 0.016% B - 0.082% Zr - 0.94% V
Treatment: Solution treated M cant, aged in air at 760 to
10QSC (1400 to 2000F) at 38OC (lOOoF) interval6 for 6000 h,
and at l14QC (21OOOF) for 2000 h

Minor phase concentration aa a function of temperature for long exposure times

SOURCE: H.E. Collina, Relative Long-Time Stability of Carbide and Intermetallic Phases in Nickel-Bane Superalloys, Trans.
ASM, Vol62, lQ69, pp 82-104
154 Atlas of l/me-Temperature Diagrams

B-1900

Minor phase concentration as a function of aging temperature

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, R.J. Quigg, Carbide and Intermetallic Instability in Advanced Nickel-Base Superalloys, Trans. ASM,
Vol61, 1968, pp 139-148
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 155

B-1900

Minor phase concentration as a function of temperature for long exposure times

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, Relative Long-Time Stability of Carbide and Intermetallic Phases in Nickel-Base Superalloys, Trans.
ASM, Vol 02, lQ89, pp 82-104
156 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

B-1900

Effect of exposure time and temperature on M6C carbide phase

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, The Effect of Simulated Jet Engine Thermal Conditions on the Microstructure and Mechanical
Propertier of the Nickel-Base Superalloy B-1900, as published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Nonferrous Alloys,
March 1985, Code 421S, p 7
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 157

B-1900

Effect of exposure time and temperature on MC carbide phase

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, The Effect of Simulated Jet Engine Thermal Conditions on the Microstructure and Mechanical
Properties of the Nickel-Base Superalloy B-1900, as published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Nonferrous Alloys,
March 1985, Code 4213, p 7
158 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

B-1900
Composition: Ni - 10% Co - 8% Cr - 6% Mo - 6% Al - 4% Ta -
1% Ti + C + Zr + B
Treatment: Vacuum induction cast, exposed at temperature
indicated 10 to 6000 h in air

Ni1OCo8Cr6Mo6AI4Ta1 TI+C+Zr+B Vacuum


I nduction Cast
Exposed 10 to 5000 hr at Temperature
Indicated in Air
c:
o Medium J---+-------+-------+----f
.
'.;::i
f
c:
B
e
o
u
III Rare I--~--~~::::::::;t:~c;::::~--_I__I
ca
.&:
a.

1400
Exposure Temperature, F
Effect of exposure time and temperature on M23C6 carbide phase

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, "The Effect of Simulated Jet Engine Thermal Conditions on the Microstructure and Mechanical
Properties of the Nickel-Base Superalloy B-1900," as published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Nonferrous Alloys,
March 1986, Code 4213, p 7

Inconel 702
Nominal composition: Ni - 0.08% C - 0.6% Ti - 3.2% Al - 16.6%
Cr - 1.0% max Fe
Treatment: Specimens were heated treated at 2200 0F) for 2 h,
ice brine quenched, aged as noted on diagram, water quenched

""3~' .... TAENGTMENING ~~


CrlC~,Crz.~C6EM8RITT\.ING PMASI:
TilG,N) LITT",a r.nI.CT

AMOUNT
0' PMboSf:

Lh~~------------
............... C"'~'!.C6) _ _
as- 1300S: t400F 16501= lSOOF 19'75F
Sol. 100MlK IOOMRS 4&MRS Z4WRS 8MRS

Precipitation of phases and relative amounts

SOURCE: M. Kaufman, A.E. Paity, "The Phase Structure of Inconel 718 and 702 Alloys," Trans. AIME, Vol 221, December 1961,
pp 1268-1262
Atlas of Tlme-Temperuture Diagrams 159

Udimet-700

Minor phase concentration as a function of aging temperature

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, R.J. Quigg, Carbide and Intermetallic Instability in Advanced Nickel-Bane Superalloys, Trans. ASM,
Vol61, 1968, pp 139-148
160 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Udimet-700

Minor phase concentration an a function of temperature for long expoclure timer

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, Relative Long-Time Stability of Carbide and Intermetallic Phases in Nickel-Baee Superalloys, Trans.
ASM, Vol 62, 1969, pp 82-104
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 161

Rene80
Nominal composition: Ni - 14% Cr - 9.5% Co - 4% MO - 4% W
- 5% Ti - 3% AI

Precipitation of phases aa a function of temperature

W.H. Chang, Tenrile Embrittlement of Turbine Blade Alloys after High Temperature Exposure, General Electric Company,
MCIC Report 72-10, September 1972, M published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Nonferrous Alloys, September
1986, Code 4214, p 6
162 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Reoe41

Minor phase concentration aa a function of aging temperature

SOURCE: H.E. Collinr, R.J. Quigg, Carbide and Intermetallic Inrtability in Advanced Nickel-Base Superalloys, Trans. ASM,
Vol61, lQ88, pp 139-148
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 163

Rene 41

Time-temperature precipitation of phaees


Isothermal phase reactions after aging at the times and temperatures indicated

SOURCE: L.A. Weisenberg, R.J. Morris, How to Fabricate Rene 41, Metal Progress, Vol 78, November 1960, pp 70-74
164 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Rene 41

Minor phase concentration aa a function of temperature for long exposure times

SOURCE: IKE. Collins, Relative Long-Time Stability of Carbide and Intermetallic Phaeer in Nickel-Baee Superalloyr, Trans.
ASM, Vol 62, 1969, pp 82-104
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 165

Unitemp AFZ-1D
Composition: Ni - 035% C - 11.92% Cr - 14.05% Co - 4.94%
MO - 4.87% W - X02% Ti - 4.60% Al - 0.013% B - 0.10% Zr -
1.56% Ta
Treatment: Bar rtock specimen8 were solution treated at
1232C (22SOOF) for 2 h, aged at 760 to 1204OC (1400 to
22OOO) at varying timer

Minor phaee concentration aa a function of aging temperature

SOURCE: H.E. Collinr, R.J. Quigg, Carbide and Intermetallic Instability in Advanced Nickel-Base Superalloyr, Trane. ASM,
Vol61, 1968, pp 139-148
166 Atlas of Time-Temperature Dfagrams

Unitemp AFZ-ID
Compoeition: Ni - 033% C - 11.93% Cr - 14.20% Co - 5.05%
MO - 3.04% Ti - 4.60% Al - 4.93% W - 0.014% B - 0.10% Zr -
1.48% Ta
Treatment: Solution treated at 1232OC (225OOF) for 2 h, aged
in air at 760 to 1093OC (1400 to ZOOOOF) at 38OC (lOOoF)
intervala for 5000 h, and at 1149C (21OOOF) for 2000 h

Minor phase concentration au a function of temperature for long exposure times

SOURCE: H.E. Collina, Relative Long-Time Stability of Carbide and Intermetallic Phaeer in Nickel-Bane Superalloys, Trans.
ASM, Vol62, 1969, pp 82-104
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 167

lnco 713c
Comporition: Ni - 0.12% C - 13.25% Cr - 4.28% MO - 0.81% Ti
- 6.40% Al - 0.009% B - 0.05% Zr - 2.66% Nb
Treatment: Solution treated ae ceet, aged in air at 760 to
10QSC (1400 to 2000F) at 38OC (lOOoF) interval8 for 5000 h,
and at l14QC (2100F) for 2000 h

Minor phase concentration as a function of temperature for long exposure timer

MAR-M200
Composition: Ni - 0.14% C - 9.51% Cr - 10.3% Co - 2.06% Ti -
5.05% Al - 12.15% W - 0.010% B - 0.048% Zr - 0.99% Nb
Treatment: Solution treated en cast, aged in air at 760 to
10QSC (1400 to 2000F) at 38C (lOOoF) intervals for 5000 h,
and at l14QC (21OOOF) for 2000 h

Minor phase concentration as a function of temperature for long exposure times

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, Relative Long-Time Stability of Carbide and Intermetallic Pheeer in Nickel-Base Superalloye, Trans.
ASM, Vol62, lQ69, pp 82-104
168 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

MAR-M246
Nominal Composition: Ni - 0.16% C - 9.00% Cr - 10.0% Co -
2..07 hffT!.50% Ti - 6.60% Al - 10.0% W - 0.010% B - 0.06%
- .
Treatment: Solution treated aa cant, aged in air at 760 to
10QSC (1400 to 2OOOF) at 88C (lOOoF) intervals for 6000 h,
and at l14QC (2lOOOF) for 2000 h

Minor phase concentration aa a function of temperature for long exposure times

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, Relative Long-Time Stability of Carbide and Intermetallic Phases in Nickel-Base Superalloys, Trans.
ASM, Vol62, 1969, pp 82-104
Atlas of T/me-Temperuture Diagrams 169

TRW-NASA IVY
Composition: Ni - 0.15% C - 6.86% Cr - 4.82% Co - 2.04% MO -
1.08% Ti - 5.25% AI - 5.36% W - 0.023% B - 0.039% Zr -
8.17% Ta - 0.89% Nb - 2.01% Hf - 0.90% Re
Treatment: Solution treated an cat, aged in air at 780 to
109SC (1400 to 2000F) at 38OC (lOOoF) intervals for 5000 h.
and at 1149OC (21OOOF) for 2000 h

Minor phme concentration an a function of temperature for long exposure time8

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, Relative Long-Time Stability of Carbide and Intermetallic Phaees in Nickel-Base Superalloye, Tram.
ASM, Vol62, 1989, pp 82-104
170 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

TRW-NASA VIA
Composition: Ni - 0.16% C - S.OS% Cr - 7.19% CO - 2.24% MO -
0.98% Ti - 5.26% Al - 5.78% W - 0.018% B - 0.12% Zr - 8.82%
Ta - 0.84% Nb - 0.46% Hf - 0.57% Re
Treatment: Solution treated as cast, aged in air at 760 to
10QJC (1400 to ZOOOF) at SSC (lOOoF) intervals for 5000 h,
and at l14QC (21OOF) for 2000 h

Minor phase concentration as a function of temperature for long exposure times

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, Relative Long-Time Stability of Carbide and Intermetallic Phases in Nickel-Base Superalloys, Trans.
ASM, Vol 62, 1969, pp 82-104
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 171

TRW-NASA VIA
Composition: Ni - 0.13% C - 5.92% Cr - 2.05% MO - 1.01% Ti -
5.27% Al - 7.46% Co - 0.38% Hf - 8.97% Ta - 5.92% W - 0.32%
Re - 0.10% Zr - 0.020% B - 0.47% Nb
Treatment: Directionally solidified specimens were heat treated
at 1232C (2250F) for 4 h and 871C (16OOF) for 65 h, and
aged at 816 to 1038OC (1500 to 1900F) at 28C (SOOF)
intervals for 1000 h in air

Effect of temperature on the carbide minor phases

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, The Effect of Thermal Exposure on the Mechanical Properties of the Directionally Solidified Superalloy
TRW-NASA VIA, Met. Trans. A, Vol6A, March 1975, pp 515-SSO
172 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

TRW-NASA VIA
Composition: Ni - 0.13% C - 5.92% Cr - 2.05% MO - 1.01% Ti -
5.27% Al - 7.46% Co - O.SS% Hf - 8.97% Ta - 5.92% W - 0.32%
I3.e - 0.10% Zr - 0.020% B - 0.47% Nb
Treatment: Directionally solidified specimens were heat treated
at 1232C (22SOF) for 4 h and 871C (16OOOF) for 65 h, and
aged at 816 to 1038C (1500 to 1QOOF) at 28OC (SOOF)
intervals for 1000 h in air

Equiaxed material was evaluated in the 760 to 1093C (1400 to 2000F) temperature range, while the DS material was
evaluated in the 816 to 1038C (1500 to 1900F) temperature range
DS = Directional solidification

Significant variations in the microstructure after thermal exposure

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, The Effect of Thermal Exposure on the Mechanical Properties of the Directionally Solidified Superalloy
TRW-NASA VIA, Met. Trans. A, Vol6A, March 1975, pp 515-530
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 173

Inconel 718
Compoeition: Ni - 0.08% C - 18.86% Cr - 2.99% MO - O.QS% Ti
- 0.5796 Al - 5.25% Nb - 17.48% Fe
Treatment: Solution treated at 982OC (18OOOF) for 1 h, aged in
air at 780 to 1OQSC (1400 to 2OOOF) at 88C (lOOoF)
intervals for 6000 h, and at 1149C (21OOF) for 2000 h

Minor phaee concentration ee a function of temperature for long exposure timer

SOURCE: H.E. Collinr, Relative Long-Time Stability of Carbide and Intermetallic Phawrr in Nickel-Base Superalloys, Tranr.
ASM, Vol62, lQ89, pp 82-104
174 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Inconel 718
Composition: Fe - 53% Ni - 0.05% C - 1.0% Ti - 0.7% Al -
19.0% Cr - 3.0% MO - 53% Nb+Ta - 0.008% B - 0.03% Zr -
0.2% Mn - 0.3% Si
Treatment: 1232OC (225OOF) for 2 h, ice brine quench + 704C
(lSOOF) for 100 h, water quench, aged at temperature8 and
timer indicated

Precipitation of phases in Inconel 718

SOURCE: M. Kaufman, A.E. Palty, The Phase Structure of Inconel 718 and 702 Alloys, Trans. AIME, Vol 221, December lQ81,
pp 1253
A t/as of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 175

Waspaloy
Composition: Ni - 0.06% C - 19.30% Cr - 14.60% Co - 4.39%
MO - 3.08% Ti - 1.42% Al - 0.051% Zr
Treatment: Solution treated at 1079C (1975F) for 4 h, aged
in air at 760 to 109SC (1400 to 2OOOOF) at 38OC (lOOoF)
interval8 for 5000 h, and at 1149C (21OOOF) for 2000 h

Minor phaee concentration an a function of temperature for long exposure times

SOURCE: H.E. Collins, Relative Long-Time Stability of Carbide and Intermetallic Phases in Nickel-Bane Superalloye, Tranr.
ASM, Vol 62, 1969, pp 82-104
176 Atlas of Time-Tempefutufe Diagrams

A-286
Comporition: 25.1% Ni - 14.5% Cr - 1.20% MO - 2.00% Ti -
030% V - 0.26% sol. Al - 0.052% C - 0.11% Mn - 0.20% Si -
0.009% S - 0.007% P - 0.0023% N

LIVE GRAPH CCT diagram


Click here to view Note: Cooling rate at C/h, and resultant hardness, HV

SOURCE: C. Loier, M.C. Ottman, Influence of Thermal Treatments on the Determination of Manufacturing Processes for A 286
Steel Courser, Bulletin du Cercle dEtudee den Metaux, Vol 15, No. 3, September 1983
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 177

A-286
Composition: Fe - 24.7% Ni - 14.4% Cr - 2.2% Ti - 1.1% MO -
0.20% Al
Treatment: Powder samples were produced by Inert Gas
Atomisation and the properties of conventional Ingot
Metallurgy material were used as a baseline for determination of
the effects of IGA powder metallurgy procesring
I/M material was solution treated at QOQC (1652OF) for 2 h
and water quenched
P/M material was held at llOQC (20120F) for 1 h and water
quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
I/M VI P/M, near start of precipitation
Transformation to 1 nm precipitates as derived from peak resistance changes

SOURCE: C.H. Sellers, J.E. Flinn, Characterization of Microstructural Stability of Dispersion Strengthened P/M A-286 Alloy,
Industrial Heating, November 1990, p 39
178 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

ATS 28 - X-SNiCrTi 26 15
to A-286)
(similar
Composition: Fe - 26% Ni - -16% Cr - 1.3% MO - 1.8% Ti -
O.OS% Ca - 0.3% v
Treatment: Subjected to heats of 400 to 1000C (752 to
1832F) for up to 1000 h

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-precipitation diagram


Click here to view

R. Castro, Ft. Tricot, Precipitation Hardening of Aurtenitic Stainless Steel of Type Chromium 15% and Nickel 25% with
Atlas of TIme-Temperature Diagrams 179

Pyromet CTX-l
Composition: Fe - 37.7% Ni - 16.0% Co - 3.0% Nb - 1.75% Ti -
1.0% Al - 0.008% B - 0.03% C
Treatment: Annealed at 913 0C (1676 0F) for 1 h, oil quenched

"
\
.
1700 I-----+--------+--------+-------~

1600 I----+-------+--~.,,_

.\,-+- \', .~:.:..~


"
C
Gemme Prime
,/ ::,-;- -.:: ':., \ .
1S00 I -+-------+--~ .....
,\--+----,.......:
I .'
o
II.
I
-.
='.. 1400
.... ~
Q,
E
~ 1300
\
<,

1200 1---+-----...;;
0.1

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-precipitation diagram


Click here to view
SOURCE: D.R. Muzyka, C.R. Whitney, D.K. Schlosser, "Physical Me.tallurgy and Properties of a New Controlled-Expansion
Superalloy," Journal of Metals, Vol 27, July 1976, pp 11-16

Incoloy 909
Composition: Fe - 38.3% Ni - 12.9% Co - 4.70% Nb - 1.58% Ti
- 0.36% Si - 0.04% Al - 0.01% C - 0.01% Cr
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1038 0C (1900 0F) for 1 h, air
cooled, and isothermally aged between 638 and 1038 0C (1000
and 1900 0F) for 0.1 to 1000 h

1040

984

928

872

-
P
D-
E
817

761
...
III
707

651

596
LIVE GRAPH 5 40 L---r---.----~:::::::::;:::::::::,
Click here to view
0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0 1000.0
Time (Hours)

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram

SOURCE: K.A. Heck, D.F. Smith, J.S. Smith, D.A. Wells, M.A. Holderby, "The Physical Metallurgy of a Silicon-Containing Low
Expansion Superalloy," Superalloys 1988, S. Reichman, et al., Eds., TMS, 1988 pp 151-160
180 Atlas of T/me-Temperuture Dlagroms

Incoloy 800
Composition: Fe - 31.85% Ni - 0.28% Cu - 0.08% C - 0.81% Mn
- 0.007% S - 0.3296 Si - 21.81% Cr
Treatment: Solution heat treated in argon at 1098OC (2000F)
for 1 h, water quenched, aged, and rapidly water cooled

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-rensitisation diagram

Contour lines = eorrorion rater in milIigrams/dm2/day, mils per year in boiling 65% nitric acid
X = rpecimens which failed the copper-copper sulfate-sulfuric acid tests (ASTM A262-68)

SOURCE: R.G. Aspden, G. Economy, F.W. Pement, I.L. Wilson, Relationship Between Magnetic Properties, Sensitization, and
Corrosion of Incoloy Alloy 800 and Inconel Alloy 800, Met. Trans., Vol 8, October 1972, pp 2691-2697
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 181

Incoloy-800
Composition: Fe - 31.1% Ni - 21.4% Cr - 0.90% Mn - 0.28% Si -
0.037% C - 0.02% N - 0.01% P - 0.007% S - 0.5% Ai - 0.3% Ti
Grain rise: ASTM 7-8
Treatment: Mill annealed specimens aged at 400 to 800C (752
to 14720F)
Etchant: 10% Br-CII3OH

Light microscope evaluation of heat treated specimens

SOURCE: R. Stickler, G. Weidlich, Microstructure and Intergranular Corrosion of Inconel-600 and Incoloy-800 Tubes, Prakt.
Met. Vol 20, April 1985, pp 174-193
182 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Incoloy-800
Composition: Fe - 31.1% Ni - 21.4% Cr - O.QO% Mn - 0.28% Si -
0.037% C - 0.02% N - 0.01% P - 0.007% S - 0.5% Al - 0.3% Ti
Grain sise: ASTM 7-8
Treatment: Mill annealed specimens aged at 400 to 800C (752
to 14720F)
Etchant: 10% Br-CHsOH

Scanning electron microscope evaluation of heat treated specimens

SOURCE: R. Stickler, G. Weidlich, Microstructure and Intergranular Corrosion of Inconel-600 and Incoloy-800 Tubes, Prakt.
Met. Vol 20, April 1983, pp 174-193
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 183

Iocoloy-800
Composition: Fe - 31.1% Ni - 21.4% Cr - O.QO% Mn - 0.28% Si -
0.037% C - 0.02% N - 0.01% P - 0.007% S - 0.5% Ai - 0.3% Ti
Grain rise: ASTM 7-8
Treatment: Mill annealed specimens aged at 400 to 8OOC (752
to 1472OF)
Carbon-extraction reolicas of Br-methanol etched transverse
cross sections of tube specimens

Transmission electron microscope evaluation of heat treated specimens

SOURCE: R. Stickler, G. Weidlich, Microstructure and Intergranular Corrosion of Inconel-600 and Incoloy-800 Tubes, Prakt.
Met. Vol 20, April 1983, pp 174-193
184 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Incoloy-800
Composition: Fe - 31.1% Ni - 21.4% Cr - O.QO% Mn - 0.28% Si -
0.037% C - 0.02% N - 0.01% P - 0.007% S - 0.5% Ai - 03% Ti
Grain rise: ASTM 7-8
Treatment: Mill annealed specimens aged at 400 to 800C (752
to 14720F)

* W. Debrsy et al Nickel Power Conference, Lausanne, Paper No. 3, 1972

LEGEND:
0 No attack
6 GB etching
E GB fissuring
q GB cracking
m Disintegration

GB = Grain boundary
ITB = Incoherent twin boundary
TB = Coherent twin boundary

Intercrystalline corrosion susceptibility


Test conditionr: 45 h boiling in solution of 260 ml H2SO4 + 100 g CuSO4 + 750 ml H20, followed by bend test and SEM
evaluation

SOURCE: R. Stickler, G. Weidlich, Microstructure and Intergranular Corrosion of Inconel-600 and Incoloy-800 Tubes, Prakt.
Met. Vol 20, April 1983, pp 174-193
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 185

Ioconel 600
Comporition: Ni - 7.92% Fe - 0.15% Cu - 0.06% C - 0.17% Mn
- 0.007% S - 0.22% Si - 15.40% Cr
Treatment: Solution heat treated in argon at 1121C (2050F)
for 2 h, water quenched, aged, and rapidly water cooled

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-senririsation diagram

Contour liner = eorroeion rates. in milligrarrm/dm2/day, mils per year in boiling 65% nitric acid
No specimen8 failed the copper-copper sulfate-sulfuric acid teat

SOURCE: R.G. Aspden, G. Economy, F.W. Pement, I.L. Wilron, Relationship Between Magnetic Propertier, Sensitkation, and
Corrorion of Incoloy Alloy SW and lnconel Alloy 600, Met. Trans., Vol 3, October 1972, pp 2691-2697
186 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Inconel 600
Composition: Ni - 15.6% Cr - 8.1% Fe - 0.2% Ti - 0.03% MO -
0.03% N - 0.03% Cu - 0.16% Al - 0.040% C - 0.27% Si - 0.13% Mn
Grain rise: ASTM 6-7
Treatment: Mill annealed rpecimens aged at 400 to 8OOC (752
to 14720F)
Etchant: 10% Br-ChgOH

LEGEND:
0 No precipitate
a Fine GB particle8
@ Massive GB particles
0 Specimen identification
0 GB and ITB particles
l GB, ITB and TB particles
GB = Grain boundary
ITB = Incoherent twin boundary
TB = Coherent twin boundary

Light microrcope evaluation of heat treated rpecimene

SOURCE: R. Stickler, G. Weidlich, Micrortructure and Intergranular Corrosion of Inconel-600 and Incoloy-800 Tubes, Prakt.
Met. Vol 20, April 1983, pp 174-193
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 187

Ioconel 600
Compoeition: Ni - 15.6% Cr - 8.1% Fe - 0.2% Ti - 0.03% MO -
0.03% N - 0.03% Cu - 0.16% Al - 0.040% C - 0.27% Si - 0.13% Mn
Grain rise: ASTM 6-7
Treatment: Mill annealed specimens aged at 400 to 800C (752
to 14720F)
Etchant: 10% Br-ChgOH

Heat treatment time, h

LEGEND:
0 No precipitate
6~ Fine GB particles
0 Massive GB particle8
B GB and ITB particles
4 GB, ITB and TB particles

GB = Grain boundary
ITB = Incoherent twin boundary
TB = Coherent twin boundary

Scanning electron microscope evaluation of heat treated specimens

SOURCE: R. Stickler, G. Weidlich, Microstructure and Intergranular Corrosion of Inconel-600 and Incoloy-800 Tubes, Prakt.
Met. Vol 20, April 1983, pp 174-193
188 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Inconel 600
Composition: Ni - 15.6% Cr - 8.1% Fe - 0.2% Ti - 0.03% MO -
O.OS% N - O.OS% Cu - 0.16% Al - 0.040% C - 0.27% Si - 0.13% Mn
Grain rice: ASTM 6-7
Treatment: Mill annealed rpecimens aged at 400 to 800C (752
to 14720F)
Carbon-extraction replicae of Br-methanol etched transveme
croee eectione. of tube rpecimenr

Heat treatment time, h

LEGEND:
0 Very fine GB particler
0 Coame or dendritic GB particles
0 No precipitate except globular MC, or M(C, N) particles
@ GB and ITB particles

GB = Grain boundary
ITB = Incoherent twin boundary
TB = Coherent twin boundary

Transmission electron microecope evaluation of heat treated epecimenr

SOURCE: R. Stickler, G. Weidlich, Microetructure and Intergranular Corrosion of Inconel-600 and Incoloy-800 Tubee, Prakt.
Met. Vol 20, April 1983, pp 174-193
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 189

Inconei 600
Comporition: Ni - 15.6% Cr - 8.1% Fe - 0.2% Ti - O.OS% MO -
0.03% N - 0.03% Cu - 0.16% Al - 0.040% C - 0.27% Si - 0.13% Mn
Grain rise: ASTM 6-7
Treatment: Mill annealed specimena aged at 400 to 800C (752
to 14720F)

Heat Treatment Time, h

* G. Herbsleb, Mitteilungen dee VGB, Vol 50, April 1970, p 138

LEGEND:
0 No attack
c) GB etching
0 GB fimuring
0 GB cracking
0 Dirintegration
GB = Grain boundary
ITB = Incoherent twin boundary
TB = Coherent twin boundary

Intercrystalline corrosion rurceptibility


Tent conditiona: 45 h boiling in solution of 21 g Fe2(S04)3 + 100 ml H2SO4 + 400 ml H20, followed by bend teat and SEM
evaluation

SOURCE: R. Stickler, G. Weidlich, Microlrtructure and Intergranular Corrosion of Inconel-600 and Incoloy-800 Tubes, Prakt.
Met. Vol 20, April 1983, pp 174-193
190 Atlas of T/me-Temperatufe Diagrams

Inconel 706
Nominal composition: Ni - 37% Fe - 16% Cr - 2.9% Nb - 1.8% Ti
Treatment: Solution annealed at 109SC (2OOOOF) 1 h, air
cooled and aged at various times and temperature8

Time-temperature precipitation diagram


LIVE GRAPH A2B = Laves
Click here to view

Nominal composition: Ni - 37% Fe - 16% Cr - 2.9% Nb - 1.8% Ti


Treatment: Annealed at 103SC (19OOOF) for 30 min, air cooled

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-hardness diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: H.L. Eiwlrtein, Properties of Inconel Alloy 706, Technical Report No. C 70-9.5, ASM, 1970
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 191

TNimonic PE16
Composition: Fe - 17.1% Cr - 42.5% Ni - 3.1% MO - 1.2% Ti -
1.3% Al - 0.03% Zr - 0.05% Mn - 0.0003% B - 0.06% C
Treatment: Specimenr were rapidly heated to llOOC (2012OF)
and maintained at temperature for 1 h, then rapidly cooled to
an aging temperature between 625 and 950C (1157 and
1742OF) and maintained at the desired aging temperature for
timer varying between 15 and 3600 8, followed by rapid cooling
to ambient temperaturea

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-precipitation diagram for carbidea


Click here to view

SOURCE: R.G. Faulkner, J. Cairley, The Kinetics of Grain Boundary Carbide Precipitation in Nimonic PEl6, Metal Science,
Vol 11, June 1977, pp 200-207
192 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Incoloy 825
Composition: Ni - 0.03% C - 0.65% Mn - 29.59% Fe - 0.27% Si
- 1.71% Cu - 21.18% Cr - 0.11% AI - OX@% Ti - 2.61% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1204C (22OOF) for 1 h, and
renritised at vsriou~ temperaturea and timea

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-eenririsarion diagram

Composition: Ni - 0.03% C - 0.65% Mn - 29.69% Fe - 0.27% Si


- 1.71% Cu - 21.18% Cr - 0.11% Al - 0.99% Ti - 2.61% MO
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1204OC (22OOOF) for 1 h, then
aged

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram for M23C6


The amount of M23C6 ia indicated by the chromium content of the residue (3Cr, 87Ti for an-annealed material)

SOURCE: E.L. Raymond, Mechanisma of Senritication and Stabilkation of Incoloy Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy 826,
Corrosion, Vol 24, No. 6, June 1968, pp 180-188
Atlas of T/me-Temperature D&grams 193

lncoloy 825
Comporition: Ni - O.OS% C - 0.65% Mn - 29.59% Fe - 0.27% Si
- 1.71% Cu - 21.18% Cr - 0.11% Al - O.QQ% Ti - 2.61% MO
Treatment: Annealed at 10QSC (2000F) for 1 h prior to aging

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-cienritisation diagram

Composition: Ni - O.OS% C - 0.65% Mn - 29.69% Fe - 0.27% Si


w 1.71% Cu - 21.18% Cr - 0.11% Al - O.QQ% Ti - 2.61% MO
Treatment: Annealed at 941C (172SF) for 1 h prior to aging

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-senaitisation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: E.L. Raymond, Mechanisms of Sensitisation and Stabilkation of Incoloy Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy 825,
Corroeion, Vol24, No. 6, June 1988, pp 180-188
194 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Incoloy 825
Oomposition: Ni - 0.03% C - 0.66% Mn - 29.69% Fe - 0.27% Si
- 1.71% Cu - 21.18% Cr - 0.11% AI - 0.99% Ti - 2.61% Mo
Treatment: Annealed at 941C (1726 0F) for 1 h

1800

1600 CrTi CrTi


~ 7713 7713
0

.or
...,::l 1400 CrTi CrTi CrTi
..co
QI
Q.
7812 7614 7713

8 1200
QI
CrTi CrTi
Eo< 7713 7713

1000

0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 1 2 4 6 10 20 40 60 100


LIVE GRAPH Time, h
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram for M23C6
Numbers show the Cr and Ti contents of the residue (77Cr, 13Ti for as-annealed material)

Inconel X-750
Composition: Ni - 0.06% C - 0.67% Mn - 6.66% Fe - 0.26% Si -
0.06% Cu - 16.66% Cr - 0.70% AI - 2.36% Ti - 0.92% Nb

1800

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram for M23C6


The amount of M23C6 i8 indicated by the chromium content of the carbide residue

SOURCE: E.L. Raymond, "Mechanisma of Sensifiaation and Stabilization of Incoloy Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy 826,"
Corrosion, Vol 24, No.6, June 1968, pp 180-188
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 195

IN 939
Nominal Composition: Ni - 0.15% C - 22.5% Cr - 19.0% Co -
2.0% W - 1.0% Nb - 1.4% Ta - 8.7% Ti - 1.9% AI - 0.1% Zr -
0.01% B

Temperature Temperature
c (OF) Ph..e Reaction

1340 (2444) Liquidus temperature


-1300 (-2372) Formation of primary MC
1285 (2255) Solidus temperature
1145 (2093) Solvus temperature of eta
1080 to 1100 (1976 to 2012) Solvus temperature of gamma prime
-1000 (-1832) Solvus temperature of M23C6
-950 (-1742) Solvus temperature of sigma
-850 (-1562) Maximum rate of sigma formation

Information for time-temperature-precipitation diagram

SOURCE: T.B. Gibbons, R. Stickler, "IN939: Metallurgy, Properties and Performance," High Temperature Alloys for Gas
Turbines, 1982, D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, Holland, 1982, pp 869-898

Inconel 718
Nominal composition: Fe - 52% Ni - 19% Cr - 8% Mo - 5%
Nb+Ta - 0.8% Ti - 0.6% AI - 0.05% C
Treatment: Mill annealed, heated at 92~C (1700 0F) for 1 h, air
cooled, aged at 718 0C (1825 0F) for 16 h, air cooled

1800

1700

u.: 1600
o

~ 1500
I 1400
E
Q)

I- 1300

1200
1100 Gamma Prime Start
0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0
Aging Time, Hr.

Time-temperature hardness
At this time the strengthening phase was thought to be gamma prime, and later found to be gamma double prime

SOURCE: J.F. Barker, "A Superalloy for Medium Temperatures," Metal Progress, May 1962, pp 72-76
196 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Inconel 718
Composition: Ni - 18.49% Cr - 16.79% Fe - 5.07% Nb+Ta -
3.11% Mo - 0.95% Ti - 0.51% Al - 0.30% Si - 0.28% Mn -
0.05% Cu - 0.04% C - 0.011% P - 0.007% S - 0.0023% B
Treatment: Solution treated at 10380C (1900 0F) for 30 min,
water quenched to room temperature within 1 min
1600, , , -, ,- --,

1500
u,
LJ
ll:
~
I-
~ 1400
w
a.
~
w
l-
ll)
Z 1300
Il)
~

1200

1100 '::"-----:':!7"'------~-----....::::::...l-----=~-........::::.....~---....:::::.-....J
0.02 1000
TIME, HOURS

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-hardness diagram


Click here to view
Strengthening phase still thought to be gamma prime

SOURCE: B.G. Koepke, RJ. Zeto, W.E. Hensley, "Mechanism and Kinetics of Aging in Inconel 718," NASA Tech. Bulletin
70-1021, June 1970, p 34
Atlas of TIme-Temperature Diagrams 197

Inconel 718
Nominal composition: Ni - 19% Cr - 18% Fe - 6% Nb - 3% Mo
- 0.16% Si - 0.10% Cu - 0.20% Mn - 1.0% Ti - 0.4% AI - 0.04%
C - 0.007% S
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1149 0C (21000F), aged at
various times and temperatures indicated
1800
I O.i~~ T
NO FILM
L""
. . I:::::::~ -F:::I l I Hr.

~ ~~t--- r-
y-" L--
10Hrs NO FILM

1700

~'/~ ~ ~Kr-.
NEEOLES
-
/.
1/ /
~I'-.. r-, ~r-...
1600
I ,j
I
I

~ r-, r-,
...
~~
FILM
i'..
0

..
I
1500 \ \ \. I <,
t-, t-...
~ \, \ \ ~ ",-'-'
"'-~
",
----
0
U
0.
E I, \.
1400
~
... ......
<, <,
r--r--
.;' ~
........ 0.1 Hr
cot <, I'--

r-- - f-r--
1300
........
t...... r--- I-t-I--,--
t- I Hr . _
r-- I -
t-- t-r-~:--r-- I - r-r-.
r-- I--- r-r--
-
NO FILM
1200

1100
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 80 100 20C 400
Aging Time - Hour.

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
LIVE GRAPH Occurrence of grain boundary carbide film and needles
Click here to view

SOURCE: H.L. Eiselstein, "Metallurgy of a Columbium-Hardened Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloy," Advances in The Technology of
Stainless Steels and Related Alloys, ASTM STP No. 369, 1966 pp 62-79
198 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Inconel 718
Nominal composition: Ni - 19% Cr - 18% Fe - 6% Nb - 3% Mo
- 0.16% Si - 0.10% Cu - 0.20% Mn - 1.0% Ti - 0..% AI - 0.04%
C - 0.007% S
Treatment: Solution annealed at 10380C (19000F), aged at
various times and temperatures indicated
1700

~;,'I I
1' .... NEEDLES
.... NO FILM
1600

..:
NO FILM I
,
~.I ond 1.0 Hours

~t}
-----
0

~ 1500 t-.
( 10 Hours

\
' ...... <,

~
"
~

Q.
E
10 Hours
II' I
~-

\
Hour
~.
0.1 Hour
I--

FILM
--I-'
I-- I-- ....
~t-
t-
r-- -..
~ -
<, r - I-'
r.. . .
~
t-
... 1400
c:
...Cl "'r---- t-- r--
"- r...1"f'-",~
I' "'~
r-
~ F:::::
t- t-r-r-
1300 NO FILM I=:::: r- r- r---
t:::::::::: ~
1200
O.~ 2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 100 200 400 600

Aging Time - Hours

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-precipitation diagram


Click here to view Occurrence of grain boundary carbide film and needles

SOURCE: H.L. Eiselstein, "Metallurgy of a Columbium-Hardened Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloy," Advances in The Technology of
Stainless Steels and Related Alloys, ASTM STP No. 369, 1966 pp 62-79
Atlas of TIme-Temperature Diagrams 199

Inconel 718
Nominal composition: Ni - 19% Cr - 18% Fe - 6% Nb - 3% Mo
- 0.16% Si - 0.10% Cu - 0.20% Mn - 1.0% Ti - 0.4% Al - 0.04%
C - 0.007% S
Treatment: Solution annealed at 92roC (1700 0F), aged at
various times and temperatures indicated
1700

NO FILM
I ,AI
i""
II III1I
NO FILM
I
1600 _. I.... I I
~' I I I
II.:
V ,0 .I ond 1.0 Hours
j
.,.. 1500 f- . / I'
1"
I
I NEEDLES

a"
... V !~I r-
:

,
""t-
.
Q. I
E 10 Hours
I I
1"--1
I- 1400 .
r-.
I
i I
'"
c I
I !
'" : NO FILM ,:
I
I
--; i
1300
NO NEEDLES
.... I"- ~
I

: !
I"-
r--- r-- i"'- t- I i
I

1200
t- -l"-
t- I I
LIVE GRAPH
0.4

Click here to view


"
0.60.8 1 2 4 6

Aging Time -

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
8 10 20

Hours
40 60 100 200 400

Occurrence of grain boundary carbide film and needles

SOURCE: H.L. Eiselstein, "Metallurgy of a Columbium-Hardened Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloy," Advances in The Technology of
Stainless Steels and Related Alloys, ASTM STP No. 869, 1966 pp 62-79
200 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Inconel 718
Nominal composition: Ni - 19% Cr - 18% Fe - 5% Nb - 3% Mo
- 0.15% Si - 0.10% Cu - 0.20% Mn - 1.0% Ti - 0.4% AI - 0.04%
C - 0.007% S
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1038 0C (1900 0F) for 1 h
1800 ,......,""T"T'T'r'rT--.,-,.....,r-T"T"T",.,.,.-.....,-.,.-T'-r"T"ll~r---l""":lllT""or-,l"T"T"TT'I
INCONEL "718" ALLOY
Mill Annealed Sheet
1700 A9 1nO Response --+----~'-'-"p"_::;J'f------+---i

1600 1--+---+------+----+--::iI~--7fII-'---+-_1I_---___l--=:I

I>. 1500
~
:J

e..
0.
E 1400
~

0.05 0.1

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-hardness diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: H.L. Eiselstein, "Metallurgy of a Columbium-Hardened Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloy," Advances in The Technology of
Stainless Steels and Related Alloys, ASTM STP No. 369, 1965 pp 62-79
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 201

Inconel 718
Nominal composition: Ni - 19% Cr - 18% Fe - 5% Nb - 3% Mo
- 0.15% Si - 0.10% Cu - 0.20% Mn - 1.0% Ti - 0.4% Al - 0.04%
C - 0.007% S
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1149 0C (2100F) for 1 h, and
water quenched
2000

IBOO .-' l -
I-
-:
- I- - --
I~
CbC/ Ni .... I--
3Cb-
V ..... M6C
[, LAV~ ( /'
1600 \ ~

I ............ <, r-
....
ci
\
GAMMA PRIME
;'
~
I"-- r-,
'~
....
E 1400 1\ / !Iloo..

'. -
......
'"
c
'c;.
\" r-, r-,
r-,
<l
1200 ........
1-1"-
r--- :--- l"-
1000
t-
- r--- ~
I-

BOO
0.06 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 I 2 4 6 B 10 20 40 6OBO 100 2 ClU 400 6 00
LIVE GRAPH Aolno Time Hour.
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
At this time the strengthening phase was thought to be gamma prime, later it was shown to be gamma double prime

SOURCE: H.L. Eiselstein, "Metallurgy of a Columbium-Hardened Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloy," Advances in The Technology of
Stainless Steels and Related Alloys, ASTM STP No. 369, 1965 pp 62-79
202 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Inconel 718
Composition: Fe - 53.8% Ni - 18.0% Cr - 3.00% Mo - 5.24%
Nb+Ta - 1.00% Ti - 0.59% Al - 0.05% C - 0.003% S - 0.004% B
Treatment: Solution treated at 10660C (1950 0F) for 4 h, air
cooled
2000
NF 0
I- -
NF 0 NF 1
1800
.~~~ .uo~.uu. 0.'.

~.
.0 /10 0
0.1
0.61 '" K 1,0
I- NF .04 .06 ".2 0 0.8 0 0.9 ,.. NilCCb -
00:" ~.
IL
0

OJ
, 1600
<, .007 .02" .Olj 0.4 0.9 , 1,1 I.)

..'"
:>

~
I-
N 0.002 '> -
..
OJ
~T 002 0."

..
:I:
OJ
1400
~
K DO'i

- T - TRACE
NF - NONE FOUND
NF
r---..
NF
-
1200
NF NF NF
NF
I- -
1000
0.1 0.5 1.0 10 50 100 500 1000
TIME, HOURS

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-precipitation diagram of Ni3Nb


Click here to view

Composition: Fe - 53.8% Ni - 18.0% Cr - 3.00% Mo - 5.24%


Nb+Ta - 1.00% Ti - 0.59% Al - 0.05% C - 0.003% S - 0.004% B
Treatment: Solution treated at 10660C (1950 0F) for 4 h, air
cooled
2000

I- -
1800
.... 100"" ........ .... ....
...'
.'

IL
o

.
OJ'
.-
(
-

.'"
<{

OJ
1600
-, ...
... --OOESCH AND CANADA
-
.. -
~ .
:I:
.. .. EISELSTEIN
.....
OJ

1400
<,
<, '.
'"
I"--. '.
'"
I-
I'--- t-- -
1200
0.1 0.5 1,0 10 50 100 500 1000
TIME, HOURS

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram for Ni3Nb compared to Eiselstein data


LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: W.J. Boesch, H.B. Canada, "Precipitation Reactions and Stability of NI3Nb in Inconel Alloy 718," International
Symposium on Structural Stability in Superalloys, Seven Springs PA, 4-6 September, 1968; and, Journal of Metals, Vol 22,
October 1969, pp 34-38
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 203

Inconel 718
Composition: Ni - 0.0.% C - 0.20% Mn - 0.30% Si - 18.6% Cr -
3.1% Mo - 6.0% Nb - 18.6% Fe - 0.9% Ti - 0.% Al

1050

u 950
or
...
~
::J
(IJ
~
850 Stq
......
't 1'".
.... 'r, A,
<,
Q)
c. <, ~'(6
E 750 .... ....
... ....
Q)
t-
650

550
10- 1 1 10
LIVE GRAPH Time, h
Click here to view

Composite time-temperature-precipitation diagram


Data from E.L. Raymond (1967)i H.L. Eiselstein (1966); W.J. Boesch, H.B. Canada (1968); F.J. Risse, J.D. Bussanell, (1968)

SOURCE: R.F. Decker, "Strengthening Mechanisms in Nickel-Base Superalloys," Steel-Strengthening Mechanisms, 6-6 May,
1969, Zurich, pp 1.7-170
204 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Inconel 718
Alloy 1 composition: 62.61% Ni - 18.16% Cr - 19.6% Fe - 2.96%
Mo - 0.82% Ti - 0.70% Al - 6.18% Nb
Alloy 2 composition: 61.98% Ni - 18.69% Cr - 21% Fe - 2.86%
Mo - 0.72% Ti - 0.63% Al - 3.99% Nb
Alloy 3 composition: 61.98% Ni - 18.97% Cr - 17% Fe - 7.03%
Mo - 0.59% Ti - 0.63% AI- 3.41% Nb
Alloy 4 composition: 62.09% Ni - 18.90% Cr - 16.4% Fe - 7.00%
Mo - 0.90% Ti - 0.74% AI- 3.86% Nb
Treatment: Annealed at 1200 0C (2192 0F) for 30 min, water
quenched, aged at 660 to 820 0C (1202 to 1508 0F) under
vacuum in vycor capsules

TMI--------------=
TM4 ---------==---====---------
100
TM2 ------:rI'----------
TM3 ----+--;;:::",,~~E::---""'O:;i""''----
Ql T
. - - - - - r - - -.........
~ T.z
iii
...Ql
Q
E 150
~

Alloy 3
0,5 1 2 4 5 I 10 24
LIVE GRAPH Aging Time. hours
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
For appearance of gamma double prime phase and highest temperatures TM for homogeneous precipitation in alloys 1, 2, 3, and 4.
On this diagram curves showing the gamma prime size before appearance of gamma double prime are indicated for alloys 2, 3, and 4

SOURCE: R. Cozar, A. Pineau, "Morphology of Y' and Y" Precipitates and Thermal Stability of Inconel 718 Type Alloys," Met.
Trans., Vol 4, January 1973, pp 47-69
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 205

Inconel 718

LAVES

1000
1800

/' 900
w 1600 N' Nb
,/ C
0:: S~ART7/
:::> I

~ 800
I
\
\
0:: \
W 1400
0...
~ 700
w
I- r- y'+y"
1200
r 600

LIVE GRAPH 0.1 0.5 1.0 5 10 50 100 5001000


Click here to view TIME(h)
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram

SOURCE: E.R. Vincent, "The Microstructure of Welds in Inconel 718," Department of Physics, University of Bristol, UK, 1980

Composition: Fe - 62.6% Ni - 0.04% C - 19.0% Cr - 0.90% Ti -


0.60% AI - 0.006% B - 3.06% Mo - 6.30% Nb
Treatment: Annealed in the range 1149 to 1093 0C (2100 to
20000F) for 1 hr, water quenched

1050
......... I
1000
\ LAVES
" ....... 950
" '" I,
I I ''','':'",- , ~
. - , _ ._ _ _ 900
1600 ,~Ti
+ AI/Cb = .77_ _ .~.~
'Y , 850
\
"
, C
\,(~ v" "AIICb = .97 800

\~>--~
1400 750

1200
" -----.;;:::::.-----====::..._- 700
650
600
550
1.0 5 10 50 100
TIME, HOURS
LIVE GRAPH TTT diagram
Click here to view
A composite of past work

SOURCE: C.T. Sims, "A Perspective of Niobium in Superalloys," International Symposium of Niobium Processing, H. Stuart, ed.,
8-11 November 1981, San Francisco, AIME, 1984, pp 1169-1220
206 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Inconel 718
Nominal composition: Fe - 0.08% max C - 0.36% max Mn -
0.36% max Si - 0.016% max P - 0.016% max S - 17.0-21.0% Cr
- 1.0% max Co - 2.80-3.30% Mo - 4.76-6.60% Nb+Ta -
0.66-1.16% Ti - 0.20-0.80% Al - 0.30% max Cu - 60.0-66.0
NHCo - 0.006% max B
Treatment: Solution treated at 1090 0C (1994 0F), isothermally
aged at temperatures between 600 and 1060 0C (932 and
1922 0F) for times varying from 16 min to 260 h
1100

'000

900

800

ee
:::>
ea 100

E
~

600 ~"

500

400

'(}' 10-1 10' '0' '0

Time (hI

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram for delta and gamma double prime

SOURCE: E. Campo, C. Turco, V. Catena, "The Correlation Between Heat Treatment, Structure and mechanical Characteristics
in Inconel 718," Metallurgical Science and Technology, Vol 3, No.1, April 1986, pp 16-21
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 207

Inconel 718
Composition: Ni - 17.68% Fe - 18.83% Cr - 0.98% Ti - 2.97%
Mo - 6.13% Nb - 0.63% Al - 0.06% Ta - 0.30% Co - 0.09% Mn
- 0.04% C - 0.004% S - 0.01% P - 0.17% Si - 0.09% Cu
Treatment: Solution treated between 966 and 1200 0C (1761 and
2192 0F) followed by either water quench, air cool, or furnace
cool

1000 grain bound~Yo. -

900

,w
l:::800
~
E
'"
0-
E
~700

600

3 3 10 Time in hours 100 1000 10,000


LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
For NiSNb (bct) = gamma ., gamma prime, delta, and alpha-chromium

SOURCE: J.W. Brooks, P.J. Bridges, "Long Term Stability of Inconel Alloy 718 for Turbine Disc Applications," High
Temperature Alloys for Gas Turbines and Other Applications, 1986, Part II, D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, 1986, pp
14S1-1440
208 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Inconel 718
Composition 718 (solid line): Ni - 0.96% Ti - 0.46% AI - 6.26%
Nb - 18.26% Fe - 8.06% Mo - 18.00% Cr - 0.081% C - 0.008%
B - 0.001% Mg
Composition alloy 4 (dashed line): Ni - 1.84% Ti - 0.68% AI -
6.28% Nb - 18.80% Fe - 8.06% Mo - 17.80% Cr - 0.028% C -
0.004% B - 0.001% Mg
Treatment: Solutionised at 1110 0C (2080 0 F ) for 6 hand
quenched

1800 "?""---------------~

1700

c- 1600

'-" \
W
a:: 1500 "--,
~
a:: ~
~:::--....
1400
It
~
::.---....:---....
~ 1300

1200
ALLOY
LIVE GRAPH !!Q!!.-
_4 _ _
Click here to view
1100
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
TIME (hours)
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Delta phase start only

Composition alloy 9 (solid line): Ni - 0.96% Ti - 0.68% AI -


4.32% Nb - 18.30% Fe - 8.02% Mo - 18.16% Cr - 0.031% C -
0.003% B - 0.004% Mg
Composition alloy 11 (dashed line): Ni - 0.96% Ti - 0.87% AI -
6.42% Nb - 18.00% Fe - 3.02% Mo - 17.80% Cr - 0.031% C -
0.004% B - 0.001% Mg
Treatment: Solutionised at 1110 0C (2030 0 F ) for 6 hand
quenched

1800 "?""----------------.. .
1700

C 1600 ,
'-" \
w
a:: 1500 <,
~
-,
a:: <,
1400 <,
It
~ ......................
<,
~ 1300

1200
ALLOY
'--
1100 -"--
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
LIVE GRAPH TIME (hours)
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Delta phase start only

SOURCE: J.P. Collier, Song How Wong, J.C. Phillips, J.K. Tien, "The Effect of Varying AI. 'I'i, and Nb Content on the Phase
Stability of Inconel 718," Met. Trans. A, Vol 19A. July 1988, pp 1667-1666
Next Page

Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 209

Inconel 718
Composition: 63.1-63.2% Ni - 17.8-19.1% Fe - 0.03-0.06% C -
0.21-1.12% Si - 17.9-18.3% Cr - 3.0-3.06% Mo - 5.11-6.17%
Nb+Ta - 0.96-1.0% Ti - 0.42-0.47% AI
Treatment: Solution treated at 1032, 1066, and 10800C (1900,
1960, and 19760F)

(J 900
o
0:
~ . " ,-"" ,. /

~ 860 . /
/
<.!'
z .
I , I

e \ . \,
<
t-
820 '.'- ........~--
(J
w
a::
c 780
o 1 2 3
TIME (HOURS)

LEGEND:

1032C ST
1066C ST
0C
LIVE GRAPH 1080 ST
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Delta phase Ni3Nb start only

SOURCE: A.K. Koul, et. al., "Development of a Damage Tolerant Microstructure for Inconel 718 Turbine Disc Material,"
Superalloys 1988, S. Reichman, et al., Eds., TMS, 1988, pp 3-12
Previous Page

210 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Cast Alloy 718


2 2 0 0 . - - - " " " - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - : - - - - - , 1200

~
7 1150

~ ~ ~
2000 1100

1050
IIIP

1000
1000
LAVES unnn 950
50LUTlDN
u. o
o 900 0
IU' 1600 w
a: 650 a:
~ ::l

~
~ I-
e:{

~ 1400 :
Me 600
a:
w
a. 750 a..
~ ~
UJ w
I- /1(;(;
700 I-
1200 650

600
1000 L..- ....J 550

Temperature-phase stability diagram for cast 718 showing temperature for homogenlsafion and HIP heat treat cycle
The range of temperatures in which the various phases can be found is only valid if the cast material has been originally
homogenized and then heat treated

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Treatment: Aged at 649 to 10930 C (1200 to 2000 0F)


I I I II r
- 1050
1000
1000 :'
950
u. o
o - 900 0
w 1600 : IU
a: 850 a:
~ ~
l- I-
e:{
a: "("
800
a:
UJ 1400 III
a. OENDIUTIC - 750 a.
~ "(" ~
w UJ
I- INTERDENDRITIC' 700 I-

1200 - 650

600
- 550
LIVE GRAPH 0.1 0.5 1.0
Click here to view 5 10
TIME, HOURS

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram for cast 718


The temperature ranges of phase precipitation change as the chemistries vary and/or if the material initially is not totally
homogenized

SOURCE: R.G. Carlson, J.F. Radavich, "Microstructural Characterization of Cast 718," Superalloy 718 - Metallurgy and
Applications, E.A. Loria, ed., TMS, 1989, pp 79-96
Atlas of TIme-Temperature Diagrams 211

Alloy 718
Composition: A nominal 718 composition with 5.38% Nb and
0.07% Si
Treatment: Heat treated at 1002 0C (1835<T) for 16 min,
samples were exposed at 649 to 92~C (1200 to 1700 0F) for 0.1
to 50 h, and water quenched
2000

1900

1800 oSolvus
~
--............
-:
1700
0
.,
u,
1600 ~
...........
~
Q)
L
:::l 1500 ~ -, i'+i"+o
'"
<, r-, .... ......
+-'
G:J ~
L
Q)
1400
With Stress .........
CL
E ~ r-r: ....
Q) y
<, i'-... .\raer
--
_....
-:"
....
I-
1300
'Y
- ......... -------
-.............-
- r-~_
:--

...........
... _ sigma J.
r':: r--=:-:::.:: ~
1200

1100

1000
r--.
----
With Stress
~
I-- z--;
~
-
0.1 1.0 10 100 1000 10000
Time, Hours
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-aging diagram

SOURCE: A. Oradei-Basile, J.F. Radavich,"A Current T-T-T Diagram for Wrought Alloy 718," Superalloys 718, 626 and
Various Derivatives, E.A. Loria, ed., TMS, 1991, pp 325-335
212 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Alloy 718
Composition: 61.6% Ni - 20.2% Fe - <0.06% Co - 3.20% Mo -
5.28% Nb+Ta - 0.94% Ti - 0.46% Al - 0.04% Mn - 0.06% Si -
0.03% C - 0.008% B - 0.007% S - 0.004% P - <0.01% Cu
Treatment: Samples solution annealed at temperature to
produce a 80,um grain size. Specimens were aged at 649, 704,
760 and 816C (1200, 1800, 1400 and 16000F) for 0.1 to 96 hi
also at 871C (1600 0F) for 1 and 4 hi and at 593C (llOOOF)
for 4 h

Temperature (OF)
1700

1600

--- --
1500
~ r-. I85
25\
~O I
.II
~ !--
88 '-
1400
~:::::: ~
........... 40 l-
f'.
......... . ....... <,
1300
I
~ ~ ::::: ;:::: ;::
-..:::::: -.: ::::-1--
.
I--
42

1200

1100
I
0.1 10 100 1000
LIVE GRAPH TIme (Hours)
Click here to view
Time-temperature-hardness HRC diagram

Alloy 718 (Modified)


Composition: 61.6% Ni - 9.8% Fe - <0.05% Co - 8.20% Mo -
5.18% Nb+Ta - 0.96% Ti - 0.58% Al - 0.04% Mn - 0.06% Si -
0.02% C - 0.001% B - 0.006% S - 0.002% P - <0.01% Cu
Treatment: Samples solution annealed at temperature to
produce a 30li m grain size. Specimens were aged at 649, 704,
760 and 816C (1200, 1800, 1400 and 15000F) for 0.1 to 96 hi
also at 871C (1600 0F) for 1 and 4 hi and at 598C (llOOOF)
for 4 h

Temperature (OF)
1700

1600

1500
\ 20 \25
t-,

---
30 35 l- I - I-
1400
I'~ r-, 1-'
~ <, :

1300

1200 I I
...........
.......... ""-I--
~ .....
r-

r........
-
...............
:--...... I---
40

1100
0.1 10 100 1000
Time (Hours)
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-hardness HRC diagram

SOURCE: J.R. Groh, J.F. Radavich, "Effects of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt on Precipitation Hardening of Alloy 718," Superalloys
718,626 and Various Derivatives, E.A. Loria, ed., TMS, 1991, pp 351-361
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 213

Alloy 718 (Modified)


Composition: 69.8% Ni - <0.05% Fe - <0.05% Co - 3.02% Mo -
5.14% Nb+Ta - 0.93% Ti - 0.53% AI - 0.04% Mn - 0.05% Si -
0.03% C - 0.003% B - 0.008% S - 0.004% P - <0.01% Cu
Treatment: Samples solution annealed at temperature to
produce a 30JL m grain aiae. Specimens were aged at 649, 704,
760 and 816 0C (1200, 1300, 1400 and 1500 0F) for 0.1 to 96 h;
also at 871C (1600 0F) for 1 and 4 hi and at 593 0C (llOOOF)
for 4 h

Temperature (OF)
1700

1600
I
1600

1400 ~
I--""
I--""
V
u,
I
I
Vv
1300
I to I
25 _30 35 I 38 I
I
I'--
II f'..r'o- <,
1200

1100
I
0.1 10 100 1000
Time (Hours)
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-hardness HRC diagram

Composition: 52.9% Ni - 10.1% Fe - 8.6% Co - 8.10% Mo -


5.05% Nb+Ta - 0.90% Ti - 0.48% AI - 0.04% Mn - 0.06% Si -
0.03% C - 0.003% B - 0.006% S - 0.005% P - 0.01% Cu
Treatment: Samples solution annealed at temperature to
produce a 30ft m grain sille. Specimens were aged at 649. 704,
760 and 816 0C (1200. 1300, 1400 and 1500 0F) for 0.1 to 96 hi
also at 871 0C (16000F) for 1 and 4 hi and at 598 0C (llOOOF)
for 4 h

Temperature (OF)
1700

1600
I
1600

1400
-.
_2~ -
'\

,
25
3~ - W35
v
r'o-
.... -I-
"'"'
r-
1300
........
<, ........ 38(;-

-
..........
............. I'--
.... ~ t:::: t:: 42

1200

1100
0.1 10 100 1000
Time (Hours)
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-hardness HRC diagram

SOURCE: J.R. Groh, J.F. Radavich, "Effects of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt on Precipitation Hardening of Alloy 718," Superalloys
718,625 and Various Derivatives, E.A. Loria, ed., TMS, 1991, pp 351-361
214 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Alloy 718 (Modified)


Composition: 64.2% Ni - 0.26% Fe - 17.6% Co - 3.19% Mo -
6.31% Nb+Ta - 0.92% Ti - 0.48% AI - 0.03% Mn - 0.04% Si -
0.04% C - 0.003% C - 0.006% S - 0.006% P - 0.01% Cu
Treatment: Samples solution annealed at temperature to
produce a 30,u. m grain size. Specimens were aged at 649, 704,
760 and 816 0C (1200, 1300, 1400 and 1600 0F) for 0.1 to 96 hi
also at 871 0C (16000F) for 1 and 4 hi and at 693 0C (nOOOF)
for 4 h

Temperature (OF)
1700

1600

1500

1400 ~
V I-
-;:::;: ;;....- "'....
I 20
:"0.;,.
1(2~ 30
I
(3'6
1300 3840
"""-r---... .....
....
~ ...........
r--- ...........
.....
1200

1100
I
0.1 10 100 1000
Time (Hours)
LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-hardness HRC diagram
Click here to view

SOURCE: J.R. Groh, J.F. Radavich, "Effects of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt on Precipitation Hardening of Alloy 718," Superalloys
718, 626 and Various Derivatives, E.A. Loria, ed., TMS, 1991, pp 361-361
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 215

Alloy 718 (Modified)


Composition: 62.8% Ni - <0.05% Fe - 8.8% Co - 3.0% Mo -
5.09% Nb+Ta - 0.86% Ti - 0.47% AI - 0.04% Mn - 0.05% Si -
0.03% C - 0.002% B - 0.006% S - 0.004% P - 0.01% Cu
Treatment: Samples solution annealed at temperature to
produce a 30p-m grain siee. Specimens were aged at 649, 704,
760 and 816 0C (1200, 1300, 1400 and 1500 0F) for 0.1 to 96 h;
also at 871 0C (16000F) for 1 and 4 h; and at 593 0C (1100 0F)
for 4 h

Temperature (OF)
1700

1600

1600
v
1400

1300
v V ~ -
---I,...-

I
1-0-'

-
2!! 25 35 38
3~
1200 I r-...

1100 I
0.1 10 100 1000
Time (Hours)
LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-hardness HRC diagram
Click here to view

SOURCE: J.R. Groh , J.F. Radavich, "Effects of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt on Precipitation Hardening of Alloy 718," Superalloys
718, 625 and Various Derivatives, E.A. Loria, ed., TMS, 1991, pp 351-361
216 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Alloy 718 (and Modifications)


Temperature ("F)
1700

1600

1600

1400

1300
~~\
~:::
I
V
"-A
-
...C
/
7F
Alloy A Composition: 61.6% Ni - 20.2% Fe -
<0.06% Co - 3.20% Mo - 6.28% Nb+Ta -

~ ~1Ioo
0.94% Ti - 0.46% Al - 0.04% Mn - 0.06% Si -
0.03% C - 0.003% B - 0.007% S - 0.004% P -
1200 <0.01% Cu

1100 Alloy B Composition: 61.6% Ni - 9.8% Fe -


0.1 10 100 1000 <0.06% Co - 3.20% Mo - 6.13% Nb+Ta -
Time (Hours) 0.96% Ti - 0.68% Al - 0.04% Mn - 0.06% Si -
0.02% C - 0.001% B - 0.006% S - 0.002% P -
<0.01% Cu
Temperature ("F) Alloy C Composition: 69.8% Ni - <0.06% Fe -
1700
<0.06% Co - 3.02% Mo - 6.14% Nb+Ta-
0.93% Ti - 0.63% Al - 0.04% Mn - 0.06% Si -
1800 0.03% C - 0.003% B - 0.008% S - 0.004% P -
<0.01% Cu
~ 1600
-...
A B D
..... , .-V
.... E
C Alloy D Composition: 62.9% Ni - 10.1% Fe -
CD
......co
:::J 1400
~
--- F 8.6% Co - 3.10% Mo - 6.06% Nb+Ta - 0.90%
~~
V
CD
~ ... ~ Ti - 0.48% Al - 0.04% Mn - 0.06% Si - 0.03% C
- 0.003% B - 0.006% S - 0.006% P - 0.01% Cu
D- 1300 t...; ......
E
~
~ .......... Alloy E Composition: 64.2% Ni - 0.26% Fe -
1200 17.6% Co - 3.19% Mo - 6.31% Nb+Ta - 0.92%
Ti - 0.48% Al - 0.03% Mn - 0.04% Si - 0.04% C
1100 - 0.003% C - 0.006% S - 0.006% P - 0.01% Cu
0.1 10 100 1000
Time (Hours) Alloy F Composition: 62.8% Ni - <0.06% Fe -
8.8% Co - 3.0% Mo - 6.09% Nb-l-T'a - 0.86% Ti
- 0.47% Al - 0.04% Mn - 0.06% Si - 0.03% C -
0.002% B - 0.006% S - 0.004% P - 0.01% Cu
1700
Treatment: Samples solution annealed at
temperature produce a 30,u m grain size.
1600
Specimens were aged at 649, 704, 760 and
816 0C (1200, 1300, 1400 and 1600 0F) for 0.1 to
1500 96 hi also at 871 0C (1600 0F) for 1 and 4 hi and
D
A at 693 0C (llOOOF) for 4 h
1400
~ B......
1300
.... E F C
<,
1200
..... "'"
1100
0.1 10 100 1000
Time (Hours)

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-hardness HRC diagrams


Click here to view

SOURCE: J.R. Groh, J.F. Radavich, "Effects of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt on Precipitation Hardening of Alloy 718," Superalloys
718,626 and Various Derivatives, E.A. Loria, ed., TMS, 1991, pp 361-361
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 217

Inconel 718
Composition: Ni - 17.4% Cr - 18.7% Fe - 6.16% Nb - 2.96% Mo
- 0.99% Ti - 0.48% AI - 0.06% C - 0.07% Mn - 0.10% Si -
<0.01% B - 0.003% S
Treatment - solid circle: Annealed at 960 0C (1742 0F) for 1 h
Treatment - open circle: Annealed at 1060 0C (1922 0F) for 1 h

"C T Alloy
1200 Inconel718 CCT DIAGRAM
I
1100 I
Annealing
1000 tt+++-+-+-+--+-_Itt++-+-+-+--+_-jf-tt+++-+-+--+_-jf-tt+++-+--+--+_---I60min at 950C
60min at 10SO"C 0

900

"800
..
700

600

500

400

300

200

100
1 h "". 1
185 183 205 211 210 315 378 370 345 HV
0

CCT diagram
LIVE GRAPH Note: Cooling rate C/h, and resultant hardness, HV
Click here to view

SOURCE: C. Loier, M.C. Ottman, C. Leymonie, "Structural Transformations and Mechanical Properties of Two Non-Magnetic
Alloys (Inconel 718 and ASM A 286)," Materials Science and Engineering, Vol 63, 1984, pp 91-100
218 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

As Cast Alloy 718


Composition: 61.6% Ni - 19.9% Fe - 18.2% Cr - 6.1% Nb - 2.9%
Mo - 1.16% Ti - 0.67% Al - 0.036% Cr
Treatment: Homogenized at 1180 0C (2166 0F) for 24 h
141313
I I I 11111 , I I I , III
I
1111111'
120121
-t-t-t-H+:
I I I 1111:
112100
u
0

J'
,=~~~~~;;~~~;~~~~'~'II:
I- ua:
",':
..... 800 I I I 111 ,
.....~ I
~
..... I " I III:
0
0. 600
e
0
I I I 1111 1
I

E-<
400 I
I I I I 111
'
I I I 1111:

200
I I I I III. I I III,
I I

10 100 10,000
Time, sec

LEGEND:
Laves (Fe, Ni, Cr), (Nb, Ti, Mo)
1> Ni, Nb (orthorhombic crystal structure)
MC (Nb, Ti)C
y" Ni, (Nb, Ti, AI) (body-centered tetragonal crystal structure)
LIVE GRAPH t' Ni, (Ti, AI, Nb) (face-centered cubic)
Click here to view

CCT diagram

SOURCE: C.1. Garcia, D.E. Camus, E.A. Loria, A.J. DeArdo, "Microstructural Refinement of As-Cast Alloy 718 Via
Thermomechanical Processing," Superalloys 718, 626 and Various Derivatives, E.A. Loria, ed., TMS, 1991, pp 926-941
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 219

Alloy 718
Composition: Ni - 19.9% Fe - 18.2% Cr - 6.1% Nb - 2.9% Mo -
1.16% Ti - 0.2% Mn
Treatment: Cylinders 40 mm long x 10 mm diam were vacuum
sealed in quartz and homogenized at 1180 0C (2166 0F) for 24 h,
water quenched. Dilatometer specimens were machined from the
cylinders. The dilatometer specimens were heated to 1180 0C
(21660F) at 0.6 oC/s, held for 30 min and then cooled at various
rates. Companion specimens were treated identically but water
quenched from different temperatures and examined
metallographically

141313

121313

u 1131313
o
0-
....CIlS 81313
I-<
'3)

~ 61313
'3)
f-<
41313

21313

1 113 lee 1131313 11313,131313


Time, sec

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view LEGEND:
Laves (Fe, Ni, Crh (Nb, Ti, Mo)
l) Nil Nb (orthorhombic crystal structure)
MC (Nb. Ti)C
y" Ni, (Nb, Ti, AI) (body-centered tetragonal crystal structure)
y' Nil rn, AI, Nb) (face-centered cubic)

CCT diagram

SOURCE: A.K. Lis, G.I. Garcia, A.J. DeArdo, "The Errect of Homogenization Treatment and Cooling Rate on the Transformation
Characteristics of Alloy 718," to be presented at the International Symposium on Superalloys, 20-24 September 1992, Seven
Springs Mountain Resort, Champion, PA (and published in proceedings)
220 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Alloy 718
Composition: Ni - 19.9% Fe - 18.2% Cr - 6.1% Nb - 2.9% Mo -
1.16% Ti - 0.2% Mn
Treatment: Cylinders 40 mm long x 10 mm diam were vacuum
sealed in quarts and homogenized at 1180 0C (2166 0F) for 72 h,
water quenched. Dilatometer specimens were machined from the
cylinders. The dilatometer specimens were heated to 1180 0C
(21660F) at 0.6 oC/s, held for 30 min and then cooled at various
rates. Companion specimens were treated identically but water
quenched from different temperatures and examined
metallographically

1400

'LAYS
1200

u 1000
o
0'
~ 800
+"
CIl
I-<
o
~ 600
o
f-<

400

200
(Oe/sec)I

1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000


Time, sec
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view LEGEND:
Laves (Fe, Ni, co, (Nb, Ti, Mo)
l) Ni3 Nb (orthorhombic crystal structure)
MC (Nb, Ti)C
y" Ni3 (Nb, Ti, AI) (body-centered tetragonal crystal structure)
y' Ni3 (Ti, AI, Nb) (face-centered cubic)

CCT diagram

SOURCE: A.K. Lis, G.I. Garcia, A.J. DeArdo, "The Effect of Homogenisation Treatment and Cooling Rate on the Transformation
Characteristics of Alloy 718," to be presented at the International Symposium on Superalloys, 20-24 September 1992, Seven
Springs Mountain Resort, Champion, PA (and published in proceedings)
Atlas of Time-Temperature Dlagrams 221

Udimet 700
Composition: Ni - 14.5% Cr - 17.5% Co - 5.1% MO - 3.7% Ti -
4.1% Al - 0.015% B - 0.06% C
Treatment: Specimenr were annealed above the gamma prime
eolvur temperature at 1171oC (2150OF) for 4 h, followed by a
fact air cool

LIVE GRAPH Gamma prime particle rise VI temperature and time


Click here to view
From 760 to 10QSC (1400 hhhhhhto 2000F)
Volume fraction of gamma prime from 58 to 14%

SOURCE: E.H. Van Der Mholen, J.M. Oblak, O.H. Kriege, Control of Gamma Prime Particle Site and Volume Fraction in the
High Temperature Superalloy Udimet 700, Met. Trans., Vol 2, June 1971, pp 1627-1633
222 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

IN-700
Composition: 44.0% Ni - 16.0% Cr - 0.1% C - 3.0% MO - 29.6%
Co - 2.5% Ti - 3.0% Al

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-precipitation diagram


Click here to view
Showing heat treatment cycle

Udil met-700
Corn1 aosition: 62.7% Ni - 15.0% Cr - 0.07% C - 6.3% MO -
18.5% Co - 3.5% Ti - 4.3% Al - 0.03% B

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-precipitation diagram


Click here to view Showing heat treatment cycle

SOURCE: D.M. Moon unpublished work, as cited by Roland Stickler, Phase Stability in Superalloys, High Temperature
Materials in Gas Turbines, P.R. Sahn, M.O. Speidel, Eds., Elsevier Science Publications, Amsterdam, 1974, pp 116-149
A t/us of Time-Temperature Diagrams 223

Udimet-520 and Udimet-7lC.l


U-520 composition: Ni - 0.03% C - 18.8% Cr - 11.8 Co - 6.0%
MO - 0.9% W - 2.9% Ti - 2.1% Al - 0.02% B
U-710 composition: Ni - 0.08% C - 17.7% Cr - 15.1% Co - 3.0%
MO - 1.4% W - 4.8% Ti - 2.4% AI - 0.02% B

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Showing rigma phaee formation

SOURCE: H. Sueukida, Y. Sakumoto, I. Tsuji, H. Kawai, Strength and Microstructure of Ni-Base Superalloys After Long Term
Heating, Kobe Technical Institute, Akaehi, Japan, 1972
224 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Rene41

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-oxidation diagram
Qualitative portrayal of time and temperature condition8 required to produce 1.0 mil (25.4~ m) per side of internal oxidation and
1, 2, 3, and 4 mile (25.4, 50.8, 76.2 and 101.6Mm) per side of alloy depletion

SOURCE: S.T. Wlodek, The Oxidation of Rene 41 and Udimet 700, Tranr. AIME, Vol 230, August 1964, pp 1078-1090
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 225

Rene41

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-oxidation diagram
Schematic prerentation of the major reaction product8 that can form during oxidation

SOURCE: S.T. Wlodek, The Oxidation of Rene 41 and Udimet 700, Tram. AIME, Vol230, hgu8C 1964, pp 1078-1090
226 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Udimet 700
Composition: Ni - 15.0% Cr - 0.15% Fe - 19.0% Co - 5.15% MO
- 3.49% Ti - 4.45% Al - 0.10% Si - 0.10% Mn - 0.028% B -
0.06% c
Treatment: O.S-in-diam rod, solution annealed at 1177oC
(21SOF) for 4 h, aged at 1080C (1976F) for 4 h + at 843C
(1550F) for 24 h and at 871C (lSOOF) for 16 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-oxidation diagram
Isoreactivity plots for constant amount of subecale damage
Note: complete revereal of behavior at 10SSC (1900OF) and absence of internal oxidation at this temperature

SOURCE: S.T. Wlodek, The Oxidation of Rene 41 and Udimet 700, Trans. AIME, Vol 230, August 1964, pp 1078-1090
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 227

Udimet 700
Composition: Ni - 15.0% Cr - 0.15% Fe - 19.0% Co - 5.15% MO
- 3.49% Ti - 4.45% Al - 0.10% Si - 0.10% Mn - 0.028% B -
0.06% C
Treatment: 0.5-in-diam rod, solution annealed at 1177oC
(2150OF) for 4 h, aged at 1080C (1976F) for 4 h + at 843OC
(1550F) for 24 h and at 871C (1600F) for 16 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-oxidation diagram
Simplified summary of the four main stages of oxidation

SOURCE: S.T. Wlodek, The Oxidation of Rene 41 and Udimet 700, Trans. AIME, Vol 230, August 1964, pp 1078-1090
228 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Rene 41
Comporition: Ni - 20.10% Cr - 2.03% Fe - 0.089% C - 0.25% Si
11.55% Co - 0.05% Mn - 10.17% MO - 1.60% AI - 3.17% Ti -
kO56# B - 0.016% S

Portwcld thermal cyclee ured for developing strain-age cracking C-curves in next 5 diagram

SOURCE: T.F. Berry, W.P. Hughcr, A Study of the Strain-Age Cracking Characterilrtics in Welded Rene 41 - Phase II,
Welding Rerearch Supplement, November 1969, pp SOSr-513s
A t/us of T/me-Temperature Dlugmms 229

Reae 41
Composition: Ni - 20.10% Cr - 2.03% Fe - 0.089% C - 0.25% Si
- 11.65% Co - 0.05% Mn - 10.17% MO - 1.60% Al - 3.17% Ti -
0.0056% B - 0.016% S
Treatment: Mill annealed prior to welding

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-cracking diagram
Crack rurccptibility C-curve aa generated uring the poetweld heat treating procedure in prior figure
Indicated cracking occurred either during irothermal aging, or during cooling

Composition: Ni - 18.64% Cr - 0.20% Fe - 0.075% C - 0.05% Si


10.76% Co - 0.05% Mn - 9.76% MO - 1.62% Al - 3.13% Ti -
bOQ% B - 0.008% P - 0.007% S
Treatment: Mill annealed prior to welding

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-cracking diagram
Crack susceptibility C-curve

SOURCE: T.F. Berry, W.P. Hughes, A Study of the Strain-Age Cracking Characterirticr in Welded Rene 41 - Phlue II,
Welding Research Supplement, November 1969, pp 5059-513~
230 Atlas of Time-TemperutureDiagrams

Rene41
Composition: Ni - 19.02% Cr - 0.30% Fe - 0.07% C - 0.06% Si -
10.64% Co - 0.04% Mn - 9.84% MO - 1.46% Al - 3.18% Ti -
0.0056% B - 0.005% P - 0.005% S
Treatment: Mill annealed prior to welding

Time-temperature-cracking diagram
LIVE GRAPH Crack aurceptibility C-curve
Click here to view

High Fe-Si-Mn-S composition: Ni - 19.73% Cr - 2.03% Fe -


0.067% C - 0.18% Si - 11.12% Co - 0.05% Mn - 10.09% MO -
1.60% Al - 3.10% Ti - 0.0045% B - 0.020% S
Low Fe-Si-Mn-S composition: Composition: Ni - 18.64% Cr -
0.20% Fe - 0.075% C - 0.05% Si - 10.76% Co - 0.05% Mn -

Time-temperature-cracking diagram
Comparison of the crack susceptibilities of high Fe-Si-Mn-S and low Fe-Si-Mn-S heats

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: T.F. Berry, W.P. Hugher, A Study of the Strain-Age Cracking Characterirticr in Welded Rene 41 - Phase II,
Welding Research Supplement, November 1969, pp 505s-5139
Atlus of T/me-TemperatureDiagrams 231

Rene 41
Composition: Ni - 19.02% Cr - 0.30% Fe - 0.07% C - 0.06% Si -
10.84% Co - 0.04% Mn - 9.84% MO - 1.45% Al - 3.18% Ti -
0.0056% B - 0.005% P - 0.005% S
Overage treatment: Aged at 1080C (1975F) for 30 min, cool
at -2 to SC/min to Q62C (1800F), hold for 4 h, cool at -2 to
SC/min to 871C (1600F), hold for 4 h, cool at -2 to
SC/min to 760C (14OOF) hold for 16 h, air cool to room
temperature

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-cracking diagram
Annealed VI overaged crack susceptibility C-curve
The dotted curve, shown for comparison, is for the mill annealed alloy
The test data are for the overaged specimens

SOURCE: T.F. Berry, W.P. Hughes, A Study of the Strain-Age Cracking Characteristics in Welded Rene 41 - Phase II,
Welding Research Supplement, November lQ69, pp SOSs-513s
232 Atlas of lime-Temperature Diagrams

Waspaloy
Nominal composition: Ni - 20% Cr - 14% Co - 4% MO - 3% Ti -
l%Al

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature cracking diagram


Port-weld heat treatment cracking tendency an a function of aging time and temperature

SOURCE: W.A. Owcramki, Process and Metallurgical Factom in Joining Superalloy8 and Other High Service Temperature
Materiala, 1977 an published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Nonferrous Alloys, September 1986, Code 4208, p 36

Composition: Ni - 0.071% C - 0.004s Si - 0.062% Mn - 0.002% P -


0.004% S - 19.36% Cr - 13.9% Co - 0.20% Fe - 4.40% MO - 1.55%
Al - 3.03% Ti - 0.062% Zr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Gamma prime phase only

SOURCE: Sadao Ohta, Ken-ichi Aota, Takemitru Honjo, Toshiya Moriyama, Hot Workability of Several Fe, Ni and Co-Baaed
Alloys, Kobe Rer. Dev., Vol S2, No. S, July 1982, p 14
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 233

IN-100
Nominal composition: Ni - 15% Co - 10% Cr - 5.5% Al - 4.7%
Ti - 3% MO - 0.95% V

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-trannlformation diagram
Transformation to sigma phase for as-cent and forged alloy for two level8 of electron vacancy concentration

SOURCE: Robert L. Dreehfield, Richard L. Aahbrook, Further Observation8 on the Formation of Sigma Pheee in a Nickel Beae
Superalloy (IN-lOO), NASA TN D-8015, September 1970, aa publirhed in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Nonferrour
Alloys, December 1978, Code 4212, p 8
234 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

IN-100
Nominal composition: Ni - 16% Co - 10% Cr - 5.5% AI - 4.7%
Ti - 9% MO - 0.96% V

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Fblation for the onset of sigma phase precipitation for medium and high electron vacancy compositions, and in fine and coarse
grain rise structure

SOURCE: Robert L. Dreshfield, Richard L. Ashbrook, Sigma Phase Formation and Its Effect on Stress-Rupture Properties of
IN-100, NASA TN D-6185, September 1970, as published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook, Nonferrous Alloys,
December 1978, Code 4212, p 8
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 235

IN-100
Nominal composition: Ni - 15% Co - 10% Cr - 5.5% Al - 4.7%
Ti - S% MO - 0.96% V

Time-temperature-oxidation diagram
Summary of main 6tager of oxidation

SOURCE: G.E. Weeielewrki, Nickel-Ba6e Superalloy Oxidation, AFML-TR-67-30, January 1967, a6 published in Aerospace
Structural Metal6 Handbook, Nonferrous Alloyr, December 1978, Code 4212, p 9
236 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

IN-100
Comporition: Ni - 0.18% C - 14.26% Co - 10.26% Cr - 2.97%
MO - 5.35% Ti - 5.00% AI - 0.30% Fe - 0.92% V - 0.012% B -
0.05% Zr

As-Cast As-Cast As-Cast As-Cast


+ + t t
Phalres As- 1800F/13,000 psi, I 700F/20.000 psi I 500F/50,000 psi, I 350F/70,000 psi.
Present cart 1592.7hr 2056.1 hr 769.3 hr 1827.1hr
TIC 4.3oA 4.31A 4.31A 4.31A 4.31A
Strong weak to Moderate Strong Strong
moderate weak
a N. D: c = 4.62A c = 4.6OA c = 4.59A c = 4.58A
a = 8&A a = 8.8SA a = 8.85A a = 8.83A
c/a = 0.52 c/a = OS2 c/a = 0.52 c/a = 0.52
Very weak Weak Moderate Strong Moderate
M23C6 IO.67A 10.71A 10.71A 10.71A 10.68A
very weak Strong Strong Moderate strong Moderate

M6C I I.OIA N. D. N. D. 1 I .06A ?


very weak Very weak
hi& 10.92A It ? 10.98A ?
Very weak Weak

*Not detected.
tPresence or absence questionable.
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Shows start of rigma phase formation

SOURCE: J.R. Mihalirin, C.G. Bieber, R.T. Grant, Sigma - Its Occurrence, Effect, and Control in Nickel-Base Superalloys,
Tranr. AWE, Vol 242, December 1968, pp 2399-2414
A t/as of T/me-Temperutufe Diagrams 237

Alloy 713C
Comporition: Ni - 12.77% Cr - 0.07% Fe - 0.10% C - 0.22% Si -
0.012% B - 4.52% MO - 5.94% Al - 0.80% Ti - 2.08% Nb+Ta -
0.12% Zr

Phuce Prceent and Relative Abandancce from Electrolytic Extractions (d spacing in A)

PiUScS 2lOOF/ 19OOF/ 1IWFI I7OOP 15OOFl I SOOFl I SOOF/


Resenl AI-cUl IOhr mohr 1ohf looohr swhr lowhr 3wohr
4.40A 4.40A 4.40A 4.40A 4.40A 4&A 4.40A 4.40A
Strong Suon5 We& Strong Moderate Strong Slroq S-U
a - a.96A a - 8.96A a - 8.9SA
c - 4.63A c - 4.63A c - 4&A
c/o - 0.52 c/a - 0.52 c/a - 0.52
Mod.W+Mod Moderate Mod. - Mod. St
10.6oA 10.73A 10.6aA 10.72A 10.72A 10.72A I0.73A
Weak Strong Week to Mod. strong Mod.W-Mod Mod.W*Mod Moderate
7 Mod. weak
I l.27A I 0.9SA 11.00A Il.lSA 10.95A II.OOA 11.06A II.WA
WCrk Mod. weak Mod. weak Weak WC8k WC& Weak + MW
Il.lSA ll.WA
Weak Weak
10.99A
we*
10.87A I 0.93A 10.87A lO.aSA I0.86A
Weak Weak Weak Week + MW Weak
10.86A
Weak
a - S.aOA a - 5.82A a - 5aOA a - 3.77A a - 5.74A a - 5.81A a - S.76A
c-3.14A c- uSA -. c-3.iSA c-3.13A c-3.11A c-3.15A c-3.12A
a - 5.73A cJa - 0.54 a - 5.76A c/a = 0.54 c/a - 0.54 a - 5.73A cfa - 0.54
c-3.11A Weak c-3.12A Weak c-3.11A Weak (?)
cJa - 0.54 cfa - 0.54 c/a - 0.54
Weak

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Start of M2& and rigma phaee formation

Compilation of phaeer prerent and relative abundances from electrolytic extractionr

SOURCE: JR Mihaliein, C.C. Bieber, R.T. Grant, Sigma - Itr Occurrence, Effect, and Control in Nickel-Baee Superalloye,
Tranr. AIME, Vol 242, December lQ08, pp 2599-2414
238 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

IN-100 (Modified) and AF-2-IDA (Modified)


IN-100 Nb-modified (PM) - comporition: Ni - 11.9% Cr - 17.7%
Co - 3.3% MO - 5.2% Al - 4.2% Ti - 1.4% Nb - 0.024% B -
0.06% Zr - 0.09% C
IN-100 Nb-modified (CE) - compoeition: Ni - 12.1% Cr - 17.4%
Co - 3.2% MO - 5.3% Al - 4.4% Ti - 1.6% Nb - 0.028% B -
0.06% Zr - 0.08% C
AF-2-IDA Nb-C-modified (PM) - comporition: Ni - 12.1% Cr -
10.0% Co - 5.7% W - 2.9% MO - 4.8% Al - 3.1% Ti - 1.5% Nb -
1.5% Ta - 0.018% B - 0.08% Zr - O.OQ% C
AF-2-IDA Nb-C-modified (CE) - composition: Ni - 12.0% Cr -
10.3% Co - 5.5% W - 2.9% MO - 4.7% Al - 2.9% Ti - 1.4% Nb -
1.6% Ta - 0.020% B - 0.11% Zr - 0.09% C
PM = powder metallurgy
CE = caee and extruded
Treatment: Both PM and CE material8 were given identical
heat treatmente, which consisted of a partial gamma prime
solution treatment at temperaturee 20C (SSF) below the
gamma prime aolvus for 2 h, followed by cooling in air, a
carbide-etabilising heat treatment at 980C (1796OF) for 8 h,
followed by an air cool, and a gamma prime precipitation cycle
of 760C (14OOF) for 8 h. To observe the formation of sigma
phase the heat-treated specimens were exposed to temperatures
from 708 to 980C (1300 to 18OOOF) for various times in argon

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Start of sigma phase

PM modified versions of IN-100 (Alloy 3) and AF-2-IDA (Alloy 6) VII conventional wrought

SOURCE: C.C. Law, W. Wallace, C.P. Ashdown, D.A. Grey, Sigma Phase Formation in Conventional and PM Nickel-Bane
Superalloys, Metal Science, Vol 13, November 1979, pp 627-634
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 239

IN-738
Heat A, nominal composition: Ni - 0.12% C - 15.86% Cr - 8.40%
Co - 1.93% Mo - 2.60% W - 3.42% Al - 3.50% Ti - 0.92% Nb -
1.80% Ta - 0.070% Zr - 0.0105% B
Heat B, high Cr: Ni - 0.086% C - 18.57% Cr - 7.88% Co - 1.80%
Mo - 2.53% W - 3.35% Al - 3.43% Ti - 0.92% Nb - 1.72% Ta -
0.048% Zr - 0.0115% B
Heat C, high Mo+W: Ni - 0.078% C - 16.61% Cr - 8.39% Co-
1.99% Mo - 3.32% W - 3.32% Al - 3.42% Ti - 0.89% Nb - 1.75%
Ta - 0.048% Zr - 0.0118% B
Heat D, high hardness: Ni - 0.077% C - 16.60% Cr - 8.40% Co -
1.75% Mo - 2.55% W - 3.56% Al - 3.70% Ti - 1.15% Nb - 1.86%
Ta - 0.05% Zr - 0.0115% B

950
0
0

.. oJ
::l
":3. 900
II>
Po
E
II>
E-<
950

100 10 1 10 2
Time, h
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Effect of composition on sigma phase formation

SOURCE: E. Erdis, et al., Final Report, Sulzer Bros., July 1977, as cited by T. Geiger, R. Stickler, G.H. White, "The Structural
Stability of Ni-Cr Base Superalloys during Long-Time Exposure at Elevated Temperatures," High-Temperature Alloys for Gas
Turbines, Applied Science Publishers Ltd., London, 1978, pp 317-333

Inconel 625
Composition: Ni - 0.03% C - 0.10% Mn - 0.25% Si - 0.008% S -
0.011% P - 22.1% Cr - 1.89% Fe - 0.20% Al - 0.22% Ti - 9.1%
Mo - 3.35% Nb+Ta - 0.20% W - 40 ppm B - 50 ppm 0 - 480
ppmN
900 , . . - - - - - O - - - < : > - - - O - - - - - - r - - - - - ,

800...-----0--"*1
o
'0
'+'
~.
::l
..
":3
II>
700 I---<>T--+-O--<:>---O---O-...~.------~
~
E-<
t>o
I::
'Q 600 I---(>--~~-<>--_O----<:>_---_i
-<
o no incoherent phases
li!1 rods
., Ni3(Nb Mo) needles and rods

SOO, 10 700 1000 70000


Aging Time, h
LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Click here to view

SOURCE: F. Gazarolli, A. Gerscha, K.P. Francke, "Studies of the Precipitation Behaviour and Mechanical Properties of Inconel
Alloy 625," Z. Metallkunde, Vol 60, 1969, pp 643-652
240 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Inconel 625
Composition: Ni - 0.016% C - 0.8% Si - 0.06% Mn - 0.006% P -
0.006% S - 21.8% Cr - 0.027% Co - 9.06% Mo - 0.2% Ti - 0.1%
AI - 2.4% Fe - 0.023% Cu - 3.7% Nb+Ta - 1 ppm B
Treatment: Solution annealed 1160 0C (2102 0F) for 3 h, water
quenched. Aging done in a vacuum

t
20' 3h20' 16h40' 60h 166h40' 460h 1000h
600 I I I I

M23 C6 (1) M 28 C6 (2) \ . Ni8(NbMo)


o
o
~- 600
>-r r
~
~QI
\\ \ _\
\
'"
~
~
QI

700
~,

<,
:-.,."
<, .......
Ni3(NbX)/.....

"
\ "

'\~
- i""--i
I:l
'!i'o r-....
-< ........ .
T-
/
108
LIVE GRAPH Aging time, t, min
Click here to view
(1) = For short aging times, M28C6 is precipitated at grain boundaries, dislocations and twin boundaries

(2) = M23C6 precipitates within the grains and grow slowly (for t >60 h, needle and plate-shaped carbides are formed)

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram

SOURCE: H. Bohm, K. Erlich, K.H. Kramer, "The Precipitation Behaviour of the Nickel-Base Alloy Inconel 626," Metall., Vol 24,
1970, pp 189-144
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 241

Inconel 625
Composition: Ni - 0.029% C - 0.S4% Si - 0.S8% Mn - 0.009% P
- 0.004% S - 22.67% Cr - l.SS% Fe - 8.75% Mo - 0.17% Ti-
S.72% Nb - 0.15% Al - 0.0071% N
Treatment: Solution treated at 11500C )2102 0F) for S h, water
quenched, followed by a precipitation anneal at temperatures
between 600 and 11000C (1112 and 20120F) for 5 min to SOOO h
1150

o
1100
1050
1000
"
~ - .......... ......--
"-
o
~
f
950 I-T
900
-,
~
~
..... ~
- ~ -
! """-
..........
-.............. ......... <,
r-;
I
"..... ....... -- ,-
AIN/M2X
--.,
,....
........M2SC6 (end)
_

-:
bO
s:: 750 ........
.
~ i"--.. M~ r-; i" t" ~
~
700

650
--.......r--....... " r-........
i'--. ~
f::: ~. -....~
(Mo, Nb) NiS
...........
600
~?~ir
D,33 3 10 30 SO 100 ~ JOO SOO 1000 3000
Annealing Time, h

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Gamma double prime - NiSNb is tetragonal = gamma double prime
NiS(Nb,Mo) - orthorhombic = delta phase

NOTE: During aging, carbides M2SC6 and M6C, carbonitrides of type MX, the intermetallic phase gamma." -NbNiS' (Mo,Nb)NiS
and, to a small extent, eta-NisTi precipitated out. A phase was also observed, which could not be identified exactly. It is
presumably a niobium carbonitride of type M2X but could also possibly be AIN

SOURCE: Ekkehard Schnabel, Hans-Jurgen Schuller, Paul Schwaab, "The Precipitation and Recrystallieatlon Behaviour of the
Nickel-Base-Alloy Inconel 625," Practical Metallography, Vol 8, September 1971, pp 521-527
242 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Inconel 625
Nominal composition: 61.0% NHCo - 21.6% Cr - 9.0% Mo -
3.66% Nb+Ta - 2.6% Fe - 0.06% C - 0.26% Mn - 0.008% S -
0.26% Si - 0.2% AI - 0.2% Ti
Treatment: Annealed at 982 0C (1800 0F) for 30 min, water
quenched, subjected to sensitir:ing heat treatments of 638 to
871C (1000 to 1600~) for 1 h, and air cooled. Specimens were
then subjected to the ASTM A262 boiling 66% nitric acid test
1800
(982)

.
G
1700
(927)

.
' -"
I>< 1600
(871)
OJ"
\.< 1500
...;>
III
(816)
\.<
OJ 1400
I-<
'"
~ (760) < 40 mpy
1lO 1300
....eN (704)
....
.......CIl 1200
(649)
s:
OJ
til
1100
(593)

1000
(538)
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000

Time at Temperature, hr
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-sensitir:ation diagram

SOURCE: J.A. Harris, R.C. Scarberry, "Effect of Metallurgical Reactions in Inconel Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy 625 on
Corrosion Resistance in Nitric Acid," Journal of Metals, Vol 23, September 1911, pp 45-49
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 243

Inconel 625
Nominal composition: 61.0% NHCo - 21.6% Cr - 9.0% Mo -
3.66% Nb+Ta - 2.6% Fe - 0.06% C - 0.26% Mn - 0.008% S -
0.26% Si - 002% AI - 0.2% Ti
Treatment: Annealed at 982 0C (18000F) for 30 min, water
quenched, subjected to sensitizing heat treatments of 638 to
871C (1000 to 1600~) for 1 h, and air cooled. Specimens were
then subjected to the ASTM A262 boiling 66% nitric acid test

Relative amount. and composition. of phase. present after anneal at 982C (1800,,) for 1 h.
water quench and age treatments listed below

Temper. Time at Phases Present*


ature, Temper. Cb Residue Analyslsp" %
of (OC) ature, hr (C, N) MaC M.CI M.ClI Ni Cr Cb a Other"
1200 1 M A 18 6 40 30 6
(649) 10 M A 17 8 38 29 8
100 M A 25 10 32 26 7
1000 M A R 40 17 19 19 5
1300 1 M A 18 6 40 30 6
(704) 10 M A 21 9 35 27 9
100 A R 40 14 19 21 6
1000 MR A 26 21 18 31 4
1400 1 M A 19 6 40 29 6
(760) 10 M A 23 9 32 30 6
100 A A 28 7 23 40 2
1000 VA 31 7 17 43 2
1500 1 M A 21 7 37 30 5
(616) 10 MR A M 24 8 30 33 5
100 MR M A 38 5 21 33 3
1000 MR A 39 4 21 34 2
1600 1 M A 17 6 39 30 8
(871) 10 R A R MR 38 5 31 27 4
100 MR A 36 3 27 32 2
1000 R A 36 3 31 27 3
1700 1 M A 18 7 39 29 7
(927) 10 A R 29 5 34 28 4
100 R 40 3 32 23 2
1000 A 35 4 30 26 5

A =
abundant; R = rare; M = medium; VA = very abundant.
.. Iron and titanium.

11100
(982)
1700 ) 4
.
,...
u (927)

.
' -'
1&0
1600 6 3
(871)
OJ"
I< 1500 7
B (816)
'"
I<
OJ 1400 6
~
!-'
(760)

IlO lJOO
....Nc: (704)
....... 1200 6
.... (649)
s'"
fJ)
1100
(593)
1000
(538)
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000

LIVE GRAPH Time at Temperature, hr


Click here to view

LEGEND:
Labels = %Cr in extracted carbide residues Time-temperature-sensitization diagram
Broken-line curves enclose areas of moderate sensitization and Correlation of sensitization with carbide precipitation
excessive sensitization from prior diagram MaC is the predominant carbide

SOURCE: J .Ao Harris, RoC. Scarberry, "Effect of Metallurgical Reactions in Inconel Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy 626 on
Corrosion Resistance in Nitric Acid," Journal of Metals, Vol 23, September 1971, pp 45-49
244 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Inconel 625
Nominal composition: 61.0% NHCo - 21.6% Cr - 9.0% Mo -
3.66% Nb+Ta - 2.6% Fe - 0.06% C - 0.26% Mn - 0.008% S -
0.26% Si - 0.2% Al - 0.2% Ti
Treatment: Annealed at 1149 0C (2100 0F) for 30 min, water
quenched, subjected to sensitizing heat treatments of 638 to
871C (1000 to 1600~) for 1 h, and air cooled. Specimens were
then subjected to the ASTM A262 boiling 66% nitric acid test
1800,-------r------r-----r-----...------,
(982)

1700
(927)

..... 1600
(871)
..
I-< 1500
::> < 40 mpy
.,
'-' (816)
..
I-<
Cl.
1400
(760)
40-150 mpy
~
f-o
co 1300
....c (704)
....
N

....
U
1200
CIl (649)
"CJ
VI
1100
(593)
1000 L - -.J. --L ....L. -L ---J
(538)
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
Time at Temperature, hr
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-sensitization diagram

SOURCE: J.A. Harris, R.C. Scarberry, "Effect of Metallurgical Reactions in Inconel Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy 626 on
Corrosion Resistance in Nitric Acid," Journal of Metals, Vol 23, September 1971, pp 46-49
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 245

Inconel 625
Nominal composition: 61.0% NHCo - 21.6% Cr - 9.0% Mo -
3.66% Nb+Ta - 2.6% Fe - 0.06% C - 0.26% Mn - 0.008% S -
0.26% Si - 0.2% AI - 0.2% Ti
Treatment: Annealed at 12040C (22000F) for 1 h, water
quenched, subjected to sensitir;ing heat treatments of 638 to
871 0C (1000 to l600~) for 1 h, and air cooled. Specimens were
then subjected to the ASTM A262 boiling 66% nitric acid test

Relative amounts and compositions of phases present after anneal at 1204C (22001') for 1 h.
water quench and age treatments listed below

Temper- Time at Phases Present


ature, Temper- Cb Residue Analysis, %
OF (OC) ature, hr (C, N) M6C M6 C l M6 C ll M28 C6 Ni Cr Cb Mo Other H
1200 100 A R R 12 10 49 13 16
(649)
1300 100 A R M 7 18 48 9 18
(704) 1000 A R A 10 33 27 13 17
1400 10 A R 9 13 44 9 25
(760) 100 A R M 7 18 48 9 18
1000 A R A R 13 14 32 29 12
1500 10 A R 9 12 48 12 19
(816) 100 M A R 16 10 41 20 13
1000 R A 21 12 24 34 7
1600 1 A M 10 13 52 11 14
(871) 10 A A 11 Ii 54 19 10
100 A R 21 8 37 28 6
1000 A A 19 4 33 39 4
iroo 1 A A 7 5 61 15 13
(927) 10 M A 15 5 47 23 10
100 A 19 8 36 32 5
1000 A 16 4 44 32 4

A =abundant; R = rare; M medium; VA = very abundant,


I ron and titanium.

1800
(982)

1700 - 5 5 8 4
U (927)
~ -------
1600
I<-
0 (871)
OJ-
J.<
1500 12 10 12
.....
;l (816)
J.<
OJ 1400 ,
I
. ,,- /'

14
c. (760) .... ....
eOJ
~ .... ....
1300 18 33
00
(704)
<,
....
....s:: <,

.......N 1200 - 10
....
<Il
(649)
e
OJ
til 1100
(593)
1000
(538)
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000

LIVE GRAPH Time at Temperature, hr


Click here to view

Legend:
Labels == %Cr in extracted carbide residues Time-temperature-sensitir;ation diagram
Broken-line curves enclose areas of moderate aenaitlsation and Correlation of aensitisation with carbide precipitation
excessive sensitir;ation from prior diagram

SOURCE: J .A. Harris, R.C. Scarberry, "Effect of Metallurgical Reactions in Inconel Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy 626 on
Corrosion Resistance in Nitric Acid," Journal of Metals, Vol 23, September 1971, pp 46-49
246 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Inconel 625
Composition: 60.96% Ni - 22.21% Cr - 3.61% Fe - 8.97% Mo -
8.60% Nb+Ta - 0.19% Al - 0.27% Ti - 0.26% Si - 0.06% Mn -
0.006% P - 0.004% S - 0.08% Cu - 0.03% C
Treatment: Solution annealed material obtained by heat
treating mill annealed material at 11490C (2100 0F) for 1 h, air
cooled
Ii"~n

y~ PRESENT
... H6C (2) PRESENT
6 PRESENT
1600
T ~ PRESENT
0.6 0 Y' PHASES NOT PRESENT

1500

l:
~
... 1~00

s'"...
:>

n. 1300.
.......:r
e>
~
c 1200.
..J
0
:l:

1100

1000

900
\0 \00 1000 10,000

HOLDING TIHE (HR)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
(a) data based on solution-annealed material
(b) data based on mill-annealed material

SOURCE: O.F. Kimball, P.K. Gantsel, Thermal Stability of Inconel 626 - Principal Metallurgy," Gulf-GA-AI2688, October 1978
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 247

Inconel 625
Composition: 60.64% Ni - 0.02% C - 0.09% Mn - 0.19% Si -
22.14% Cr - 4.06% Fe - 9.0% Mo - 3.39% Nb+Ta - 0.22% AI -
0.24% Ti - 0.001% B - 0.06% Co
Treatment: Hot-rolled, nucleated at 649 0C (1200 0F) for 10 h,
then aged as shown

x- OBSERVED YIELD STRENGTH


ICALCULATED YIELD STRENGTH)
b. - CALCULATED MAXIMUM YIELD STRENGTH

II.
I
...
D:
::l
l-
ot
...
D:
6-
:l
-----
~ 1200
III
z
i;
ot 124.8
X 1123.11

I
90 100 110
;;
120 130

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-aging diagram


Click here to view Contours of equal yield strength (ksi)

SOURCE: S.C. Hayes, "Heat-Treatment Parameters for the Aging of Alloy 626," General Electric Company, Knolls Atomic Power
Laboratory, Schenectady NY, Contract DE-ACI2-76SN00062, September 1981
248 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Inconel 625
Composition: 60.64% Ni - 0.02% C - 0.09% Mn - 0.19% Si -
22.14% Cr - 4.06% Fe - 9.0% Mo - 3.39% Nb+Ta - 0.22% AI -
0.24% Ti - 0.001% B - 0.06% Co
Treatment: Hot-rolled, then aged as shown

x- OBSERVED YIELD STRENGTH


(CALCULATED YIELD STRENGTHI
~ - CALCULATED MAXIMUM YiElD STRENGTH
1400

99.0

...
...a:
I

:>
t-

~I
el
...
a:
CL 129.1
112B.61
~ 1200 X 126.2 126.~
~
X
t- 124.8 126.6 1128.01
C) 110
z
C)
eI

----------------- 1118.81 x II 8.7

90.4

I I I I
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
AGING TIME - HOURS

Time-temperature-aging diagram
LIVE GRAPH Contours of equal yield strength (ksi)
Click here to view

Composition: 60.64% Ni - 0.02% C - 0.09% Mn - 0.19% Si -


22.14% Cr - 4.06% Fe - 9.0% Mo - 3.39% Nb+Ta - 0.22% AI -
0.24% Ti - 0.001% B - 0.06% Co
Treatment: Hot-rolled, mill-annealed, then aged as shown
X - OBSERVED YIELD STRENGTH
ICALCULA'TED YIELD STRENGTH
~ - CALCULATED MAXIMUM YIELD STRENIITH
1400

_ _- - - - - -..... 94.9

~ 1300
...a:I X 1107.01
10~.8
:>
t-
el
...a:
lL 127.1
~ 1200 X
I- ~ 1128.31 112~.81
C)
Z
<;
eI 118.8

1120.11

" ~:------_..:.._----------
..~~ X 99.~

ro I I :;
o 10 20 30 40 ~O 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
AGING TIME- HOURS
Time-temperature-aging diagram
LIVE GRAPH Contours of equal yield strength (ksi)
Click here to view

SOURCE: S.C. Hayes, "Heat-Treatment Parameters for the Aging of Alloy 626," General Electric Company, Knolls Atomic Power
Laboratory, Schenectady NY, Contract DE-AC12-76SN00062, September 1981
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 249

Inconel 625
Composition: 60.96% Ni - 0.02% C - 0.12% Mn - 0.31% Si -
21.94% Cr - 8.82% Fe - 8.94% Mo - 8.47% Nb+Ta - 0.21% Al -
0.20% Ti - 0.06% Co - 0.001% B
Treatment: Hot-rolled, aged as shown
x- OBSERVED YIELD STRENGTH
(CALCULATED YIELD STRENGTH1
II - CALCULATED MAXIMUM YIELD STRENGTH

~._------x-;e.;~----------
X 98.6 __
....
1300
I
~========================~::::::::=--:

~--=--
a: 1110.71 X 109.8
=>
~
~

...a:
<L ues.n
:I X 114.7"'-- 129.0 XI25.8 133.1 X
~ 1200 1132.21
1115.61 ( 127.0 130.7
e> II
z 120, 130
1133.91

(II~X
i5
~

114.2 -- 124.5 X 024.51


...:..:.:.:.::~ _

- II 106.6

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130


AGING TIME - HOURS

Time-temperature-aging diagram
LIVE GRAPH Contours of equal yield strength (ksi)
Click here to view

Composition: 60.96% Ni - 0.02% C - 0.12% Mn - 0.31% Si -


21.94% Cr - 8.82% Fe - 8.94% Mo - 8.47% Nb+Ta - 0.21% Al -
0.20% Ti - 0.06% Co - 0.001% B
Treatment: Hot-rolled, aged as shown

X - OBSERVED YIELD STRENGTH


(CALCULATED YIELD STRENGTH 1
A - CALCULATED MAXIMUM YIELD STRENGTH
1400

X 9B.8

...
~ 1300
...a:
~
~
:>

...
a:
<L
\11)671 X 107.0
---
125.9
~ 1200 X 1126.21
l-
e> II 02C.')1
z
i3
~
1122.41 X 122.7

1100

100 0oL---'----J--..L---..I._ _.L-_-l._ _.L-_-l._ _.L-_-L.._--JL_ _-L._--l


-
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
AGING TIME-HOURS

Time-temperature-aging diagram
LIVE GRAPH Contours of equal yield strength (ksi)
Click here to view

SOURCE: S.C. Hayes, "Heat-Treatment Parameters for the Aging of Alloy 626," General Electric Company, Knolls Atomic Power
Laboratory, Schenectady NY, Contract DE-AC12-76SN00062, September 1981
250 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Custom Age 625 PLUS


Nominal comporition: 61% Ni - 0.01% C - 21% Cr - 6% MO -
3.4% Nb - 1.3% Ti - 0.2% Al - 6% Fe
Treatment: Solution treated at 10SSC (19OOOC) lor 2 h, air
cooled prior to ringle aging

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-hardness on aging diagram

SOURCE: R.B. Frank, T.A. DeBold, Heat Treatment of an Age-Hardenable, Corrosion-Resistant Alloy - UNS NO7718,
Corrorion 90, NACE, 23-27 April 1990, Las Vegar NV
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 251

Alloy 625 (Nicrofer 6020 hMo)


Composition: Ni - 22.26% Cr - 9.27% MO - 2.06% Fe - 0.1% Mn
- 0.04% Si - 0.3% Ti - 3.42% Nb+Ta - 0.14% Al - 0.011% C
Treatment: Annealed at 1120C (2048OF) for 50 min and aged
aa shown

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-toughness diagram
Iso-notched impactr tertr (iro-impact strength curves) at room temperature

Alloy 625 (Nicrofer 6022 hMo)


Comporition: Ni - 21.9% Cr - 8.94% MO - 1.4% Fe - 0.03% Mn
- 0.04% Si - 0.18% Ti - 3.74% Nb+Ta - 0.16% AI - 0.03% C
Treatment: Annealed at Q80C (1798OF) for 50 min and aged as
shown

Time-temperature-toughness diagram
Ieo-notched impact6 tentr (bo-impact etrength curves) at room temperature

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: M. Kohler, Effect of the Elevated-Temperature-Precipitation in Alloy 626 Properties and Microstructure, Superalloye
718, 625 and Variour Derivatives, Edward A. Loria, ed., TMS, 1991, pp 363-374
252 A t/as of lime-Temperature Diagrams

Alloy 625
Composition: Ni - 20.6% Cr - 8.2% MO - 4.3% Fe - 3.6% Nb -
0.1% Co - 0.1% Al - 0.1% Ti - 0.1% Si - 0.1% Mn - 0.03% C
Treatment: solution annealed at 1150C (2102OF), then aged at
600 to 107KC (1112 to 1QWF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view LEGEND:
l MC

0 Met

n M23C6
x gamma double prime
I delta

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram

SOURCE: L. Ferrer, B. Pieraggi, J.F. Uginet, Microstructural Evolution During Thermomechanical Processing of Alloy 625,
Superalloy8 718,625 and Variour Derivativea, Edward A. Loria, ed., TMS, 1991, pp 217-228
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 253

Iaconel X-750
Compoeition: 78.19% Ni - O.OS% C - 0.56% Mn - 6.51% Fe -
0.007% S - 0.27% Si - 0.06% Cu - 15.24% Cr - 0.76% Al -
2.50% Ti - 0.85% Nb+Ta
Treatment: All but one rpecimen were rolution treated at
1150C (2100F), aged for temperature6 and times ehown in the
diagram, then aged at 704C (lSOOF) for 20 h. The one other
specimen wan direct-aged at 704OC (1800F) for 20 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature reneitisation diagram
Indicated by corrorion rate in inches per month (ipm)

SOURCE: E.L. Raymond, Effect of Grain Boundary Denudation of Gamma Prime on Notch-Rupture Ductility of Inconel Nickel-
Chromium Alloys X-760 and 718, Tranr. AIh4E, Vol 289, September 1967, pp 1415-1422
254 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Inconel X-750
Compoeition: 72.02% Ni - 0.06% C - 0.19% Mn - 7.82% Fe -
0.001% S - 0.40% Si - 037% Cu - 14.82% Cr - 0.85% AI -
2.49% Ti - 0.98% Nb+Ta
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1075OC (lQ67oF) for 2 h,
water quenched, and aged

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: INCONEL Alloy X-750, 4th edition, Huntington Alloys, Inc., 1979
A t/as of lime-Temperature Diagrams 255

Hastelloy Alloys
Nominal compositiona:
Hastelloy Alloy C: Ni - 17% MO - 15% Cr - 4.5% W - 6% Fe
Haatelloy Alloy C-4: Ni - ~0.015% C - ~2% Co - 16% Cr -
15.5% MO - ~0.7% Ti - <S% Fe - <l% Mn - <0.08% Si
Hastelloy Alloy C-276: Ni - 13% Cr - 16% MO - <2.5% Co -
3.75% W - 5.5% Fe - ~0.02% C - ~1% Mn

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Beginning of carbide precipitation

SOURCE: Heins Spahn, Performance Requirements for Stainless Steelr in the Chemical Process Industry, Stainless Steel 77,
Climax Molybdenum Co., 1978
256 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Hastelloy C-276
Nominal composition: Ni - 16% Cr - 3.4% W - 6% Fe - 0.01% C
- 0.02% Si - 1% Co - 0.45% Mn - 0.2% V - 16% MO
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1123C (204SF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation-corrosion diagram
Corrosion test solution: 10% HCI test and the ferric sulfate test (50% sulfuric acid plus 42 g/L ferric sulfate)

SOURCE: F.C. Hodge, R.W. Kirchner, An Improved Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy for Corrorion Service, Corrosion 74, NACE, 4-8 March
1974, Chicago IL
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 257

Hastelloy C-4
Nominal composition: Ni - 16% Cr - 0.15% W - 0.3% Fe -
~0.01% C - 0.03% Si - 0.1% Co - 0.05% Mn - 0.03% V - 15%
MO - 0.45% Ti
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1065OC (1950F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation-corrosion diagram
Corrosion test solution: 10% HCl test and the ferric sulfate test (60% sulfuric acid plus 42 g/L ferric sulfate)

SOURCE: F.G. Hodge, R.W. Kirchner, An Improved Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy for Corrosion Service, Corrosion 74, NACE, 4-8 March
1974, Chicago IL
258 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Hastelloy Alloys
Composition Hastelloy C: Ni - 0.04% C - 0.50% 8i - 0.010% P -
0.010% S - 16.00% MO - 4.00% W - 1.00% Co - 5.00% Fe -
0.35% Mn - 16.00% Cr - 0.20% V
Composition Hastelloy C-276: Ni - 0.004% C - ~0.01% Si -
0.010% P - 0.003% S - 0.22% Al - 16.25% MO - ~0.01% Zr -
3.70% W - 0.04% Cu - 1.08% Co - 6.98% Fe - 0.34% Mn -
16.38% Cr - 0.21% V - 0.026% Mg

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Precipitate Formation in Hastelloy Alloy C-276

Temperature
1200 F 14OOF 16OoF 18ooF 2000F
Time Form Time Form Time Form Time Form Time Fom

Min. Min. Min. Min. Min.


5 none 5 none 5 P 5 none 5 none
15 none 15 none 15 P 15 P 15 none
30 none 30 P 30 P 30 Ni,Mo6 30 P
Hrs. l-b. HS. HlS. Hrs.
1 none 1 P 1 Ni,hlo6 1 NiTMob 1 NiTMob
2 none 2 P 2 NiTMob 2 NiTMob 2 NiTMoe
4 none 4 P s NiTMob 4 Ni7hloh 4 Ni7M06
8 none 8 NiTMob NiThlo, 8 NiTMob 8 Ni7M06
41.7 P 9.7 P 12.5 NiTMob 10.9 NiTMob
70.2 none 117.7 NiTMob 62.0 NiTMob 630.4 NiThlo6
161.9 none 341.9 NiTMob 160.6 N17M06 2369.5 NiTMob
292.6 M6C Type 1000 NiThlo,
560.5 hl& Type 1417 Ni7M06
763.5 none
IO00 P

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Comparison of Hastelloy Alloys C and C-276

SOURCE: R.B. Leonard, Thermal Stability of Hastelloy Alloy C-276, Corrosion, Vol 25, No. 5, May 1969, pp 222-228
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 259

Hastelloy C
Composition: Ni - 14.94-16.46% Cr - 15.47-16.47% MO -
3.38-4.02% W - LOS-6.77% Fe - 0.74-1.869 Co - 0.42-0.6996
Mn - 0.42-0.7396 Si - 0.22-0.3256 V - 0.04-0.08% C -
0.004-0.012% P - O.OOS-0.011% S
Treatment: Aged from 540 to 1230C (1000 to 2250F) for 1.5
to Q6 h

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation diagram

SOURCE: C.H. Samans, A.R. Meyer, G .F. Tisinai, Sensitization and Thermal Stabilication of Ni-Cr-MO-Fe-W Alloy,
Corrosion, Vol 22, December 1966, pp 336-345
260 Atlas of lime-Temperature Diagrams

Hastelloy B-2
Compoeition: Ni - 1.00% max Co - 1.00% max Cr -
26.00%~80.00% MO - 2.00% max Fe - 0.10% max Si - 1.00%
max Mn - 0.02% max C - 0.040% max P - 0.080% max S

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-intergranular-corrosion diagram

Left: Ni - 27% MO - 0.2% Fe and O.OlS-0.02% C VII 0.04% C


Right: Ni - 27% MO - 8.5% Fe and O.OlS-0.02% C VI 0.04% C

SOURCE: T.V. Svirtunova, Molybdenum in Nickel-Bane Corrorion-Reristsnt Alloyrr, presented at a Soviet-American


Symposium held at the Central Scientific Research Institute for Ferrous Metals (TsNIChM) in Moecow, 17-18 January 1978, on
the theme: New Developments in the Field of Molybdenum-Alloyed Cast Iron and Steel
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 261

Hastelloy B-2
Nominal composition: Ni - 1.00% max Co - 1.00% max Cr -
26.00%-SO.0096 MO - 2.00% max Fe - 0.10% max Si - 1.00%
max Mn - 0.02% max C - 0.040% max P - O.OSO% max S
VI

Hastelloy B-282
Nominal comporition: Ni - 0.40% Cr - 4.80% Fe - 0.02% C -
0.31% Si - 0.52% Mn - 37.50% MO - 0.33% V

Time-temperature-intergranular-corrosion diagrama (top)

Time-temperature-precipitation diagrama (bottom)

Corrosion test8 in boiling 21% HCI, or at 186OC (36~~~)

SOURCE: T.V. Svistunova, Molybdenum in Nickel-Bane Corrosion-Rerirtant Alloyr, presented at a Soviet-American


Symposium held at the Central Scientific Research Inrtitute for Ferrous Metalr (TsNIChM) in Moecow, 17-18 January 1975, on
the theme: New Developments in the Field of Molybdenum-Alloyed Cast Iron and Steel
262 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Single Crystal Alloy 800


Composition: 63.6% Ni - 8.0% Cr - 7.5% Co - 1.6% MO - 4.0%
W - 5.0% Ta - 1.5% Ti - 6.8% Al - S.O% R.e
1% R.e composition: 63.5% Ni - 7.5% Cr - 5.0% Co - 2.0% MO -
3.0% W - 12.0% Ta - 1.0% Ti - 5.0% Al - 1.0% Re
2% Re composition: 63.5% Ni - 7.5% Cr - 6.0% Co - 2.0% MO -
2.0% W - 12.0% Ta - 1.0% Ti - 5.0% Al - 2.0% Re
3% R.e comporition: SS.S% Ni - 7.5% Cr - 5.0% Co - 2.0% MO -
1.0% W - 12.0% Ta - 1.0% Ti - 6.0% Al - 3.0% Re
4% Re composition: 63.5% Ni - 7.5% Cr - 5.0% Co - 2.0% MO -
12.0% Ta - 1.0% Ti - 5.0% Al - 4.0% Re
Treatment: Fully solutioned and aged rpecimenr were exposed
at 871,982, 1093, 1149, and 1204C (1600, 1800, 2000, 2100
and 22OOOF)for times up to 1000 h to determine the occurrence
of topologically cloee packed (TCP) phases

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time for Start of TCP Phases at Various Temperatures of Exposure for Alloy 800
Time Temperature
Hours 1600F lBQQT 2000F nOOF 2200F
20 N N N N N
35 N N T N N
50 N N T N N
75 N N TCP T N
N T TCP T N
:: N TCP TCP - -
1000 T TCP TCP - -
N = None, T = Trace Amounts of TCP, TCP = minor to moderate amounts of TCP
Time-temperature-precipitation diagram
Single Crystal Alloy 800 VI 4 similar compositions

SOURCE: R. Darolia, D.F. Lehrman, R.D. Field, R. Sieeon, Formation of Topologically Cloned Packed Phases in Nickel Base
Single Cry&al Superalloyr, Superalloy8 1988, S. Reichman, et al., Eds., TIM, 1988, pp 266-264
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 263

Nimonic 80A
Nominal composition: Ni - 0.06% C - 20% Cr - 2.4% Ti - 1.4% Al

Treatment: Heat treated at lO@C (1976OF) for 8 h, air cool


Treatment: Heat treated at 1080C (1978OF) for 8 h, water
quench

Treatment: Heat treated at 1200C (21920p) for 2 h, air cool


Treatment: Heat treated at 1060C (1976F) for 8 h. air
cool + 860C (1562F) for 24 h, air cool

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-precipitation diagram for carbidea after various heat treatments
Click here to view

SOURCE: EA. Fell, Metallurgia, Vol 63, 1961, pp 157-166


244 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Inconel 600

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-carbide-precipitation diapam

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-carbide-precipitation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: R.C. Scarberry, S.C. Pearman, J.R. Crum, Precipitation Reactions in Inconel Alloy 600 and Their Effect on Corrosion
Behavior, Corrosion, Vol S2, No. 10, October 1976, pp 401-406
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 265

Inconel 600

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-sensitization diagram in two conditions


Click here to view The curves enclose areas of high corrorion rates in boiling 70% nitric acid

SOURCE: R.C. Scarberry, S.C. Pearman, J.R. Crum, Precipitation Reactions in Inconel Alloy 600 and Their Effect on Corrosion
Behavior, Corrosion, Vol 32, No. 10, October 1976, pp 401-406
266 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ioconel 600

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature -carbide-precipitation diagram for material having various carbon contents


Broken line curves show time below solution temperature at the center of a 250 mm (10 in) diameter round during air cooling
from the indicated temperatures

SOURCE: R.C. Scarberry, S.C. Pearman, J.R. Crum, Precipitation Reactions in Inconel Alloy 600 and Their Effect on Corroeion
Behavior, Corrosion, Vol 32, No. 10, October 1976, pp 401-406
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 267

Inconel 600

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-carbide-precipitation diagram for material having various carbon contents


Broken line curves show time below solution temperature at the center of a 510 mm (20 in) diameter round during air cooling
from the indicated temperatures

SOURCE: R.C. Scarberry, S.C. Pearman, J.R. Crum, Precipitation Reactions in Inconel Alloy 600 and Their Effect on Corrosion
Behavior, Corrosion, Vol 32, No. 10, October 1976, pp 401-406
268 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Inconel 600

Time-temperature grain boundary microstructure

NOTE:
The grain-boundary carbide precipitate morphology was divided into four classes: fine discrete particles, semicontinuous
precipitate, coarse semicontinuous precipitate, and large discrete precipitates
A floating time scale was used for each thermal treatment temperature so that a precipitate morphology could be assigned to each
thermal treatment
The presence of a chromium-depleted layer and grain-boundary phosphorus segregation are also represented

SOURCE: G.O. Airey, Microstructural Aspects of the Thermal Treatment of Inconel Alloy 600, Metallography, Vol 12, 1980, pp
21-41
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 269

Alloy 600

Time-temperature-sensitisation diagram

Corrosion Tests were conducted in accordance with a modification of ASTM A-262 Practice C (Huey)
Samples were immersed in a boiling 25% nitric acid solution for 48 h

Corrosion values in mg/cm2/day are listed below each symbol

Partial IGA = attack which is 1 grain or less deep

SOURCE: R.G. Ballinger, R.M. Latanision, W.C. Moshier, K.N. Siebein, A Study of the Thermal Aging Behavior of Alloy-600,
proceedings of the International Congress on Metallic Corrosion, Toronto, 3-7 June 1984, Vol 3, National Research Council of
Canada, pp 265-273
Niobium-Base Alloys
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Dlugrums 273

Niobium-Zirconium Alloys
Composition: Nb - 33 at.% Zr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-precipitation on aging

For the reaction p lo 6, + fl, annealed, in oxygen-free Tie-grained alloy (3pm grain size)

Composition: Nb - 26 at.% Zr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation on aging

For the reaction p IO fl, + pz annealed, oxygen-free liie-gmined alloy (4pm grain size)

SOURCE: G.R. Love, M.L. Pickleeimer, The Kinetics of Beta-Phase Decomposition in Niobium (Columbium)-Zirconium, Trans.
AIME, Vol 236, April 1966, pp 430-435
274 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Niobium-Zirconium Alloys
Composition: Nb - 33 at.% Zr

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-precipitation on aging


Click here to view
For he reaction p IO f3, + & in cold-worked, oxygen-free alloy

Composition: Nb - 3S at.% Zr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-precipitation on aging
Nominal reaction-start lines (5% transformation) for various grain sises

SOURCE: G.R. Love, M.L. Pickleeimer, The Kinetics of Beta-Phase Decomposition in Niobium (Columbium)-Zirconium, Trans.
AIME, Vol 236, April 1966, pp 430-435
A t/as of Time-Tempefuture Diagrams 275

Niobium-Zirconium Alloys
Composition: Nb - 33 at.% Zr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-precipitation on aging
Nominal reaction-start lines (5% transformation) in alloy with and without oxygen contamination

SOURCE: G.R. Love, M.L. Picklesimer, The Kinetics of Beta-Phase Decomposition in Niobium (Columbium)-Zirconium, Trans.
AIME, Vol 236, April 1966, pp 430-435
Plutonium-Base Alloys
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 279

Beta Plutonium
Composition: Pure plutonium (600-1000 ppm total impurities)
Treatment: Isothermal reaction curves of the beta to alpha
transformation were obtained by solution heat treating at
176OC (347F) for 1 h, quenching to temperatures between -80
and +QOC (-112 and 194OF), holding isothermally until there
was no further apparent transformation, then quickly taking
the sample from the high temperature bath and quenching into
the low temperature bath

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Beta to alpha transformation

SOURCE: RD. Nelson, Transformation Kinetics of Beta Plutonium, Trans. ASM, Vol 51, 1959, pp 677-682
280 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Electrorefined Plutonium
Composition: Pure plutonium (79 ppm total impurities)
Treatment: Wire specimens were produced by extrusion,
transformed, cut into specimen lengths and individually
electropolished to remove surface oxide. Any retained high-
temperature phaser were eliminated by thermally cycling the
wire 10 timer between +80 and -8OC (176 and -112OF)

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view
Isothermal reaction curves for the alpha to beta transformation

SOURCE: M.E. Faiers, J.S. White, The Alpha to Beta Transformation in Electrorefined Plutonium, Journal of the Institute of
Metals,Vol 93, 1964-65, p 405
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Dlagrams 281

Pure plutonium
Composition: -300 ppm total impurities
Treatment: Specimens were heat treated at 160C (320F) for 1
h in an inert atmorphere, cooled to llOC (X@F), held 1 min
and quenched to the isothermal transformation temperature

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
LIVE GRAPH Data points are only for 5% transformation
Click here to view

SOURCE: R.D. Nelson, The Plutonium Beta to Alpha TTT Curve, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol 93, 1967, pp 238-240
282 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Dilute Plutonium Alloys


Composition: Unalloyed Pu and Pu - 0.82 at.% Ti
Treatment: Specimen8 were heat-treated in a silicone oil bath
at 160C (320F) for SO min to eneure completion of
transformation

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Beta to alpha tranrformation

SOURCE: L.G.T. Davy, M.E. Faiew, J.S. White. The Kinclics of the a - f3 Transformations in Some Diluk Plutonium Alloys, Journal of Nuclear
Materials. Vol 22. 1967. pp 197-204
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 283

Dilute Plutonium Alloys


Composition: Unalloyed Pu and Pu - 1.3 at.% Np
Treatment: Specimen8 were heat-treated in a silicone oil bath
at 160C (32OF) for 30 min to ensure completion of
transformation

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Beta to alpha transformation

SOURCE: L.G.T. Davy, ME. Faien. J.S. While, The Kinetics of the a = p Transformations in Some Dilute Plutonium Alloys. Journal of Nuclear
Materials. Vol 22. 1967, pp l97-2Od
284 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Dilute Plutonium Alloys


Comporition: Unalloyed Pu and Pu - 0.90% Ti
Treatment: Specimen8 were heat-treated in a silicone oil bath
at the appropriate transformation temperature
temperature

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram


Click here to view Alpha to beta transformation

SOURCE: L.G.T. Davy, M.E. Faiew, J.S. White. The Kinclics of Ihe a - f3 Transformations in Some Diluk Pluronium Alloys, Journal of Nuclear
Malerials. Vol 22. 1967. pp 197-204
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 285

Dilute Plutonium Alloys


Composition: Unalloyed Pu and Pu - 1.2% Np
Treatment: Specimena were heat-treated in a silicone oil bath
at the appropriate tranrformation temperature

Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram
LIVE GRAPH Alpha to beta tranrformation
Click here to view

SOURCE: LG.T. Davy, M.E. Faiea. J.S. White. The Kineks of the a - p Tmnsformakms in Some Dilute Plulonium Alloys. Journal of Nuclear
Materials. Vol 22. l%7. pp 197-20-l
286 Atlas of Time-Temperuture Diagrams

Plutonium-Titanium Alloys
Composition: Pu - 0.25 at.% Ti
Treatment: Specimens were beta heat treated in a silicone oil
bath at 160C (SZOF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Beta to alpha transformation

Composition: Pu - 0.82 at.% Ti


Treatment: Specimens were beta heat treated in a silicone oil
bath at 160C (220F) for SO min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Beta to alpha transformation

SOURCE: L.G.T. Davy, J.S. White, The Kinetic8 of the Beta to Alpha Transformation in Plutonium-Titanium Alloys, Journal
of Nuclear Materials, Vol 12, No. 2, 1964, pp 221-225
Atlas of Tlme-Temperature Diagrams 287

Plutonium-Titanium Alloys
Composition: Pu - 1.05 at.% Ti
Treatment: Specimens were beta heat treated in a silicone oil
bath at 160C (320F) for 30 min

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Beta to alpha trandormation

SOURCE: L.G.T. Davy, J.S. White, The Kinetics of the Beta to Alpha Transformation in Plutonium-Titanium Alloys, Journal
of Nuclear Materials, Vol 12, No. 2, 1964, pp 221-225
Silver- Base Alloys
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 291

Ag-Al Alloy
Composition: Ag - 7.02% Al

-- --- -- --+--+-- -.1.----


l ---I 1 =
500
w
0
:~: EOUIL1IBRIUM TEMPER.&TU~E I

eX
cr Q+y
(l)
400 , i
;:::
Z
W
o
.':~
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3
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. I
/3 lUI
I
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",I'-. ~ ~
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(l)

~ ::::--
w

--r--r--.:...
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200
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I
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w
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TIME, SECONDS (LOG)
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: R.D. Reiswig, D.J. Mack, "A Study of the Peritectoid Transformation," Trans. AIME, Vol 216, April 1969, pp 301-307

Ag-Cd Alloy
Composition: Ag - 49.2% Cd
Treatment: Specimens were heated to form beta at 660 0C
(1202 0F) held for 3 h, then transferred to a salt bath at the
desired transformation temperature, held, then water quenched

400

o
0
350

"I
a:
~
I- 300

II:
w
Q.
~
w 250
_ _ _ ,-- ___ ,____ -1____
I-
- - - - 1 - - - -I - - - - , POU"OAPH'(;
, TAMSFOll .. ATlON

I: I
i ,
Tl ""'L"A TUA[
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! :
I

Ie! 10'
I
10
2
10
3
I
10
4
i
i

10
5
i
10
6
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TIIo4E IN SECONDS

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view For a eutectoid alloy

SOURCE: G.R. Speich, David J. Mack, "Silver-Cadmium Eutectoid," Vol 197, Trans. AIME, Vol 197, April 1963, pp 649-663
292 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ag-Cu Alloys

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Gamma transformation

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Alpha prime transformation

SOURCE: D.G. Beck, SM. Copley, M. Baee, The Constitution and Phase Stability of Overlapping Melt Trailr in Ag-Cu Alloys
Produced by Continuous Lacer Melt Quenching, Met. Trans. A, Vol 13A, November 1982, pp 1879-1889
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 293

Ag-Cu Alloys
Composition: Ag - 28.2 at.% Cu
Treatment: Samples were placed in a quartz tube inside a
vertical furnace, held at a temperature appox. 46 0C (113 0F)
above melting point in an argon atmosphere for 2 h, then drop
quenched into a water bath to obtain a fine initial
microstructure. Salt baths and boiling distilled water were used
for the isothermal aging treatments

\ I
\ \
\ \
600 \ \
\ \

500 ', \40%

7%
.
" 'J\:.
69% 50% TRANSFORMATION LINE

15%
200 TRANSFORMATION 11 %.
LINE
100

0
t 10 103 104
TIME (sec)

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Gamma transformation

SOURCE: D.G. Beck, S.M. Copley, M. Bass, "The Constitution and Phase Stability of Overlapping Melt Trails in Ag-Cu Alloyo
Produced by Continuous Laser Melt Quenching," Met. Trans. A, Vol 13A, November 1982, pp 1879-1889

Ag-Sb Alloy
Composition: Ag - 26.0% Sb

500
W
0
~
a::
(!)
~
Z
W
u
en
w
w
a::
(!) 450
W
0
w
a::
::>
I-
~
a:: I /
w
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~
w
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5 2 5 10 2 5 102 2

TIME, MINUTES (LOG)


LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: R.D. Reiswig, D.J. Mack, "A Study of the Peritectoid Transformation," Trans. AIME, Vol 216, April 1969, pp 301-307
Titanium-Base Alloys
Atlas of lime-Temperature Diagrams 297

Ti-AI Alloy
Comporition: Ti - 8% Al
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (18S20F) for SO min in
vacuum by high-frequency induction heating and irothcrmal
quenched to a temperature in the range from SO0 to 700C (672
to 12929) by argon or helium gae cooling. The quenching rate
wae loo-1500c/r

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram

SOURCE: T. Yukawa, S. Ohtani, T. Nishimura, T. Sakai, Phaee Tranrformation of Titanium Alloys by Meana of Automatic
Trannformation Apparatus, proceedings of an International Conference held at the Royal Fertival Hall, London, 21-24 May,
1968, The Science, Technology and Application of Titanium, R.I. Jaffee, N.E. Promiael, eds., Pergamon Prerr, Oxford, 1970, pp
699-710
298 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Titanium Alloys
(Amount8 in atomic percent)

(a) Composition: Ti - 3.1% Bi

(b) Composition: Ti - 3.2% Co

(c) Composition: Ti - 4.6% Cu

(d) Composition: Ti - 4.5% Fe

(e) Composition: Ti - 8.6% Mn

(f) Composition: Ti - 3.3% Ni

(g) Composition: Ti - 5.3% Pb

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

TTT diagrams for the initiation of the proeutectoid alpha reaction and the beginning of the bainite and/or pearlite reaction in the
hypoeutectoid alloys. beta = bee, alpha = hcp, B = bainite, P = pearlite. The hollow, rayed and filled data points indicate
reaction times prior to, at the beginning of, and subsequent to initiation of the proeutectoid alpha reaction (circles) and
compound precipitation in either the bainitic or pearlitic modes (squares).

SOURCE: G.W. Franti et al., A Survey of Eutectoid Decomposition in Ten Ti-X Systems, Met. Trans., Vol 9A, November 1978,
pp 1641-1649
At/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Titanium Alloys
(Amounta in atomic percent)

(a) Composition: Ti - 8.0% Co

(b) Composition: Ti - 14.0% Cr

(c) Composition: Ti - 5.5% Cu

(d) Composition: Ti - 13.0% Fe

(e) Composition: Ti - 5.1% Ni

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

TTT diagrams for the initiation of the proeutectoid alpha or proeutectoid compound reaction and the beginning orthe pearlite or
bainite reaction in the near-eutectoid alloys. Beta = bee, alpha = hcp. B = bainite, P = pearlite, cpd = intermetallic compound.
The hollow, rayed and filled data points indicate reaction times prior to, at the beginning of, and subsequent to initiation of the
proeutectoid alpha reaction (circles) and compound precipitation in either the bainitic or pearlitic modes (squares).

SOURCE: G.W. Franti et al., A Survey of Eutectoid Decomposition in Ten Ti-X Systems, Met. Trans., Vol 9A, November 1978,
pp 1641-1649
300 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Cr Alloys
Comporition: Ti - 235% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Composition: Ti - 4.64% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: P.D. Front et al., Isothermal Transformation of Titanium-Chromium Alloys, Trans. ASM, Vol 46, 1964, pp 231-266
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 301

Ti-Cr Alloys
Composition: Ti - 7.54% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram

SOURCE: P.D. Frost et al., Isothermal Transformation of Titanium-Chromium Alloyr, Trans. ASM, Vol 46, 1954, pp 231-256
302 A t/as of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W. Rostoker, discussion of Isothermal Transformation of Titanium-Chromium Alloys, by P.D. Frost et al., Trans.
ASM, Vol 46, 1954, pp 231-266
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 303

Ti-Cr Alloys
Composition: Ti - 9.0% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Composition: Ti - 17.0% Cr

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: W. Rostoker, discussion of Isothermal Transformation of Titanium-Chromium Alloys, by P.D. Front et al., Trans.
ASM, Vol 46, 1964, pp 231-256
304 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Cr Alloys
Composition: Ti - 3.0% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Equilibrated at 66SC (1265OF)
The dashed line represents the displacement of the end of transformation due to stress

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view
Tensile properties for the alloy
Data to the left of each point are for streered transformation
Data to the right are for unstrerred tranrformation

SOURCE: A.W. Goldenstein et al., The Effect of Stress on the Eutectoid Uecompoeition of Titanium-Chromium Alloys, Trans.
ASM, Vol 51, 1959, pp 1056-1054
A t/us of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 305

Ti-Cr Alloys
Comporition: Ti - 3.0% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Equilibrated at SlOC (149OOF)
The dashed line represents the displacement of the end of transformation due to stress

Composition: Ti - 3.0% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Tensile properties for the alloy
Data to the left of each point are for stressed transformation
Data to the right are for unstressed transformation

SOURCE: A.W. Goldenstein et al., The Effect of Stress on the Eutectoid Decomposition of Titanium-Chromium Alloys, Trans.
MM, Vol51, 1959, pp 1036-1054
306 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Cr Alloys
Composition: Ti - 3.0% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Equilibrated at 840% (1545F)
The dashed line represents the displacement of the end of transformation due to stress

Composition: Ti - 3.0% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Tensile properties for the alloy
Data to the left of each point are for stressed transformation
Data to the right are for unstressed transformation

SOURCE: A.W. Goldenstein et al., The Effect of Stress on the Eutectoid Decomposition of Titanium-Chromium Alloys, Trans.
ASM, Vol 51, 1959, pp 1036-1054
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 307

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Alloy equilibrated at 685C (12WF)
The dashed line represents the dirplacement of the end of transformation due to rtreea

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Tensile properties for the alloy
Data to the left of each point are for the &reared trancrformation
Data to the right are for the unstrenred transformation.

Source: A.W. Goldenrtein et al., The Effect of Stress on the Eutectoid Decomposition of Titanium-Chromium Alloyr, Trans.
ASM, Vol 51, 1959, pp 1036-1064
308 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Cr Alloys
Composition: Ti - 7.6% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-trannsiormation diagram
Alloy equilibrated at 7SOC (1S80F)
The dashed line represent8 the dieplacement of the end of transformation due to atrees

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram
Tensile propertier for the alloy
Data to the left of each point rue for rtreesed tranrformation.
Data to the right are for unrtreeaed tranrformation

Source: A.W. Goldenstein et al., The Effect of Stresn on the Eutectoid Decomposition of Titanium-Chromium Alloys, Tranr.
ASM, Vol 61, 1969, pp 1036-1064
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 309

Ti-Cr Alloys
Composition: Ti - 12.0% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Alloy equilibrated at 68SC (126SF)
The dashed line represent8 the displacement of the end of transformation due to stress

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Mechanical properties for the alloy
Data to the left of each point are for stressed transformation
Data to the right are for unstressed transformation

SOURCE: A.W. Goldenstein et al., The Effect of Stress on the Eutectoid Decomposition of Titanium-Chromium Alloys, Trans.
ASM, Vol 61, 1969, pp 1038-1064
310 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Cr Alloys
Composition: Ti - 7.22% Cr
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C (1832F) for 40 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature tranrformation diagram

SOURCE: H.I. Aaronson et al., Phase Transformations in Hypoeutectoid Ti - Cr Alloys, Trans. AWE, Vol 209, October 1967,
pp 1227-1236

Composition: Ti - 8.0% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: S.A. Spachner and W. Rostoker, Transformation Kinetics of Two Titanium Alloys in the Transition Phase Region,
Trans. AME, Vol 212, December 1968, pp 766-768
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 311

Ti-Cr Alloys
Composition: Ti - 10.8% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: XI. Aaronson et al., Effects of Composition on Transformations in Titanium-Chromium Alloys, Trans. AIME, Vol
212, October 1968, pp 624-626

Composition: Ti - 17.42% Cr

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: H.I. Aaronaon et al., Transformation Mechanisms in a Hypereutectoid Titanium-Chromium Alloy, Trans. AIME, Vol
218, April 1960, pp 331-339
312 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Ti-Cu Alloy
Composition: Ti - 6.0% Cu

I I

- --
900 =-

u 800 ,'V~+a.
-/3 'J, - 1-- - -
~

-
~I 'fJ.+a.+eukclo~1
o
., +/3
S 100-x
.....<S I - o/J+a.
!3+a.+buketoid,
~600~i+eukclDlq x!3+eukc/rJid
.,E ~~ ! I~ r.... ..... o OecomposiNm
complete

~r x....... ... ~
~ 500- x
- ! ! .d
400-
0.1
II j I I

10
-
1 100
Time,min.
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W. Rostoker and H.D. Kessler, "Titanium Alloy Development Mapped," The Iron Age, Vol 169, No. 26, 19 June 1962,
pp 136-142

Ti-Mn Alloys
Composition: Ti - 2.91% Mn
Treatment: Solution annealed at 960 0C (1740 0F)
Eutectoid Temperature, 675C
- .---

~
r-t-

650 I- I - l-

a
-
.1)
u600 I - l- I-
l' I
:>

.
~ 550 .35
0.
E '//- M s em era ure
sao
~500 - - - I-

450 - - - -
Imlnute I hour Iday I week
-
10 10'
LIVE GRAPH Time, seconds
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Composition: Ti - 7.72% Mn Composition: Ti - 12.3% Mn


Treatment: Solution annealed at 960 0C (1740 0F) before Treatment: Solution annealed at 950 0C (1740 0F) before
transformation transformation
Eulectaid Temperalure, 675C Eulecloid Temperature I 675C
--'- r- - r- -
650 - I- - 650 I - -

u 60 0 - I- - u600 l -
I -

:>
l'
~ II
.
~550 - /3 - a+/3 -
..
!:'550 /3
\
a /3 -

,-
a. 0.
E E
~500 1\ - ~500 l - I-- - 1- -

450 - ~

Iminute I hour
-
Iday I week
450 l - i-
Iminute
-
i'\1 hour I day
I
I week
- '--
10 10' 10 6 10 10 2 10 6
LIVE GRAPH Time, seconds Time I seconds
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: P.D. Frost et al., "Isothermal Transformation of Titanium-Manganese Alloys," Trans. ASM, Vol 46,1954, pp LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
1056-1074
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 313

Ti-Mn Alloys
Composition: Ti - 6.0% Mn
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000 0C (1832 0F) for 20 min

E
w
a:
800

700-
-

~
_.---
a REJECTION
BEGINS
B/a+B

.i->:
_.

.------.-
=> 600 -
!;i
a: 0- C:::EJECTION COMPLETE
w
a.. 500 ~ .......
~
w -."
,-
"- ... -..
~

400 -

I I I" I " . IIII I I 111111 , . 'I

0.01 QI 1.0 10 100 1000


TIME AT TEMPERATURE (MINUTES)
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation

Composition: Ti - 10.0% Mn
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000 0 (1832 0F) for 20 min

-
800 -
U
a,
w
a:
=>
!;t
a:
w
a..
700 -

600 -
-
f-

a
c-.-
B/a +B

-REJE~ ________

------
a-REJECTION COMPLETE

~ 500 - BEGINS ~
w
~ -
400 -
(,-,,~----
~
, I
I I I I .~~",,-_. I
0.01 0.1 1.0 10 100 1000
TIME AT TEMPERATURE (MINUTES)
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation

SOURCE: H.D. Kessler and Harold Margolin discussion of "Correlation Between Microstructure and Resistivity of Transforming
Ti - Mn Alloys," by D.J. Dal.asaro and D.W. Levinson, Trans. AIME, Vol 201, May 1966, pp 716-717
314 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-MO Alloys
Composition: Ti - 1.0% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (18SZF) for 20 min
prior to transformation

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

Composition: Ti - LO% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832OF) for 20 min
prior to transformation

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: D.J. DeLararo et al., Time-Temperature-Tranrformation Characteristics of Titanium-Molybdenum Alloyr, Tranr.


AME, Vol 194, March 1952, pp 266-269
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 315

Ti-MO Alloys
Compoeition: Ti - 5.0% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832OF) for 20 min
prior to tranrformstion

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Comporition: Ti - 7.056 MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832OF) for 20 tin
prior to tranrformation

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: D.J. DeLaz.aro et al., Time-Temperature-Transformation Characteristics of Titanium-Molybdenum Alloys, Trann.


AIME, Vol lQ4, March 1952, pp 265-269
316 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Mo Alloys
Composition: Ti - 9.0% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832F) for 20 min
prior to transformation

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

Comporition: Ti - 11.0% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (183ZF) for 20 min
prior to tranrformation

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: D.J. DeLasaro et al., Time-Temperature-Transformation Characteristicr of Titanium-Molybdenum Alloyr, Tranr.


AIME, Vol 194, March 1952, pp 265-269
A t/as of T/me-Temperature Dlagrams

Ti-MO Alloys
Comporition: Ti - 3.0% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832OF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Teneile propertie

Composition: Ti - 3.0% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832OF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram
Charpy impact properties

SOURCE: D.J. DeLararo and W. Rortoker, Correlation Between Heat Treatment, Microstructure and Mechanical Propertie, of
Titanium-Molybdenum Alloys, Trans. ASM, Vol 46, 1954, pp 292-311
318 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Mo Alloys
Composition: Ti - 7.0% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832OF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-tran6formation diagram
Tennile propertie

Composition: Ti - 7.0% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832OF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram
Charpy impact propertie

SOURCE: D.J. DeLazaro and W. Rortoker, Correlation Between Heat Treatment, Microstructure and Mechanical Propertier of
Titanium-Molybdenum Alloyr, Tran6. ASM, Vol 46, 1954, pp 292-311
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 319

Ti-MO Alloys
Comporition: Ti - 11.0% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1822OF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Tensile propertiee

Composition: Ti - 11.0% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832OF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram
Charpy impact properties

SOURCE: D.J. DeLasaro and W. Roatoker, Correlation Between Heat Treatment, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of
Titanium-Molybdenum Alloyr, Trans. ASM, V0146, 1964, pp 292-311
320 A t/as of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Mo Alloys
Comporition: Ti - 6.16% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832OF) for 30 min
before trsn8fomation

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

Composition: Ti - 5.21% MO - 0.40% C


Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832F) for 30 min
before tranrformation

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: D.W. Levinoon et al., Effect of Carbon on Some Properties of Ti - MO Alloys, Trans. AIME, Vol 206, June 1966, pp
790-793
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 321

Ti-MO Alloys

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-trannlformation diagram


Click here to view Initiation of tranrformation

Composition: Ti - 11.0% MO VI 0

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Completion of transformation

SOURCE: D.J. DeLararo and W. Roetoker, The Influence of Oxygen Content8 on Transformation8 in a Titanium Alloy
Containing 11 Per Cent Molybdenum, Acts Met., Vol 1, 1953, pp 674-677
322 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Mo Alloy
Comporition: Ti - 12% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832F) for 30 min in
vacuum by high-frequency induction heating and irothermal
quenched to a temperature in the range from 300 to 700C (672
to 12920F) by argon or helium gas cooling. The quenching rate
was 100-160oC/r

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram

SOURCE: T. Yukawa, S. Ohtani, T. NLhimura, T. Sakai, Phwe Transformation of Titanium Alloys by Meanr of Automatic
Transformation Apparatur, proceedinga of an International Conference held at the Royal Feetival Hall, London, 21-24 May,
1968, The Science, Technology and Application of Titanium, R.I. Jaffee, N.E. Promieel, edr., Pergamon Preen, Oxford, 1970, pp
699-710

Comporition: Ti - 13.0% MO
Treatment: Solution treated at 9OOC (1652OF) for 30 min

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: S.A. Spachner and W. Roetoker, Transformation Kinetics of Two Titanium Alloys in the Transition Phase Region,
Trans. AIME, Vol 212, December 1958, pp 765-767
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 323

Ti-Mo Alloy
Composition: Ti - 15% Mo
Treatment: Solution treated at 10000C (1832 0F) for 30 min in
vacuum by high-frequency induction heating and isothermal
quenched to a temperature in the range from 300 to 7000C (572
to 1292~) by argon or helium gas cooling. The quenching rate
was 100-1500C/s

{3 tronsus

u
700 -.
------.
...
-- -----------,........
{3+a

.-----
c ECO ........ """--

Q;

-~
.~a
500 {3+w
Q)
a. ..-
E
Q)
400 {3

------
I-

300
Contraction start Expansion start

10- 1 10'
"me, min
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Ti-Mo-Pd Alloy
Composition: Ti - 15% Mo - 0.2% Pd
Treatment: Solution treated at 10000C (1832 0F) for 30 min in
vacuum by high-frequency induction heating and isothermal
quenched to a temperature in the range from 300 to 7000C (572
to 1292~) by argon or helium gas cooling. The quenching rate
was 100-1500C/s

--.
u
700-

600- o /'0
------
._____.

----~
..
. . f3+a

..... ....... .....


~.
0

o 0
Q)
o

---------
~ 500-
2
~
Q)
ops
a. o
E 4001- {3 {3+w
QJ
I- o ..-
3001- o
Contrcctron ste-t
I
---
Exponsron stor t

10- 1 10:
Time, min
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: T. Yukawa, S. Ohtani, T. Nishimura, T. Sakai, "Phase Transformation of Titanium Alloys by Means of Automatic
Transformation Apparatus," proceedings of an International Conference held at the Royal Festival Hall, London, 21-24 May,
1968, The Science, Technology and Application of Titanium, R.I. Jaffee, N.E. Promisel, eda., Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1970, pp
699-710
324 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-MO-Zr Alloy
Compoeition: Ti - 15% MO - 5% Zr
Treatment: Solution treated at 1000C (1832F) for So min in
vacuum by high-frequency induction heating and irothermal
quenched to a temperature in the range from 300 to 700C (672
to 129ZF) by argon or helium gsr cooling. The quenching rate
WM loo-lSooC/r

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: T. Yukawa, S. Ohtani, T. Niahimura, T. Sakai, Phane Tranrformation of Titanium Alloya by Meana of Automatic
Tranrformation Apparatur, proceedinga of an International Conference held at the Royal Festival Hall, London, 21-24 May,
1968, The Science, Technology and Application of Titanium, R.I. Jaffee, N.E. Promirel, eds., Pergamon Prerr, Oxford, 1970, pp
699-710
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 325

Ti-V Alloys
Comporition: Ti - 12.5% V

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: P.R. Broken et al., Decomposition of Beta Titanium, Trans. AIME, Vol203, February 1955, pp 413-419
326 TAtlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-V Alloys
Composition: Ti - 15.0% V

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Isothermal quenching

SOURCE: F.R. Brotren et al., Decompoeition of Beta Titanium, Trans. AWE, Vol 203, February 1965, pp 413-419
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 327

Ti-V Alloys
Composition: Ti - 16.0% V

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Aging a quenched alloy

SOURCE: F.R. Brotsen et al., Decomposition of Beta Titanium, Trans. AIME, Vol 203, February 1955, pp 413-419
328 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-V Alloys

Composition: Ti - 16.0% V Comporition: Ti - 20.0% V


Treatment: Solution treated at 982OC (18OOF) for 2 h Treatment: Solution treated at 975C (17WF) for 10 min

Time-temperature-transformation diagram Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Tenrile rtrength and reduction of area of specimens quenched
from the beta region and irothermally transformed

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view LEGEND:
0 Beginning of B-B+a Reaction (Metollogrophy)
l Beginning of fl-o+a Reaction (Dilotometer)
0 Beginning of ~-B+u Reaction (Dilotometer)

SOURCE: E.L. Harmon et al., Mechanical Properties Correlated with Transformation Characteristics of Titanium-Vanadium
Alloyc., Trans. ASM, Vol 60, 1958, pp 418-457
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 329

Ti-V Alloys

Composition: Ti -20.0% V Composition: Ti - 24.0% V


Treatment: Solution treated at 982C (18OOF) Treatment: Solution treated at 976C (1787oF) for 10 min

Time-temperature-trac.formation diagram Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Tensile strength and reduction of area of specimen8 quenched
from the beta region and irothermally transformed

LEGEND:
0 Beginning of B-P+a Reaction (MeIaIIogrophy)
l Beginning of P-/3+a ReacIion (Dilatometer 1
e Beginning of B-p+w Reaction (Dilatometer 1

SOURCE: E.L. Harmon et al., Mechanical Properties Correlated with Transformation Characteriaticr of Titanium-Vanadium
Alloys, Trans.. ASM, Vol 50, 1968, pp 418-437
330 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Ni Alloys

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Values on diagram are hardnesses, HV (1 kgf)

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Values on diagram are hardnesses, HV (lkgf)

SOURCE: J.W. Barton et al., Structure and Properties of Titanium-Rich Titanium-Nickel Alloys, Trans. AWE, Vol 218,
October 1960, pp 844-849
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 331

Ti-Nb Alloy
Compoeition: The alloy8 were made from high purity (QCI
B.H.N.) Japanese sponge titanium, reactor grade Nb rheet
Treatment: Homogenkd for 24 h at 1000C (1832F) in V~CUO,
furnace cooled, annealed and cold rolled

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-tranaformation diagrame
Martenrite formation in Ti-Nb alloyr: Pure Ti, 596, IO%, 12.5, 15% and 17.5% (atomic %) Nb

SOURCE: K.S. Jepeon, A.R.G. Brown, J.A. Gray, The Effect of Cooling Rate on the Beta Tranrformation in Titanium-Niobium
and Titanium-Aluminium Alloyr, proceedinga of an International Conference held at the Royal Fentival Hall, London, 21-24
May, IQ68, The Science, Technology and Application of Titanium, R.I. Jaffee, N.E. Promise& edr., Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1970,
pp 677-690
332 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-V-AI Alloys
Composition: Ti - 16.0% V - 2.5% Al
Treatment: Solution treated at 830C (1526OF) for 20 min

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
LIVE GRAPH Quenched to isothermal transformation temperature
Click here to view

Composition: Ti - 10.0% V - 2.5% Al


Treatment: Solution treated at SSOOC (1526F) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Quenched in water, reheated and aged

SOURCE: E.L. Harmon and AR. Troiano, Beta Transformation Characteristics of Titanium Alloyed with Vanadium and
Aluminum, Trans. ASM, Vol SS, 1961, pp 43-53
Atlas of Time-Temperature Dlagrams 333

Ti-V-AI Alloys
Composition: Ti - 16.0% V - 2.5% Al
Treatment: Solution treated at 740C (1S64F) for 20 min

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Quenched to isothermal transformation temperature

Comporition: Ti - 16.0% V - 2.5% Al


Treatment: Solution treated at 74OC (1364F) for 20 min

Time-temperature-tranrfomation diagram
Quenched in water, reheated and aged

SOURCE: E.L. Harmon and A.R. Troiano, Beta Transformation Characteristics of Titanium Alloyed with Vanadium and
Aluminum, Tranr. ASM, Vol 53, 1961, pp 45-53
334 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-V-AI Alloys
Comporition: Ti - 16.0% V - 2.5% Al
Treatment: Solution annealed at QOOOC(1652OF) for 20 min
before isothermal tranrformation

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: L.E. Tanner, The Irothermal Transformation of Ti-2.5 AI-16V and Ti-4Al-SMo-lV, Trans. AWE, Vol 221, pp 74-83
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 335

Ti-V-AI Alloys
Compoeition: Ti - 16.0% V - 2.5% Al
Treatment: Solution annealed at 740C (1364~) for 1 h, water
quenched and reheated to aging temperaturea

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: L.E. Tanner, The Isothermal Transformation of Ti-2.5 Al-16V and Ti-IAI-No-IV, Trans. AIME, Vol 221, pp 74-85
336 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Al-Cr Alloys

Compoaition: Ti - 2.0% Al - 2.0% Cr

Composition: Ti - 4.0% Al - 2.0%Cr

Composition: Ti - 6.0% Al - 2.0% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Vickera hardness (30 kg load) numbem are shown on the diagrama


Time-temperature-transformation diagrams

SOURCE: H.D. Kessler and M. Hansen, Transformation Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Titanium-Aluminum-Chromium
Alloys, Trans. ASM, Vol 46, 1954, pp 609-639
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 337

Composition: Ti - 2.0% Al - 4.0% Cr

Composition: Ti - 4.0% Al- 4.0% Cr

Composition: Ti - 6.0% Al - 4.0% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Vickere hardneee (30 kg load) numbera are shown on the diagrams


Time-temperature-tranrformation diagrama

SOURCE: H.D. Kessler and M. Hansen, Transformation Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Titanium-Aluminum-Chromium
Alloya, Trans. ASM, Vol 46, 1954, pp 609-639
338 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-AI-Cr Alloys

Composition: Ti - 2.0% Al - 6.0% Cr

Composition: Ti - 4.0% Al - 6.0% Cr

Composition: Ti - 6.0% Al - 6.0% Cr

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Vickern hardness (30 kg load) numbers are shown on the diagram


Time-temperature-transformation diagrama

SOURCE: H.D. Kessler and M. Hansen, Transformation Kinetic6 and Mechanical Properties of Titanium-Aluminum-Chromium
Alloycl, Tranr. ASM, Vol 46, 1954, pp 609-639
A tlus of Time-Temperature Diagrams 339

Ti-AI-MO Alloys

Composition: Ti - 4.0% Al - 2.0% MO

Composition: Ti - 6.0% Al - 2.0% MO

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Vickers hardness (30 kg load) numbera are shown on the diagrams


Time-temperature-transformation diagrame

SOURCE: H.D. Kessler and M. Hansen, Transformation Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Titanium-Aluminum-
Molybdenum Alloys, Trans. ASM, Vol 46, 1954, pp 587-608
340 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-AI-MO Alloys

Composition: Ti - 2.0% Al - 6.0% MO

Composition: Ti - 4.0% Al - 6.0% MO 2

Composition: Ti - 6.0% Al - 6.0% MO

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Vickere hardness (SO kg load) numbem are shown on the


Time-temperature-transformation diagramn

SOURCE: H.D. Kessler and M. Hansen, Transformation Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Titanium-Aluminum-
Molybdenum Alloys, Trans. ASM, Vol 46, 1954, pp 587-608
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 347

Ti-AI-MO Alloys

Composition: Ti - 2.0% Al - 10.0% MO

Composition: Ti - 4.0% Al - 10.0% MO


Single melt, small ingot

Composition: Ti - 6.0% Al - 10.0% MO

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Vickers hardness (30 kg load) numbers are shown on the diagrams


Time-temperature-transformation diagrams

SOURCE: H.D. Kessler and M. Hansen, Transformation Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Titanium-Aluminum-
Molybdenum Alloys, Trans. ASM, Vol 46, 1964, pp 587-608
342 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-3AI-2.W
Composition: Ti - 9.1% Al - 2.4% V - 0.006% C - 0.064% Fe

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Isothermal transformation diagram

SOURCE: T. Anderson, Isothermal and Continuous Cooling Transformations of Beta Phase in the Titanium Alloy Ti-8Al-2.6V,
Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy 2, 1973, pp 251-256, as published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook for Titanium,
March 1980

Ti-AI-V Alloys
Composition: Ti-6.0% Al - 4.0% V
Solution annealed at 102OC (186SF), and quenched directly
to reaction temperatures

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature.-transformation diagram

SOURCE: L.E. Tanner, Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagrams of the Titanium Sheet-Rolling-Program Alloys, DMIC
Report 46G, Battelle MemoriaI Institute, Columbur OH, October 1959
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 343

Ti-Cr-Mo Alloys

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram

SOURCE: A.W. Goldenstein and W. Rostoker, Relationship Between Heat Treatment, Structure, and Mechanical Properties of a
Titanium Alloy Containing 4% Cr and 2% MO, Trans. ASM, Vol 49, 1957, pp 315-327
344T Atlas of T/me-Temperatufe Diagrams

Ti-Cr-Mo Alloys

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Tensile properties

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Charpy V-notch impact strength at -4OOC (-4OF)

SOURCE: A.W. Goldenrtein and W. Rortoker, Relationrhip Between Heat Treatment, Structure, and Mechanical Propertier of a
Titanium Alloy Containing 4% Cr and 2% MO, Trans. MM, Vol49, 1957, pp SlS-S27
Atlas of Time-Temperature Dlugfums 345

Ti-Cu-AI Alloys
Composition: Ti - 6.0% Cu - 3.0% Al

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Comporition: Ti - 8.0% Cu - 3.0% Al

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: R.F. Bunrhah and H. Margolin, Micrortructure and Mechanical Properties of TLC&Al and Ti-Cu-Al-Sn Alloye,
Tranr. ASM, Vol 61, 1969, pp 961-980
Next Page

346 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Ti-V-Cr-AI Alloys
Composition: Ti - 12.8% V - 11.1% Cr - 4.1% AI
Treatment: Solution treated at 7600C (1400 0F) for 1 h, air
cooled, reheated and aged isothermally
1 3 0 0 r - - - - - - -....- - - - - -.......- - - - - - - , - - - - - - - - - ,

1200
i o
~
~ 1100

13
o o o I
\I!I II
, l3+a
o ....... ~ C
,8+"'(?I+a - - __
~ 900
.
E
o o o
~

soo o o o

700 o o
0.1 1.0 10 100 1000
Aqinq time. hou,,,

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: R.A. Rawe et al., "The Aging Characteristics of the Ti-13V-11Cr-4AI Allloy, Trans. AIME, Vol 218, 1960, pp 821-826

Ti-1AI-8V-5Fe
Composition: Ti - 0.8-1.8% AI - 7.6-8.6% V - 4.0-6.0% Fe -
max 0.06% C
100 0
I I
TI-L\l-8V-5Fe \
\
90 0 '\ ALPHA
...
BETA -, ...
-, BETA
80 0 ~

"
0
'" <,

<,
<,
0

1750 F, 1/2-HR, ISOTHERMAL


50 0 TRAl'SFORMATION, WQ

0 BETA

10 100
I I
1000
ALPHMBETA I
10000
T1)IE - SECONDS
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Isothermal transformation diagram

SOURCE: S.R. Seagle, "Initial Work on Isothermal Transformation Studies of MST 186," Mallory-Sharon Titanium Corp.,
Research Report No. 1000R261, Project No. 26004, February 1968, as published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook for
Titanium, March 1968
Previous Page

Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 347

Ti-10-2-3
Composition: Ti - 10% V - 2% Fe- 3% AI
Treatment: Beta solution treated, quenched, and rapidly heated
to the aging temperature
Grain Boundary Start
13 Transus I Sympathetic Q Start 'tl~
C lD
1400 _ _ _.., VI ca>
ca
~.J
ClI ~
a:~
~ClI
1200 u'tl
,- c
LL
;:::1
~o
lOal
..i
:::I
ClI
~
1000 a.c
E';
>~
cnCJ
8- I
E VIC
~ ;,2..
~
I- ,-

600 Q
F"In ish '2 E~
Uniform Q Start :J ~

102
--
- _ _ w Start (Approximate)

101
Time, minutes
103 104

LIVE GRAPH Schematic time-temperature-aging diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: T.W. Duerig, "Phase Transformations and properties of Ti-l0V-2Fe-3AI," PhD Thesis, Department of Metallurgy and
Materials Science, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh PA, as published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook for
Nonferrous Alloys, December 1981

Ti- V-Cr-AI Alloys


Composition: Ti - 12.8% V - 11.1% Cr - 4.1% AI
Treatment: Solution treated at 1600C (1400 0F) for 1 h, air
cooled, reheated and aged isothermally

8eqinninQ of SofteninQ
1300

1200
.~
.c
c
w
s: 1100
...
o
~----'~--- 45
M

w
~

-e
1000



o 900
e.

...
E

soo

700

0.1 1.0 10 100 1000


AqinQ time, hour,
LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Click here to view
Iso-hardness
SOURCE: R.A. Rawe et aI., "The Aging Characteristics of the Ti-13V-llCr-4AI Amoy, Trans. AIME, Vol 218, 1960, pp 821-825
348 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-V-Cr-AI Alloys
Composition: Ti - IS.6% V - 10.5% Cr - 2.9% Al
Treatment: Solution treated at 7880C (1450 0F) for SO min,
water quenched and reheated to the aging temperature

T fJ fJ
700 ----+----1-_----=- ...- ------=1 1300
+

600
I IZOO

1100

1000
u "-

.
~
. 500/------+----'~

900
;
.
.
~ ~

.....
e,
E 800 E
::. 400/------+----_I--~o_

700

600
300r------+--------I1-----+--------I1------1

500
104
Time Hours
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram by Tanner

Composition: Ti - IS.6% V - 10.5% Cr - 2.9% AI


Treatment: Solution treated at 7880C (1450 0F) for SO min,
water quenched and reheated to the aging temperature

RUdy e' 01 Tann.,


700 o -/------1-_-= - - / - - - - - - = 1 1300
o
A
x 1200

6001------+--I~--j--~--+------t----__1l1oo

u ...
..;;5001------+_-
900 ;

~
E soo
.
~
E
::. 400r------+--------IL-"'~ ::.
fJ--fJ+w 700
fJ+w_fJ+w+a
{1+w+a ....... {1+a
600
3001------+--------1-----+------+-------\

Time Houn
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Modified Tanner diagram based on work by Rudy et al.

SOURCE: L.E. Tanner, "The Isothermal Transformation of Ti-1SV-llCr-3AI," Trans. ASM, Vol 53, 1961, pp 407-414 and
discussion, pp 930-9SS
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 349

Ti-AI-MO-V Alloys
Comporition: Ti - 4.1% Al - 2.9% MO - 1.0% V
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1020C (18SSF) for 20 min,
quenched to the reaction temperatures

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram

SOURCE: L.E. Tanner, The Isothermal Transformations of Ti-2.5AI-16V and Ti-QAI-SMo-IV, Trans. AIME, Vol 221, 1961, pp
74-83
350 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Ti-AI-Mo-V Alloys
Composition: Ti - 4.1% Al - 2.9% Mo - 1.0% V
Treatmen: Solution annealed at 890 0C (1634~), water
quenched and reheated to the aging temperature

1400
@-START OF RESISTANCE .-START OF HARDNESS
DECREASE INCREASE
-MINIMUM RESISTANCE V-START OF HARDNESS 1300
700

....
VALUE DECREASE

1200

;' ~
600 e 1100
e w

-.
w
0: {3+(a)+a 0:
=> =>
I- @ V 1000 ~
""
0:
~ 500
~
w
-,
-,
-. {3 + (a) - {3 + (0) +a
V
w
900 ~
0:

W
I-
{3+(;Ij~ v M I-
s sao
400
700
{3+a'+(a)
600
300
500
10. 1 10 10 2 10 3 10 4
TIME MINUTES

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: L.E. Tanner, "The Isothermal Transformations of Ti-2.5AI-16V and Ti-4AI-3Mo-1V," Trans. AIME, Vol 221, 1961, pp
74-83

Ti-Cu-AI-Sn Alloys
Composition: Ti - 5.0% Cu - 3.0% Al - 2.0% Sn

1000
925C to 950C

900
I
850 , I I I I 1 I I I
/3,446 437 446 35':'-----371 330 383 348
I
3~6-3:7
I I
u 800 ' I
,370 348 3b6 317-
0

750
a+/3 1"'--304,a+/3,+ cornp. I I I
QJ
.....
:J ' 4 13 317 323 306 Ms 308
0
..... 700 322 330 345 324 333 339
QJ
a. 650 I 1 I , , , , I I
E 376 386 386 383 383 363 366 327
I-
QJ

600 401
I
441
I I
424
I
397
I
397 401
I 1
417
I
370
I
550 I I I I I , I I I
420 409 416 464 405 397 397 373
500

30 sec.
400 I I
2 sec. 10sec. I min. 5min. 30min. 2 hr s, 24 hrs,
Ln Time

Time-temperture-transformation diagram

SOURCE: R.F. Bunahah and H. Margolin, "Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-Cu-AI and Ti-Cu-AI-Sn Alloys,"
Trans. ASM, Vol 51, 1959, pp 961-980
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 351

Ti-Cu-AI-Sn Alloys
Composition: Ti - 8.0% Cu - 3.0% Al - 2.0% Sn

1000

875C 10 900C
900
/
I , ___1-1 I I I I
850 ~32 429 386 420 450 454 393
800 {3/393 {3
I I I I I I I I I
u 413 401 3~339 342---342 390
a+ +eomp.
,
~ 750 1416
I I I I I I I I
446 405 401 383 390 379 350
::::>
\ I ~ a + camp. I I I I I
~ 700 420 446 413 416 413 373
C1J
0- /
E 650 464
C1J
I- I I I I
600 498 473 464 459
I ", I I I I I
550 525 503 498 488 483 536 469

500

30 sec.
400 1
2 sec. 10see. Imin. 5min. 30min. 2 hr s. 24 hr s,
Ln Time

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: R.F. Bunshah and H. Margolin, "Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-Cu-AI and Ti-Cu-AI-Sn Alloys,"
Trans. ASM, Vol 51, 1959, pp 961-980

Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn Alloy: Beta III


Composition: Ti - 11.5% Mo - 6% Zr - 4.5% Sn - 0.17% 0

Ti-11. 5Mo-6Zr-4. 5So-0.17 0


1400
I
1200

~
I 1000
~
=:J
~ 800
~
p.,
~
~ 600
E-<

400

200 ~-'-- _ _'---'--_---'-'- -'- --I. L.....I

1 5 10 401 10 100 1000


TIME

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: C.F. Yolton, "Time-Temperature-Transformation Characteristics of the Ti-ll.5Mo-6Zr-4.5Sn Alloy," B.Sc. Thesis,
School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, 1968, as published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook for Titanium, 1972
352 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn Alloy: Beta III


Composition: Ti - 11.6% Mo - 6.0% Zr - .6% Sn
1300
II I
~
/'
OeformeV
1200
;..
Undeformed
.... /' '11 I
~ 1100
/'/' / IIII
Z
~

~IOOO
I'
Vj ::C:::4n %1.1 [3-[3+a-
'"
a.
E ~/;//~IJ
'"
f- 900

-

800 ;---

700
1/2 2 5 10 20 60
LIVE GRAPH Time (mln.I
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Transformation start curves for deformed and undeformed specimens. transformation after solution treating in the beta field

SOURCE: F.H. Froes et al., "Decoration of Plastically Strained Regions in Metallic Systems," Metallography. Vol 9.1976, pp
636-637

Composition: Ti - 11.6% Mo - 6.0% Zr - .6% Sn


Treatment: Material quenched from 9OO 0C (1660~)
1400rlr-r----r--r---r.,...,rTT...--.....-,--.-"1"""T'----r-r--r-.-rnrTI

-0.28%0 700
--0.17%0
u:
e,
1200
I&J 600
a: I&J
:I
I- {3-{3+a o
e(
~ 1000 a:
Cl
I&J
CL 500 j:
::IE Z
I&J I&J
I- o
~ 800 ...... " III

l- ",
", 400 ::J
e(
/ a::
::IE Cl
/ w
a: I o
o
~ 600
" 300
z
e(
a:
I-
' ....
-- ---- ---- ------ 200
400
MINUTES HOURS ---

o 10 10
TIME
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Showing effect of oxygen on the beta - omega and beta - alpha reactions

SOURCE: F.H. Froes, et al., "The Relationship Between Microstructure and Age Hardening Response in the Metastable Beta
Titanium Alloy Ti-11.6 Mo-6 Zr-. 6 Sn (Beta III)." Met. Trans. ASM, Vol HA, January 1980. pp 21-30
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 353

Ti-Mo-Zr-Sn Alloy: Beta III


Composition: Ti - 11.6% Mo - 6.0% Zr - 4.6% Sn - 0.28% 02
Treatment: Solution annealed then reheated to aging
temperature

700
~
a, 120
-1650 F (9OC!-C)
ILl
a: - -1450F (785-C) 600
:l
~
ILl
0

a: 1000 f3-{3 +a a:
,.
ILl
Q.

ILl
500
C)

~
Z
~ ILl
0
Z
0 800 VI
~ 400 ILl
,.

a:
ILl
a:
C)
ILl
0 0
IL.
VI 600 300
z

a:
~

400
-- --- --- --- 200
HOURS
0 10
TIME

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

Composition: Ti - 11.6% Mo - 6.0% Zr - 4.6% Sn - 0.17% 02


Treatment: Solution annealed. then reheated to aging
temperature

1400r-1rr---r------....,....------r------.,..,

-- -- --
~ 1200
.... ,.,. ,.- -- -- -- 700

'" '"
a: 600
:l ;' --1500F (815-Cl ....
~
Cl:
a:
.... 100
\,, - - 1375 F (745-Cl
0
Cl:
a:
C)
Q.
~
....
' "- ....
....
500 ~
z
....
~

z 80 "' ....
... ---~ 0
VI
0
~
;'
00 ....
....
I
Cl:
~
a:
0
,
I
\
a:
III
....
0
Ii. 600
VI '\ 00
z ....
Cl: "- .........
a:
~

40
........

-- --- MINUTES HOURS


200

10 60 10
TIME

LIVE GRAPH ':Cime-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: F.H. Froes, et al., "The Relationship Between Microstructure and Age Hardening Response in the Metastable Beta
Titanium Alloy Ti-l1.6 Mo-6 Zr-4.6 Sn (Beta III)," Met. Trans. ASM. Vol 11A. January 1980, pp 21-80
354 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Ti-V-Fe-AI Alloy
Composition: Ti - 9.70% V - 2.08% Fe - 2.98% AI
Solutioned at 860 0C (1680 0F) for 240 s
900 r--,-,rrTTTTT,.---,-l'""'TTTTTT,.----.--.rrTTTTTr---.--.rrTTTTn
A - OTA Start Indication
1600

{3 - Partially Transformed
800 ,8 '1"(111$".
o - Untronlformed '500
--m~-------------------------
0 0
'400

:-,700 {3 0 1300
~
...
a:
0 0
1200~
a:
~ :>
~ 600
...
a: M,
0
a + {3 IIOO!;t
...a:
Q.

...2;
us"7(;--6- --00006-
10002;
Q.

......
... 500

........ 900
;)#;;$;;)/////////-);/h _ SOD
400
{3 + W + MARTENSITE o -------... 700

600
300ILO-..L..L.L..l...l..JJw..-..L....L...L..l...l..JJu.L-...L....L.Ll...l..JJ~=-..L....L...L..J.~10~O.000

TIME, 'econd'

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: J.R. Toran and R.R. Biederman, "Phase Transformation Study of Ti-lOV-2Fe-3AI," Titanium '80, TMS, Warrendale,
1980, pp 1491-1601

Ti-6242
Composition: Ti - 6% Al - 2% Sn - 4% Zr - 2% Mo
10 'DO
1900
\
fl
I
IBOO - - - - - ----- /" -- --- ~- -- ----
~ -- - -- -- -- - I
!
7
.~
1

fl
1700
/
/ -- -- -- -- - - - -- -

i
{3-> a+{3 V a+{3
- - - v-V - - - - - - --- - - !-' -

V
L I-- - -
/ lAs
,
~~~ ~ ~ ,~~ ~ ~ ~ -, -,
<: ~~ ~~~ ~~. ~~ t":
'-

1400 ---- ---- -- .-- - I-- ~

a'

1300 -- - - - -

10 100

LIVE GRAPH Time. Seconds


Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: H.W. Rosenberg, M.B. Vordahl, D.B. Hunter, Project No. 48-8, Technical Report No. 17, TIMET, Henderson NV,
January 1966
Atlas of TIme-Temperature Diagrams 355

Ti-5AI-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr : Ti-17
Composition: Ti - 4.6-6.6% Al - 1.6-2.6% Sn - 1.6-2.6% Zr -
3.6-4.6% Mo - 3.6-4.6% Cr - 0.08-0.13% 0 - max 0.30% Fe
1700
Ti -5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr BETA TRANSUS
1600
I
1500 LOWER SOL TEMP 1475F

t:.. 1400

~ 1300
W ~
~ 1200 ---
1100 I - - - - ALPHA
+ V
->
1000 I---- ALPHA + AGED BETA
BETy
900
I
\
1 10 100 1000
TIME - MIN
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Isothermal transformation diagram

SOURCE: General Electric Co., "Ti-17 Alloy Processing and Properties," AEG-700, January 1973, as published in Aerospace
Structural Metals Handbook for Titanium, September 1976

Ti-AI-V-Cr-Mo-Zr Alloys
Composition: Ti - 3.4% Al - 8.3% V - 6.8% Cr - 4.2% Mo -
3.9% Zr
Treatment: Solution treated, air quenched and aged
I
P~o~ Ti Zr Si-
x y z

873 po0 - TiCr 0 Ti Zr Si 600


2 x y z

773 500
s.., u
o
cc
2
< 673
....
'"
e,
~
~
P
sn
"'AToIPINTERFACES BElOI'l973K:
AT PGRAIN BOUNDARIES AT 923 AND 973K
473 200

I
I. 01 I I
0.1 10 100 1000
AGING TIME (hi

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: T.J. Headley and H.J. Rack, "Phase Transformations in Ti-3AI-8V-6Cr-4Zr-4Mo," Met. Trans. ASM, VolI0A, 1979,
pp 909-920
356 Atlas of lime-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-V-Cr-Sn-AI Alloys
Treatment: Alloyr rolutioned after beta recryrtallir,ation

Composition: Ti - 14.52% V - 3.04%


Cr - 2.90% Sn - 3.04% Al

Composition: Ti - 13.23% V - 2.47%


Cr - 3.06% Sn - 3.19% Al

Composition: Ti - 11.76%
V - 2.28% ;
Cr - 3.03% Sn - 3.49% Al

(a), (0): Alpha prccipitarion was observed and


not observed through optical microscope,
rcspecrively.
LIVE GRAPH (-): Alpha phase was detected through X-ray
Click here to view diffraction analysis.
(- - - -): Dortrd line shows equal hardness increase
withagingfromsolution-treated condition.
Figures heside lines indicate the amount or hardness
increase, respectively.

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Lines show the increase in Vickere hardness with aging

SOURCE: N. Niwa et al., Effects of Chemical Comporition on the Heat-Treatment Reeponee of Ti-lLV-SCr-3Sn-3Al Baaed Beta
Titanium Alloys, ISIJ International, Vol 30, 1990, pp 773-779
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 357

Ti-llSo-SZr-2.!5AI-lMo-0.25Si : Ti-679
Composition: Ti - lO.SO-11.50% Sn - 4.00-6.00% Zr -
2.00-2.50% Al - O&I-1.20% MO - O.lS-0.27% Si - max 0.12% Fe
- max 0.04% C
Treatment: Solution treated, and aged at 4QQC (QSOOF) for 24
h, air cooled (for teat data lirted)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
(Strength valuer are kai)

SOURCE: Metallurgical and Mechanical Propertier of Titanium Alloy Ti-679, Technical Service Department, TMCA, Augurt
1966, aa publirhed in Aerorpace Structural Metals Handbook for Titanium, June 1969
358 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Ni Alloy
Composition: Ti - 3.03% Ni
Treatment: Sponge titanium with a Brine11 hardness of 112-116,
prepared by an argon-arc furnace, hot rolled into sheets,
surface cleaned and homogenised at QOOOC (16SZF) for 20 days

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Continuour-cooling-transformation diagram

Ti-Mo Alloy
Composition: Ti - 4.57% MO
Treatment: Sponge titanium with a Brinell hardness of 112-116,
prepared by an argon-arc furnace, hot rolled into sheets,
surface cleaned and homogeniced at QOOOC (1652~) for 20 days

LIVE GRAPH Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: Y.C. Huang, S. Sucuki, H. Kaneko, T. Sato, Continuous Cooling-Transformation of Beta-Phase in Binary Titanium
Alloys, proceedings of an International Conference held at the Royal Festival Hall, London, 21-24 May, lQ68, The Science,
Technology and Application of Titanium, RI. Jaffee, N.E. Promisel, Eds., Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1970, pp 695-698
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 359

Ti-3AL2.5V
Comporition: Ti - 3.1% Al - 2.4% V - 0.006% C - 0.064% Fe

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Continuous cooling transformation diagram

SOURCE: T. Anderson, Isothermal and Continuous Cooling Transformations of Beta Phase in the Titanium Alloy Ti-SAL2.5V,
Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy 2, 1973, pp 251-256, an publirhed in Aerospace Structural Metal8 Handbook for Titanium,
March 1930
360 Atlas of lime-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-Al-Sn Alloy
Composition: Ti - 4.75% Ai - 2.5% Sn
Thermal cycles: Heating at a rate of 200C/s to 1200C
(392OF/r to 2192OF) and cooling at different cooling rates (4.5
to 260C/s) between 1000 and QOOOC (1832 and 1652OF)
Content of gases in the alloys: 0.33-0.36% 0, 0.07% N,
0.045-0.068% I-I

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram
Anisothermal transformation in alloys under conditions of welding

SOURCE: M. Kh. Shomhorov, G.V. Nasarov, Phase Transformations in the Heat-Affected Zone of Alpha and Alpha+Beta
Titanium Alloys and the Criteria for Choosing the Welding Processes, Titanium and Its Alloys, Publication No. 10, 1.1. Kornilov,
cd., Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1966, pp 297-302
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 361

Ti-AI-MO Alloy
Composition: Ti - 2.6% Al - 7.6% MO
Thermal cycler: Heating at a rate of 200C/e to 1200C
(392OF/r to 2192OF) and cooling at different cooling rates (4.6
to 260C/r) between 1000 and QOOC (1832 and 1662F)
Content of gaeer in the alloys: 0.33-0.36% 0, 0.07% N,
0.046-0.06896 H

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Continuous-cooling-transformation diapam
Anieothermal transformation in alloye under conditions of welding

SOURCE: M. Kh. Shorehorov, G.V. Nasarov, Phase Transformations in the Heat-Affected Zone of Alpha and Alpha+Beta
Titanium Alloy6 and the Criteria for Choo6ing the Welding Procee#ees, Titanium and Ita Alloys, Publication No. 10, 1.1. Komilov,
ed., lrrael Program for Scientific Tranrlationl, 1966, pp 297-302
362 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Dlagrams

Ti-15ALZlNb

Schematic continuous-cooling-transformation diagram


Approximate cooling rates for various industrial processes are indicated

SOURCE: M.J.
SOURCE: M.J. Cieslak,
Cieslak,T.J.
T.J.Headley,
Headley,W.A.
W.A. Baeack
Baeelack III,III,Effect
EffectofofThermal
ThermalProcessing
Processingononthe
theMicrostructure
Microstructureof ofTi-26AI-11Nb:
Ti-26AI-11Nb:
Applications to
Applications to Fusion
Fusion Welding,
Welding, Met.
Met. Trans. A, Vol21A,
Trans. A, Vol21A, May May 1990,
1990, pppp 1273-1286
1273-1286
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 363

Ti - Al - V - MO Alloys
Composition: Ti - 7.6% Al - 1.0% V - 1.0% MO
Solution treated and cooling began from 13S8C (244OOF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

Composition: Ti - 7.6% Al - 1.0% V - 1.0% MO


Solution treated and cooling began from 1149C (21OOF)

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: K.C. Wu, Continuour-Cooling Transformation Diagrams of Ti-8ALlMo-lV, Trans. ASM, Vol61, 1968, pp 621-626
364 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

IMI 685 Titanium Alloy


Composition: Ti - 0.17% Al - 4.97% Zr - 0.49% MO - 0.22% Si -
0.10% 0 - 0.029% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1050C (192OOF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Continuour-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Continuour Cooling Transformation Kinetics of the IMI 685 and IMI 550 Titanium Alloys, Rp-27-72-08,
Climax Molybdenum, 1 March 1973
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 365

IMI 685 Titanium Alloy


Composition: Ti - 6.17% Al - 4.97% Zr - 0.49% MO - 0.22% Si -
0.10% 0 - 0.029% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1050C (192OOF) for 20 min,
hardneecr valuer determined after additional aging by heating
from room temperature up to 6SOC (1200F) at a rate of about
lOOC/min, followed by vacuum cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Continuoua-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Ciac., Continuour Cooling Transformation Kinetics of the IMI 686 and IMI 660 Titanium Alloya, Rp-27-72-08,
Climax Molybdenum, 1 March 1975
366 Atlas of lime-Temperature Dlagtams

IMI 685 Titanium Alloy


Composition: Ti - 6.17% Al - 4.97% Zr - 0.49% MO - 0.22% Si -
0.10% 0 - 0.029% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1050C (lQ20F) for 20 min,
cooled to room temperature at variour rater, and optionally
aged by heating up to 650C (12OOOF)at a rate of about
10C/min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Hardness VI half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operations of solution annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined aa the
time required to cool from the solution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that ia midway between TSA and room
temperature, 25OC:

THc = +? + 25 = %j% (C)

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Continuous Cooling Transformation Kinetics of the IMI 686 and IMI 650 Titanium Alloys, Hp-27-72-08,
Climax Molybdenum, 1 March 1975
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 367

IMI 685 Titanium Alloy


Comporition: Ti - 6.17% Al - 4.97% Zr - 0.49% MO - 0.22% Si -
0.10% 0 - 0.02996 N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C (18SOOF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Continuous Cooling Transformation Kinetics of the IMI 685 and IMI 550 Titanium Alloys, Rp-27-72-08,
Climax Molybdenum, 1 March 1973
368 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

IMI 685 Titanium Alloy


Composition: Ti - 6.17% Al - 4.97% Zr - 0.49% MO - 0.22% Si -
0.10% 0 - 0.029% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C (1830F) for 20 min,
and continuously cooled at various rates

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Hardness VI half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operations of solution annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined as the
time required to cool from the solution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that is midway between TSA and room
temperature, 2SOC:

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Continuous Cooling Transformation Kinetics of the IMI 685 and IMI 550 Titanium Alloys, Rp-27-72-08,
Climax Molybdenum, 1 March 1973
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 369

IMI 550 Titanium Alloy


Comporition: Ti - S.QS% Al - 3.18% Sn - 3.97% MO - 0.50% Si -
0.22% 0 - 0.022% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 980C (1795OF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Continuous Cooling Transformation Kinetics of the IMI 685 and IMI 550 Titanium Alloys, Rp-27-72-08,
Climax Molybdenum, 1 March 1973
370 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

IMI 550 Titanium Alloy


Composition: Ti - 3.93% Al - 3.18% Sn - 3.97% MO - 0.50% Si -
0.22% 0 - 0.022% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 980C (1795F) for 20 min,
hardness values determined after additional aging by heating
from room temperature up to 650C ( 120QF) at a rate of about
10C/min, followed by vacuum cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Continuous-cooling-transformation and aging diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Continuous Cooling Transformation Kinetics of the IMI 685 and IMI 550 Titanium Alloys, Rp-27-72-08,
Climax Molybdenum, 1 March 1973
At/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 371

IMI 550 Titanium Alloy


Composition: Ti - 3.93% Al - 3.18% Sn - 3.97% MO - 0.50% Si -
0.22% 0 - 0.022% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 980C (1795OF) for 20 min,
continuously cooled to room temperature at various rates, and
optionally aged by heating up to 650C (1200~F) at a rate of
about 10C/min, followed by vacuum cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Hardness VI half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operations of solution annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined as the
time required to cool from the solution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that is midway between TSA and room
temperature, 25OC:

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Continuous Cooling Transformation Kinetics of the IMI 685 and IMI 550 Titanium Alloys, Rp-27-72-08,
Climax Molybdenum, 1 March 1973
372 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

IMI 550 Titanium Alloy


Composition: Ti - S.QS% Al - 3.18% Sn - 3.97% MO - 0.50% Si -
0.22% 0 - 0.022% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at QOOC (165OF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Continuour-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Continuour Cooling Transformation Kinetics of the MI685 and IMI 650 Titanium Alloys, Rp-27-72-08,
Climax Molybdenum, 1 March 1973
At/as of l/me-Temperature Diagrams 373

IMI 550 Titanium Alloy


Composition: Ti - 3.93% Al - 3.18% Sn - 3.97% MO - 0.50% Si -
0.22% 0 - 0.022% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at QOOOC (1650F) for 20 min,
continuously cooled at various rates

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-ttansformation and aging diagram


Hardness vs half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operations of solution annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined as the
time required to cool from the solution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that is midway between TSA and room
temperature, 2SC:

T SA - 25 TSA + 25
T C = - + 25 = - (C)
2 2

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Continuous Cooling Transformation Kinetics of the IMI 685 and IMI 550 Titanium Alloys, Rp-27-72-08,
Climax Molybdenum, 1 March 1973
374 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-6242
Composition: Ti - 6% Al - 2% Sn - 4% Zr - 2% MO

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Continuoua-cooling-transformation diagram

Composition: Ti - 6% Al - 2% Sn - 4% Zr - 2% MO

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram
Effect of compositional vnriationa within rpecification on continuous-cooling-transformation

SOURCE: DR. Mitchell, Welding Evaluation of Ti-GAI-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Sheet, TMCA Project BW-IO-l, Final Report, June
1968, as published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook for Titanium, June 1978
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 375

Ti-6242
Composition: Ti - 6% Al - 2% Sn - 4% Zr - 2% MO

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Comparison of CCT diagram and I-T diagram

SOURCE: D.R. Mitchell, Welding Evaluation of Ti-GAI-ZSn-4Zr-2Mo Sheet, TMCA Project BW-IO-l, Final Report, June
1968, as published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook for Titanium, June 1978
376 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

II-6242
Composition: Ti - 6.63% Al - 2.08% Sn - S.Ql% Zr - 1.99% MO
- 0.066% 02
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1100C (2012F) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Titanium
Alloy, Rp-27-72-03, Climax Molybdenum, 7 June 1972
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 377

Ti-6242
Composition: Ti - 6.63% Al - 2.08% Sn - 3.91% Zr - 1.99% MO
- 0.066% 02
Treatment: Solution annealed at llOOC (2012F) for 20 min,
hardness values determined after additional aging by heating
from room temperature to 6SOC ( 1200F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation and aging diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-GAL2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Titanium
Ahoy, Rp-27-72-03, Climax Molybdenum, 7 June 1972
378 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-6242
Composition: Ti - 6.03% Al - 2.08% Sn - 3.91% Zr - 1.99% MO
- 0.066% 02
Treatment: Solution annealed at 900C (1660F) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Continuouscooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-Ml-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Titanium
Alloy, Rp-27-72-03, Climax Molybdenum, 7 June 1972
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 379

Ti-6242
Composition: Ti - 6.63% Al - 2.08% Sn - 3.91% Zr - 1.99% MO
- 0.066% 02
Treatment: Solution annealed at llOOC (2012F) for 20 min,
cooled to room temperature at various rates, and optionally
aged by heating up to 650C (1200OF) at a rate of about
10C /min, followed by vacuum cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Hardness VI half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operations of solution annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined as the
time required to cool from the solution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that is midway between TSA and room
temperature, 25C:

~~~- TSA2-
25+ 25 =&+?? (C)

SOURCE: W.W. Ciaa, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-GAI-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Titanium
Alloy, Rp-27-72-03, Climax Molybdenum, 7 June 1972
380 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-6242
Composition: Ti - S.SS% Al - 2.08% Sn - 3.91% Zr - 1.99% MO
- 0.066% 02
Treatment: Solution annealed at QOOC (1650OF) for 20 min.
and cooled at various rater

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Hardness VI half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operations of solution annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined a~ the
time required to cool from the rolution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that is midway between TSA and room
temperature, 25OC:

TsA + 25
T HC = ~TSA - 25 +25=- -I& (Cl
2

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-gAl-2Sn-4Zrs2Mo Titanium
AIioy, Rp-27-72-03, Climax Molybdenum, 7 June 1972
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 381

Ti-6246
Composition: Ti - 6.1% Al - 2.1% Sn - 4.0% Zr - 6.3% MO -
0.10% 02
Treatment: Solution annealed at 10SOC (1922OF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Phase Transformational Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo
Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-71-02, Climax Molybdenum, 2 March 1972
382 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-6246
Composition: Ti - 6.1% AI - 2.1% Sn - 4.0% Zr - 6.3% MO -
0.10% 02
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1050C (1922OF) for 20 min,
hardness values determined after additional aging by heating
from room temperature up to 650C (12OOF) at a rate of about
10C/min, followed by vacuum cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation and aging diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Phase Transformational Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-GAI-tSn-4Zr-6Mo
Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-71-02, Climax Molybdenum, 2 March 1972
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 383

Ti-6246
Composition: Ti - 6.1% Al - 2.1% Sn - 4.0% Zr - 6.3% MO -
0.10% 02
Treatment: Solution annealed at QOOOC (1650OF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Phase Transformational Kineticr, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-6Al-ZSn-4Zr-6Mo
Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-71-02, Climax Molybdenum, 2 March 1972
384 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-6246
Composition: Ti - 6.1% Al - 2.1% Sn - 4.0% Zr - 6.3% MO -
0.10% 02
Treatment: Solution annealed at QOOOC (1650OF) for 20 min,
and continuously cooled at various rates

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Hardness VI half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operations of solution annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined as the
time required to cool from the solution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that is midway between TSA and room
temperature, 26OC:

TSA + 25
T HC = -TSA - 25 +25=- (C)
2 2

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Phase Transformational Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-GAl-ZSn-4Zr-6Mo
Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-71-02, Climax Molybdenum, 2 March 1972
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 385

Ti-6248
Composition: Ti - 5.9% Al - 1.99% Sn - S.QO% Zr - 7.96% MO -
0.076% Fe - 0.004% H - 0.124% 0
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1020C (1870F) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-8Mo Titanium
Alloy, Rp-27-72-07, Climax Molybdenum, 26 October 1972
386 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-6248
Composition: Ti - 5.9% Al - 1.93% Sn - S.QO% Zr - 7.96% MO -
0.076% Fe - 0.004% H - 0.124% 0
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1020C (187OOF) for 20 min.
hardness values determined after additional aging by heating
from room temperature up to 650C (12OOF) at a rate of about
lOC/min, followed by vacuum cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation and aging diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Pheee Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-6AI-2Sn-4Zr-8Mo Titanium
Rp-27-72-07,
Alloy, Climax Molybdenum, 25 October 1972
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 387

Ti-6248
Composition: Ti - 5.9% Al - 1.93% Sn - S.QO% Zr - 7.96% MO -
0.076% Fe - 0.004% H - 0.124% 0
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1020C (187OOF) for 20 min,
cooled to room temperature at various rates, and optionally
aged by heating up to 650C (12OOOF) at a rate of about
lOOC/min, followed by vacuum cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation and aging diagram


Hardness VI half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operations of solution annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined an the
time required to cool from the solution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that is midway between TSA and room
temperature, 25OC:

TSA + 25
T HC =
~TSA - 25
+ 25 = - (C)
2 2

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-6AI-2Sn-4Zr-8Mo Titanium
Rp-27-72-07,
Alloy, Climax Molybdenum, 25 October 1972
388 Atlas of Time-Temperature Dlagrams

Ti-6248
Composition: Ti - 5.9% Al - 1.99% Sn - 990% Zr - 7.96% MO -
0.076% Fe - 0.004% H - 0.124% 0
Treatment: Solution annealed at QOOOC f16S0F1 for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Phaee Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-BAl-tSn-4Zr-8Mo Titanium
Alloy, Rp-27-72-07, Climax Molybdenum, 26 October 1972
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 389

Ti-6248
Composition: Ti - 5.9% Al - l.QS% Sn - S.QO% Zr - 7.96% MO -
0.076% Fe - 0.004% H - 0.124% 0
Treatment: Solution annealed at QOOC (1650OF) for 20 min,
and continuously cooled at various rates

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Hardneee VI half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operations of solution annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined aa the
time required to cool from the solution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that is midway between TSA and room
temperature, 26C:

TSA - 25 + 25 = TSA + 25 (C)


THC = 2
2

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of The Ti-6AL2Sn-4Zr-8Mo
Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-07, Climax Molybdenum, 25 October 1972
390 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-6248
Composition: Ti - 5.9% Al - l.QS% Sn - S.QO% Zr - 7.96% MO -
0.076% Fe - 0.004% H - 0.124% 0
Treatment: Solution annealed at 84SC (1650OF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Ciao, Phaee Transformation Kinetics. Microstructures, and Hardenability of The Ti-6Al-2Sn-IZr-8Mo
Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-07, Climax Molybdenum, 25 October 1972
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 391

Ti-6248
Composition: Ti - 5.9% Al - l.QS% Sn - S.QO% Zr - 7.96% MO -
0.076% Fe - 0.004% H - 0.124% 0
Treatment: Solution annealed at 84SC (1660F) for 20 min,
and continuourly cooled at various rates

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Hardness VII half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operations of solution


annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined aa the time required to cool from the solution annealing
temperature (TgA) to the temperature that is midway between TgA and room temperature, 25C:

T C = TSA-25 + 25 = TSA + 25 (c)


2 2

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-GAI-ZSn-4Zr-8Mo
Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-07, Climax Molybdenum, 25 October 1972
T Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-SAL2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr (Ti-17)
Composition: Ti - 4.52% Al - 2.41% Sn - 2.11% Zr - 3.78% MO -
Ct.9996 Cr - O.oSS% 0 - 0.031% C - 0.102% Fe - 0.0010% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C (1830F) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-SAI-fZr-4Mo-4Cr
(Ti-17) Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-04, Climax Molybdenum, 20 July 1972
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 393

Ti-5AI-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr (Ti-17)
Compoeition: Ti - 4.52% Al - 2.41% Sn - 2.11% Zr - X78% MO -
S.9996 Cr - 0.068% 0 - 0.031% C - 0.102% Fe - 0.0010% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C (18!@F) for 20 min,
hardness values determined after additional aging by heating
from room temperature up to S50C (12OOF) at a rate of about
@C/min, followed by vacuum cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous-cooling-transformation and aging diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Cias, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-SAl-ZZr-4Mo-4Cr
(Ti-17) Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-04, Climax Molybdenum, 20 July 1972
394 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-SAI-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr (Ti-I 7)
Composition: Ti - 4.52% Al - 2.41% Sn - 2.11% Zr - 3.78% MO -
S.QQ% Cr - 0.068% 0 - 0.031% C - 0.102% Fe - 0.0010% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C (18SOF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Hardness VI) half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operations of solution annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined as the
time required to cool from the rolution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that i6 midway between TSA and room
temperature, 25OC:

&A - 25 + z = TSA + 25 fcl


THC = 2
2

SOURCE: W.W. Cir, Phase Tranrformation Rineticr, Micrortructurer, and Hardenability of the Ti-SAL2Sn-ZZr-4Mo-4Cr
(Ti-17) Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-04, Climax Molybdenum, 20 July 1972
A t/us of Time-Temperature Dlugfums 395

Ti-5AI-ZSn-ZZr-4Mo-40 (Ti-17)
Compoaition: Ti - 4.62% Al - 2.41% Sn - 2.11% Zr - 3.78% MO
- 393% Cr - 0.063% 0 - 0.031% C - 0.102% Fe - 0.0010% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at QOOC ( 16SOF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Pheee Transformation Kineticr, Microstructurer, and Hardenability of the Ti-SAl-2Sn-2Zr-1Mo-lCr
(Ti-17) Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-04, Climax Molybdenum, 20 July 1972
396 Atlus of Time-TemperatureDiagrams

Ti-SAl-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr (Ti-17)
Composition: Ti - 4.52% Al - 2.41% Sn - 2.11% Zr - 3.78% MO
- S.QQ% Cr - 0.063% 0 - 0.031% C - 0.102% Fe - 0.6010% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at QOOC (1650OF) for 20 min,
and cooled to room temperature

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Hardnerr VI half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operation8 of solution annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined aa the
time required to cool from the solution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that is midway between TSA and room
temperature, 25OC:

T HC = TSA-25 + 25 = -TSA + 25 (C)


2 2

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Phase Transformation Kineticr, Micrortructurer, and Hardenability of the Ti-SAI-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr
(Ti-17) Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-04, Climax Molybdenum, 20 July 1972
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 397

Ti-5AI-ZSn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr (Ti-17)
Comporition: Ti - 4.52% Al - 2.41% Sn - 2.11% Zr - 3.78% MO
- 3.99% Cr - 0.033% 0 - 0.031% C - 0.102% Fe - 0.0010% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 84SC (1550F) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuous+cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae., Phase Tranrformation Kinetics, Microstructurea, and Hardenability of the Ti-SAI-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr
(Ti-17) Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-04, Climax Molybdenum, 20 July 1972
398 Atlus of Time-TemperatureDiugrums

Ti-5AI-2Sn-ZZr-4Mo-4Cr (Ti-17)
Composition: Ti - 4.52% Al - 2.41% Sn - 2.11% Zr - 3.78% MO
- 3.90% Cr - 0.063% 0 - 0.031% C - 0.102% Fe - 0.0010% N
Treatment: Solution annealed at 843C (1550F) for 20 min,
and continuourly cooled at variour rata

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Hardnew VI half cooling time *

* NOTE: In relation to the applied operations of solution annealing and continuous cooling, half cooling time is determined an the
time required to cool from the solution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that is midway between TSA and room
temperature, 25C:

TSA
T HC=-+25=- - 25 %A + 25
(c)
2 2

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructurea, and Hardenability of the Ti-SAl-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr
(Ti-17) Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-04, Climax Molybdenum, 20 July 1972
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 399

Ti-6.25AI-2Sn-1.5Zr-lMo-O.35Bi-O.1Si (Ti-11)
Compoeition: Ti - 5.36% Al - 2.05% Sn - 1.69% Zr - 1.01% MO
- 0.315% Bi - 0.102% Si - 0.067% Fe - O.OQ796 0 - 0.006% N _
0.0160% H
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1015C (186ooF) for 20 min

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Phaee Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-11
(Ti-6.25Al-2Sn-1.5Zr-lMo-O.35Bi-O.lSi) Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-06, Climax Molybdenum, 29 September 1972
400 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Ti-6.25AI-2Sn-1.5Zr-lMo-0.35Bi-O.lSi (Ti-11)
Comporition: Ti - 5.86% Al - 2.05% Sn - 1.69% Zr - 1.01% MO
- 0.315% Bi - 0.102% Si - 0.067% Fe - O.OQ7% 0 - 0.006% N -
0.0160% Ii
Treatment: Solution annealed at 10ISC (166OF) for 20 min,
hardnew valuee determined after additional aging by heating
from room temperature up to 65OC (12OOOF) at a rate of about
lOOC/min, followed by vacuum cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Continuour-cooling-transformation and aging diagram

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Phase Traneformation Kineticr, Micrortructuree., and Hardenability of the Ti-11
(Ti-6.25AL2Sn-l.5Zr-1Mo-0.35Bi-O.1Si) Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-06, Climax Molybdenum, 29 September 1972
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 401

Ti-6.25AI-2So-1.5Zr-lMo-0.35Bi-O.lSi (Ti-11)
Comporition: Ti - 5.86% Al - 2.05% Sn - 1.69% Zr - 1.01% MO
- 0.315% Bi - 0.102% Si - 0.067% Fe - O.OQ7% 0 - 0.006% N -
0.0180% H
Treatment: Solution annealed at 10ISC (1860F) for 20 min,
cooled to room temperature at various rater, and optionally
aged by heating up to 65OC (1200OF) at a rate of about
10c/min, followed by vacuum cooling

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Hardneen VI half cooling time *

l NOTE: In relation to the applied operation8 of solution annealing and continuour cooling, half cooling time its determined ee the
time required to cool from the solution annealing temperature (TSA) to the temperature that ie midway between TSA and room
temperature, 25C:

T HC _ TSA - * + 25 = TSA + * (c)


2 2

SOURCE: W.W. Ciae, Phase Transformation Kinetics, Microstructures, and Hardenability of the Ti-11
(Ti-6.25Al-2Sn-1.5Zr-lMo-O.35Bi-O.1Si) Titanium Alloy, Rp-27-72-06, Climax Molybdenum, 29 September 1972
Uranium-Base Alloys
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 405

Uranium-Chromium Alloys
Composition: at.% Cr
U - 0.3 at.%
Treatment: Specimens were heated in a bath maintained at a
beta-phase temperature of 700 to 72SC (1292 to lX#F)
lSZ#F) for 5
min, then transferred quickly to a bath maintained at a desired
lower
lower temperature
temperature and held there until the specimen appeared
to be fully tranrformed to alpha phase

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: D.W. White, Jr., Transformation Kinetics in Uranium-Chromium Alloys, Trans. AIME, Vol 203, November 1955, pp
1221-1228
406 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Uranium-Chromium Alloys
Composition: U - 0.45 at.% Cr
Treatment: Specimens were heated in a bath maintained at a
beta-phase temperature of 700 to 72SC (1292 to 1XPFI for 5
min, then transferred quickly to a bath maintained at a desired
lower temperature and held there until the specimen appeared
to be fully transformed to alpha phase

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: D.W. White, Jr., Transformation Kinetics in Uranium-Chromium Alloys, Trans. AIME, Vol 203, November 1965, pp
1221-1228
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 407

Uranium-Chromium Alloys
Composition: U - 0.6 at.96 Cr
Treatment: Specimens were heated in a bath maintained at a
beta-phase temperature of 700 to 72bC (1292 to lSS7F) for 5
min, then transferred quickly to a bath maintained at a desired
lower temperature and held there until the specimen appeared
to be fully transformed to alpha phase

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: D.W. White, Jr., Transformation Kinetics in Uranium-Chromium Alloys, Trans. AIME, Vol 203, November 1965, pp
1221-1228
408 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Uranium-Chromium Alloys
Composition: U - 1.8 at.% Cr
Treatment: Specimens were heated in a bath maintained at a
beta-phase temperature of 700 to 726OC (1292 to lfWF) for 5
min, then transferred quickly to a bath maintained at a desired
lower temperature and held there until the specimen appeared
to be fully transformed to alpha phase

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Composition: U - 4.0 at.% Cr


Treatment: Specimens were heated in a bath maintained at a
beta-phase temperature of 700 to 726OC (1292 to lS@F) for 5
min, then transferred quickly to a bath maintained at a desired
lower temperature and held there until the specimen appeared
to be fully transformed to alpha phase

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: D.W. White, Jr., Transformation Kinetics in Uranium-Chromium Alloys, Trans. AIME, Vol 203, November 1955, pp
1221-1228
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 409

Uraoium-Chromium Alloys
Composition: U - 0.96% Cr
Treatment: Specimen homogeniaed at 8oOC (1472OF) for 5
min. The transformation of the beta phase after gas-quenching
to various alpha temperatures was followed by continuously
monitoring the electrical resistivity during transformation,
using a potential-drop method

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
After quenching from 7QQC (1292OF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: J. Burke, M.A. Evans, Time/Temperature/Transformation Characteristics of Uranium-Chromium Alloys, Journal of


the Institute of Metals, Vol 99, 1971, pp 315-318
410 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Uranium-Chromium Alloys
Composition: U - O.sS% Cr
Treatment: Specimen homogenised at 800cC (1472F) for 5
min. The transformation of the beta phase after gas-quenching
to various alpha temperatures was followed by continuously
monitoring the electrical resistivity during transformation,
using a potential-drop method

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram
After quenching from 740C ( 1S6JF)

SOURCE: J. Burke, M.A. Evans, Time/Temperature/Transformation Characteristics of Uranium-Chromium Alloys, Journal of


the Institute of Metals, Vol 99, 1971, pp 315-318
A t/as of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 411

Uranium-Gallium Alloys
Compoeition: U - 1.6 at.% Ga
Treatment: Samplw were rolution annealed at 720C (1328F)
for 15 min, water quenched, then aged irothermally

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-aging

SOURCE: D. Dayan, Ii. Klimker, M. Talianker, M.P. Dariel, The Kinetics of the Isothermal Marteneitic Beta to Alpha
Tramformation in U(Ga) Alloys, Met. Trans. A, Vol ZlA, August 1990, pp 2125-2129
472 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys
Compoaition U - 6 at.% (2.5 wt.%) MO
Treatment: Specimenr were heated in a lead bath at a
temperature of 700 to 780C (1292 to14OOF) for 15 min, and
irothermally tranrformed at 670 to 3QOC (1238 to 73rF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: B.W. Hewlett, A.J. Eycott, I.K. Kang, D.R.F. West, The Kinetic8 of the Isothermal Decompoeition of a Gamma-
Phase Uranium-6 Atomic % Molybdenum Alloy, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol 9, No. 2, 1963, pp 143-154
las of Time-Temperature Diagrams 413

Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys
Comporition U - 6 at.% (2.5% wt.) MO
Treatment: Specimenr were heated in a lead bath at a
temperature of 700 to 750C (1292 to1400F) for 15 min, and
ieothennally tranrformed at 670 to 3QOC (1236 to 7340F)

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Determined by dilatometry and hardneaa measurementa

LEGEND:

0 Start of transformation

0 End of transformation when


only one rtage present

a Start of second stage of


tranrformation

V End of second stage of


transformation

0 Start of steep hardneas


rise

0 End of steep hardnerr rise

SOURCE: B.W. Hewlett, A.J. Eycott, I.K. Kang, D.R.F. Went, The Kinetics of the Isothermal Decomposition of a Gamma-
Phase Uranium-6 Atomic 96 Molybdenum Alloy, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol 9, No. 2, 1963, pp 143-154
414 At/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys
Comporition: U - 5.496 MO
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C (1830OF). The
maximum tranrformation annealing time wee generally 1000 h.
However, several rerirtivity specimen8 were annealed for 2000 h
at 4OOC (75OOF) and below. For most transformation
annealing treatments, the encapsulated ramplea were quenched
directly into lead (or lead-tin) bathe, held for the derired time
and water-quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram

SOURCE: R.J. Van Thyne, D.J. McPhemon, Tranrformation Kineticr of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloyr, Trans. ASM, Vol 49,
1957, pp 698-621
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 415

Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys
Comporition: U - 5.4 to 12% MO
Treatment: Solution annealed at looOC (183OF). The
maximum transformation annealing time was generally 1000 h.
However, aeveral resirtivity specimens were annealed for 2000 h
at 400C (750F) and below. For most transformation
annealing treatments, the encapsulated samples were quenched
directly into lead (or lead-tin) baths, held for the desired time
and water-quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Beginning of transformation based on resistivity changes

SOURCE: R.J. Van Thyne, D.J. McPherson, Transformation Kinetics of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys, Trans. ASM, Vol49,
1957, pp 698-621
416 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys
Composition: U - 5.4 to 12% MO
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C (1830F). The
maximum transformation annealing time was generally 1000 h.
However, several rerirtivity specimens were annealed for 2000 h
at 400C (75OF) and below. For most transformation
annealing treatments, the encapsulated samples were quenched
directly into lead (or lead-tin) baths, held for the desired time
and water-quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Start of transformation based on hardness changes

SOURCE: R.J. Van Thyne, D.J. McPherson, Transformation Kinetics of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys, Trans. ASM, Vol 49,
1967, pp 598-621
A t/as of l/me-Temperature Diagrams 417

Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys
Comporition: U - 6.4% MO
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C (183OF). The
maximum tranrfonnation annealing time wee generally 1000 h.
However, aeveral reeirtivity rpecimene were annealed for 2000 h
at 400C (7SOF) and below. For most transformation
annealing treatmenta, the encaprulated sampler were quenched
directly into lead (or lead-tin) bathr, held for the desired time
and water-quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Start of transformation an determined by variour methods
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: R.J. Van Thyne, D.J. McPherson, Transformation Kinetica of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys, Trans. ASM, Vol 49,
1967, pp 698-621
418 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys
Composition: U - 8% MO
Treatment: The encaprulated rpecimenr were rolution heat
treated at 980C (17Q60F) for 4 h and water quenched without
breaking the capsules, then reheated to 900C (1662F) for 1 h
prior to transferring them directly to the desired transformation
temperature. Conventional salt baths were used with a
temperature control of +/-So. After holding the desired time,
the capsules were quenched to room temperature by breaking
them under water

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Quenched to temperature from QOOOC (1662OF)

SOURCE: P.E. Repae, R.H. Goodenow, R.F. Hehemann, Transformation Characteristics of U-MO and U-Mo-Ti Alloys, Trance.
ASM, Vol 67, 1964, pp 160-163
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 419

Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys
Composition: U - 8% MO
Treatment: After homogenization, the silica tubes containing
the specimens were heated at QSOC (1742OF) for 1 h in a
resistance furnace and water-quenched, giving solid samples in
the gamma phase

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Determined by X-ray powder photography

LEGEND:
a-f @a+~ l a+y+y

SOURCE: Y. Goldotein, A. Bar-Or, Decomposition of Gamma Phase in Uranium Alloys Containing 8, 10.8, and 14.3 wt.-%
Molybdenum, Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol 96, 1967, pp 17-21
420 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys
Composition: U - 10% MO
Treatment: The encapsulated specimen8 were solution heat
treated at SSOOC (17sSF) afor 4 h and water quenched without
breaking the capsules, then reheated to QOOC (1662F) for 1 h
prior to transferring them directly to the desired transformation
temperature. Conventional salt baths were used with a
temperature control of +/-So. After holding the desired time,
the capsules were quenched to room temperature by breaking
them under water

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Quenched to temperature from 9OOC (1662F)

SOURCE: P.E. Repas, R.H. Goodenow, R.F. Hehemann, Transformation Characteristics of U-MO and U-Mo-Ti Alloys, Trans.
ASM, Vol 67, 1964, pp 160-163
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 427

Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys
Composition: U - 10.8% MO
Treatment: After homogenisation, the silica tubes containing
the specimen8 were heated at 960% (1742F) for 1 h in a
resistance furnace and water-quenched, giving solid samplea in
the gamma phase

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Determined by X-ray powder photography

LEGEND:
my oa+y l a+y+y

Composition: U - 14.3% MO
Treatment: After homogenization, the silica tubes containing
the specimens were heated at 960% (1742OF) for 1 h in a
resistance furnace and water-quenched, giving rolid samples in
the gamma phase

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Determined by X-ray powder photography

LEGEND:
my oafy l a+y+Y

SOURCE: Y. Goldstein, A. Bar-Or, Decomposition of Gamma Phase in Uranium Alloys Containing 8, 10.8, and 14.3 wt.-%
Molybdenum, Journal of the Imtitute of Metals, Vol 95, 1967, pp 17-21
422 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys
Composition: U - 16.1% MO
Treatment: Samples were wrapped in tantalum foil, sealed in
evacuated (5 x lo- mm of Hg) quarts capsules, and annealed
at lllOC (ZOSOF) prior to being transferred directly to the
transformation temperature

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
During the early stage of transformation, the fastest rate of alpha phase precipitation occurs at 500C (932OF)

SOURCE: D. Kramer, C.G. Rhodes, The Precipitation of Metastable Alpha Phase During the Gamma to Gamma Prime
Transformation in Uranium-16 wt pet Molybdenum, Trans. AIME, Vol 224, October 1962, pp 1016-1020
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 423

Uranium-Niobium Alloys
Comporition: U - 10% Nb
Composition: U - 20% Nb
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1050C (1920F), quenched to
and annealed at temperatures between 600 and SOOC (1110
and 570oF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Start of tranrformation (rerietivity)

Composition: U - 20% Nb
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1050C (1Q20F), quenched to
and annealed at temperature8 between 600 and SOOC (1110
and 57OOF)

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Start of tranrformation (metallography)

SOURCE: R.J. Van Thyne, D.J. McPherson, Transformation Kinetic8 of Uranium-Niobium and Ternary Uranium-Molybdenum-
Baee Alloys. Trans. ASM, Vol 49, 1957, pp 576-597
424 A t/as of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Uranium-Niobium Alloys
Comporition: U - 10% Nb
Comporition: U - 20% Nb
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1050C (lQ20F), quenched to
and annealed at temperaturea between 600 and SOOC (1110
and S70F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-traneformation diagram
Start of transformation baaed on hardnesr

SOURCE: R.J. Van Thyne, D.J. McPhemon, Transformation Kinetic8 of Uranium-Niobium and Ternary Uranium-Molybdenum-
Baee Alloys, Trane. ASM, Vol 49, 1957, pp 576-597
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 425

Uranium-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy
Comporition: U - 0.26 at.% Cr - 0.6 at.% Mo
Treatment: Specimen8 were held at the soaking temperature of
720C (1328OF) for 80 min, transferred rapidly to an
intermediate-temperature lead bath, or a lower-temperature
lead-tin eutectic bath; the two bathr covered transformation
rangea from 600 to 200C (1112 to 392OF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram

MM. Haberlin, G.F. Slattery, Tranrformation Kinetic8 of the Beta to Alpha Phase Change in a Uranium-Chromium-
Molybdenum Alloy, proceedinga of an International Symporium held in Manchester, S-5 July 1968, The Mechanism of Phase
Tranrformationr in Crystalline Solidr, Monograph and Report Series No. 33, The Inrtitute of Metals, lQ69, pp 254-259

Composition: U - 0.5% Cr - 0.5% MO

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: Jepron et al., proceedings of the 1958 Geneva Conference on Peaceful User of Atomic Energy, Paper 27, p 23, en
publirhed in an article by H.M. Finnirton, Metallurgical Developments Outlined at the 1958 Geneva Conference on Peaceful bee
of Atomic Energy, Journal of the Inrtitute of Metals, Vol 87, 1958, pp 360-375
426 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Uranium-Molybdenum-Niobium Alloys
Composition: U - 0.5% Nb - 0.5% MO
Treatment: Solution treated and quenched from 675OC
(1246OF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Composition: U - 0.5% Nb - 0.5% MO


Treatment: Solution treated and quenched from 9SOC
( 1740F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: E.G. Zukas, Transformation Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Uranium-O.5 W/O Columbium-O.5 W/O
Molybdenum Alloy, Trans. ASM. Vol 52, 1960, pp 797-811
Atlas of Time-Temperature Dlagrams 427

Uranium-Molybdenum-Niobium Alloys
Composition: U - 8% MO - 1.5% Nb
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C (ISSOF), quenched to
and annealed at temperatures between 600 and 300C (1110
and 570F)

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view Start of transformation (metallography)

Composition: U - 8% MO - 5% Nb
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C ( 1850F), quenched to
and annealed at temperatures between 000 and SOOC (1110
and 6700F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-trannrformation diagram
Start of transformation (metallography)

SOURCE: R.J. Van Thyne, D.J. McPherson, Transformation Kinetics of Uranium-Niobium and Ternary Uranium-Molybdenum-
Base Alloys, Trans. ASM, Vol49, 1967, pp 576-597
428 Atlas of Time-Temperature Dlagrams

Uranium-Molybdenum-Niobium and
Uranium-Molybdeoum-Platinum Alloys
Comporition: U - 8% MO - 1.6% Nb
Comporition: U - 8% MO - S% Nb
Comporition: U - 8% MO - 1% Pt
Treatment: Solution annealed at looOC (1830F), quenched to
and annealed at temperature6 between 600 and 300C (1110
and 570F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-trannrformation diagram
Start of tranrformation (resirtivity)

SOURCE: R.J. Van Thyne, D.J. McPhemon, Transformation Kinetics of Uranium-Niobium and Ternary Uranium-Molybdenum-
Baee Alloyr, Trans. ASM, Vol 49, 1967, pp 576-597
At/us of Time-Temperoture Dlugrams 429

Uraoium-Molybdenum-Niobium and
Uranium-Molybdenum-Platinum Alloys
Comporition: U - 8% MO - 1.5% Nb
Componition: U - 8% MO - 3% Nb
Composition: U - 8% MO - 1% Pt
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C (18SOF), quenched to
and annealed at temperaturea between 600 and SOOC (1110
and 570F)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Start of tranrformation baeed on hardnew

SOURCE: R.J. Van Thyne, D.J. McPhemon, Transformation Kinetics of Uranium-Niobium and Ternary Uranium-Molybdenum-
Bane Alloyr, Tranr. ASM, Vol49, 1967, pp 576-597
430 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

loys
Composition: U - 8% MO - 1% Pt
Treatment: Solution annealed at 1000C ( 1830F), quenched to
and annealed at temperatures between 600 and 300C (1110
and 57OF)

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Start of transformation (metallography)

McPhemon,
SOURCE: R.J. Van Thyne, D.J. McPhemon, Tra nsformation Kinetics of Uranium-Niobium and Ternary Uranium-Molybdenum-
SOURCE: R.J. Van Thyne, D.J. Transformation Kinetics of Uranium-Niobium and Ternary Uranium-Molybdenum-
Base Alloys, Trans. MM, Vol49, 1957, pp 676-697
Base Alloys, Trans. MM, Vol49, 1957, pp 676-697
A t/as of Time-Temperature Dlugrums 431

Uranium-Molybdenum-Titanium Alloys
Composition: U - 8% MO - 0.5% Ti
Treatment: The encapsulated specimen8 were solution heat
treated at QSOC (17Q60F) afor 4 h and water quenched without
breaking the capsules, then reheated to QOOOC (1652OF) for 1 h
prior to transferring them directly to the desired transformation
temperature. Conventional nalt baths were used with a
temperature control of +/-3O. After holding the desired time,
the capeuler were quenched to room temperature by breaking
them under water

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-traneformation diagram


Click here to view
Quenched to temperature from QOOC (1652F)

SOURCE: P.E. Repae, R.H. Goodenow, RF. Hehemann, Transformation Characteristics of U-MO and U-Mo-Ti Alloys, Trans.
ASM, Vol 57, lQ64, pp 150-163
432 A t/as of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Uranium-Molybdenum-Titanium Alloys
Composition: U - 8% MO - 1% Ti
Treatment: The encapsulated Bpecimene were rolution heat
treated at QSOOC (17Q60F) afor 4 h and water quenched without
breaking the capruler, then reheated to QOOC (1652F) for 1 h
prior to transferring them directly to the desired transformation
temperature. Conventional ralt baths were ured with a
temperature control of +/-So. After holding the desired time,
the capsules were quenched to room temperature by breaking
them under water

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Quenched to temperature from QOOOC (1652F)

SOURCE: P.E. Repas, R.H. Goodenor, R.F. Hehemann, Tranrformation Characterirtica of U-MO and U-Mo-Ti AIIoYB, Trane.
MM, Vol 57, lQ64, pp 150-165
A t/as of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 433

Uranium-Platinum Alloys and


Uranium-Niobium-Platinum Alloys
Comporition: U - 1 at.% Pt
Composition: U - 1.56% at.% Nb - 0.35 at.% Pt
Treatment: Specimen8 annealed at 800C (14720F) for 5 min,
and at 720C (1328OF) for 5 min, and gas quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Comparison of curves for the U-Nb-Pt VB U-Pt alloy

SOURCE: W.J. Kitchingman, KM. Pickwick, The Beta to Alpha Phase Change in a Uranium-Platinum-Niobium Alloy,
Journal of the Institute of Metala, Vol95, 1967, pp 61-63
Zinc-Base Alloys
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 437

Zinc-Aluminum Alloys
Compoaition: Zn - 22.5% Al
Heat treatment: Dilatometer apecimena heated to 376C
(IOIOF), held for 30 min and transferred to a con&ant
temperature bath (0 to 270C, 32 to 518F). The reaction wan
followed by the change in length

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Baaed upon dilatometric data
Transformation atart could not be precisely determined between
80 and 200C (176 and 392F)

SOURCE: RD. Garwood, AD. Hopkins, The Kinetics of the Eutectoid Transformation in Zinc-Aluminium Alloys, Journal of
the Institute of Metals, Vol81, 1952, pp 407-415
438 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Zinc-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Zn - 22.5% Al
Heat treatment: Small specimena heated to 375OC (7010F), held
for 30 min and tranaferred to a con&ant temperature bath (0 to
270C, 32 to 518OF). Specimen8 were held for varioua timer,
quenched and evaluated by microscopy and hardness tests

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
LEGEND:
0 Micro8tructure (Method I)
v ( II)
+ Hardiisschangeb&
x Mnrimumhatdne88
0 !3econd bar&es8 maximum or step **
4~ Hardness change complete at room temperature

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Based on metallographic and hardneaa testing

Method I
Specimens left in quench media for 24 h before sectioning,
poliahing, etching and examination. This ensured that any
residual alpha prime was tranaformed without the
microstructure being influenced by heat evolution

Method II
Transformation at lower temperaturea was obaerved in
apecimenr polished before heat treatment. After quenching,
these apecimena were lightly repolished and etched in <SO a,
leas time than required for alpha prime to decompose at room
temperature

SOURCE: RD. Garwood, A.D. Hopkins, The Kinetics of the Eutectoid Transformation in Zinc-Aluminium Alloys, Journal of
the Institute of Metals, Vol 81, 1952, pp 407-415
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 439

Zinc-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Zn - 22% Al

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-traneformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: A.E.W. Smith, G.A. Hare, Controlling the Zinc-Aluminium Eutectoid Reaction, Journal of the Institute of Metala,
Vol 101, 1973, pp 320-328
440 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Zinc-Aluminum Alloys
Comporition: Zn - 22% Al

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Four stages:
I: the quenched condition
II: breakdown of alpha prime to products of intermediate composition
III: adjuatment of theae productions to alpha and beta of equilibrium chemical composition
IV: adjustment of structure to virtual physical stability

SOURCE: A.E.W. Smith, G.A. Hare, Controlling the Zinc-Aluminium Eutectoid Reaction, Journal of the Institute of Metals,
Vol 101, 1973, pp 320-328
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 447

Zinc-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Zn - 22% Al - 0.16% Mg - 0.6% Cu

Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Four stages:
I: the quenched condition
II: breakdown of alpha prime to products of intermediate composition
III: adjustment of these productions to alpha and beta of equilibrium chemical composition
IV: adjustment of structure to virtual physical stability

SOURCE: A.E.W. Smith, G.A. Hare, Controlling the Zinc-Aluminium Eutectoid Reaction, Journal of the Institute of Metals,
Vol 101, 1975, p 520-328
442 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Zinc-Aluminum Alloys
Comporition: Zn - 22% Al
Composition: Zn - 22% Al - 0.15% Mg - 0.5% Cu

Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram
Comparison of stage II in binary and quatemary alloy

Stage II: breakdown of alpha prime to products of intermediate composition

SOURCE: A.E.W. Smith, G.A. Hare, Controlling the Zinc-Aluminium Eutectoid Reaction, Journal of the Institute of Metals,
Vol 101, 1975, p 320-528
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 443

Zinc-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Zn - 23% Al - 0.92% Cu - 0.034% Mg - 0.026%

katment: Solution treated at S50C (6620F) for 17 to 20 h


quenched into a bath at variour temperatures for various t&es,
followed by a quench into water to room temperature

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Eutectoid transformation

Composition: Zn - 18% Al - 0.87% Cu - 0.037% Mg - 0.024%


Ca
Treatment: Solution treated at 35OC (6620F) for 17 to 20 h,
quenched into a bath at various temperatures for various times,
followed by a quench into water to room temperature

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Eutectoid transformation
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

SOURCE: Fu-Wen Ling, David E. Laughlin, The Kinetic8 of Transformation in Zn-Al Superplastic Alloys, Met. Trans. A, Vol
lOA, July 1979, pp 921-928
444 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Zinc-Aluminum Alloys
Composition: Zn - 23% Al - 0.92% Cu - 0.034% Mg - 0.026%
Ca
Treatment: Solution treated at S50C (6620F) for 17 to 20 h,
quenched into a bath at varioulr temperatures for various times,
followed by a quench into water to room temperature

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view TTT curvea, cooling curves, and microstructures

SOURCE: Fu-Wen Ling, David E. Laughlin, The Kinetics of Transformation in Zn-Al Superplastic Alloys, Met. Trane. A, Vol
lOA, July 1979, pp 921-928
A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams 445

Zinc-Nickel Alloy
Comporition: Zn - 43.796 Ni
Treatment: Solution treated at 76OC (14OOOF) to yield a
homogeneous beta phwe, then transferred to an isothermal salt
bath

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

Time-temperature-tranrnrformation diagram

LEGEND:
Beta = parent phase
P = pearlite
ITTP = intermediate temperature transformation product

SOURCE: Chin Bea Kim, David J. Mack, The Nickel-Zinc Eutectoid, Trans. AIME, Vol 224, April 1962, pp 323-327
Zirconium-Base Alloys
Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams 449

Zirconium-Molybdenum Alloys
Compok3ition: Zr - 1.3% Mo
Treatment: Forged alloy rod8 were held at 975 to 1000C (1787
to 18SZF) for 15 to 20 min, irothermally quenched, held for a
given length of time, then rapidly water quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Composition: Zr - 9.3% MO
Treatment: Forged alloy rods were held at 975 to 1000C (1787
to 1832oF) for 15 to SO min, isothermally quenched, held for a
given length of time, then rapidly water quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: RF. Domagala, D.W. Levinson, D.J. McPherson, Transformation Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Zr-Mo
Alloyr, Trans. AIME, Vol 209, October 1967, pp 1191-1196
450 Atlas of Time-Temperature Dlagfams

Zirconium-Molybdenum Alloys
Compoeition: Zr - 5.4% MO
Treatment: Forged alloy rod8 were held at 975 to 1000C (1787
to 18SZF) for 16 to 30 min, isothermally quenched, held for a
given length of time, then rapidly water quenched

Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram

Composition: Zr - 7.5% MO
Treatment: Forged alloy rods were held at 975 to 1000C (1787
to lSS2oF) for 16 to 30 min, isothermally quenched, held for a
given length of time, then rapidly water quenched

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: R.F. Domagala, D.W. Levinaon, D.J. McPherscn, Transformation Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Zr-Mo
Alloys, Trans. AIME, Vol 209, October 1967, pp 1191-1196
Atlas of lime-Temperature Diagrams 451

Zirconium-Uranium Alloys
Composition: Zr - 8.85% U
Treatment: Forged and rolled specimens were individually
sealed in 0.26 in dism Type 304 stainless steel tubing; ends of
capsules were crimped shut, welded and attached to nichrome
wire and rurpended in a salt bath at QSOOC (1740F) for 1 h,
then quenched into an intermediate salt bath maintained at the
desired temperature, held for a given time, and water quenched
to room temperature

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: D.L. Douglass, L.L. Marsh, Jr., G.K. Manning, Transformation Kinetics of Zirconium-Uranium Alloys, Trans. ASM,
Vol 60, 1958, pp 306-322
452 Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams

Zirconium-Uranium Alloys
Composition: Zr - 11.1% U
Treatment: Forged and rolled specimens were individually
sealed in 0.26 in diam Type 304 stainless steel tubing; ends of
capsules were crimped shut, welded and attached to nichrome
wire and suspended in a salt bath at Q50C (1740F) for 1 h,
then quenched into an intermediate salt bath maintained at the
desired temperature, held for a given time, and water quenched
to room temperature

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: D.L. Douglass, L.L. Marsh, Jr., G.K. Manning, Transformation Kinetics of Zirconium-Uranium Alloys, Trans. ASM,
Vol SO, 1958, pp 306-322
A t/as of lime-Temperature Diagrams 453

Zirconium-Uranium Alloys
Composition: Zr - 143% U
Treatment: Forged and rolled specimens were individually
sealed in 0.25 in diam Type SO4 ntainleer steel tubing; ends of
capaulee were crimped shut, welded and attached to nichrome
wire and rurpended in a salt bath at Q50C (1740OF) for 1 h,
then quenched into an intermediate ralt bath maintained at the
derired temperature, held for a given time, and water quenched
to room temperature

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram


Click here to view

Composition: Zr - 20.7% U
Treatment: Forged and rolled specimens were individually
Beded in 0.25 in diam Type SO4 Btainless steel tubing; ends of
capeuler were crimped shut, welded and attached to nichrome
wire and rurpended in a salt bath at QSOC (1740OF) for 1 h,
then quenched into an intermediate salt bath maintained at the
derired temperature, held for a given time, and water quenched
to room temperature

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-tranrformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: D.L. Douglaee, L.L. Marsh, Jr., G.K. Manning, Transformation Kinetics of Zirconium-Uranium Alloyr, Trans. ASM,
vol 50, 1958, pp SOS-522
454 A tias of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Zirconium-Uranium-Hydrogen Alloy
Composition: Zr - 0.92% H - 0.0875% 0 - 0.0038% N - 0.0909%
Fe - 0.0048% Si - 0.0052% Al - 0.0025% Mn
Treatment: Specimenr in a quarts dilatometer were brought to
equilibrium above the transformation temperature by insertion
into a lead bath at 800C (lIIZF), held for the required time,
quenched to a lower con&ant temperature, held for a
predetermined length of time, then quenched in water

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-tranneformation diagram


Click here to view

SOURCE: J.C. Bokror, Tranrformation Kinetics of a Zirconium-Uranium-Hydrogen Alloy, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol 3,
No. 3, lQ81, pp 320-326
Amorphous Metals
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 457

Copper-Cadmium Alloy
Composition: Cu&ddO

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram

Copper-Zirconium Alloy
Composition: CwZr40

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-transformation diagram

SOURCE: J. Laturskiewics, M. Strsessewska, A. Calka, P.G. Zielinski, II. Matyja, Thermal Stability of Amorphous CU&fe40

Alloys (Me = Cd, Zr), Metals Technology, Vol 5, October 1978, pp 329432
458T Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Iron-Boron Alloys

Time-temperature-cryrtallisation diagram
Calculated

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-cryrtallisation diagram


Click here to view Experimentally determined

SOURCE: H.W. Bergmann, H.U. Fritach, Calculation of the Crystallication Behaviour of Metallic Glasses, Rapidly Solidified
Amorphour and Cryrtalline Alloyr, B.H. Kear, B.C. Giesren, M. Cohen, Eds., Elsevier Science Publiahing Co., 1982, pp 226-229
Atlas of TIme-Temperature Diagrams 459

Nickel Alloy

1600 Ni

~ 1200

~
f
~
~ 800

400 "-----''---------''-- ---''-- -..11...- .....1

-8 -6 -4 -2 o
Log, time
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view Time-temperature-crystallir:ation diagram
Calculated curve for splat quenched nickel

SOURCE: H.A. Davies, J. Aucote, J.B. Hull, "The Kinetics of Formation and Stabilities of Metallic Glasses," Scripta Metallurgica,
Vol 8, 1974, pp 1179-1190

Nickel-Titanium Alloy
Composition: Ni86Ti16

1100
-.
~1000
w
a:
:::>
900
I-
~ 800
w
~ 700
~
10- 6 10-4
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
TIME (s)
Continuous-cooling-transformation diagram for NissTi,s alloy and volume fractions of the crystalline phase ~ of 10'6 and 10"

LEGEND:
Dashed lines = correspond to the temperature-time paths for the cooling rates labeled
Dash-dot line = corresponds to the extrapolated glass transition temperature {T g}

SOURCE: P. Nash, R.B. Schwarz, "Calculation of the Glass Forming Range in Binary Metallic Systems Using Thermodynamic
Models," Acta Metallurgica, Vol 36, No. 11, 1988, pp 3047-3063
460 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Niobium-Silicon Alloy
Composition: Nb 80Si20

1273 .(5.2) e(6.2) e


e St.
() MS
1173 o Am. e e(5.5) e(6.7)
:.::
;1073
...
:J

e 973
QI
a.
E
~ 873

773

673L...----'----------'--::--------'----------'---'
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view

The superconducting transition temperature, T c' of Nb80Si20 alloy annealed for various times and temperatures

LEGEND:
Am == amorphous
MS == metastable
St == stable
T c == transition temperature

SOURCE: Akihisa Inoue, Tsuyoshi Masumoto, "Melt-Quenched Amorphous Superconducting Alloys," Structures and Properties
of Amorphous Metals II, Tohoku University, 1979, pp 166-200

Palladium-Nickel-Silicon Alloys
Composition: Pd70Nil0Si20

104 (5)
rc) (K)

400
...
Q.o

-Q.o0...
::J

a.
E T.
C1I
I-

300

10 102 (min)
LIVE GRAPH Aging time
Click here to view

Time-temperature-transformation diagram showing the crystallization onset times at various annealing temperatures
LEGEND:
1== Pd3Si
II == Pd-rich silicide
SS == supersaturated solid solution

SOURCE: Kazuo Utsumi, Kazutaka Kawamura, "Studies on Crystallization Processes of Amorphous Pd-Ni-Si Alloys," Trans.
Japan Institute of Metals, Vol 21, No.6, May 1980, pp 269-274
Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams 461

Palladium-Nickel-Silicon Alloys
Composition: Pd60Ni20Si20

10' (5)

700

T.
600

10 102 (min)
Aging time
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Showing the crystallization onset times at various annealing temperatures

LEGEND:
1= PdSSi
II = Pd-rich silicide
SS = supersaturated solid solution

Composition: Pd55NiSOSi15

rc: (s)
500r----.,,;-r------..,;,.;~---~----..:-r--------:.;~ (K)

700

TI T~OO
300

10 102 10'
Aging time (min)

Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Showing the crystallization onset times at various annealing temperatures

LEGEND:
I = Ni-based crystallite
II = PdSSi
III = Pd-rich silicide
LIVE GRAPH SS = supersaturated solid solution
Click here to view

SOURCE: Kasuo Utsumi, Kasutaka Kawamura, "Studies on Crystallization Processes of Amorphous Pd-Ni-Si Alloys, Trans.
Japan Institute of Metals, Vol 21, No.5, May 1980, pp 269-274
462 Atlas of TIme-Temperature DIagrams

Palladium-Nickel-Silicon Alloys
Composition: Pd50NiSOSi20

10' I()6(S)

700

T.
T~

60C
300

10 102 10' (min)


Aging time
LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-transformation diagram
Showing the crystaIlization onset times at various annealing temperatures

LEGEND:
I= Ni-based crystallite
II = PdSSi
=
III Pd-rieh silicide
SS= supersaturated solid solution

SOURCE: Kasuo Utsumi, Kasutaka Kawamura, "Studies on Crystallization Processes of Amorphous Pd-Ni-Si Alloys," Trans.
Japan Institute of Metals, Vol 21, No.5, May 1980, pp 269-274
Atlas of Time-Temperature DiaglamS 463

Palladium-Silicon Alloy
Comporition: Pdg&o

LIVE GRAPH
Click here to view
Time-temperature-aging diagram
Showing the transformation from the amorphour state to metastable (MS-I and MS-II) and crystalline (BCC) states

SOURCE: T. Maaumoto, R. Maddin, Structural Stability and Mechanical Propertieo of Amorphous Metals, Materials Science
and Engineering, Vol 19, 1975, pp l-24
464 A t/as of Time-Temperature Diagrams

Palladium-Silicon Alloy and


Palladium-Silicon-Copper Allov
COmpOSitiOn: Pdo&iO 18
Composition: PQ.778Sib.188Cu0.08

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-crystallization diagram


Click here to view
Calculated curves

SOURCE: HA. Davies, J. Aucote, J.B. Hull, The Kinetics of Formation and Stabilities of Metallic Glasses, Scripta Metallurgica,
Vol 8, 1974, pp 1179-1190
Atlas of T/me-Temperature Diagrams 465

Palladium-Silicon Alloy
Iron-Phosphorus-Carbon Alloy
Cobalt-Silicon-Boron Alloy, and
Nickel-Silicon-Boron Alloy
Comporition: PdgOSi20 - - -
Comporition: FegQPlSC7 -----
Composition: Co76Si15Blo
Composition: Ni7SSigB17

LIVE GRAPH Time-temperature-transformation diagram