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BRITISH STANDARD BS 5516:1991

Code of practice for

Design and installation


of sloping and vertical
patent glazing
BS 5516:1991

Committees responsible for this


British Standard

The preparation of this British Standard was entrusted by the Elements and
Components (of Diverse Materials) for Buildings Standards Policy Committee
(ECB/-) to Technical Committee ECB/25, upon which the following bodies were
represented:

Flat Glass Manufacturers Association


Glass and Glazing Federation
Institution of Structural Engineers
Patent Glazing Contractors Association
Royal Institute of British Architects
Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors

This British Standard, having


been prepared under the
direction of the Elements and
Components (of Diverse
Materials) for Buildings
Standards Policy Committee,
was published under the
authority of the Standards
Board and comes
into effect on
30 April 1991

BSI 04-1999
First published, as CP145.101.
April 1951
Second edition, as CP145-1,
January 1969 Amendments issued since publication
Third edition, as BS 5516,
December 1977 Amd. No. Date Comments
Fourth edition April 1991

The following BSI references


relate to the work on this
standard:
Committee reference ECB/25
Draft for comment 89/11294 DC

ISBN 0 580 19167 2


BS 5516:1991

Contents

Page
Committees responsible Inside front cover
Foreword iii
Section 1. General
0 Introduction 1
1 Scope 1
2 Definitions 1
3 Provision of information 3
Section 2. Components, materials and finishes
4 General 4
5 Supporting members, flashings, ancillary components and finishes 4
6 Infillings 7
7 Sealing and glazing materials 8
Section 3. Design
8 General 9
9 Selection of materials 9
10 Structural 9
11 Openings 34
12 Fire 35
13 Weather resistance 35
14 Heat conservation 36
15 Condensation 37
16 Solar heat gain 37
17 Thermal safety 40
18 Transmission of light 40
19 Sound reduction 41
20 Durability 41
21 Human safety 42
22 Security 44
23 Access for maintenance and cleaning 44
Section 4. Work on site
24 Storage of materials 45
25 Installation 45
Section 5. Maintenance
26 Access for maintenance and cleaning 49
27 Inspection 49
28 Cleaning 49
29 Other maintenance 51
Appendix A Symbols 52
Appendix B Wind load 53
Appendix C Snow load 53
Appendix D Dead load (self-weight) 54
Appendix E Maintenance load 54
Appendix F Determination of working pressures for patent glazing 54
Appendix G Determination of working pressures for supporting
members 55
Appendix H Determination of required geometric properties of section
for supporting members 56
Appendix J Plastics glazing sheet materials 57

BSI 04-1999 i
BS 5516:1991

Page
Appendix K Thermal stress in glass 61
Figure 1 Aluminium patent glazing bars 5
Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling 18
Figure 2(a) Two-edge supported annealed glass (float, cast, polished
wired and wired cast) 18
Figure 2(b) Two-edge supported toughened (tempered) float glass 19
Figure 2(c) Two-edge supported laminated float glass 20
Figure 2(d) Two-edge supported double glazing units (symmetrical)
(float and toughened (tempered) float) 21
Figure 2(e) Two-edge supported double glazing units (asymmetrical)
(float, cast, toughened (tempered) float, laminated float, polished wired
and wired cast) 22
Figure 2(f) Four-edge supported annealed glass (float, cast, polished
wired and wired cast) 23
Figure 2(g) Four-edge supported toughened (tempered) float glass 24
Figure 2(h) Four-edge supported laminated float glass 25
Figure 2(i) Four-edge supported double glazing units (symmetrical)
(annealed float glass) 26
Figure 2(j) Four-edge supported double glazing units (symmetrical)
(laminated float and toughened (tempered) float) 27
Figure 2(k) Four-edge supported double glazing units (asymmetrical)
(toughened (tempered) float and laminated float) 28
Figure 2(l) Four-edge supported double glazing units (asymmetrical)
(float, laminated float, polished wired and wired cast) 29
Figure 2(m) Four-edge supported double glazing units (asymmetrical)
(cast, polished wired and wired cast) 30
Figure 3 Recommended minimum thicknesses of solid plastics
glazing sheet material for infilling 31
Figure 3(a) Two-edge supported panes and four-edge supported
panes with aspect ratios of pane greater than 3.5 : 1 31
Figure 3(b) Four-edge supported panes with aspect ratios of pane
from 2.5 : 1 to 3.5 : 1 32
Figure 3(c) Four-edge supported panes with aspect ratios of pane
from 1.5 : 1 to 2.5 : 1 33
Figure 3(d) Four-edge supported panes with aspect ratios of pane
from 1.0 : 1 to 1.5 : 1 34
Figure 4 Additional framing at entrances 36
Figure 5 Typical rack for the storage of glass 46
Figure 6 Dimensional and positional tolerances of patent glazing 47
Figure 7 Use of ladders and crawling boards for temporary access 50
Figure 8 Edge clearance and edge cover for plastics glazing sheet
materials 59
Figure 9 Cutting hollow section plastics glazing sheet materials 60
Table 1 Fire performance of glass 35
Table 2 Thermal transmittance (U-values) of glass (single glass and
sealed double glazing units) 38
Table 3 Thermal transmittance (U-values) of plastics glazing sheet
materials (single and double sheet and hollow section) 38
Publications referred to 62

ii BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Foreword

This British Standard has been prepared under the direction of the Elements and
Components (of Diverse Materials) for Buildings Standards Policy Committee. It
is a revision of BS 5516:1977, which is withdrawn.
This edition gives recommendations for the use of plastics glazing sheet materials
as infilling and contains more detailed advice about the structural design of
patent glazing. Subjects not previously dealt with and now included are human
safety, security, thermal safety and finishes of materials.
Assessed capability. Users of this British Standard are advised to consider the
desirability of assessment and registration of a suppliers quality systems against
the appropriate Part of BS 5750 by a third party certification body.
A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a
contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application.
Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity
from legal obligations.

Summary of pages
This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i to iv,
pages 1 to 62, an inside back cover and a back cover.
This standard has been updated (see copyright date) and may have had
amendments incorporated. This will be indicated in the amendment table on
the inside front cover.

BSI 04-1999 iii


iv blank
BS 5516:1991

Section 1. General

0 Introduction This standard does not include the design of the


supporting structure to which the patent glazing is
Patent glazing is the term applied to a self-draining
attached.
and ventilated system of dry glazing which does not
NOTE The titles of the publications referred to in this standard
rely necessarily for its watertightness upon external are listed on page 62.
glazing seals. It consists essentially of a series of
longitudinal supporting members, i.e. patent 2 Definitions
glazing bars, and an infilling of glass or other
suitable infill material. Patent glazing bars are For the purposes of this British Standard the
attached to and supported by structural members, following definitions apply, together with the
either directly or indirectly, but are not usually symbols in Appendix A.
connected together in the form of a frame. 2.1
Patent glazing systems are described by the number aspect ratio of pane
of edges by which the infilling is supported by the ratio of the longer to the shorter side of a
supporting members. rectangular pane
a) Two-edge systems are those in which the 2.2
infilling is fully supported by patent glazing bars butt joint
on two opposite longitudinal edges only.
joint between edges of adjacent panes of infilling,
Horizontal flashings or other weatherings are
normally provided at the top and bottom edges usually horizontal and weathered by a came or
and between panes. sealant
b) Four-edge systems are those in which the 2.3
infilling is fully supported by patent glazing bars came
on two opposite longitudinal edges and non-loadbearing member used to weather a
additionally on the other two edges by transverse horizontal butt joint in a two-edge system of patent
supporting members. glazing
2.4
1 Scope cap
This standard gives recommendations for the strip, which may retain infilling, fitted over a patent
design, manufacture, installation and maintenance glazing bar to impede direct water penetration
of sloping and vertical patent glazing systems (See Figure 1)
attached to and supported by structural members of
adequate strength, stiffness and stability. All the 2.5
recommendations apply to flat, including faceted, fastener
patent glazing. The recommendations also apply to mechanical device for securing patent glazing to the
curved patent glazing except for the structural supporting structure, or for connecting or fastening
design of curved patent glazing. one part to another
The patent glazing systems included in this 2.6
standard comprise supporting members of fixing
aluminium or steel for two-edge and four-edge item or assembly of items which forms the
systems for single and double glazing, and other attachment of patent glazing to the supporting
components. A range of transparent and opaque structure
infillings of glass, plastics glazing sheet and other
materials is included; specific information on 2.7
plastics glazing sheet materials is given fixing bracket
in Appendix J. fitting attached to a patent glazing bar and secured
This standard covers the use of patent glazing in to a structural member by fasteners
permanent buildings and structures, other than NOTE Cleat, plate, shoe and slipper are deprecated terms for
greenhouses. Clauses which are relevant also apply fixing bracket.
to the use of patent glazing inside buildings. 2.8
The procedure for structural design given in this flashing
standard is based on permissible stress design. strip of impervious material, usually metal, dressed
Limit state design may be used but is not included or fitted in order to exclude water from the junction
in this standard. between patent glazing and adjacent material or
between joints in patent glazing

BSI 04-1999 1
BS 5516:1991

2.9 2.20
four-edge system span of supporting member
patent glazing with infilling fully supported on four parallel distance between the centres of two
edges adjacent points of attachment of a supporting
2.10 member to a structural member, or to another
glazing stop supporting member, measured in the plane of the
glazing
fitting attached to the lower end of a patent glazing
bar to prevent the infilling from sliding 2.21
storm clip
2.11
head fitting attached to a patent glazing bar to restrain
the infilling against negative wind pressure
top member in patent glazing, usually horizontal
2.22
2.12 supporting member
infilling
member that supports and retains the edge of
sheet material that occupies the space between infilling
supporting members
2.23
2.13 transom
pane
intermediate transverse supporting member in a
infilling cut to size and shape four-edge system of patent glazing, spanning
2.14 between patent glazing bars and incorporating a
patent glazing bar water channel
longitudinal supporting member in patent glazing 2.24
that spans between structural members and two-edge system
incorporates water channels patent glazing with infilling fully supported on two
2.15 opposite longitudinal edges
setting blocks 2.25
pieces of resilient material used at the bottom edge vertical patent glazing
of infilling patent glazing at an angle of 75 or more to the
2.16 horizontal
sill 2.26
bottom member in patent glazing, usually water channel
horizontal groove within the section profile of a supporting
2.17 member to collect and drain water to the outside of
sloping patent glazing the building, either directly or indirectly
patent glazing at an angle of less than 75 to the (See Figure 1)
horizontal 2.27
2.18 weathering
spacing strip of material to control the passage of water
perpendicular distance between the centres of two and/or air through a joint in patent glazing, or
adjacent parallel supporting members, measured in between patent glazing and adjacent material
the plane of the glazing 2.28
2.19 wing
span of infilling metal strip fitted to the side of a patent glazing bar
perpendicular distance between two adjacent to retain infilling and impede direct water
parallel supporting members, measured in the penetration (See Figure 1)
plane of the glazing

2 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

3 Provision of information h) type(s) of patent glazing bar, type(s) of


infilling, type(s) of flashing and any decorative or
3.1 General
protective finish(es) required;
To ensure that the intentions of the building i) details of any ventilation or other openings
designer and the requirements of the patent glazing required and their method of operation;
contractor are clearly understood, consultation is
recommended at both the initial design and tender j) details of any access equipment to be provided
stages. for cleaning/maintenance;
Information normally required by the patent k) any other relevant information.
glazing contractor is given in 3.2 to 3.4 and is 3.3 Site attendances and facilities
usually best provided in the form of drawings, Responsibility for the following matters should be
specifications, bills of quantities or other related made clear to the patent glazing contractor at
documents. tender stage:
3.2 Design and performance a) provision of suitable scaffolding, working
Information which should be provided by the platforms, lifting gear or mobile towers as and
building designer includes the following: when required to suit the progress of the patent
a) location, degree of exposure and the altitude of glazing works;
the site where the building is situated; b) receiving and unloading materials at the site
b) intended use and occupancy of the building and distribution of materials to and from storage
together with any specific performance criteria in area;
respect of the following: c) safe storage of materials on the site in a covered
1) fire (see clause 12); store;
2) weather resistance (see clause 13); d) hoisting and/or carrying materials to the
correct floor level or work area;
3) heat conservation (see clause 14);
e) provision where required of datum levels at not
4) condensation (see clause 15); more than 15 m intervals and grid lines on each
5) solar heat gain (see clause 16); floor;
6) thermal safety (see clause 17); f) provision of fixing holes, inserts or similar
7) transmission of light (see clause 18); devices in the supporting structure when
required and for any other preparatory work;
8) sound reduction (see clause 19);
g) provision of electric power (110 V 15 A) within
9) durability (see clause 20);
a distance not exceeding 15 m from each work
10) human safety (see clause 21); face;
11) security (see clause 22); h) removal of any temporary protective masking,
c) details of any environmental factors or coating, wrapping, labels, stickers and the like;
atmospheric conditions which may have an i) cleaning down, casing and protection of the
adverse effect on the patent glazing, especially patent glazing after installation;
any corrosive conditions;
j) provision of safety, health and welfare facilities.
d) position of the patent glazing on the building,
the external dimensions of the building and 3.4 Time schedule
details of any features which may affect the To assist in the preparation of a preliminary
distribution of wind or snow; programme the following information should also be
e) design loads for the particular situation of the provided at the time of tendering:
patent glazing; a) period(s) allowed for the completion of the
f) details of supporting structure including the patent glazing works including the approximate
size, spacing, nature and dimensional and date when the patent glazing contractor will be
positional tolerances of structural members, required to commence on site;
surrounding construction and adjacent b) availability of all necessary details and
materials; information to enable working drawings to be
g) dimensions of the patent glazing including prepared for submission for approval by the
angle of glazing to the horizontal and preferred building designer;
spacings of patent glazing bars and any other c) period required by the building designer to
supporting members; approve working drawings after submission.

BSI 04-1999 3
BS 5516:1991

Section 2. Components, materials and finishes

4 General a) Aluminium bars. These should bc extruded


from alloy complying with designation 6063,
All components of a patent glazing system should be
temper T6 of BS 1474. Other alloys and tempers
manufactured from materials or protected by
may be suitable and the patent glazing contractor
finishes which are compatible, durable and capable
should be consulted as to their use.
of resistance to corrosion and degradation in the
environmental and service conditions in which they b) Steel bars or cores. These should be
are expected to be used. Specially corrosive manufactured from hot rolled steel sections that,
conditions require particular attention and the when tested in accordance with BS EN 10 002-1,
patent glazing contractor should be provided with have a minimum ultimate tensile strength
the necessary information at the initial design stage of 355 N/mm2. Rust and millscale should be
(see clauses 3 and 9). removed before fabrication (cutting to length,
drilling, notching, etc.). After fabrication, prior to
Materials and finishes should satisfy the essential lead or plastics sheathing, steel cores should be
requirements of hygiene, health and safety in use.
protected by the application of a suitable rust
The selection of suitable materials and finishes
inhibiting material or inert coating.
should take into account performance criteria,
visual considerations and the economic factors c) Aluminium caps and wings. These should be
involved. extruded from alloy complying with
designation 6063, temper T6, of BS 1474, or
5 Supporting members, flashings, formed from sheet or strip aluminium complying
ancillary components and finishes with designation 1200 or from alloys
designated 3103, 5005 or 5251 of BS 1470 in a
5.1 Patent glazing bars (longitudinal temper suitable for the particular type of
supporting members) application and degree of forming to be adopted.
5.1.1 Types of patent glazing bars Other alloys may be suitable and the patent
glazing contractor should be consulted as to their
Patent glazing bars should be one of the following
use.
types.
d) Lead wings and sheaths. These should be
a) Aluminium bars
extruded from lead showing a medium grain size.
1) traditional bars in which the stalk or web Lead sheaths should be not less than 0.8 mm
projects to the outside and the infilling is thick.
retained either by wings of aluminium, lead or e) Plastics caps, wings and sheaths. These
plastics, or by caps of aluminium or plastics
should be extruded from unplasticized polyvinyl
[see Figure 1(a)];
chloride. Plastics sheaths should be not less
2) inverted bars in which the stalk or web does than 0.75 mm thick.
not project to the outside and the infilling is
f) Other materials. The suitability of other
retained by caps of aluminium or plastics
materials should be checked with the patent
[see Figure 1(b)]. glazing contractor.
b) Lead-sheathed steel bars. These bars have a
5.2 Transverse supporting members (head,
steel core encased in an extruded lead sheath
sills and transoms)
with integral lead wings. Sheaths are sealed at
their ends by lead burning or soldering. Transverse supporting members should be made
c) Plastics-sheathed steel bars. These bars from one of the following materials.
have a steel core encased in an extruded plastics a) Aluminium
sheath which is sealed at the ends. The infilling 1) Extruded sections: alloy complying with
is retained in position by an extruded plastics designation 6063, temper T6, of BS 1474.
cap. Other alloys and tempers may be suitable and
d) Composite steel bars. These bars consist of a the patent glazing contractor should be
steel flat, tee or other section to which is fitted an consulted as to their use.
aluminium or a plastics carrier section. The 2) Formed sections: sheet or strip aluminium
infilling is retained in position by caps or wings of complying with designation 1200 or alloys
aluminium or plastics. designated 3103, 5005 or 5251 of BS 1470 in a
5.1.2 Materials for patent glazing bars, caps, temper suitable for the particular type of
wings and sheaths application and degree of forming to be
adopted.
Materials for patent glazing bars, caps, wings and
sheaths should be as follows.

4 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

NOTE Designs vary considerably; the drawings are stylized representations only and do not show fastners.
Figure 1 Aluminium patent glazing bars
b) Steel c) Steel: steel sheet complying with BS 1449-1 or
1) Hot-rolled sections: steel that, when tested galvanized steel sheet complying with BS 2989
in accordance with BS EN 10 002-1, has a and not less than 0.7 mm thick.
minimum ultimate tensile strength Other flashing materials are available but their
of 355 N/mm2. suitability should be checked with the patent
2) Formed sections: steel sheet complying with glazing contractor.
BS 1449-1 or galvanized steel sheet complying 5.4 Ancillary components
with BS 2989. 5.4.1 Weatherings
5.3 Flashings
Weatherings such as cames, weather bars, closures
Flashing materials should comply with one of the and fillers, if made from one of the materials
following specifications. described in 5.1.2 and 5.3, should comply with the
a) Lead: milled lead sheet complying with relevant specification. Other materials should be
BS 1178 with a minimum thickness of 1.8 mm compatible with other components of the patent
(code No. 4). glazing. Where wood is used, it should be of a
b) Aluminium durable type and, if necessary, treated with
preservative of a type compatible with the other
1) Site formed flashings: sheet or strip components of the patent glazing and adjacent
aluminium complying with materials.
designation 1050A, temper 0, of BS 1470 and
not less than 0.8 mm thick. 5.4.2 Fittings
2) Preformed flashings: sheet or strip Fixing brackets, glazing stops, storm clips,
aluminium complying with designation 1200 etc. should be of materials, shapes and thicknesses
or alloys designated 3103, 5005 or 5251 of adequate to withstand the loads imposed upon them
BS 1470 in a temper suitable for the particular and any likely movements.
type of application and degree of forming to be NOTE A large variety of fittings may be used and it is not
adopted and not less than 0.9 mm thick. practicable to give detailed recommendations.

BSI 04-1999 5
BS 5516:1991

5.4.3 Fasteners The appearance of the anodic film depends upon


Bolts, screws, studs, nuts, rivets and other material composition, form, temper or condition
mechanical fasteners should have adequate and surface texture and care should be taken in
strength for the particular condition in which they the selection of materials for components which
are to be used and should be made from one of the are required to be closely matched. Special
following materials. consideration should be given where anodized
extrusions and anodized sheet or strip are used
a) Brass: alloy complying with designation in conjunction.
CZ 121 Pb3 or CZ 121 Pb4 of BS 2874 or other
suitable alloy of a composition not likely to show For external applications anodic oxide coatings
stress corrosion tendencies should be used. on aluminium should comply with BS 3987. For
internal applications a thinner coating in
NOTE Brass fasteners should not be used with aluminium.
accordance with the method described in
b) Aluminium: bolt or screw stock alloy BS 1615 may be used.
complying with designation 5056A, temper H4, of
BS 1473 or other suitable alloy of a composition c) Organic coated. Pre-treated aluminium is
not likely to show stress corrosion tendencies coated with synthetic resin, commonly polyester
should be used. or acrylic based, applied in powder or liquid form
and stoved on to produce a protective film. A wide
c) Steel: mild steel should be protected either by range of colours which can be closely matched on
electroplating with zinc or cadmium complying different substrates is available.
with BS 3382 and chromate passivated and
sealed in accordance with BS 6338, or by Organic coatings on aluminium should comply
sherardizing to class 1 in accordance with with BS 6496 for powder coatings and BS 4842
BS 4921. Other protective treatments may be for liquid coatings.
suitable and the patent glazing contractor should 5.5.2 Finishes for steel
be consulted as to their use. Components made from steel (except stainless
d) Stainless steel: austenitic steel complying steel), which are not otherwise protected against
with grade A2 or A4 of BS 6105 should be used. corrosion, should be protected by one of the
NOTE The compositions of grades A2 and A4 in BS 6105 following types of finish.
correspond approximately to 304S31 and 316S31 in
BS 1449-2 respectively.
a) Hot-dip galvanized. Cleaned steel is
Where patent glazing is to be subjected to vibration, immersed in molten zinc which becomes
fasteners of a type which resist slackening should be chemically bonded to the base metal to produce a
used. protective coating. The coating, which may have
a bright, metallic appearance, is usually
5.5 Finishes overpainted after installation to provide a
NOTE The selection of suitable finishes for aluminium and coloured finish for decoration and added
steel will depend on the degree of protection and/or decorative protection.
effect required.
Hot-dip galvanized coatings on steel should
5.5.1 Finishes for aluminium
comply with BS 729.
Aluminium components are available in the b) Zinc sprayed. Grit blasted steel surfaces are
following types of finish. sprayed with particles of semi-molten zinc which
a) Mill. This description applies to untreated become mechanically bonded to the abraded
aluminium surfaces. The rate at which the surface of the base metal to produce a protective
original bright, metallic appearance will become coating. The coating has a roughened, dull, matt
dull as the surface oxidizes and develops a grey appearance which is usually primed and
roughened texture depends upon environmental subsequently overpainted after installation to
conditions. Mill finish may not be suitable where provide a coloured finish for decoration and
appearance is important or where close fitting, added protection.
moving parts are involved. Zinc sprayed coatings on steel should comply
b) Anodized. Suitably prepared aluminium is with BS 2569-1.
treated electrochemically during which process c) Organic coated. Suitably prepared steel is
the surface of the metal is converted to a hard, coated with synthetic resin, commonly polyester
translucent film of aluminium oxide forming a based, applied in powder or liquid form and
protective coating. A range of colours is available. stoved on to produce a protective film. A range of
colours which can be closely matched on different
substrates is available.

6 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Organic powder coatings on hot-dip galvanized 4) Insulating glass units (double glazing units):
steel should comply with BS 6497. factory made, hermetically sealed double
glazing units which may incorporate any
6 Infillings annealed, toughened or laminated glasses in
6.1 Maximum size any viable combination. The panes of glass are
separated by a hermetically sealed space of
Maximum size limits are determined more often by dehydrated air or a special gas mixture.
design considerations than by availability. Surface coatings not suitable for single glazing
Important design factors influencing size limits are may be incorporated in double glazing units
loadings (e.g. wind, snow), safety, fire and security with the coating on a cavity surface.
considerations. Ease of handling and means of
6.3 Plastics glazing sheet materials
access to vertical or sloping patent glazing are
further considerations which relate to both the Plastics glazing sheet materials are of various basic
weight and dimensions of the infilling. polymer types. The types marketed vary because of
Within two-edge systems, larger sizes may be differences in their chemical composition or
achieved by incorporating horizontal butt joints form, i.e. solid or hollow section. Whilst different
with cames or suitably designed sealant joints. types are normally available under their
proprietary brand names, the basic types most
The patent glazing contractor should be consulted commonly used in patent glazing are generically:
about the suitability of the size of panes, shapes
other than rectangles, or panes of unusual a) polycarbonate (PC);
dimensions. b) polyvinyl chloride (PVC), commonly referred to
6.2 Glass as rigid PVC; unplasticized PVC or uPVC;
c) polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), commonly
Glass for glazing is classified in BS 952-1. The
referred to as acrylic.
designer should check the availability and viability
of the glass chosen with the manufacturer and/or These are available in both solid sheet and hollow
the patent glazing contractor. The following types of section form.
glass are normally used in patent glazing. In addition to clear transparent, some of the above
a) Annealed types are available as transparent colours, as opal
whites and with patterned surfaces.
1) Transparent glass: clear float, body tinted
float, surface coated float and polished wired For further information on plastics glazing sheeting
glass. materials, see Appendix J.
2) Translucent glass: clear cast (patterned) 6.4 Other materials
glass, body tinted cast (patterned) glass and A wide range of materials, with or without
cast wired glass. insulating backings, may be used as infillings.
b) Processed These include:
1) Toughened (tempered) glass: any annealed a) aluminium sheet;
glass, with the exception of wired glass, that b) coated metal sheet;
has been subjected to a heating and rapid
c) profiled plastics sheet material;
cooling process that imparts a greater strength
to the material. The process makes the glass d) glass fibre reinforced plastics sheet (GRP);
more resistant to mechanical and thermal e) composite panels.
stress. For the full technical information required for these
2) Opaque glass: produced by firing in a and other types of infill material, reference should
ceramic frit during the toughening process. be made to the manufacturer.
3) Laminated glass: two or more panes of
annealed or toughened glass usually
laminated together by means of polymeric
interlayers. The normal interlayer is poly
(vinyl butyral), although a number of
cast-in-place resin systems are now available.
There are also available specialized laminated
glasses incorporating intumescent interlayers
for fire performance.

BSI 04-1999 7
BS 5516:1991

7 Sealing and glazing materials 7.2 Types


7.1 General 7.2.1 Preformed
There is a wide range of materials available for the Preformed types are usually of substantially dry,
seating of infilling and the weather sealing of joints non-viscous materials, commonly in reel or strip
in patent glazing and between patent glazing and form, and include mastic tapes, greased cords,
adjacent materials. These materials should be of a synthetic rubbers and plastics sections and gaskets,
resilient nature, capable of accommodating any either solid or cellular. Such materials, which do not
likely movements, and be compatible with the normally undergo a physical or chemical change,
substrates to which they are applied or with which may require to be used under compression.
they are in contact. Care should be taken in the Preformed rubber gaskets should comply with the
selection of sealing and glazing materials to ensure appropriate Part of BS 4255.
that they are sufficiently resistant to climatic 7.2.2 Formed-in-place
effects, especially ultraviolet light and atmospheric
pollution in the conditions in which they are to be Formed-in-place types are usually of viscous
used (see also Appendix J). materials for application by hand, knife or gun and
NOTE 1 With some infillings, notably laminated and solar
include bulk mastics, glazing compounds and
control glasses and double glazing units, correctly positioned sealants. Such materials may undergo a physical or
setting blocks of adequate size, with or without glazing materials, chemical change after initial placing and may also
should be used to prevent direct contact between the bottom edge have adhesive properties.
of the glass and any metal component, continuous or otherwise.
NOTE 2 Suitable materials for use as setting blocks in patent One-part gun-grade polysulphide-based sealants
glazing include plasticized polyvinyl chloride (with a softness no. should comply with BS 5215.
of 35 to 45 ; see BS 2571) and extruded unplasticized polyvinyl
chloride. However, plasticized polyvinyl chloride setting blocks Two-part polysulphide-based sealants should
are not recommended for use with plastics glazing sheet comply with BS 4254.
materials.
Silicone-based sealants should comply with
BS 5889.

8 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Section 3. Design

8 General 9.3 Visual considerations


Consideration should be given at the initial design The degrees of variation in the colour, texture,
stage, in consultation with the patent glazing pattern and evenness of internal and external
contractor, to the dimensional and positional visible surfaces will depend upon the materials used
accuracy of the supporting structure and adjacent and the surface finishes. The acceptable degree of
materials. It is especially important that the variation in appearance should be established in
supporting structure for four-edge systems is built consultation with the patent glazing contractor.
to a high degree of dimensional and positional
accuracy over the whole area to which the patent 10 Structural
glazing is to be attached. 10.1 Structural support
Where thermal or other movement joints are Patent glazing should be attached to, and supported
required in a building it may be necessary to by, structural members of adequate strength,
incorporate corresponding junctions in the patent stiffness and stability. Deflection of a structural
glazing. The patent glazing contractor should be member should be limited to 1/360 of its span unless
consulted at the design stage as to the specific otherwise recommended in an appropriate British
movements involved, in order that these can be Standard code of practice, e.g. BS 5950-1 , CP 118 .
accommodated within the patent glazing system. The patent glazing contractor should be consulted
with regard to those features of members affecting
9 Selection of materials the accommodation of the patent glazing.
9.1 General 10.2 Structural function
When selecting materials and finishes for use in The patent glazing system should be capable of
patent glazing, their compatibility with other sustaining and transmitting to the structure at its
components of the building should be considered. points of support the most adverse combination of
The compatibility of components within patent loads likely to be encountered in service without
glazing systems should also be considered damage or permanent deterioration of its
(see clause 4). Materials should be selected in performance. There should be no significant,
consultation with the patent glazing contractor. irreversible deformation or excessive deflection of
9.2 Performance criteria any of its parts resulting from the design loads.
The performance criteria which may influence the Patent glazing bars are the longitudinal supporting
materials selected include the following: members in a system of patent glazing. The primary
structural requirements of a patent glazing bar are
a) structural (clause 10);
to resist the loads acting on the surface of the
b) openings (clause 11); glazing in addition to its own weight and that of the
c) fire (clause 12); infilling and to provide continuous support and
d) weather resistance (clause 13); retention to the longitudinal edges of the infilling
against positive and negative pressure. Patent
e) heat conservation (clause 14);
glazing bars may also be required to resist other
f) condensation (clause 15); specified loads such as those incidental to
g) solar heat gain (clause 16); maintenance.
h) thermal safety (clause 17); Transoms are intermediate, transverse secondary
i) transmission of light (clause 18); supporting members in four-edge systems of patent
glazing. The principal structural requirements of a
j) sound reduction (clause 19); transom are to act in conjunction with the patent
k) durability (clause 20); glazing bars in resisting the loads acting on the
l) human safety (clause 21); surface of the glazing in addition to its own weight
m) security (clause 22); and that of the infilling and to provide continuous
support and retention to the transverse edges of the
n) access for maintenance and cleaning infilling against positive and negative pressure.
(clause 23). Transoms have also to resist the dead load acting
downwards in the plane of the glazing.
The infilling should be capable of sustaining the
loads acting on the surface of the glazing in addition
to its own weight and of transferring them to the
supporting members.

BSI 04-1999 9
BS 5516:1991

Fixings should be capable of withstanding the Exceptional local effects such as shelter from the
maximum support and restraint loads to which they wind or local configurations which funnel the snow
may be subjected and of resisting any likely may give rise to increased loading. If the building
movements. designer thinks that there may be unusual local
10.3 Loading conditions that may need to be taken into account
then the nearest meteorological office or informed
Patent glazing is not designed to withstand loads local sources should be consulted.
imposed by the structure to which it is attached. The
Where there is a risk of damage by impact from
loads that normally have to be resisted by patent
large masses of snow sliding off an adjoining roof at
glazing are combinations of those due to the
following. higher level, snowguards should be fitted and the
building designer may refer to BS 6367 for detailed
a) Wind exerted on the surface of the patent advice.
glazing, which may act either inwards (positive
pressure) or outwards (negative pressure or 10.4.3 Dead load (self-weight)
suction) or both: negative and positive pressures Dead loads for supporting members and for the
are not necessarily equal in magnitude. infilling should be calculated from the actual known
b) Snow acting inwards on the surface of the mass of the materials.
patent glazing. When considering the dead load for supporting
c) Self-weight, usually acting inwards: the weight members, the weight taken should be that of the
should also be considered as a load acting supporting member, together with that of the infill
downwards in the plane of the glazing. material. When considering the dead load for the
infilling alone, the weight taken should be that of
d) Maintenance, if required, which should be
the infill material only. (See Appendix D.)
taken as acting inwards on sloping patent glazing
but which may act either inwards or outwards on Self-weight should also be considered as a dead load
vertical patent glazing. acting downwards in the plane of the glazing.
10.4 Assessment of design loads 10.4.4 Maintenance load
10.4.1 Wind load Safe and efficient means of access for the
maintenance including cleaning of patent glazing,
The design wind loads, both positive and negative, both inside and outside, should be considered by the
for the particular situation of the patent glazing building designer (see clause 26). It is essential that
should be determined at the initial design stage account should be taken of any loading on the patent
(see 3.2). glazing that might arise incidental to maintenance
Wind loads for external walls and roofs of normal, and the patent glazing contractor should be
rectangular, clad buildings and for canopy roofs may provided with the necessary information at the
be determined by the method described in initial design stage (see 3.2).
CP 3:Chapter V-2 . A summary of this procedure is Access systems which are independent of the patent
given in Appendix B. glazing should be preferred especially for the
For buildings of unusual geometric shape or site maintenance of patent glazing at high level where,
location not covered by CP 3:Chapter V-2 and for example, long ladders may be difficult to handle
problems involving consideration of the excess safely.
pressure near ground level that may, in some Where direct access by temporary ladder or
circumstances, be generated by downdraught from crawling boards is intended the patent glazing bars
tall buildings or high speed air currents such as may should, if required, be capable of supporting the
occur in narrow paths between buildings, the loads imposed by their use and a method of
building designer should seek advice from the assessing such loads is discussed in Appendix E.
Building Research Establishment or the National Maintenance loads should never be carried directly
Physical Laboratory. by the infilling.
10.4.2 Snow load For patent glazing at low level and certain forms of
The design snow loads on roofs for the particular patent glazing at roof level, maintenance may be
situation of the patent glazing should be determined carried out from the ground or adjacent areas of
at the initial design stage (see 3.2). solid, weight-bearing roof without the need to
Snow loads on roofs may be determined by the impose any maintenance load on the patent glazing
method described in BS 6399-3. A summary of this itself.
procedure is given in Appendix C.

10 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Those responsible for the maintenance of patent Applying this adjustment for sustained loads to the
glazing should be made aware of any load limits on combinations of design loads considered
which a particular design is based so that they may in Appendix F, the following expressions are
ensure that such limitations are not exceeded obtained.
(see clause 26). a) For sloping patent glazing:
10.4.5 Other loads + pw + 2.6(ps + pdi) and if a negative value for
Where loads other than those mentioned in 10.4.1 pw is derived, i.e. wind suction conditions:
to 10.4.4 are anticipated, for example any pw + pdi
permanent imposed loads or suspended loads, due
allowance should be made and the patent glazing b) For vertical patent glazing:
contractor should be provided with the necessary + pw + 2.6pdi and if a negative value for pw is
information at the initial design stage (see 3.2). derived, i.e. wind suction conditions:
Permanent imposed loads should never be carried
pw + pdi
directly by the infilling.
10.5 Determination of working pressures In the expressions given in a) and b), to take account
of windless conditions when no positive value for pw
10.5.1 General is derived, zero should be substituted for + pw.
In determining working pressures for patent Each load case should be considered and whichever
glazing, account should be taken of the most adverse of the resultant values is numerically the greater
combination of design loads that is likely to occur in should be taken as the operative working pressure
service in the particular situation of the patent for glass, pg, for the particular situation of the
glazing and an analysis of this procedure is given patent glazing. The values thus obtained arc for use
in Appendix F. with the graphical data given in 10.8.1 for
10.5.2 Supporting members determining the recommended minimum thickness
for glass.
Working pressures for supporting members may be
determined by the method described in Appendix G. The expressions given in a) and b) apply to glass in
The values so obtained should be used in the single glazing and to hermetically sealed double
formulae given in Appendix H for determining the glazing units. With systems of double glazing
required geometric properties of section for comprising two separate and mechanically
supporting members. independent layers of glass, assuming some degree
of air permeation between the panes, each pane
10.5.3 Infilling should be designed to resist the full wind load, both
10.5.3.1 Glass positive and negative, in addition to its own weight.
Glass is appreciably weaker when subjected to a With such systems of double glazing, only the outer
sustained load such as snow and dead loads than to pane of glass needs to be capable of carrying the
a load of short duration and, in determining working snow load.
pressures for glass, it is essential that account
should be taken of the effect of the duration of the
various loads under consideration. The flexural
strength of glass on which thickness computations
such as are given in 10.8.1 are based is that for a
uniform, momentary (3 s gust wind) load and the
relative strength for a sustained load is
approximately ) of that for a short-term load.
When considering snow load and dead load in
conjunction with wind load these sustained loads
should be multiplied by a factor of 2.6 so that their
effect on the strength of the glass may be considered
in terms of a 3 s gust wind load. This factor is not
applied to the dead load where it merely reacts
against a negative wind pressure since the weight
counters the wind suction only when the suction
occurs.

BSI 04-1999 11
BS 5516:1991

10.5.3.2 Plastics glazing sheet materials The expressions given in a) and b) apply to solid
Under long-term, sustained loads, such as snow and plastics glazing sheet materials in single glazing
dead loads, plastics glazing sheet materials can and to hollow section plastics glazing sheet
undergo a slight permanent deformation known as materials. With systems of double glazing
creep. This can manifest itself as a visible sagging of comprising two separate and mechanically
the infilling. In determining working pressures for independent layers of plastics glazing sheet
plastics glazing sheet materials, it is essential that materials, assuming some degree of air permeation
account should be taken of the effect of the duration between the panes, each pane should be designed to
of the various loads under consideration. The resist the full wind load, both positive and negative,
performance of plastics glazing sheet materials on in addition to its own weight. With such systems of
which data given in 10.8.2 are based is that for a double glazing, the outer pane should be capable of
uniform, momentary (3 s gust wind) load. When carrying the snow load but the inner pane need not.
considering snow load and dead load in conjunction 10.5.3.3 Other infill materials
with wind load, these sustained loads should be For the determination of appropriate working
multiplied by a factor so that their effect on the pressures for other infill materials the
performance of plastics glazing sheet materials may manufacturer should be consulted.
be considered in terms of a 3 s gust wind load. Based
on experience and experimental knowledge, a factor 10.5.4 Fixings
of 2 is recommended. This factor is not applied to The combination of loads which induce critical
the dead load where it merely reacts against a stress in fixings may not be the same as those for
negative wind pressure since the weight counters supporting members and infilling and should be
the wind suction only when the suction occurs. determined separately.
Applying this adjustment for sustained loads to the 10.6 Strength and stiffness
combination of design loads considered in
10.6.1 Supporting members
Appendix F, the following expressions are obtained.
a) For sloping patent glazing: 10.6.1.1 General
+ pw + 2(ps + pdi) and if a negative value for Supporting members should be strong enough to
withstand the working pressure without permanent
pw is derived, i.e. wind suction conditions:
bending or yielding of their material. They should
pw + pdi also be stiff enough to restrict elastic deflection to an
b) For vertical patent glazing: amount likely to be visually acceptable and prevent
damage to, or displacement of, the infilling and
+ pw + 2pdi and if a negative value for pw is other adjacent materials and components, or cause
derived, i.e. wind suction conditions: impairment to the functional performance of the
pw + pdi patent glazing system.
In the expressions given in a) and b), to take account 10.6.1.2 Strength
of windless conditions when no positive value for pw Supporting members which are principally
is derived, zero should be substituted for + pw. uniformly loaded and simply supported, if designed
Each load case should be considered and whichever to resist bending stresses, will usually be
of the resultant values is numerically the greater satisfactory in respect of other mechanical stresses.
should be taken as the operative working pressure In determining working pressures for supporting
for plastics glazing sheet materials, pp, for the members on the basis of the maximum 3 s gust wind
particular situation of the patent glazing. The load, as described in Appendix G, permissible
values thus obtained are for use with the data given stresses may be increased by one-third. The
in 10.8.2 for determining the recommended following design bending stresses should be used in
minimum thickness for solid sheet or the form of calculations involving the strength of supporting
hollow section sheet, of the plastics glazing sheet members, such as are given in Appendix H.
materials.
a) For extruded sections in aluminium alloy
designation 6063 temper T6 of BS 1474, having
minimum 0.2 % proof stress of 160 N/mm2
fm = 97 N/mm2 1.33 = 129 N/mm2
b) For hot rolled sections in mild steel having
minimum yield stress of 240 N/mm2
fm = 165 N/mm2 1.33 = 219 N/mm2

12 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

For other material specifications appropriate When designing to these maximum values, account
working stresses should be determined. should be taken of the magnitude of deflection under
When supporting members are used as structural sustained loading and of the possible effect on
members, they should be designed fully in adjacent materials and finishes. If lower deflection
accordance with CP 118 and BS 5950-1 and suitable limits are required, these should be specified by the
stresses adopted. The design of the infilling should building designer and the patent glazing contractor
be in accordance with this standard, however. should be provided with the necessary information
NOTE In the context of this code, supporting members should
at the initial design stage (see 3.2).
not be considered as structural members. In determining design For other infilling materials, especially those with
bending stresses for supporting members as used in a system of inflexible coverings, the amount of deflection may
patent glazing, lateral instability of section is not a criterion due
to the restraint provided by the infilling. need to be reduced and the manufacturer should be
consulted.
10.6.1.3 Stiffness
Maximum recoverable deflection in the plane of the
For supporting members carrying glass and other glazing of a transverse supporting member when
similar infill material, the maximum allowable carrying its full design load should not be such as to
deflection normal to the plane of the glazing is reduce design edge clearance between that member
usually determined by considerations of appearance and the edge of the infilling or any other part
as well as the flexibility of the infilling. To restrict immediately below it by more than 25 % and
stresses in the infill material, the following generally should not exceed 1/400 of the span of the
deflection limits (in mm) should not be exceeded. member or 3 mm whichever is the less. Certain
a) For two-edge systems: types of ventilators or fittings may make it
1) for single glazing and for double glazing necessary to reduce the amount of this deflection.
other than hermetically sealed double glazing Recommended values for Youngs modulus of
units elasticity in bending, for use in calculations
2 involving the stiffness of supporting members such
S - 103
y m2 = ---------- as are given in Appendix H, are as follows.
180
a) For aluminium alloys,
or 50 whichever is the less;
Em = 65 500 N/mm2
2) for hermetically sealed double glazing units
b) For mild steel,
2
S 3
y m2 = ----------- 10 Em = 210 000 N/mm2
540
or 20 whichever is the less. 10.6.2 Infilling
b) For four-edge systems: 10.6.2.1 Glass
1) for single glazing and double glazing when The strength of glass to withstand uniform loading
the span is less than or equal to 3 m, other is based on the safe tensile stress it can carry and
than hermetically sealed double glazing units depends on the type, size and thickness of the glass,
the manner and the number of edges by which the
S - 103
y m4 = ---------- glass is fully supported and, in the case of glass fully
125 supported along all four edges, the aspect ratio of
2) for single glazing and double glazing when pane. Deflection in the glass should also be limited
the span is greater than 3 m, other than to an amount likely to be visually acceptable and not
hermetically sealed double glazing units impair its performance or weather resistance at
flashings and other weatherings. Greater flexural
S - 103 + 12
y m4 = ---------- strength does not indicate greater stiffness.
250
When glass is fully supported along two opposite
or 40 whichever is the less; longitudinal edges only, transverse bending of the
3) for hermetically sealed double glazing units glass creates stress at the mid-span and this is
controlled by limiting the unsupported span of the
S - 103 glass. However, the adoption of the strength of the
y m4 = ----------
175 glass as the criterion may result in excessive
transverse deflection and this should be taken into
or 40 whichever is the less.
account when determining the spacing of
The values given in a) and b) should be used in the longitudinal supporting members.
formulae given in Appendix H.

BSI 04-1999 13
BS 5516:1991

When glass is fully supported along all four edges, 10.6.3 Fixings
up to an aspect ratio of pane of 3 : 1, the stress in the The structural design of mechanical fixings will
centre of the glass is controlled by limiting the area depend on the materials from which they are made,
of the pane. the way in which the loads are applied, the stresses
For an aspect ratio of pane greater than 3 : 1 the involved (which may be a combination of stresses)
glass is considered to be effectively fully supported and the method of attachment. If necessary, a
along two opposite long edges only. detailed analysis should be made to ascertain the
10.6.2.2 Plastics glazing sheet materials actual requirements in a particular case.
The strength of plastics glazing sheet materials to Fasteners which secure patent glazing to the
withstand uniform loading is based on adequate supporting structure should be capable of
resistance to flexing and depends on the size and sustaining and transmitting all design loads
thickness of the plastics glazing sheet material and, imposed upon them. The material to which they are
in the case of hollow section sheets, the geometry of attached should be capable of resisting all the forces
their structure. It also depends on the manner and exerted by the fasteners.
number of edges by which the plastics glazing sheet 10.7 Determination of required geometric
material is fully supported, the edge cover provided properties of section for supporting members
by the supporting members and, in the case of The strength of a supporting member in terms of its
plastics glazing sheet materials fully supported resistance to bending is a function of its modulus of
along all four edges, the aspect ratio of pane. section, while stiffness is a function of its second
Failure of a pane of plastics glazing sheet material moment of area. Formulae for determining the
under mechanical load is more likely to be by required properties of section in a direction of
displacement than by breakage. Deflection of the bending normal to the plane of the glazing for
plastics glazing sheet material should be limited to straight supporting members in two-edge and
an amount likely to be visually acceptable and not four-edge systems of patent glazing are given
impair its performance or weather resistance at in Appendix H.
flashings or other weatherings. (See Appendix J.) The required properties of section for transverse
Deflection of the plastics glazing sheet material supporting members in four-edge systems of patent
results in reduction of edge cover. When the plastics glazing should also take into account the dead load
glazing material is supported along two opposite acting downwards in the plane of the glazing;
longitudinal edges only, adequate edge cover is usually this will be transmitted by setting blocks as
maintained by limiting the unsupported span of the two equal and symmetrically placed point loads.
pane. In the case of plastics glazing sheet materials These loads may not be directed through an axis of
fully supported along all four edges, having an symmetry of the section and the required geometric
aspect ratio of pane of not more than 3.5 : 1, properties about the neutral axis in a direction of
adequate edge cover is maintained by limiting the bending parallel to the plane of the glazing should
area of the pane. Panes fully supported along all be determined from appropriate engineering
four edges having an aspect ratio of pane greater formulae.
than 3.5 : 1 are considered to be supported along
two opposite long edges only. In the case of a hollow The critical bending stress in a supporting member
section plastics glazing sheet material fully is likely to be compressive and, as patent glazing
supported along all four edges, account should be may be subject to both positive and negative
taken of the different stiffness properties parallel to bending in the direction normal to the plane of the
and perpendicular to the geometric profile which glazing, the compression face of the section may be
characterizes the sheet and reference should either on the outside or on the inside. For simplicity
therefore be made to the manufacturer for design of calculations therefore, in considering a
information. supporting member which is not symmetrical about
the axis of bending, the lesser of the two values for
10.6.2.3 Other infill materials the actual modulus of section about the neutral axis
Strength and stiffness characteristics of other infill should be taken so that extreme fibre stress is not
materials should be obtained from the exceeded.
manufacturer.

14 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

10.8 Determination of recommended In the graphs, the minimum tolerances on glass


minimum thickness for infilling thicknesses given in BS 952-1 have been used
10.8.1 Glass together with design stresses based on experience,
experimental knowledge and statistical methods of
Working pressures for glass determined on the basis analysis. Compliance of a glass design with working
of a 3 s gust wind load, taking account of sustained pressure does not imply suitability of use; other
loading effects as described in 10.5.3.1, are used to recommendations of this standard and other design
calculate the minimum thickness or maximum size requirements may also need to be followed. Glass
of pane by a graphic technique. The procedure given having to withstand only low working pressure,
below is for rectangular panes of annealed and notably in vertical patent glazing in sheltered
processed flat glass, as described in BS 952-1, used situations or patent glazing used internally, may
in a system of patent glazing in which the need to be increased in thickness or reduced in size
supporting members provide a minimum edge cover in order to avoid excessive deflection under hand
of 7 mm and which do not deflect under maximum pressure, e.g. during cleaning operations. For
design load by more than the appropriate limits design purposes, therefore, it is recommended that
given in 10.6.1.3. The procedure applies to glass in a minimum working pressure for glass of 800 N/m2
single glazing, to each pane of glass in double should be allowed.
glazing comprising two separate and mechanically
Figure 2(b), Figure 2(d), Figure 2(g) and Figure 2(j)
independent layers of glass and to hermetically
for toughened (tempered) glass are based on the
sealed double glazing units.
design stress for fully toughened (tempered) glass.
The graphs may be used to determine the This may lead to a glass design which, although
recommended minimum thickness of glass type for mechanically safe, has large and possibly visually
a given unsupported span or area of glass, according disturbing deflections under maximum load and
to the number of edges by which the glass is fully detailed design consideration will be needed.
supported.
The laminated glasses referred to in
Figure 2(a) to Figure 2(e) are for glass which is fully Figure 2(c), Figure 2(e), Figure 2(h), Figure 2(j)
supported on two opposite, longitudinal edges only and Figure 2(k) are symmetrical three-ply
and for glass which is fully supported on all four laminated glass incorporating an interlayer of
edges having an aspect ratio of pane greater polyvinyl butyral. Thicknesses shown are nominal
than 3 : 1. and based on the total glass thicknesses only.
Figure 2(f) to Figure 2(m) are for glass which is fully Figure 2(d), Figure 2(e) and Figure 2(i) to
supported on all four edges having an aspect ratio of Figure 2(m) are for hermetically sealed double
pane not greater than 3 : 1. These graphs show a glazing units in which the supported edges are
shaded band for each glass thickness. The lower flush. If any of the supported edges of the unit are
edge of the shaded band should be used when the not flush then such units should be treated as
pane of glass is square, i.e. the aspect ratio of pane though they are single glass of the type and
is 1 : 1; the upper edge of the shaded band thickness of the larger pane.
represents the additional strength of a pane of glass
For other glass types and thicknesses, for other
whose shape is such that the length of the longer
constructions of laminated glass and for other glass
side is three times that of the shorter side, i.e. the
combinations in hermetically sealed double glazing
aspect ratio of pane is 3 : 1; interpolation in direct
proportion can be made for intermediate values of units, reference should be made to the glass
the aspect ratio of pane. As noted in 10.6.2.1, if the manufacturer for recommendations.
aspect ratio of pane is greater than 3 : 1 the glass is 10.8.2 Plastics glazing sheet materials
considered to be fully supported on two opposite 10.8.2.1 General
long edges only, the length of the shorter side being
treated as the unsupported span of glass for use Working pressures for plastics glazing sheet
in Figure 2(a) to Figure 2(e). For glass to be materials, determined on the basis of a 3 s gust
considered as fully supported on all four edges, up to wind load, taking account of sustained loading
an aspect ratio of pane of 3 : 1, the deflection of each effects as described in 10.5.3.2, are used to calculate
supporting member should not exceed the the minimum thickness or maximum size of pane by
appropriate limits given in 10.6.1.3. For other a graphic technique in the case of solid plastics
support conditions and for non-rectangular panes, glazing sheet materials. In the case of hollow section
the glass manufacturer should be consulted. plastics glazing sheet materials, these working
pressures are used to determine the required form
of hollow section sheet by reference to the plastics
glazing sheet material manufacturer.

BSI 04-1999 15
BS 5516:1991

The procedures given below are for rectangular 10.8.2.3 Hollow section sheets
panes of plastics glazing sheet materials as The stiffness of a hollow section plastics glazing
described in 6.3 used in a system of patent glazing sheet material is determined by the material from
in which the supporting members do not deflect which it is made, the overall thickness and geometry
under maximum design load by more than the of the sheet. In addition, in a system of patent
appropriate limits given in 10.6.1.3. glazing in which the infilling is fully supported on
These procedures apply to single glazing or each all four edges, the deflection characteristics of a
pane in double glazing made up of two separate and particular hollow section plastics glazing sheet
mechanically independent layers. material vary according to which direction the webs
Compliance of a plastics glazing sheet material run in relation to the long edges of the pane. It is not
design with working pressures does not imply practical, therefore, to produce a set of graphs
suitability of use. Other recommendations of this relating working pressures to hollow section sheets
standard as well as other design requirements, such because of the variety of profiles and thicknesses in
as vandal resistance, may also need to be satisfied. existence, and the possibility of more to come. In the
case of hollow section plastics glazing sheet
10.8.2.2 Solid sheets
materials fully supported on all four edges, advice
(a) is for solid plastics glazing sheet material which should therefore be obtained from the
is fully supported along two opposite, longitudinal manufacturer.
edges only and for solid plastics glazing sheet In a two-edge system of patent glazing, transverse
material which is fully supported on all four edges bending of the infilling is a function of the working
having an aspect ratio of pane greater than 3.5 : 1. pressure pp, the unsupported span D and the form
(b), (c) and (d) are for solid plastics glazing sheet of hollow section sheet. For rectangular panes of
material which is fully supported on all four edges hollow section plastics glazing sheet materials
having aspect ratios of pane in the which are fully supported on two opposite,
ranges 2.5 : 1 to 3.5 : 1, 1.5 : 1 longitudinal edges only, the calculated value
to 2.5 : 1 and 1.0 : 1 to 1.5 : 1 respectively. (pp D2)/8 Nm should not exceed the permissible
As noted in 10.6.2.2, if the aspect ratio of pane is bending moment for the particular hollow section
greater than 3.5 : 1, the solid plastics glazing sheet sheet. The above expression assumes that the pane
material is considered to be fully supported on two is simply supported along its edges and does not
opposite long edges only, the length of the shorter take account of any clamping effect which may be
side being treated as the unsupported span for use produced by the supporting members at the edges of
in (a). For solid plastics glazing sheet material to be the pane. This clamping effect, which varies
considered as fully supported on all four edges, up to according to the form of hollow section, increases the
an aspect ratio of pane of 3.5 : 1, the deflection of resistance of the pane to flexing and becomes more
each supporting member should not exceed the significant as the unsupported span decreases.
appropriate limits given in 10.6.1.3. For other Whilst it is not practical to give precise details for all
support conditions and for possible cases, where the unsupported span is
non-rectangular panes the manufacturer of the approximately 0.7 m or less advice may be obtained
plastics glazing sheet material should be consulted. from the manufacturer.
In the graphs in , the minimum requirements for For external patent glazing, rectangular panes of
edge cover of plastics glazing sheet material have hollow section plastics glazing sheet materials are
been used. (See Appendix J.) If these requirements normally installed with the webs parallel to the
cannot be fully satisfied, other methods of glazing longitudinal supporting members, i.e. in the
may be employed and the manufacturer should be direction of the slope or the flow of water for sloping
consulted. patent glazing and vertically for vertical patent
glazing. Therefore for hollow section plastics glazing
sheet materials which are fully supported on two
opposite, longitudinal edges only, the manufacturer
should provide a value for the permissible bending
moment for the particular hollow section sheet,
supported parallel to the webs. In the case of hollow
section plastics glazing sheet material with a
non-symmetrical profile, i.e. with different
permissible bending moments according to the
direction in which the load is applied, only the lower
value should be used.

16 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

In all cases, the minimum requirements for edge


cover should be satisfied (see Appendix J).
Information supplied by the manufacturer should
also satisfy these requirements. If these
requirements cannot be fully satisfied, other
methods of glazing may be employed and the
manufacturer should be consulted.
10.8.3 Other infill materials
For other infill materials the minimum
thickness/maximum size should be in accordance
with the manufacturers recommendations.

BSI 04-1999 17
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling

18 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling (continued)

BSI 04-1999 19
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling (continued)

20 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling (continued)

BSI 04-1999 21
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling (continued)

22 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling (continued)

BSI 04-1999 23
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling (continued)

24 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling (continued)

BSI 04-1999 25
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling (continued)

26 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling (continued)

BSI 04-1999 27
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling (continued)

28 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling (continued)

BSI 04-1999 29
BS 5516:1991

Figure 2 Recommended minimum thicknesses of glass for infilling (concluded)

30 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Figure 3 Recommended minimum thicknesses of solid plastics glazing sheet


material for infilling

BSI 04-1999 31
BS 5516:1991

Figure 3 Recommended minimum thicknesses of solid plastics glazing sheet


material for infilling (continued)

32 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Figure 3 Recommended minimum thicknesses of solid plastics glazing sheet


material for infilling (continued)

BSI 04-1999 33
BS 5516:1991

Figure 3 Recommended minimum thicknesses of solid plastics glazing sheet


material for infilling (concluded)

11 Openings a) Top-hung opening lights: of patent glazing


construction, one or two panes wide and usually a
11.1 General
maximum of 1 200 mm deep; more often used in
The performance of ventilators, windows and doors, sloping patent glazing but may also be fitted into
including their fittings, should be appropriate for vertical patent glazing.
their particular requirement and usage and the b) Continuous top-hung opening lights: of
patent glazing contractor should be consulted at the patent glazing construction, three or more panes
design stage (see 3.2). wide and often fitted with a storm panel at each
All forms of ventilators, windows and doors, end; generally suitable for vertical patent glazing
including their fittings, should be capable of only.
resisting the same design loads as the surrounding c) Inserted windows and louvres: most types
patent glazing. Any additional loads due to their of framed opening windows, e.g. top and
own weight or operation should be taken into side-hung, pivoted, sliding, etc., may be inserted
consideration. into patent glazing. Louvres with fixed or
11.2 Ventilation adjustable blades may also be fitted.
Ventilation, permanently open and/or adjustable, d) Natural and mechanical ventilating units:
may be provided by one or more of the following various forms of proprietary ventilating units, for
systems. air movement or smoke exhaust, may be fitted
into sloping or vertical patent glazing, according
to their design.

34 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Power fans for inlet or extraction, made of metals, Table 1 Fire performance of glass
plastics or other materials, may be incorporated into Characteristic Test Rating
patent glazing, either vertical or sloping, according method
to the design of the component. In sloping patent
External fire BS 476-3 AA
glazing, however, such fans should never be
mounted directly in a pane of glass. exposure
When considering the installation of heavy duty Non-combustibility BS 476-4 Non-combustible
power fans or other ventilators with high dead Fire propagation BS 476-6 I # 12
loads, it may be necessary to support these index i1 # 6
independently on suitable trimmer frames which
are fixed directly to the main structural members. Surface spread of BS 476-7 Class 1
In such cases, the patent glazing contractor should flame
be consulted at the initial design stage (see 3.2).
12.3.2 Plastics glazing sheet material infilling
11.3 Entrances
The fire performance characteristics of
Doors of various types, including hinged, pivoted or thermoplastics glazing sheet material are
sliding, with their frames, may be incorporated dependent upon the type and grade of polymer, the
within an area of patent glazing either as integral form of the sheet product, its colour and its
doors or as separate door composites. Where patent thickness. Therefore the fire performance
glazing incorporates an entrance, including one not characteristics of a specific plastics glazing sheet
extending to the full height of the patent glazing, it material should be obtained from its manufacturer.
may be necessary to provide an additional 12.3.3 Other materials and components
supporting frame for the patent glazing around the
entrance. This should be fixed to the main structure Manufacturers should be consulted for information
to ensure that vibration or other loads are not on the appropriate fire performance properties of
transmitted to the patent glazing. their materials.
(See .)
13 Weather resistance
12 Fire 13.1 General
12.1 General The degree of exposure and the particular situation
Patent glazing, when used in roofs and walls of of the patent glazing should be taken into account
buildings, may need to incorporate infill materials when considering weather resistance and the type of
which have specific external and/or internal fire system to be employed.
performance properties. Consideration should also be given to the intended
The performance requirements are dictated by use and occupancy of the building, together with any
various parameters including purpose group, specific performance criteria. The patent glazing
location, situation, size and special design contractor should be provided with the necessary
requirements. information at the initial design stage (see 3.2).
12.2 Fire resistance 13.2 Air permeability
Where elements of structure require a level of fire Resistance of patent glazing to air permeation will
resistance when tested in accordance with depend upon several factors including the type of
BS 476-20 and BS 476-22, only certain types of system employed.
patent glazing systems will be suitable; these may In view of the large variety of designs available it is
be either tested or agreed as deemed to satisfy by not practical to give quantified information.
local fire authorities or local authority building Generally four-edge systems provide a higher level
inspectors. of resistance than two-edge systems. If a specific
12.3 Other fire performance properties level of performance is required in respect of air
permeability, this should be specified by the
12.3.1 Glass infilling building designer and agreed with the patent
Most types of glass classified in BS 952 have the fire glazing contractor at initial design stage (see 3.2).
performance properties given in Table 1. For
specific information refer to PD 6512-3.

BSI 04-1999 35
BS 5516:1991

Figure 4 Additional framing at entrances


13.3 Water penetration c) Seatings. All supported edges of the infilling
Patent glazing should be so designed and should be properly seated on resilient glazing
constructed as to not allow the penetration of water, material throughout their full lengths.
due to rain or snow, into any part of the interior of d) Flashings. Flashings which provide the
the building which would be adversely affected by weathering at the top of patent glazing should
such water. overlap the infilling by a nominal 75 mm. With
Discharges from downpipes or other concentrations flashings which are likely to produce a capillary
of rainwater should not be allowed to flow over path for water, the path should be broken by
sloping patent glazing. Separate drainage gutters incorporating an air space or otherwise
should be provided. effectively sealed.
Site formed flashings should be properly dressed
13.4 Means of achieving weather resistance
down and secured as necessary.
The principal factors affecting the weather
e) Weather bars. On two-edge systems of patent
resistance of patent glazing systems are as follows.
glazing, weather bars are provided between
a) Slope. The recommended minimum slope for patent glazing bars at the bottom edge of the
patent glazing is 15 to the horizontal. For slopes infilling to prevent the penetration of windblown
below the recommended minimum, or in water, snow and dust. Additional weather bars
situations where a large volume of water is likely may be provided at the top of vertical patent
to be encountered, all weatherings should be glazing when proformed flashings are used.
sealed to the infilling.
f) Bottom overhang. On two-edge systems of
Four-edge systems of patent glazing should be sloping patent glazing, the bottom edge of the
designed to discourage the accumulation of infilling should overhang at least 50 mm beyond
standing water on transverse members. This is the weather bar. In conditions of extreme
particularly important with sloping patent exposure or when the slope of the patent glazing
glazing. is less than the recommended minimum of 15,
b) Water channels. Water channels should be the overhang should be increased.
provided in patent glazing bars and transoms to g) Joints. Joints which are not designed to be
collect and drain away to the outside of the drained by water channels should be fully
building, either directly or indirectly, any water protected against water penetration into the
that may penetrate beyond the wings, caps or building.
other external weatherings. Outlets from water
channels should be of adequate size to ensure 14 Heat conservation
proper drainage and should be free of obstruction
so as not to provide places for silt to lodge. Attention to the levels of insulation provided by
careful choice of infill materials will reduce heat loss
Where excessive dust, grit or dirt, from sources to a minimum with consequent reduction in the
such as the main stack of a solid-fuel-burning amount of heat required from the heating system.
boilerhouse, stone and cement works, is likely to
silt up the water channels, suitable precautions
should be taken.

36 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

All materials allow heat to flow by conduction from In cases where condensation is likely to occur on the
the warmer surface to the colder, at a rate inside of sloping patent glazing, account should be
dependent on their thermal conductance. taken of the surface tension of the infill material as
Panes of single glass or plastics glazing sheet this relates to the likelihood of the condensation
material have little resistance to the loss of heat by dripping down from the infilling.
conduction and consequently they have relatively Generally, where the slope of the patent glazing
high thermal transmittance. is 30 or more to the horizontal and condensation is
The resistance to loss of heat by conduction may be not severe, the condensate will usually flow down
improved considerably by using two or more panes glass without dripping; though with dirty and/or
separated by air spaces. The thermal resistance patterned glass, the condensate may sometimes
increases with the width of air space up to drip at much steeper slopes. With plastics glazing
about 20 mm, beyond which there is no significant sheet materials, surfaces may be treated to reduce
gain. The thermal insulation performance of the surface tension and hence decrease the incidence of
complete installation will depend not only on the dripping.
infill material, but also on the other components of
the patent glazing system. The use of thermally 16 Solar heat gain
improved supporting members will assist in 16.1 General
reducing heat loss.
The generation of solar heat in a building is
Typical examples of thermal transmittances for influenced by the local climate, the configuration,
single glass and sealed double glazing units are structure and surroundings of a building, the
given in Table 2 and for plastics glazing sheet position and orientation of its glazed areas and the
material in Table 3. type of infill material. Careful choice of position,
orientation and infill material may maximize the
15 Condensation amount of useful winter solar heat whilst
Condensation will occur on any surface with a controlling the unwanted excess solar gain during
temperature less than the dewpoint of the summer. Such gains may be used to reduce the need
atmosphere near the surface (see BS 5250). Thus, for heating.
when the surface temperature of any part of the 16.2 Transmission of heat
patent glazing and the relative humidity of the
The heat of the sun enters a building through
atmosphere reach a critical combination,
transparent/translucent infill material in two major
condensation will occur. Ground frost, cold rain and
ways:
low temperature with high wind will exacerbate the
formation of condensation. Adequate ventilation a) by direct transmission of radiation through the
will serve to reduce condensation. infilling;
Inside buildings, the humidity is commonly b) by reradiation and convection of heat absorbed
increased by the release of moisture (from processes, in the infilling.
including cooking, and swimming pools) and by the The approximate total transmittance for an infill
presence of people. It may reach high values where material is obtained by adding to the direct
ventilation is inadequate. transmittance a proportion of the absorptive value.
Condensation may intensify bimetallic corrosion This value takes account of the amount of the
(see 20.2). absorbed heat that finds its way inwards by
reradiation and convection in average external
Where necessary, provision should be made for any
weather conditions.
condensate to be collected and discharged to the
outside of the building.
Glazing bars and other supporting members
incorporating thermal barriers will assist in
reducing condensation. In extreme or exacting
conditions, parts of the patent glazing in contact
with the interior atmosphere may need to be covered
with insulating material.
The possibility of condensation forming on glass
and/or plastics glazing materials may be minimized
by the use of an appropriate form of double glazing.

BSI 04-1999 37
BS 5516:1991

Table 2 Thermal transmittance (U-values) of glass (single glass and sealed


double glazing units)
Airspace width Thermal transmittance for site exposurea

Sheltered Normal Severe

Vertical mm W/(m K)2 2


W/(m K) W/(m2K)

Single 5.0 5.6 6.7


Double 6 3.1 3.3 3.6
Double 12 2.7 2.8 3.1
Double 20 2.6 2.8 3.0
Double with one pane of 0.2 emissivity b
12 1.9 2.0 2.1
Sloping (0 to 30 to horizontal)
Single 5.9 7.1 8.3
Double 6 3.4 3.8 4.1
Double 12 2.9 3.2 3.4
Double 20 2.8 3.1 3.3
Double with one pane of 0.2 emissivity b
12 2.0 2.2 2.2
NOTE This table does not cover double glazing units with inert gas filling and ignores the effect of glass thickness.
a As
designated in CIBSE Guide A1 (obtainable from Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 222 Balham High Road,
London, SW12 9BS).
bPanes with lower emissivity will give lower U-values.

Table 3 Thermal transmittance (U-values) of plastics glazing sheet materials


(single and double sheet and hollow section)
Airspace width Thermal transmittance for site
exposurea

Sheltered Normal Severe

Vertical mm W/(m K) 2 2
W/(m K) W/(m2K)

Single 4 mm 4.5 5.0 5.7


Single 6 mm 4.3 4.7 5.4
Double 4 mm + 4 mm 20 2.5 2.6 2.8
Double 6 mm + 6 mm 20 2.4 2.5 2.7
16 mm hollow section (double skin) 2.7 2.9 3.1
16 mm hollow section (triple skin) 2.3 2.4 2.6
Sloping (0 to 30 to horizontal)
Single 4 mm 4.5 5.0 5.7
Single 6 mm 4.3 4.7 5.4
Double 4 mm + 4 mm 20 2.6 2.7 2.9
Double 6 mm + 6 mm 20 2.4 2.6 2.7
16 mm hollow section (double skin) 2.8 3.0 3.2
16 mm hollow section (triple skin) 2.3 2.4 2.6
a
As designated in CIBSE Guide A1 (obtainable from Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 222 Balham High Road,
London, SW 12 9BS).

38 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

The solar performance characteristics of infill When applying obscurants, care should be taken to
materials are identified by one or other of the prevent excess material being brushed or swilled
following concepts, depending on the method of under flashings and weatherings, as this may cause
calculation being used for determination of the solar subsequent leakage. Alkaline obscurants,
heat gain. e.g. cement washes, should not be used, as they may
1) Shading coefficient1) The shading coefficient damage the surface of the infilling and may attack
is the total solar transmittance of the infill aluminium.
material divided by 0.87. 16.3.4 Solar control plastics films
NOTE 0.87 is the total solar transmittance of a These are normally coloured and/or reflective and
notional 3 mm to 4 mm thick clear glass.
2) may be applied to infill materials to produce
2) Solar gain factor reflecting/absorbing surfaces. The performance of
i) Solar gain factor is the quotient of the daily the infill material/film combination will depend on
mean solar cooling load due to the infill the nature of the film and the surfaces to which it is
material and the daily mean solar irradiance attached.
received on the glazing. The use of plastics films on infill materials may
ii) Alternating solar gain factor is the quotient increase the heat-absorbing properties of the infill
of the instantaneous cyclic cooling load due to materials. Consideration should also be given to
the infill material and the instantaneous cyclic chemical compatibility between plastics films and
solar irradiance received on the glazing. plastics glazing sheet materials.
The appropriate manufacturer should be consulted In the case of hollow plastics glazing sheet
on values of shading coefficient or solar gain factor materials, plastics films should not be applied to the
for a specific glass or plastics glazing sheet material. interior surface.
16.3 Control of solar heat gain 16.3.5 Shading devices
16.3.1 Glass Shading devices should be used in situations where
The heating effects of solar radiation may be direct or reflected glare, thermal discomfort or
reduced by the use of solar control glass. There is direct sunshine is likely to be a problem.
considerable variation in the values of absorptance a) Internal shading devices, either between two
and reflectance between different types of solar panes or on the room side of the infilling, are less
control glass and these may also be used in efficient than external devices, and allow
combinations in double glazing. Manufacturers different solar heat gains, dependent on their
should be consulted for details. properties and their position in relation to the
16.3.2 Plastics glazing sheet materials infilling.
b) External shading devices give more efficient
Types of plastics glazing sheet materials that reduce
reduction of solar heat gain than internal shading
the transmission of solar radiation are available.
devices. They will reduce instantaneous heat gain
Manufacturers should be consulted for details.
by ensuring that heat is dissipated externally.
16.3.3 Reflective treatments When external shading devices are to be used,
The application of whitewash, dilute white emulsion they should be considered as an element in the
paint or specially formulated white obscurants to appearance of the building.
the infilling may reduce the amount of solar heat
transmitted. Obscurants, whether required to be
temporary or permanent, should be carefully
selected as they may make the infill material
heat-absorbing and, in the case of plastics glazing
sheet materials, it is essential that they should be
chemically compatible. The infill material
manufacturer should be consulted for advice.

1) Based
on a definition taken from American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
Handbook Fundamentals, 1989. Available from ASHRAE Publication Sales, 1791, Tullie Circle, NE Atlanta, GA 30329.
2)
Based on definitions taken from Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) Guide Section A5, Thermal
Response of Buildings, 1979. Available from CIBSE, 222 Balham High Road, London SW 12 9BS.

BSI 04-1999 39
BS 5516:1991

17 Thermal safety Contact with chemically incompatible


substances (e.g. unsuitable sealing and glazing
17.1 Glass
materials) may also add to any problems resulting
When glass is directly exposed to solar radiation it from thermal stress (see J.5).
will absorb heat which will lead to an increase in its Plastics glazing sheet materials have high
temperature and hence expansion. Some or all of the coefficients of thermal expansion and the
edges of the glass are shielded from the radiation appropriate allowances for sizing should be made
and hence remain cool, and the resulting (see J.2). Mechanical distortion of a pane may result
differential expansion produces tensile stresses in from thermal movement if the pane is incorrectly
and parallel to the edge of the glass. The likelihood glazed.
of thermal fracture depends on the magnitude of the
NOTE Polycarbonate has a high maximum continuous service
stress induced. temperature and is much less at risk from thermal problems than
Thermal stress in glass and consideration of its other plastics glazing sheet materials. Advice should be sought
from manufacturers.
assessment is described in Appendix K. Thermal
safety related to particular circumstances is not
18 Transmission of light
considered, such detail being the subject of glass
manufacturers literature or of their specialist 18.1 General
knowledge. The transmission of light into buildings by
17.2 Plastics glazing sheet materials transparent/translucent infill materials is affected
In general, when plastics glazing sheet materials by a number of variables. However, it is sufficient
are used for infilling thermal safety need not be for most purposes to consider a simplified and
approximate transmittance representing the
considered. However, plastics glazing sheet
proportion of visible light from a diffuse source such
material is subject to thermal stress when the
as an overcast sky, which emerges from the interior
temperature of all or part of the pane exceeds its
face of the infill material.
maximum continuous service temperature. The two
principal situations in which this may occur are as In view of the number of possible glass and plastics
follows. glazing sheet materials that are available, it is not
practical to give light transmission values. The
a) When a dark tinted plastics glazing sheet
glass or plastics glazing sheet materials
material, having a low maximum continuous
manufacturer should be consulted.
service temperature, is exposed to high levels of
direct solar radiation, such as in south facing Detailed information on natural lighting, glare,
sloping glazing: in such a case, the solar energy privacy and accumulation of dirt is given in the
absorbed by the pane may raise its temperature CIBSE Applications Manual AM2 Window Design3)
to a point where mechanical distortion of the 18.2 Natural lighting
pane occurs.
The choice and position of infill materials may
b) When a transparent plastics glazing sheet maximize the amount of daylight entering a
material possessing a high solar energy building. If the daylight and artificial light are
transmission value is exposed to high levels of properly integrated, economies in operation may be
direct solar radiation in a system of patent achieved. For design guidance concerning
glazing which includes dark coloured component assessment and provision of natural lighting,
parts close to or in contact with the plastics reference should be made to DD 67 for sunlight and
glazing sheet material, particularly the inner DD 73 for daylight.
surface: such components will absorb the
transmitted solar energy, converting it into heat 18.3 Glare
energy, which will be radiated back to the inner Four manifestations of glare from glass and plastics
surface of the sheet and may lead to localized glazing sheet material should be considered:
stress cracking. a) direct glare from the sun;
Localized stress cracking resulting from thermal b) glare from the sky, excluding direct sunlight;
stress may be minimized by ensuring that
c) glare resulting from diffracting or diffusing
components in positions likely to absorb solar
glass and/or plastics glazing sheet materials of
energy transmitted through the plastics glazing
high surface luminance;
sheet material are light coloured on the side
facing the sheet. d) glare resulting from reflection of sunlight
and/or skylight.

3)
Obtainable from Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 222 Balham High Road, London SW12 9BS.

40 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

The control of glare may be achieved by the correct Sound insulation generally increases with the
specification of the infill material, its positioning physical mass of the material. In sealed double
within the building structure and its orientation to glazing units, the insulation effect is only
control the amount of sunlight transmitted through marginally improved by increasing the interpane
the glazed area. space. Interlayers in laminated glass may improve
In addition, because contrast between glazed areas the damping effect. While solid and hollow section
and surrounding opaque areas should also be plastics glazing sheet materials have a lower mass
minimized for glare to be reduced to acceptable than glass, and therefore a lower insulation value,
levels, it is of greater benefit to maintain the area of they have a greater damping effect.
glass and/or plastics glazing sheet material and For sound reduction values of infill material, the
reduce light transmissions than to maintain high appropriate manufacturer should be consulted.
light transmittance and reduce the glazed area. Sound insulation is impaired by openings and gaps
Also, to reduce contrast, light coloured interiors which provide alternative pathways for airborne
should be provided. sound transmission. Sound insulation may be
18.4 Privacy improved by the use of continuous, resilient gaskets
The range of different internal and external lighting and sealing materials.
conditions which are likely to occur should be taken
into account when considering the degree of privacy
20 Durability
required. 20.1 General
An adequate degree of privacy may be provided by a The durability of a patent glazing system depends
variety of glass or plastics glazing sheet materials upon the conditions of exposure, the materials and
and attention to the levels of illuminance. finishes used in the component parts, and the
18.5 Accumulation of dirt on the infilling frequency and thoroughness of cleaning and
maintenance. Relevant information can be obtained
An accumulation of dirt will considerably reduce the from CP 3:Chapter IX and CP 153-2. The patent
light transmittance of the infill material but the glazing contractor should be notified at the initial
change may remain unnoticed by the occupants of design stage of any aggressive factor, either inside
the building. (See 28.2.) or outside the building (see 3.2). A classification of
18.6 Fading of objects atmospheric pollution is given in Appendix VI of
When sunlight or skylight is incident on the interior CP 3:Chapter IX:1950.
of a building, fading of objects may occur depending All components should withstand the expected
on the nature of the object, duration and intensity of natural exposure conditions, atmospheric pollution
exposure and wavelength of radiation. Fading may or other aggressive conditions without failure.
be minimized by the orientation of the glazing, 20.2 Patent glazing bars, other supporting
i.e. northlight glazing, and/or selection of glass and members, components and finishes
plastics glazing sheet materials that significantly
reduce or do not transmit the wavelengths of In urban exposure conditions and mild industrial
radiation which are likely to cause fading. atmospheres, all the materials described in clause 6
for the components of patent glazing systems may
18.7 Effect of weathering be used. More severe conditions, either internally or
The light transmission figures quoted by the externally, may place a restriction on the use of
glass/plastics glazing sheet manufacturers are for certain materials.
new unweathered material. Some types and Aluminium should not be used where alkaline
processed forms of plastics glazing sheet materials pollution is expected. Protection should be provided
have enhanced resistance to weathering. However, against alkaline solutions formed when rainwater
some plastics glazing sheet materials may suffer passes over green concrete or newly
from some reduction of light transmittance due to cement-rendered surfaces, and onto aluminium.
weathering. Manufacturers should be consulted Acidic atmospheres formed in heavily industrialized
about the behaviour of their materials. environments and/or severe marine conditions may
be too aggressive for untreated aluminium to
19 Sound reduction withstand for a long time.
Materials reduce noise by acting as a barrier to the The drainage of water from copper or copper alloys
transmission of sound (insulation) and by damping onto aluminium or zinc based alloys causes
sound reflection from surfaces (absorption). corrosion and should be prevented. Similarly the
Consideration should be given to the frequency presence of copper in paints and in abrasive
spectrum of the sound to be reduced. cleaning agents should be avoided.

BSI 04-1999 41
BS 5516:1991

No two metals able to set up marked bimetallic 21 Human safety


corrosion should be used in proximity to one
21.1 General
another. In locations where condensation may occur
bimetallic corrosion may be intensified. Relevant The risk of human injury arising from fracture
information about bimetallic corrosion is given in and/or penetration of the infilling by impact should
PD 6484. Protection may be achieved by anodizing, be considered. Hazard categories may be limited to
stove painting or other suitable measures (see 5.5). areas of patent glazing from which people may be at
Care should be taken with the use of lead in the risk in the course of the normal use of the building.
presence of some chemicals, e.g. acetic acid. Areas which are used only for the purpose of
maintenance need not be considered. When
The effects of excessive heat and/or ultraviolet assessing the risk of human injury, a reasonable
exposure should be considered. This is particularly standard of human behaviour should be assumed
relevant where plastics are used. for appropriate age groups.
20.3 lnfillings Consideration should be given to the type of infill
20.3.1 Glass materials for use in the following six areas of hazard
Glass with a composition as classified in BS 952 is which may be associated with patent glazing:
generally suitable for use in most exposure a) overhead sloping glazing, where there is
conditions. Care should be taken to avoid alkaline normal access to areas below the infilling;
solutions running onto the glass surface. Special b) doors, door side panels and low level glazing,
consideration may need to be given to the use of where the infilling may be subject to accidental
wired glass and certain types of coated glass in human impact;
marine or severe industrial atmospheres. c) bathing areas, where the infilling is adjacent to
The sealant used in the manufacture of double or surrounding private or public swimming pools;
glazing units should be compatible with the d) special risk areas, where the planned activity
expected environmental conditions and, if exposed generates a special risk;
to high levels of ultraviolet radiation, the sealant
should be resistant to such exposure. e) inwardly sloping glazing, where the infilling
may be subjected to inadvertent head impact;
20.3.2 Plastics glazing sheet materials
f) balustrades, where there is a difference in level
Several plastics glazing sheet materials are known of more than 500 mm.
to perform satisfactorily in service but it has not
Infill material of a suitable type, thickness and size
been possible to derive a test that accurately
should be selected to provide an appropriate degree
predicts their durability. Information is available
of human safety, taking into account the intended
from manufacturers.
use of the building. In addition the following criteria
The choice of a particular plastics glazing sheet should be taken into account: loading, i.e. wind,
material may be dictated by the environmental snow, maintenance, self-weight and any other
conditions specified. Account should be taken of imposed loads (see clause 10) and fire
possible corrosion and of contamination by any (see clause 12).
extracted chemicals that may be rain-washed over
The recommendations in 21.1 to 21.4 are based on
the infilling.
the following main criteria.
20.3.3 Other infillings 1) The characteristics of the infilling under
For other types of infilling, the manufacturers impact and the mode of fracture: depending on
recommendations should be obtained, relevant to the location, the infill material should have one of
the anticipated weathering and environmental the following properties:
conditions. i) no break, the infill material remains
20.4 Sealing and glazing materials undamaged and serviceable;
Due to the large variety of materials available no ii) break safe, fracture of the infill material
specific advice may be offered and the manufacturer gives either relatively harmless pieces or
of the product should be consulted about its insufficient penetration to allow serious injury.
durability. Characteristics (i) and (ii) should be determined
for single panes of infill material or for the
individual panes of double glazing, by testing by
the methods given in BS 6206.

42 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

When it is required that the infill material, on 21.2.3 Plastics glazing sheet materials
impact, should remain in position and be 21.2.3.1 Polycarbonate
unbroken/unpenetrated the designer should
consult with the manufacturer. Polycarbonate is virtually impossible to break. In
extreme and exceptional cases, panes may be
2) The building and its use: the number and likely dislodged from supporting members, but fracture
behaviour pattern of the people expected to be in
should not occur.
close proximity to the infill material is
particularly important. 21.2.3.2 Polyvinyl chloride
21.2 Fracture characteristics of infill If polyvinyl chloride is broken after impact
materials penetration is unlikely, except under extreme
impact conditions when some pieces may be
21.2.1 General
dislodged.
The energy required to cause fracture and
21.2.3.3 Acrylic
penetration will vary with the type, thickness and
composition of the infill material. Acrylic will exhibit similar characteristics to
polyvinyl chloride, but at lower impact levels.
The behaviour of glass and plastics glazing sheet
materials under impact and their fracture 21.3 Risk areas
characteristics are given in 21.2.2 and 21.2.3. 21.3.1 General
21.2.2 Glass Not every accident is avoidable, but injuries may be
21.2.2.1 Annealed glass (i.e. float glass, cast due to failure to provide adequate protection at
(patterned) glass) vulnerable points. A reasonable standard of human
behaviour for appropriate age groups is assumed. In
If annealed glass is broken and penetrated the
most buildings, infill material not in areas defined
resulting glass edges will be sharp.
in 21.3.2 to 21.3.7 and 21.4 does not usually give
21.2.2.2 Wired glass significant risk.
If wired glass is broken after impact, it will be held 21.3.2 Overhead sloping glazing
together by the wires and penetration is unlikely
The risk of injury from infilling in patent glazing
except under impacts that break the wires. If
used overhead should be considered under two
penetrated, the characteristics of the edges are
categories:
similar to those of annealed glass.
a) risk of injuries sustained from broken infill
21.2.2.3 Laminated glass material falling;
The fracture characteristics of laminated glass will b) risk of injuries sustained from objects falling
be similar to those of its component glasses, but the through the infill material.
pieces will remain substantially adhered to the
plastics interlayer. The broken glass, when Category b) is not considered in this clause as there
containing an interlayer such as 0.38 mm poly is no single method for designing against such loads,
(vinyl butyral), is unlikely to be penetrated by and specialist advice should be sought.
human impact. Much greater penetration resistance The risk of injury from falling fragments of infill
may be given with thicker interlayers. material may be reduced by the following methods:
21.2.2.4 Plastics covered annealed glass 1) using an infill material that is very unlikely to
fracture under any circumstances, e.g. plastics
Annealed glass covered with a film or coated with
glazing sheet materials;
specially formulated organic materials intended to
hold the glass together after breakage will, when 2) using an infill material that is likely to remain
broken, be difficult to penetrate providing the in position even if fractured, e.g. wired glass,
covering or coating is applied over the whole of one laminated glass or plastics glazing sheet
surface of the glass prior to glazing and in materials;
accordance with the manufacturers 3) using an infill material that shatters into
recommendations. relatively harmless fragments after
21.2.2.5 Toughened (tempered) glass fracture, e.g. toughened glass.
NOTE The risk of spontaneous fracture of toughened glass may
Thermally toughened soda-lime glass is difficult to be reduced by heat soaking.
penetrate but, if broken, it fragments into small,
relatively harmless pieces.

BSI 04-1999 43
BS 5516:1991

For single glazing, the infilling should comply 21.3.7 Inwardly sloping glazing (i.e. more
with 1), 2) or 3). For double glazing, the lower than 15 from the vertical)
(inner) pane should comply with 1) or 2), or Where sloping patent glazing is used with infillings
alternatively the lower (inner) pane should comply less than 2.1 m above the floor level and where the
with 3) and the upper (outer) pane should comply patent glazing also slopes towards that area of floor,
with 1), 2) or 3). there is a risk of inadvertent impact on the infill
Attention is specifically drawn to areas of special material from the head of persons using that area of
risk, where an infill material with a high impact the floor.
rating may be more suitable, and to swimming In such locations, for those areas which are wholly
pools, where small particles of broken infill material or partially between a height of 900 mm and 2.1 m
falling into water may be difficult to locate and above floor level class C or stronger infill material
remove. complying with BS 6206 should be used.
21.3.3 Doors and door side panels 21.4 Balustrades
Where patent glazing incorporates doors or door Where patent glazing separates a difference in
side panels, the infilling should be as follows. levels of more than 500 mm, either:
a) For doors and door side panels containing infill a) patent glazing should be protected by a barrier
materials of 900 mm width or greater, class B or designed in accordance with BS 6180; or
stronger infill material complying with BS 6206
should be used. b) patent glazing should be designed in
accordance with BS 6180.
b) For doors and door side panels containing infill
materials of width less than 900 mm, class C or 22 Security
stronger infill material complying with BS 6206
should be used. When a higher level of security is required than is
usually provided by patent glazing, reference should
21.3.4 Low level glazing
be made to the patent glazing contractor.
Where patent glazing is used with infill materials For example the security of patent glazing is
wholly or partially within 900 mm of floor level class improved by using internal caps/wings or caps
C or stronger infill material complying with secured from the inside, or an external cap with
BS 6206 should be used. secure fasteners such as non-return screws, and an
21.3.5 Bathing areas infilling material with a higher resistance to attack.
Where patent glazing is used adjacent to, or For patent glazing at roof level (roof, lantern and
surrounding, private or public swimming pools or dome lights), security bars may be installed below
baths, there is an inherent risk because of the the patent glazing in accordance with the
possibility of slipping on wet surfaces and class C or appropriate section of BS 8220-2.
stronger infill material complying with BS 6206
should be used. 23 Access for maintenance and
21.3.6 Special risk areas cleaning
In buildings, or those parts of buildings where the Permanent and/or temporary access to both sides of
planned activity generates a special risk, class C or patent glazing for inspection, cleaning and repair
stronger infill material complying with BS 6206 should be taken into account at the initial design
should be used. The designer should consider if a stage (see 3.2 and section 5).
higher classification is appropriate and if any other
safeguards (protective rails or screens) are
necessary.

44 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Section 4. Work on site

24 Storage of materials Where panes are stored, on pallets or near


vertically, they should be protected by a suitable
24.1 Supporting members, flashings and
covering from rain, as well as dust and sunlight,
ancillary components
even when stored indoors.
Supporting members, flashings and ancillary Plastics glazing sheet materials should be supplied
components should be stored in the dry and be with temporary protective masking or interleaving,
suitably protected against mechanical and chemical which should not be exposed to rain, sunlight or
attack. Materials provided with protective masking excessive dry heat or be placed on rough or dirty
should be stored out of direct sunlight. work surfaces where sharp pieces of swarf or grit
24.2 Glass may penetrate the masking and scratch the surface
Acceptable conditions for the delivery and receipt of of the pane. Masking should be removed only after
glass, the provision and location of suitable storage the pane has been cut to size and all machining
facilities and the availability of handling operations completed.
equipment, suitable for the weight and type of Although plastics glazing sheet materials are light
packing, should be arranged before glass is in weight and relatively easy to carry, and some
delivered. Storage facilities should be based on the types possess high impact strength and are difficult
following: to break, care should nevertheless be taken when
a) there should be adequate access to the site handling all plastics glazing sheet materials on site
storage area; to avoid causing damage to the edges or surface of
the sheet.
b) the storage area should be level and adequate
to support the total weight to be stored; 25 Installation
c) the storage area should be sheltered, dry and
25.1 General
protected from dirt and accidental damage.
Glass panes are normally stored packed on pallets, Installation of patent glazing is a specialized service
stacked loose on racks, or on suitable frames. It is and should always be carried out by a patent glazing
important that they should be kept dry and contractor using experienced personnel.
ventilated, for if water is allowed to accumulate 25.2 Safety
between the panes, the surface of the glass may be Personnel installing patent glazing should wear
permanently damaged. Shading should be provided protective clothing and work with appropriate
to prevent direct sunlight causing heat build-up, equipment.
and possible breakage from excessive thermal
stress. During installation it is undesirable to allow access
to the area directly beneath the patent glazing. This
Packed glass and loose glass should rest on the long should be cordoned off and appropriate signs posted.
edge and be stored upright. Panes stacked loose If it is impractical to keep such areas clear, then
should be raised from the ground by timber battens. measures should be taken to protect persons below.
Panes should be stacked as near vertical as is safe
25.3 Tolerances of patent glazing
and as close together at the bottom as at the top.
Untidy stacking may cause damage to inner panes The dimensional and positional accuracy of the
or cause slippage. The stack should lean on an supporting structure will significantly influence the
unyielding support such as a wall, from which it general appearance of the finished patent glazing
should be protected by timber battens installation. The dimensional and positional
(see ). All timber battens should be free from tolerances of patent glazing are given in .
protruding nails to prevent edge or surface damage. NOTE Some adaptation of the patent glazing to overcome
minor discrepancies in the supporting structure and adjacent
24.3 Plastics glazing sheet materials materials may be possible; this will depend upon the particular
patent glazing system and materials used.
Plastics glazing sheet materials should be delivered
and stored horizontally on pallets. Small quantities 25.4 Preparatory work
of relatively small panes of plastics glazing sheet Before patent glazing is installed the supporting
materials may be delivered not palletized. In the structure should be lined and levelled to agreed
absence of suitable pallets, they should rest on their tolerances. Adjacent masonry should be prepared as
long edge, be stored at an angle of not more than 10 necessary to accommodate flashings and/or other
to the vertical and be supported to prevent sag. weatherings.
Whether stored on pallets or near vertically, they
Where holes in steel work are pre-drilled, or where
should be kept away from radiators or other heat inserts are provided in concrete, holes and inserts
sources which would increase the tendency of the should be positioned to agreed details.
panes to sag and deform.

BSI 04-1999 45
BS 5516:1991

Where pre-drilled holes or inserts are not provided, The supporting members should be correctly spaced
the building designer should be consulted to ensure and aligned to ensure adequate support and
that the supporting structure is not adversely retention of the infilling without having any adverse
affected by subsequent drilling. The additional time effect on weather resistance or movement
involved for site drilling should be allowed for in the capability.
site programme.
25.5 Patent glazing bars and other supporting
members
Patent glazing should be securely attached to and
supported by suitable pre-positioned structural
members, e.g. steel, concrete or timber.

NOTE The angle of 21 is approximately equivalent to 25 mm of lean for each 500 mm glass height.
Figure 5 Typical rack for the storage of glass

46 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Figure 6 Dimensional and positional tolerances of patent glazing


25.6 Infilling When cutting hollow section plastics glazing sheet
The infill material should be positioned correctly materials to size, any swarf entering the pane
and secured between the supporting members. All should be removed before installation.
seals and weatherings should be firmly placed and 25.7 Flashing
all fasteners properly tightened. Two types of flashing are used with patent glazing
Where the surfaces of the infill material systems: site formed (lead, soft aluminium, etc.) and
differ, e.g. in texture (smooth/rough), the preformed (aluminium or steel sheet profiled for the
manufacturers instructions should be followed. As particular application) (see also 5.3).
a general rule, the smoother surface should be Where site formed flashings intended to overlap the
outside to maximize self-cleaning. patent glazing are prefixed to the building these
Surface coated glasses and surface coated plastics should be dressed down onto the patent glazing by
glazing sheet materials may be required to be the patent glazing contractor. Capillary paths
installed a particular way around. Care should be should be broken by incorporating an air space
taken to ensure that these infillings are correctly (see 13.4).
installed following the designers or manufacturers
recommendations.

BSI 04-1999 47
BS 5516:1991

When dressing down site formed flashings, great


care should be taken to avoid damaging the infill
material and, where necessary, retaining clips
should be used to restrain the free edges of the
flashing against wind uplift. Lapped joints should
overlap by at least 100 mm.
Preformed flashings should be fixed with lapped or
butt joints and sealed. Butt straps at least 100 mm
wide should be used with butt joints.
25.8 Ancillary components
Where local atmospheric conditions are likely to
promote a reaction between dissimilar metals,
isolation material should be used between the
untreated surfaces. (See also 20.2).
25.9 Protective masking
If materials are supplied with masking, this should
be peeled back sufficiently to prevent entrapment
during installation. Masking should be completely
removed as soon as practically possible after
installation, as environmental effects will make it
increasingly difficult to remove. If any masking is to
remain for a longer period of time, the supplier of
the protected item should be consulted.
NOTE On plastics glazing sheet materials a time limit is
sometimes printed on the masking.

48 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Section 5. Maintenance

26 Access for maintenance and 26.4 Permanent access


cleaning Systems of permanent access may be either fixed or
26.1 General moving platforms on some form of tracking,
re-locatable within a pre-set pattern. Walkways or
Those engaged on maintenance work should use platforms may be designed as an integral part of the
suitable equipment. patent glazing system, but preferably should be
NOTE Attention is drawn to the Construction (Working Places) completely independent of it. Such systems may be
Regulations 1966, SI 64.
designed to suit sloping or vertical patent glazing
Equipment should be so constructed that the weight and allow for access to external and/or internal
of operatives is well distributed and over at least surfaces.
two patent glazing bars. Experienced operatives,
who know how and where to apply their weight, 27 Inspection
should be employed. Patent glazing should never be
stood or walked upon without the use of crawling Periodic visual inspection of patent glazing should
boards, etc. be carried out by those responsible for the
maintenance of the building.
26.2 Reason for access
Particular attention should be given to joint seals
There are several reasons why direct access should and junctions between different materials, moving
be provided to areas of sloping or vertical patent parts such as doors, opening windows and
glazing, both to internal and to external surfaces. ventilators, etc.
Primarily these are inspection, cleaning and repair
or renewal. The frequency of inspections/cleaning for a
particular component or finish may also be
26.3 Temporary access determined by the requirements of the terms and
Temporary access, if required, may be attained by conditions of a manufacturers warranty.
the use of ladders, crawling boards and scaffolding Where it is known that there is a particular risk
of various forms suitable for the particular type of from atmospheric pollution, e.g. from certain
building and the location of the patent glazing. Such production processes, or close proximity to the sea,
forms of access should be removed shortly after use. more frequent inspection may be necessary.
Ladders and crawling boards may be used safely
without imposing any loading on the patent glazing 28 Cleaning
provided that they are supported at a purlin or other 28.1 General
structural member. Spreader boards should be
properly secured and should rest on at least two Regular cleaning to remove atmospheric grime and
patent glazing bars. On sloping patent glazing, pollution will maintain the appearance, durability
stops may need to be provided on the patent glazing and performance of patent glazing. Cleaning
bars to locate crawling boards, etc. and to prevent therefore contributes considerably to the effective
them slipping. Maintenance loads should never be life of the patent glazing. The frequency of cleaning
carried directly by the infilling. Examples of the use of internal as well as external surfaces depends
of ladders and crawling boards are shown in upon the following:
Figure 7. a) the current use being made of the building;
Temporary access may also be gained through the b) the particular situation of the patent glazing
use of specialist systems, such as manual or on the building;
powered cradles or gantries. Motorized working c) the building location and the local
platforms are particularly useful on the inside of a environmental conditions;
building provided that there is good access and
d) the type of infill material, its surface texture
sufficient room to manoeuvre. They may also be
and finish;
effectively used outside. Care should always be
exercised to ensure that firm and level areas are e) the materials used for supporting members,
provided from which to operate. flashings, ancillary components and their surface
texture and finish;
f) the attitude of the client/owner to the general
appearance and maintenance of the building.
28.2 Infilling
Transparent or translucent infilling should be
cleaned regularly and at time intervals depending
upon the accumulation of dirt.

BSI 04-1999 49
BS 5516:1991

If excessive dirt is allowed to accumulate, this could b) increase in the absorption of solar radiation
lead to: which, with glass, may cause an increase in the
a) reduction of light transmission leading to an thermal stress (see Appendix K).
unsatisfactory level of illumination which may
affect occupants and their safety;

Figure 7 Use of ladders and crawling boards for temporary access

50 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

28.3 Supporting members, flashings and The removal of stains and marks, other than those
ancillary components which are removed by the method described above,
During cleaning, care should be taken not to disturb should be discussed with the manufacturer of the
any weatherings including wings, caps or flashings, material to be cleaned.
or to dislodge any other ancillary components. For treatment of specific surface finishes to metal,
Outlets from water channels should be cleared as reference should be made to BS 6270-34).
necessary.
29 Other maintenance
28.4 Cleaning materials
Any damaged or missing components located during
A solution of mild detergent in water, applied with a period inspection should be replaced as soon as
clean soft non-abrasive cloth, followed by a thorough possible, and any loose items secured as necessary.
clean water rinse should be used for routine
cleaning. Care should be exercised to avoid rubbing Where replacement or repair work is necessary, this
dirt into any surface. should preferably be carried out by the patent
glazing contractor responsible for the original
installation.

4)
In preparation.

BSI 04-1999 51
BS 5516:1991

Appendix A Symbols

Symbol Definition Unit

! Angle of patent glazing measured from the horizontal. degree ()


D Unsupported span of infilling in a two-edge system of patent glazing, i.e. the m
perpendicular distance between two adjacent, parallel, longitudinal
supporting members, measured in the plane of the glazing.
Em Youngs modulus of elasticity in bending for the material of the supporting N/mm2
member being considered.
fm Wind-associated design bending stress for the material of the supporting N/mm2
member being considered.
Im2 Required second moment of area, in a direction of bending normal to the plane mm4
of the glazing, for a longitudinal supporting member in a two-edge system of
patent glazing.
Im4 Required second moment of area, in a direction of bending normal to the plane mm4
of the glazing, for a supporting member in a four-edge system of patent glazing.
K Aspect ratio factor of a supporting member in a four-edge system of patent
glazing, i.e. L/W, always equal to or greater than 1.0.
L Effective length of infilling carried by a supporting member, i.e. the dimension m
of infilling parallel to the member or part of the member being considered.
m Design maintenance load on a patent glazing bar, i.e. the component of the N
load incidental to maintenance, perpendicular to the plane of the glazing.
pdi Design dead load for the infilling, i.e. the component of the weight of the N/m2
infilling, perpendicular to the plane of the glazing.
pdm Design dead load for a supporting member, i.e. the component of the N/m2
combined weight per unit area of supporting member and infilling,
perpendicular to the plane of the glazing.
ps Design snow load, i.e. the component of the snow load on the roof (sd), N/m2
perpendicular to and measured in the plane of the glazing.
pw Design wind load, i.e. the resultant wind load exerted on, and acting normal N/m2
to, the surface of the glazing.
S Span of a supporting member. For a longitudinal supporting member it is m
the parallel distance between the centres of two adjacent fixings or points of
attachment to the structure of that member measured in the plane of the
glazing. For an intermediate, transverse supporting member it is usually
equal to the length of that member.
sd Snow load on the roof, i.e. the product of the snow load on the ground and a kN/m2
shape coefficient.
W Effective width of infilling carried by a supporting member, i.e. the dimension m
of infilling perpendicular to the member being considered, being equal to the
sum of half the spacing of the adjacent supporting members on either side of
that member. For four-edge systems of patent glazing in which the supporting
members are equally spaced, W is a maximum when equal to L.
pg Working pressure for glass taking account of sustained loading effects. N/m2
pm1 Working pressure for use in calculations involving the strength of a N/m2
supporting member.
pm2 Working pressure for use in calculations involving the stiffness of a N/m2
supporting member.

52 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Symbol Definition Unit

pp Working pressure for plastics glazing sheet material taking account of N/m2
sustained loading effects.
ym2 Limiting deflection, normal to the plane of the glazing, for a supporting mm
member in a two-edge system of patent glazing.
ym4 Limiting deflection, normal to the plane of the glazing, for a supporting mm
member in a four-edge system of patent glazing.
Zm2 Required modulus of section, in a direction of bending normal to the plane mm3
of the glazing, for a longitudinal supporting member in a two-edge system
of patent glazing.
Zm4 Required modulus of section, in a direction of bending normal to the plane of mm3
the glazing, for a supporting member in a four-edge system of patent glazing.

Appendix B Wind load A negative sign profixing a pressure coefficient


indicates a suction (negative pressure) as distinct
A summary of the method for determining wind from a positive pressure and the design wind loads
loads, as given in CP 3:Chapter V-2, which may be pw thus derived, which may be both positive and
used when designing patent glazing is given below. negative, act in a direction normal to the surface of
The maximum 3 s gust speed likely to be exceeded the patent glazing.
on average only once in 50 years at a height of 10 m It may be noted that extremes of internal pressure
above ground in open, level country is determined may arise when a building is only partially clad
for the district where the building is located. This during its construction. The building designer will
basic wind speed is multiplied by appropriate be aware of the proposed sequence of construction
factors to take account of topography, ground and should consider the problem so that the most
roughness with height above ground of the top of the vulnerable conditions of partial cladding and
patent glazing, building life and wind direction to dangerous structural shapes are avoided.
give the design wind speed.
The design wind speed is then converted to a Appendix C Snow load
dynamic pressure, expressed in newtons per square
metre, from the standard relationship given in SI A summary of the method for determining snow
units. The maximum inward (positive) pressure and loads, as given in BS 6399-3, which may be used
the maximum outward (negative) pressure exerted when designing patent glazing is given below.
at any point on the surface of the patent glazing are The load intensity of undrifted snow at ground level
obtained by multiplying the resulting dynamic likely to be exceeded on average only once
pressure by appropriate pressure coefficients based in 50 years at an altitude of 100 m in a sheltered
on the worst possible combination of the patent area is determined for the district where the
glazings being subjected simultaneously to positive building is located. This basic snow load on the
pressure on one surface and negative pressure on ground is adjusted on a regional basis for locations
the other. whose altitude is above 100 m and to take account of
For external walls and roofs of clad buildings the building life to give the characteristic snow load on
value of these pressure coefficients is the difference the ground.
between an external pressure coefficient which is
dependent on the shape and size of the building,
wind direction and the position of the patent glazing
under consideration, and an internal pressure
coefficient evaluated on the basis of the size and
distribution of openings in the building. For roofs of
free-standing, open-sided canopies combined overall
pressure coefficients are used depending on the
shape of the roof, the degree of obstruction under the
canopy and the position of the patent glazing under
consideration.

BSI 04-1999 53
BS 5516:1991

The snow load on the roof is obtained by multiplying NOTE (Kilogram mass per square metre) 9.81 = weight per
the characteristic snow load on the ground by an unit area (N/m2).
appropriate shape coefficient based on the worst
load case applicable. The value of this shape
Appendix E Maintenance load
coefficient is dependent on the external shape of the Where maintenance loads may have to be carried by
roof, the position and height of any surrounding
the patent glazing suitable provision should be
roofs and the position of the patent glazing under
made in the design.
consideration. Two primary loading conditions
should be considered: that resulting from a uniform The assessment of loads incidental to maintenance
layer of snow and that resulting from an uneven requires assumptions on the nature of the loads and
distribution of snow. Uneven distribution may how they are likely to be applied. For normal,
result from the transport of snow by the wind from routine maintenance, such as cleaning or repair
one side of a roof to the other side or from the work, the patent glazing bars (longitudinal
accumulation of drifted snow against vertical supporting members) should be capable of
obstructions and in valleys. sustaining with safety to themselves and to the
infilling a central point load sufficient to represent
The resultant snow load on the roof is assumed to the effect of a ladder or crawling board leaning
act vertically and refer to a horizontal projection of against or resting on at least two patent glazing
the area of the roof. For the derivation of the design
bars and supporting the weight of a man. On sloping
snow load ps (in N/m2) the component of the snow
patent glazing, the maintenance load is unlikely to
load on the roof perpendicular to and measured in
be other than in an inward direction; with vertical
the plane of the glazing is required. This may be
patent glazing, the load might be inward (positive)
found from the following equation: or outward (negative). Based on these assumptions,
ps = sd 103 cos2 ! the following central point load on each patent
where glazing bar has been estimated:
sd is the snow load on the roof (in kN/m2). a) for sloping patent glazing, a vertical load
NOTE It is recommended that load cases involving local of 695 N;
drifting of snow are treated as exceptional snow loads because of b) for vertical patent glazing, a horizontal load
the rarity with which they are expected to occur. In such cases,
the value obtained for the snow load on the roof, sd, may be of 172 N.
multiplied by a suitable factor when deriving design snow load, For the derivation of design maintenance load m
ps for use in calculations involving the strength of supporting
members and infilling. Suitable factors are 0.75 for supporting
(in N), the component of the load perpendicular to
members and 0.8 for infilling. the plane of the glazing is required. This may be
obtained from the following equations:
Appendix D Dead load (self-weight) 1) for sloping patent glazing, m = 695 cos !;
Dead load for a supporting member should be based 2) for vertical patent glazing, m = 172/sin !.
on the combined weight of the supporting member Maintenance loads should never be carried directly
and of the infilling (both panes in double glazing). by the infilling.
Dead load for the infilling alone should be based on Where other more severe maintenance loads are
the weight of the infill material only, the mass of anticipated, suitable provision should be made and
hermetically sealed double glazing units and of the patent glazing contractor should be provided
laminated glass being taken as the sum of the with the necessary information at the initial design
nominal mass of the individual glasses. For the stage (see 3.2).
derivation of design dead load for a supporting
member, pdm (in N/m2), and for the infilling, pdi Appendix F Determination of working
(in N/m2), the component of the weights pressures for patent glazing
perpendicular to the plane of the glazing is required
and use may be made of the following equations: F.1 General
pdm = gim cos ! Depending upon the particular situation, patent
pdi = gi cos ! glazing may be exposed to more than one of the
types of loading described in 10.3. Some of these
where loads may act simultaneously, either in the same
gim is the weight per unit area of the supporting direction or in opposite directions. In determining
member and infilling (in N/m2); working pressures for patent glazing, an
gi is the weight per unit area of the infilling assessment of their effects should be carried out in
(in N/m2). such a way as to account for all possible loading
combinations that are likely to occur in service.

54 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

For safety reasons, maintenance should not be On those parts of the building subject to wind
carried out in strong winds or when there is much suction, the maximum negative loads acting
snow lying on the patent glazing and it is outwards are likely to be the following
unnecessary therefore to treat maintenance load as combinations: for supporting members ( pw + pdm)
additive when considering wind load and snow load. and for the infilling ( pw + pdi). In addition,
For similar reasons, the clearing of snow from roofs self-weight should also be considered as a dead load
containing fragile or non-loadbearing materials, acting downwards in the plane of the glazing in
especially glass, is not recommended. Furthermore, respect of transverse supporting members and
partial removal of snow may adversely affect the fixings.
structural stability of the roof.
All the design loads discussed in Appendix B Appendix G Determination of working
to Appendix E have been expressed finally in terms pressures for supporting members
of the design loads perpendicular to the plane of the
glazing. The various combinations of design loads As noted in 10.6.1.2, permissible stresses due to 3 s
that have to be considered may now be expressed gust wind loading may be increased by
algebraically, with a positive or a negative sign one-third. When considering snow load and dead
prefixing the design wind load pw to distinguish load and, if required, maintenance load in
between inward (+) and outward () pressure. conjunction with wind load in determining working
pressures for use in calculations involving the
F.2 Sloping patent glazing
strength of supporting members, it may therefore be
For sloping patent glazing, the combinations of convenient to design to a single, wind-associated
positive loads acting inwards that usually have to be stress value and adjust the sustained loads by
considered are thus: for supporting multiplying them by a factor of 1.33. This factor is
members, ( + pw + ps + pdm) and for the not applied to the dead load where self-weight
infilling ( + pw + ps + pdi) and, if required to take serves only to diminish the effect of a negative wind
account of maintenance load, for patent glazing bars pressure. No such adjustment is necessary in
a combination of pdm and m. On those parts of the determining working pressures for use in
building subject to wind suction, the maximum calculations involving the stiffness of supporting
negative loads acting outwards that result are the members.
following combinations: for supporting
As any maintenance load on patent glazing bars is
members ( pw + pdm) and for the
likely to be a concentrated one and not distributed
infilling ( pw + pdi).
like wind, snow and self-weight, it is convenient to
F.3 Vertical patent glazing consider the combination of dead load and
For vertical patent glazing, the magnitude of loads maintenance load separately when calculating the
incidental to maintenance is likely to be small required geometric properties of section for
compared with the probable maximum wind loading longitudinal supporting members (see Appendix H).
both positive and negative and, as it is assumed that Applying the adjustment for sustained loads to the
extensive maintenance would not be carried out in combinations of design loads (excluding
very windy conditions, any possible maintenance maintenance load) considered in Appendix F, the
loads can usually be ignored. However, there may be following expressions are obtained.
instances, for example in sheltered situations with
a) For sloping patent glazing:
very low wind loading, where the combination of
maintenance load and dead load may give rise to + pw + 1.33(ps + pdm)
critical loading and these should be considered in and if a negative value for pw is derived,
determining working pressure for patent glazing i.e. wind suction conditions:
bars. Generally, therefore, for vertical patent
glazing the maximum resultant positive loads pw + pdm
acting inwards are usually the following b) For vertical patent glazing:
combinations: for supporting members ( + pw + pdm) + pw + 1.33pdm
and for the infilling ( + pw + pdi) and, if required to
take account of maintenance load, for patent glazing and if a negative value for pw is derived,
bars a combination of pdm and m. However, where i.e. wind suction conditions:
sliding or drifting snow is likely to accumulate pw + pdm
against vertical patent glazing, then the resultant
In a) and b), to take account of windless conditions,
snow load should be taken into account in
when no positive value for pw is derived, zero should
determining the maximum positive loads acting
be substituted for + pw.
inwards.

BSI 04-1999 55
BS 5516:1991

In a), design snow load ps is assumed to be If required, to take account of maintenance load, the
uniformly distributed. In the case of drifting snow, values for Zm2 and Im2 for the combination of dead
the design snow load on a supporting member may load pdm and maintenance load m on longitudinal
not be uniformly distributed. In such cases, it may supporting members may be
be appropriate to consider snow load separately re-calculated as follows.
from wind load and dead load in determining The component of the modulus of section Zm2
working pressures for supporting members (in mm3) corresponding to the dead load is given by
(see H.2).
Each load case should be considered and whichever (3)
of the resultant values is numerically the greater
should be taken as the operative working pressure
pm1 for the particular situation of the patent The component of the modulus of section Zm2
glazing. The values thus obtained are for use in (in mm3) corresponding to the maintenance load is
calculations involving the strength of supporting given by
members, such as are shown in Appendix H. In
addition, when considering the strength (4)
requirements for transverse supporting members,
the component of the load due to self-weight parallel Components (3) and (4) are added together to obtain
to the plane of the glazing should also be multiplied the total required value for Zm2, the result is
by a factor of 1.33. compared with that given by equation (1) and
Working pressures for use in calculations involving whichever is the greater value is taken to be the
the stiffness of supporting members, such as are minimum requirement.
shown in Appendix H, are determined in a similar The component of the second moment of area Im2
way but here there is no need for the inclusion of a (in mm4) corresponding to the dead load is given by
factor of 1.33 for sustained loads. The resultant
values thus obtained are distinguished by the
(5)
notation pm2.

Appendix H Determination of The component of the second moment of area Im2


required geometric properties of (in mm4) corresponding to the maintenance load is
section for supporting members given by

H.1 Normal conditions of loading and support (6)


H.1.1 General
Assuming that the design loads act in the direction Components (5) and (6) are added together to obtain
of an axis of symmetry of the cross section of a the total required value for Im2, the result is
supporting member which is simply supported at compared with that given by equation (2) and
both ends then, ignoring the contribution to whichever is the greater value is taken to be the
stiffness made by the infilling, the required minimum requirement.
geometric properties of section about the neutral In each case, both Zm2 and Im2 values should be
axis, in a direction of bending normal to the plane of satisfied for a supporting member to be considered
the glazing, may be obtained from the formulae suitable.
given in H.1.2 and H.1.3 for an intermediate,
The formulae given in H.1.2, which are for simply
parallel supporting member.
supported, single-span members, may be used for
H.1.2 Two-edge patent glazing continuous members of two or more approximately
For distributed loads pw, ps and pdm, the modulus of equal spans in which case the effective length of
section Zm2 (in mm3) is given by infilling L should be taken as equal to the span S of
the supporting member. Further consideration
(1) should be given where reduction of section or
concentration of loading occurs in regions of critical
stress in a member.
and the second moment of area Im2 (in mm4) is given
by

(2)

56 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

H.1.3 Four-edge patent glazing (parallel Components (11) and (12) are added together to
supporting members equally spaced) obtain the total required value for Im4, the result is
To make allowance for the way in which the uniform compared with that found in equation (8) and
loads are distributed from the infilling to all four whichever is the greater value is taken to be the
supporting members and for the aspect ratio factor minimum requirement.
of the supporting member under consideration, the In each case, both Zm4 and Im4 values should be
moment and deflection coefficients, given in satisfied for a supporting member to be considered
formulae (1), (2), (3) and (5), may be modified and suitable.
the following equations derived. The formulae given in H.1.3 are valid for
For distributed loads pw, ps and pdm, the modulus of longitudinal supporting members only when
section Zm4 (in mm3) is given by transverse supporting members occur at both points
of attachment to the structure. Otherwise, the
(7) formulae given in H.1.2 should be used but ym4
should be substituted for ym2 .
and the second moment of area Im4 (in mm4) is given H.2 Other conditions of loading and support
by For conditions of loading and support, other than as
described in H.1, or where insufficient information
(8) is available to proceed with the design in accordance
with this standard, or where precise calculations are
required, a detailed structural analysis should be
If required, to take account of maintenance load, the undertaken.
values for Zm4 and Im4 for the combination of dead
load pdm and maintenance load m on longitudinal Appendix J Plastics glazing sheet
supporting members may be re-calculated as materials
follows.
The component of the modulus of section Zm4 J.1 General
(in mm3) corresponding to the dead load is given by The properties of plastics glazing sheet materials
differ considerably from other infill materials in a
(9) number of significant ways. These properties affect
the following aspects of a patent glazing system:
The component of the modulus of section Zm4 a) allowances for expansion and contraction of the
(in mm3) corresponding to the maintenance load is infilling (affected by the coefficients of expansion
given by due to temperature change and moisture
absorption);
(10) b) edge cover provided by supporting members
(affected by the flexing of the infilling under load,
coefficients of expansion and, in the case of hollow
Components (9) and (10) are added together to section sheets, the profile of the sheet);
obtain the total required value for Zm4, the result is
compared with that given by equation (7) and c) double glazing (affected by gas and water
whichever is the greater value is taken to be the vapour permeability properties);
minimum requirement. d) sealing and glazing materials (affected by the
The component of the second moment of area Im4 need for chemical compatibility with parts of the
(in mm4) corresponding to the dead load is given by system in contact with the infilling);
e) flashings and other weatherings (affected by
(11) the flexing of the infilling under load and the
coefficients of expansion).

The component of the second moment of area Im4


(in mm4) corresponding to the maintenance load is
given by

(12)

BSI 04-1999 57
BS 5516:1991

J.2 Allowances for expansion and contraction J.3 Edge cover and edge clearance provided
of infilling by supporting members
Plastics glazing sheet materials possess high J.3.1 Solid plastics glazing sheet materials
coefficients of thermal expansion. In addition, The graphs in Figure 3 should be used to determine
acrylic based materials can have high coefficients of the minimum thickness of a rectangular pane of
expansion due to moisture absorption. Taking these solid plastics glazing sheet material for a given
coefficients into account, the potential dimensional working pressure. Aspect ratio and area should be
changes over a temperature variation of 40 C for used in the case of panes supported on four edges
plastics glazing sheet materials are as follows: and unsupported span should be used in the case of
(a) polycarbonate, 3 mm/m; panes supported on two opposite longitudinal edges
only.
(b) polyvinyl chloride, 3 mm/m;
All the graphs in Figure 3 assume a minimum edge
(c) acrylic, 5 mm/m. cover of 15 mm. It is essential that edge clearance
should also be provided in the supporting members
Plastics glazing sheet materials should only be
for the infilling. A supporting member designed for
incorporated in systems of patent glazing designed
for their use. Supporting members in such systems plastics glazing sheet materials should therefore
incorporate a fixed allowance for expansion which is incorporate sufficient edge cover and edge
clearance, during all normal flexing and movement
valid for infillings up to 1.2 m long in the dimension
of the infilling.
perpendicular to the supporting member. Thus, for
two-edge systems, a pane width up to 1.2 m may be For example, in Figure 8, a pane of width 600 mm is
accommodated; for four-edge systems, a pane size of shown between two supporting members with edge
up to 1.2 m 1.2 m may be accommodated. If any cover and edge clearance at each side
dimension of the pane exceeds 1.2 m, the allowances totalling 25 mm. The distance between the stalks or
listed above should be taken into account in webs of the supporting members is shown
designing the patent glazing system. as 610 mm, thus allowing for expansion of the pane
NOTE 1 There may be relaxations of this rule in the case of and for any other required tolerances. When the
four-edge systems and the manufacturer of the plastics glazing pane is centrally located, as in Figure 8(a), a gap
sheet material should be consulted. of 5 mm exists at each edge of the pane. However,
Having thus calculated the expansion allowances should the pane move over to one side, as in
required, the exact pane size to be cut may be Figure 8(b), and completely close the gap at one
calculated given the temperature at which the edge, a gap of 10 mm will now exist at the opposite
material will be cut to size and the range of edge. Even in the latter case, the minimum edge
temperatures anticipated for the patent glazing cover of 15 mm is maintained at both edges.
once installed and in use. Similar consideration should be made for the design
Typically, for panes cut to size indoors, a and layout of four-edge systems of patent glazing.
temperature in the range 18 C to 20 C may be J.3.2 Hollow section plastics glazing sheet
assumed. Normal air temperature variation in the materials
UK may be assumed to be 10 C to 30 C. It is
essential that these temperature differences should Supporting members used with hollow section
be taken into account during the design of the plastics glazing sheet materials will often be of the
patent glazing. same design as those used with solid sheets.
However, the spacing of the webs in the sheet may
NOTE 2 If plastics glazing sheet materials are cut to size or
trimmed on site, they should always be clamped firmly to a flat affect the minimum requirements for edge cover and
surface to prevent juddering during the cutting operation. The advice should therefore be sought from the
manufacturer should be consulted for guidance on which type of manufacturer concerning acceptable designs of
cutting equipment, e.g. sawblades, etc., should be used.
supporting members for the particular sheet
considered.
Care should be taken when cutting hollow section
panes to width. It is possible to cut the sheet just
inside one of the supporting webs in the sheet thus
leaving unsupported skins at the edge of the pane
which make no contribution to the integrity of the
glazing. This is a particular problem with hollow
section sheets with wide web spacings. Figure 9
illustrates the acceptable and unacceptable cutting
of hollow section panes.

58 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

Figure 8 Edge clearance and edge cover for plastics glazing sheet materials
J.4 Double glazing Advice should be sought from the manufacturer
Double or multiple glazing systems, which include concerning the correct method and materials to
at least one pane of plastics glazing sheet materials, employ in preparing vented units with a particular
should be installed as vented double glazing. plastics glazing sheet material. Failure to design
Hermetically sealed double glazing units should not and construct units correctly may lead to permanent
be manufactured using plastics glazing sheet internal condensation and possibly the growth of
materials. Plastics glazing sheet materials allow the algae where there is insufficient air flow. Where
diffusion of gases and vapours, including water there is too much air flow, the inside surfaces of the
vapour, in minute amounts. Dessicants used in sheet will become soiled. It is usually impossible, or
hermetically sealed units will therefore eventually at best very expensive, to remedy such conditions.
be unable to cope with the increase in humidity In the design of multiple units including one or more
resulting from this diffusion. panes of plastics glazing sheet materials, the
Hollow section plastics glazing sheet materials are following rules should be followed unless there are
effectively multiple glazing sheets and should be specific overriding reasons not to, in which case
installed as vented glazing. advice should always be sought from the
manufacturer.
a) Where clear transparent and tinted panes are
used together, the tinted pane should always be
to the outer side of the glazing to minimize solar
heat gain in the cavity between the panes.

BSI 04-1999 59
BS 5516:1991

NOTE To achieve correct cutting at the desired width, it may be necessary to make two cuts in the original sheet, locating these
two cuts correctly in relation to the positions and spacing of the supporting webs.
Figure 9 Cutting hollow section plastics glazing sheet materials
b) Where panes of different material are used, the J.5 Sealing and glazing materials
pane of material with the lowest moisture Some types of sealing and glazing material are
diffusion rate should go to the side with the chemically incompatible with plastics glazing sheet
highest ambient air moisture content. This is materials. The effect of this may be short term or
usually the side to the interior of the building. long term. The detrimental effect may occur on
c) The design of the vented glazing and choice of either the plastics glazing sheet material or the
materials in contact with the panes should take sealing/glazing material, or both. Increased
account of any differing expansion coefficients temperature due to solar heat gain or the imposition
and chemical compatibility requirements of both of relatively high stress on the plastics glazing sheet
materials. material may result in an adverse chemical effect
d) The choice of gasket materials and spacer which would not otherwise occur. Some coatings
should take account of the fact that high used on gaskets to lubricate them and ease
temperatures may be produced in the system as a installation may also be chemically incompatible
result of solar heat gain combined with the with plastics glazing sheet materials.
insulation provided by the infilling. Consideration should also be given to the design of
the gasket taking into account the fact that, under
load, plastics glazing sheet materials flex more than
some other infill materials. They also exhibit more
reversible movement than some other infill
materials due to temperature change and, in the
case of acrylic materials, moisture absorption also.
Gaskets should therefore be designed to
accommodate movement of the pane without
consequential loss of integrity or weather resistance
properties.
Advice should be sought from the manufacturer
concerning suitable design of gasket and suitable
composition of gasket, sealant or mastic.

60 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

J.6 Flashings and other weatherings A clean wheel-cut edge is the most satisfactory.
Flashings and weatherings should be chemically Where treated edges are required, arrises should be
compatible with plastics glazing sheet materials created by a wet process, working parallel to the
and be designed to allow expansion and contraction edge and not across the thickness, and the design
of the pane while retaining their weather implications of such an action should be examined.
performance. Glasses should not be nipped to size and any panes
Because plastics glazing sheet materials flex more with shelled or vented edges should not be accepted
under load than some other infill materials, for use in orientations subject to direct sunlight.
preformed rigid flashings, which are not Care should be taken when using wired glass, as
permanently deflected by flexing panes, should be there are problems in producing high quality cut
used. In addition, the pane should be supported on edges on wired glass. Also, allowing the edges of the
the opposite side from the flashing to prevent glass to remain in contact with moisture may
deflection of the pane away from the flashing when produce rusting/corrosion of the wires which may
under load. lead to the formation of edge defects. Attention
should be paid to the likelihood of this and account
Appendix K Thermal stress in glass taken during the thermal safety assessment.
K.3 Effect of dirt
K.1 Assessment
If glass is allowed to become very dirty, either
Knowledge of the radiation to which the glass is to internally or externally, the dirt will absorb solar
be subjected and the thermal capabilities of the radiation. This may result in glass breakage,
glass are necessary for the assessment of the particularly where wired glass is used; the
thermal stress in glass. One method of assessment accumulation of dirt should therefore be avoided by
is by determining the solar radiation intensity on regular cleaning. Toughened glass is not subjected
the glass surface and the air temperature range to the same risk as it can withstand large
applicable to the location of the building. These, temperature differentials.
together with the heat transfer coefficients and the
glass absorption, allow determination of the K.4 Other considerations
appropriate basic temperature difference between K.4.1 Reflective treatments
the central area of the glass and its edge. This Using a treatment given in 16.3.3 will increase the
difference is related to the thermal stress and then capacity of the glass to absorb heat and hence
modified for the type of patent glazing system, increase the likelihood of thermal breakage.
taking account of extraneous effects resulting from K.4.2 Solar control plastics films
shading devices (curtains, blinds, etc.), back-ups or
close proximity to heaters and the like, to derive a Where the application of a solar control film to a
stress for actual service conditions. glass is being considered, advice should be sought
from the manufacturer of the film on the effect of
The resultant service stress should then be
any additional thermal stress likely to be induced in
compared with the design stress for the glass. If on
the glass.
comparison the service stress is less than or equal to
the design stress, the glass and glazing system may K.4.3 Overhangs
be accepted as thermally safe provided that the In sloping patent glazing there is often a need to
edges of the glass are of the appropriate quality. have an overhang of the bottom edge of the glass as
K.2 Glass edge quality a means of producing the required weather
resistance.
Because the usual mode of thermal breakage of
glass is by the action of tensile stress located in and Care should be taken in designing these overhangs
parallel to an edge, the breaking stress of the glass to reduce/minimize the effect on the thermal stress
is mainly dependent on the edge quality and the produced within the glass.
extent and position of flaws. The condition of the K.4.4 Toughened glass
glass edge is therefore extremely important. When toughened glass is being used, thermal safety
need not be considered.

BSI 04-1999 61
BS 5516:1991

Publication(s) referred to

BS 476, Fire tests on building materials and structures.


BS 476-3, External fire exposure roof test.
BS 476-4, Non-combustibility test for materials.
BS 476-6, Method of test for fire propagation for products.
BS 476-7, Method for classification of the surface spread of flame of products.
BS 476-20, Method for determination of the fire resistance of elements of construction (general principles).
BS 476-22, Methods for determination of the fire resistance of non-loadbearing elements of construction.
BS 729, Specification for hot dip galvanized coatings on iron and steel articles.
BS 952, Glass for glazing.
BS 952-1, Classification.
BS 1178, Specification for milled lead sheet for building purposes.
BS 1449, Steel plate, sheet and strip.
BS 1449-1, Specification for carbon and carbon-manganese plate, sheet and strip.
BS 1449-2, Specification for stainless and heat-resisting steel plate, sheet and strip.
BS 1470, Specification for wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys for general engineering
purposes: plate, sheet and strip.
BS 1473, Specification for wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys for general engineering purposes
rivet, bolt and screw stock.
BS 1474, Specification for wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys for general engineering
purposes: bars, extruded round tubes and sections.
BS 1615, Method for specifying anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium and its alloys.
BS 2569, Specification for sprayed metal coatings.
BS 2569-1, Protection of iron and steel by aluminium and zinc against atmospheric corrosion.
BS 2571, Specification for general-purpose flexible PVC compounds for moulding and extrusion.
BS 2874, Specification for copper and copper alloy rods and sections (other than forging stock).
BS 2989, Specification for continuously hot-dip zinc coated and iron-zinc alloy coated steel: wide strip,
sheet/plate and slit wide strip.
BS 3382, Specification for electroplated coatings on threaded components.
BS 3987, Specification for anodic oxide coatings on wrought aluminium for external architectural
applications.
BS 4254, Specification for two-part polysulphide-based sealants.
BS 4255, Rubber used in preformed gaskets for weather exclusion from buildings.
BS 4842, Specification for liquid organic coatings for application to aluminium alloy extrusions, sheet and
preformed sections for external architectural purposes, and for the finish on aluminium alloy extrusions,
sheet and preformed sections coated with liquid organic coatings.
BS 4921, Specification for sherardized coatings on iron or steel.
BS 5215, Specification for one-part gun grade polysulphide-based sealants.
BS 5250, Code of pratice for control of condensation in buildings.
BS 5750, Quality systems5).
BS 5889, Specification for one-part gun grade silicone-based sealants.
BS 5950, Structural use of steelwork in building.
BS 5950-1, Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction: hot rolled sections.
BS 6105, Specification for corrosion-resistant stainless steel fasteners.
BS 6180, Code of practice for protective barriers in and about buildings.
BS 6206, Specification for impact performance requirements for flat safety glass and safety plastics for use
in buildings.

5)
In foreword only.

62 BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

BS 6270, Code of practice for cleaning and surface repair of buildings.


BS 6270-3, Metals6).
BS 6338, Specification for chromate conversion coatings on electroplated zinc and cadmium coatings.
BS 6367, Code of practice for drainage of roofs and paved areas.
BS 6399, Loading for buildings.
BS 6399-3, Code of practice for imposed roof loads.
BS 6496, Specification for powder organic coatings for application and stoving to aluminium alloy
extrusions, sheet and preformed sections for external architectural purposes, and for the finish on
aluminium alloy extrusions, sheet and preformed sections coated with powder organic coatings.
BS 6497, Specification for powder organic coatings for application and stoving to hot-dip galvanized
hot-rolled steel sections and preformed steel sheet for windows and associated external architectural
purposes, and for the finish on galvanized steel sections and preformed sheet coated with powder organic
coatings.
BS 8220, Guide for security of buildings against crime.
BS 8220-2, Offices and shops.
BS EN 10002-1, Tensile testing of metallic materials.
BS EN 10002-1-1, Method of test at ambient temperature.
CP 3, Code of basic data for the design of buildings.
CP 3:Chapter V-2, Wind loads.
CP 3:Chapter IX, Durability.
CP 118, The structural use of aluminium.
CP 153, Windows and rooflights.
CP 153-2, Durability and maintenance.
DD 67, Basic data for the design of buildings: sunlight.
DD 73, Basic data for the design of buildings: daylight.
PD 6484, Commentary on corrosion at bimetallic contacts and its alleviation.
PD 6512, Use of elements of structural fire protection with particular reference to the recommendations
given in BS 5588 Fire precautions in the design and construction of buildings.
PD 6512-3, Guide to the fire performance of glass.
CIBSE Guide A1.
CIBSE Guide Section A5, Thermal Response of Buildings, 1979.
CIBSE Applications Manual AM2, Window Design.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Handbook
Fundamentals, 1981.

6) In preparation.

BSI 04-1999
BS 5516:1991

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