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MATERIAL HANDLING

MATERIALS HANDLING

I. INTRODUCTION

Material handling is a field involving the transport, storage, and control of goods and products throughout the processes of manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal of all related materials. The focus of the material handling industry is on the methods, mechanical equipment, systems and related controls used to achieve necessary functions.

Factors to consider in Selecting the Material Handling Equipment:

Selection of material handling equipment is an important decision as it affects both the cost and efficiency of handling system. The following factors are to be taken into account while selecting the material handling equipment.

1. Properties of the Material

Whether the material is solid, liquid or gas, and in what size, shape and weight it is to be moved, are important decisions and can be lead to a preliminary elimination from the range of available equipment under review. Similarly, if the material is fragile, corrosive or toxic this will imply that certain handling method and containers will be preferable to others.

2. Layout and Characteristic of the building

Another restricting factor is availability of space for handling. Low-level ceiling many preclude the use of hoist or cranes, and the presence of supporting columns in awkward places can limit the size of material handling equipment. If the building is multi-storeyed, chutes or ramp for industrial trucks may be used. Layout itself will indicate the type of production operation (continuous, intermittent, fixed position or group) and indicate some items of equipment that will be more suitable than others. Floor capacity also helps in selecting the best material handling equipment.

3. Production Flow

If the flow is fairly constant between two fixed positions that are not likely to be changed, fixed equipment such as conveyors or chutes can be successfully used. If, on the other hand, the flow is not constant and the direction changes occasionally from one point to another because several products are being produced simultaneously, moving equipment such as trucks would be preferable.

4. Cost Considerations

This is the most important consideration. The above factors can help narrow the range of suitable equipment, while costing can help in taking the final decision. Several cost elements need to be taken into consideration when comparisons are made between various items of equipment that are all capable of handling the same load. Initial investment and operating and maintenance cost are the major costs to be considered. By calculating and comparing the total cost of each items of equipment under consideration, a more rational decision can be reached on the most appropriate choice.

5. Nature of Operations

Selection of equipment also depends on the nature of operations like whether handling is temporary or permanent, whether the flow is continuous or intermittent and material, flow pattern-horizontal or vertical.

6. Engineering Factors

Engineering factors such as door, ceiling dimensions, floor space, floor conditions and structural strengths are also taken in consideration in the selection of equipment.

MATERIAL HANDLING

7. Equipment reliability

Reliability of the equipment and supplier reputation and the after sale services plays an important role in selecting the equipment.

Goals of Material Handling

1. Maintain product quality, reduce damage and provide protection of materials.

2. Promote safety and improve working conditions.

Improve productivity through:

Materials should move as short distance as possible

Increase the size of materials handled

Mechanize /Automate Material Handling

Maintain/Improve material handling ratios

Increase throughput by using automated material handling equipment

3. Promote increase use of facilities

Increase cubic utilization

Purchase versatile equipment

Standardize material handling equipment

Maintain, and replace as needed, all equipment and develop a preventive maintenance program

4. Integrate all material handling equipment into a system

5. Reduce tare weight (describe the weight of packaging material).

6. Control inventory.

How Does Materials Handling Works

Material handling is a necessary and significant component of any warehousing and logistics activity. Material handling means providing the right amount of the right material, in the right condition, at the right place, at the right time, in the right position and for the right cost, by using the right method. It applies to the movement of raw materials, work in process, finished goods, packing materials, and disposal of scraps. In general, hundreds and thousands of tons of materials are handled daily requiring the use of a large amount of manpower and equipment while the movement of materials takes place from one processing area to another or from one department to another department of the plant.

As a process, material handling incorporates a wide range of manual, semi-automated and automated equipment and systems that support logistics and make the supply chain work. Their application helps with:

Forecasting

Resource allocation

Production planning

Flow and process management

Inventory management and control

Customer delivery

After-sales support and service

MATERIAL HANDLING

Principles of Material Handling

By analyzing the goals of the material handling process and aligning them to guidelines, such as the 10 Principles of Material Handling, a properly designed system will improve customer service, reduce inventory, shorten delivery time, and lower overall handling costs in manufacturing, distribution and transportation (Mhi.org, 2017). These principles include:

1. Planning: Define the needs, strategic performance objectives and functional specification of the proposed system and supporting technologies at the outset of the design. The plan should be developed in a team approach, with input from consultants, suppliers and end users, as well as from management, engineering, information systems, finance and operations.

2. Standardization: All material handling methods, equipment, controls and software should be standardized and able to perform a range of tasks in a variety of operating conditions.

3. Work: Material handling processes should be simplified by reducing, combining, shortening or eliminating unnecessary movement that will impede productivity. Examples include using gravity to assist in material movement, and employing straight-line movement as much as possible.

4. Ergonomics: Work and working conditions should be adapted to support the abilities of a worker, reduce repetitive and strenuous manual labor, and emphasize safety.

5. Unit load: Because less effort and work is required to move several individual items together as a single load (as opposed to moving many items one at a time), unit loadssuch as pallets, containers or totes of itemsshould be used.

6. Space utilization: To maximize efficient use of space within a facility, it is important to keep work areas organized and free of clutter, to maximize density in storage areas (without compromising accessibility and flexibility), and to utilize overhead space.

7. System: Material movement and storage should be coordinated throughout all processes, from receiving, inspection, storage, production, assembly, packaging, unitizing and order selection, to shipping, transportation and the handling of returns.

8. Environment: Energy use and potential environmental impact should be considered when designing the system, with reusability and recycling processes implemented when possible, as well as safe practices established for handling hazardous materials.

9. Automation: To improve operational efficiency, responsiveness, consistency and predictability, automated material handling technologies should be deployed when possible and where they make sense to do so.

10. Life cycle cost: For all equipment specified for the system, an analysis of life cycle costs should be conducted. Areas of consideration should include capital investment, installation, setup, programming, training, system testing, operation, maintenance and repair, reuse value and ultimate disposal.

II. MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM EQUATION

Before planning, one should be very clear about perspective, material handling equation which emphasizes the necessity of careful analyzing both the material to be handled and the move to be made before selecting method. Such an equation is also helpful in the planning stage of selection of materials handling equipment for the proposed project. (Comprehensive production and operation management (1st ed., p. 304), Arora, K. (2004))

Why

Unnecessary

What

Material

Factors to be considered:

1.

2. Characteristics

3.

Type

Quantity

Where + When Move

Factors to be considered:

1.

destination

2.

3. Characteristics

4. Type

Source

Logistics

How + Who Method

Factors to be considered:

1.

2.

3.

4. Physical restrictions

Unit handled

Equipment

Manpower

MATERIAL HANDLING

Viewing the complex nature of materials handling, one can conclude that it needs through planning for smooth and economic running of any productive and distributive system. It further needs a large amount of data necessary for planning, no matter one is using it within an industry or on a national transportation basis.

III. MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEMS CLASSIFICATION

Mechanized System

Most mechanized systems combine different handling devices

Moderate fixed and variable cost with good flexibility

Examples

o

Forklift

o

Rider pallet trucks

o

Towlines

o

Tractor trailers

o

Conveyors

o

Carousels

o

Paperless picking

labor capability: machine

Control capability: human

labor capability: machine  Control capability: human  Automated System  Automated materials handling
labor capability: machine  Control capability: human  Automated System  Automated materials handling

Automated System

machine  Control capability: human  Automated System  Automated materials handling (AMH) refers to any
machine  Control capability: human  Automated System  Automated materials handling (AMH) refers to any

Automated materials handling (AMH) refers to any automation that reduces or eliminates the need for humans to check-in, check-out, sort material, or to move totes and bins containing library material.

Highest fixed cost, lowest variable and labor cost with low flexibility

Potential to automate is the elimination of direct labor by substituting capital equipment

Examples

o

Order selection systems

o

Automated storage and retrieval system (AS/RS)

The mechanical equipment used in AMH systems includes:

o

check-in machines

o

sorters

o

conveyors

MATERIAL HANDLING

o

singulators

o

stackers and unstackers

o

totes

o

bins

o

trolleys

o

tote carriers.

labor capability: machine

Control capability: machine

Semi-automated System

Most existing material handling equipment is only semi-automated because a human operator is needed for tasks like loading/unloading and driving that are difficult and/or too costly to fully automate, although ongoing advances in sensing, machine intelligence, and robotics have made it possible to fully automate an increasing number of handling tasks.

High fixed cost, low variable cost with low flexibility

Examples:

 
 

o

Automated guided vehicles (AGV)

o

Sortation systems

o

Robotics

 

Build and breakdown unit loads

 

o

Live racks

 

-

Information-directed System

Moderate fixed and variable cost with high flexibility and utilization

Offers selected benefits of automation without substantial capital investment

Main drawback is accountability regarding work assignment

Examples

o

RF wireless (Wi-Fi)

Use lift trucks, RFID scanners and data collection terminals

o

Pick-to-light carousel system

collection terminals o Pick-to-light carousel system Characteristics of Materials • size • weight •

Characteristics of Materials

size

weight

shape

other (slippery, fragile, sticky, explosive, frozen)

MATERIAL HANDLING

IV. FOUR MAIN CATEGORIES MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT

1. Storage And Handling Equipment

Storage equipment is usually limited to non-automated examples, which are grouped in with engineered systems. Storage equipment is used to hold or buffer materials during “downtimes,” or times when they are not being transported. These periods could refer to temporary pauses during long-term transportation or long-term storage designed to allow the buildup of stock. The majority of storage equipment refers to pallets, shelves or racks onto which materials may be stacked in an orderly manner to await transportation or consumption. Many companies have investigated increased efficiency possibilities in storage equipment by designing proprietary packaging that allows materials or products of a certain type to conserve space while in inventory.

Examples of storage and handling equipment include:

Racks, such as pallet racks, drive-through or drive-in racks, push-back racks, and sliding racks

Racks, such as pallet racks, drive-through or drive-in racks, push-back racks, and sliding racks

Stacking frames

Stacking frames

Shelves, bins and drawers

Shelves, bins and drawers

Mezzanines

Mezzanines

MATERIAL HANDLING

2. Engineered Systems

An engineered system is one that is typically automated. Such systems are also usually created from a variety of units. When combined, they work to enable both storage and transportation.

AUTOMATED STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

There are several types of automated storage and retrieval systems. Their common feature is the ability to quickly and directly access each designated storage location. There are also different levels of automation for these systems, depending on the type of equipment used. Storage and retrieval systems primarily are used to:

Store raw materials or bulk containers of goods for later use in manufacturing or distribution operations

Temporarily store or buffer items between various manufacturing processes

Store and stage items for picking and kitting in distribution or assembly operations

Store and sequence finished goods in manufacturing facilities prior to shipping

Some of the most common type of Automated Storage and Retrieval System are as follows:

Unit Load Automated Storage & Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) These systems are designed to handle common size unit loads such as totes or pallets of goods. The goods are usually stored on static racking (or on pitched gravity conveyors in flow through systems). The items are stored and retrieved via automated cranes that move through aisles between the racks.

flow through systems). The items are stored and retrieved via automated cranes that move through aisles

Vertical Lift Module (VLM) Storage & Retrieval Systems

 Vertical Lift Module (VLM) Storage & Retrieval Systems

These systems are primarily intended to store product for quick access in picking and kitting operations. Goods are placed on trays that are stored and retrieved by a shuttle mechanism within the unit. Some advantages of this unit are:

Fast, direct, random access to all stored items

Secure storage of items within the unit's enclosure

Dense storage of items in a small footprint

Source: http://www.isddd.com

Better utilization of vertical building space

Automatic presentation of the next item to pick

Reduction of worker travel distance to retrieve or store items

Multiple access points on the same or multiple building floors are possible

Available with refrigerated enclosures

MATERIAL HANDLING

Carousel-type Storage & Retrieval Systems Carousels come in vertical and horizontal models and have the same uses as Vertical Lift Module-type storage and retrieval units. Goods are stored on shelves in vertical carousels and in bins or shelves on horizontal carousels. The shelves or bins are linked to each other by a chain. Like the name implies, the units rotate in a carousel-like manner to the appropriate item storage location. Vertical carousels have the same advantages as VLM- type storage systems except for the direct, random access and multiple access points.

have the same advantages as VLM- type storage systems except for the direct, random access and
VLM- type storage systems except for the direct, random access and multiple access points. Source: http://www.isddd.com

Source: http://www.isddd.com

CONVEYORS

Flat belt conveyor - Flat belt conveyor is that in which the belt runs flat on the carrying side over straight roller type idler or a set of idlers. Flat belt conveyors are suitable for lower capacity, low speed requirement and for handling unit goods or bulk material of small lump size and higher angle of repose. Declination is undesirable.

and for handling unit goods or bulk material of small lump size and higher angle of

Belt Conveyor is typically used in package handling, raw material handling, and small part handling. It is effectively used for elevation change or incline/decline applications. A more common application of belt conveyor you might not notice is in the check-out line at your local grocery store.

A more common application of belt conveyor you might not notice is in the check-out line

Source:

 

Minimum Pressure Conveyor is used in short sections of accumulation, general transport of product, and is ideal for medium to light loads such as package handling applications.

accumulation, general transport of product, and is ideal for medium to light loads such as package

Drag Chain is typically used for handling extremely heavy loads, special pallet configurations, and extremely low- to high- temperature areas.

used for handling extremely heavy loads, special pallet configurations, and extremely low- to high- temperature areas.

MATERIAL HANDLING

Roller Roller pallet conveyor is typically used for handling extremely heavy loads and is ideal for accumulation zones in pack out areas.

conveyor is typically used for handling extremely heavy loads and is ideal for accumulation zones in

Live Roller Conveyor is typically used in general transport when product accumulation is not required. It is also used in package handling applications and is ideal for light- to medium-product loads.

is not required. It is also used in package handling applications and is ideal for light-

Diverter

 
Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/

Stationary or movable arms that

 

deflect,

push,

or

pull

a

product to

desired destination

 

Since they do not come in contact with the conveyor, they can be used with almost any flat surface conveyor

Usually hydraulically or pneumatically operated, but also can be motor driven

Simple and low cost

Pop-Up Device

 
Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/
Pop-Up Device   Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/

One or more rows of powered rollers or wheels or chains that pop up above surface of conveyor to lift product and guide it off conveyor at an angle; wheels are lowered when products not required to be diverted

Only capable of sorting flat-bottomed items

Pop-up rollers are generally faster than pop-up wheels

 

Sliding Shoe Sorter

 
Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/

Sliding shoe sorter (a.k.a. moving slat sorter) uses series of diverter slats that slide across the horizontal surface to engage product and guide it off conveyor

Slats move from side to side as product flows in order to divert the product to either side Gentle and gradual handling of products

AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLES

- AGVs do not require an operator

- Good for high labor cost, hazardous, or environmentally sensitive conditions (e.g., clean- room)

- Also termed "automated" guided vehicle

MATERIAL HANDLING

- AGVs good for low-to-medium volume medium-to-long distance random material flow operations (e.g., transport between work cells in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) environment)

Two means of guidance can be used for AGV systems:

i. Fixed path: Physical guidepath (e.g., wire, tape, paint) on the floor used for guidance

ii. Free-ranging: No physical guidepath, thus easier to change vehicle path (in software), but absolute position estimates (from, e.g., lasers) are needed to correct dead-reckoning error

a. Tow AGV

 
 

- Used to pull a train of trailers

Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/

- Automated version of a tractor trailer

Trailers usually loaded manually (early type of AGV, not much used today)

b.

Unit Load AGV

b. Unit Load AGV

- Have decks that can be loaded manually or automatically

- Deck can include conveyor or lift/lower mechanism for automatic loading

- Typically 4 by 4 feet and can carry 12,000 lb. loads

- Typically less than 10 vehicles in AGV system

c.

Assembly AGV

Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/

- Used as assembly platforms (e.g., car chassis, engines, appliances)

- Greatest development activity during the 1980s (alternative to AEMs)

- Typically 50100 vehicles in AGV system

 

3.

Industrial Trucks

This term is another broad definition that can be applied to many different types of equipment. Such pieces of equipment do have one thing in common, though they all provide transportation. Trucks have the capability to lift via powered or manual means, and can be ridden upon in a driver’s cab, or simply power-assisted when pushed. Such tucks can also be steered by human intervention, or can be completely automated, following a pre-defined track on the production floor, sunken or raised tracks, or colored strips that are laid out and sensed by optical sensors. Such automated industrial trucks also have anti-collision technology that senses when an employee or other obstacle is near.

Characteristics of Industrial Trucks:

Pallet/Non-Pallet: Does the truck have forks for handling pallets, or does the truck have a flat surface on which to place loads. Non-Pallet (usually) other means required to load truck.

MATERIAL HANDLING

Manual/Powered: Does the truck have manual or powered vertical (lifting) and/or horizontal (travel) movement capabilities. Manual => walk => operator provides the force needed for lifting loads and/or pushing the vehicle. Powered => on-board power source (e.g., batteries) used for lifting and/or travel.

Walk/Ride: For non-automated trucks, can the operator ride on the truck (in either a standing or sitting position) or is the operator required to walk with the truck during travel. Walk => manual or powered travel possible => powered travel speed limited to a normal walking pace. Ride => powered => travel speed can be faster than a walking pace.

Stack/No Stack: Can the truck be used to lift loads for stacking purposes. Stack => can also be used as no stack => more expensive to add stacking capability. No Stack may lift a load a few inches to clear the floor for subsequent travel (e.g., pallet jack), but the loads cannot be stacked on top of each other or on shelves.

Narrow Aisle: Is the lift truck designed to have a small turning radius or does it not have to turn at all in an aisle when loading/unloading. Narrow Aisle => greater cost and (usually) standing operator => less aisle space required. Counterbalance and/or straddle used for load support. Small turning radius => load support via straddle or reaching capabilities. No turning required => even narrower aisle => only one-side loading (sideloaders) or the capability to rotate the load (turret truck).

Automated: Is the truck automated so that it can transport loads without requiring an operator. Non-Automated => direct labor cost of operator is by far the largest cost to operate a non-automated truck. Semi-Automated => operator used to control loading/unloading, but automated transport control (e.g., the S/R machine of a Man-on- board AS/RS). Automated => Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) => no direct labor cost, but higher equipment costs.

Hand Truck

Two-Wheeled Hand Truck - Load tilted during travel

Truck Two-Wheeled Hand Truck - Load tilted during travel Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/ Dolly - Three or more

Dolly - Three or more wheeled hand truck with a flat platform in which, since it has no handles, the load is used for pushing

which, since it has no handles, the load is used for pushing Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/ Floor Hand

Floor Hand Truck - Four or more wheeled hand truck with handles for pushing or hitches for pulling. Sometimes referred to as a "cart" or "(manual) platform truck".

to as a "cart" or "(manual) platform truck". Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/  Pallet Jack - Front
platform truck". Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/  Pallet Jack - Front wheels are mounted inside the end

Pallet Jack - Front wheels are mounted inside the end of the forks and extend to the floor as the pallet is only lifted enough to clear the floor for subsequent travel

MATERIAL HANDLING

Pallet restrictions: reversible pallets cannot be used, double-faced nonreversible pallets cannot have deckboards where the front wheels extend to the floor, and enables only two-way entry into a four-way notched-stringer pallet because the forks cannot be inserted into the notches.

Manual Pallet Jack - Manual lifting and/or travel

notches. Manual Pallet Jack - Manual lifting and/or travel Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/ Powered Pallet Jack -

Powered Pallet Jack - Powered lifting and/or travel

Powered Pallet Jack - Powered lifting and/or travel Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/  Walkie Stacker Manual

Walkie Stacker

Manual Walkie Stacker - Manual lifting and/or travel (and straddle load support)

- Manual lifting and/or travel (and straddle load support) Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/ Powered Walkie Stacker -

Powered Walkie Stacker - Powered lifting and/or travel (and either counterbalance or straddle load support)

travel (and either counterbalance or straddle load support) Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/  Pallet Truck -

Pallet Truck

-

Same pallet restrictions as a pallet jack

 

-

Control

handle

typically

tilts

to

allow

operator

to

walk

during

loading/unloading

MATERIAL HANDLING

- Powered pallet jack is sometimes referred to as a "(walkie) pallet truck"

sometimes referred to as a "(walkie) pallet truck" Figure 31. Pallet Truck Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/ 

Figure 31. Pallet Truck

Platform Truck

-

used to provide support for nonpalletized loads

-

Used for skid handling; platform can lift skid several inches to allow it to clear the floor

-

Greater lifting capacity compared to fork trucks because the platform provides a greater lifting surface to support a load

Walkie Platform Truck - Operator walks next to truck Floor hand truck is sometimes referred to as a "(manual) platform truck"

sometimes referred to as a "(manual) platform truck" Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/ Rider Platform Truck -

Rider Platform Truck - Operator can ride on truck

Rider Platform Truck - Operator can ride on truck Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/  Counterbalanced (CB)

Counterbalanced (CB) Lift Truck

- Also referred to as fork truck.

- Weight of vehicle (and operator) behind the front wheels of truck counterbalances weight of the load (and weight of vehicle beyond front wheels); front wheels act as fulcrum or pivot point.

- Rated capacity reduced for load centers greater than 24 in. and lift heights greater than 13 ft.

Sit-Down Counterbalanced Lift Truck - Operator sits down; 12-13 ft. minimum aisle width requirement

sits down; 12-13 ft. minimum aisle width requirement Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/ Stand-Up Counterbalanced Lift

Stand-Up Counterbalanced Lift Truck - Operator stands up, giving vehicle narrow-aisle capability; 9-11 ft. minimum aisle width requirement;

capability; 9-11 ft. minimum aisle width requirement; Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/ -ABANADOR – ASA –

MATERIAL HANDLING

Narrow-Aisle (NA) Straddle Truck

- Similar to stand-up CB lift truck, except outrigger arms straddle a load and are used to support the load instead of the counterbalance of the truck

- 7-8 ft. minimum aisle width requirement

- Less expensive than stand-up CB lift truck and NA reach truck

- Since the load is straddled during stacking, clearance between loads must be provided for the outrigger arms

- Arm clearance typically provided through the use of load-on-beam rack storage or single- wing pallets for load-on-floor storage

storage or single- wing pallets for load-on-floor storage Figure 36. Narrow-Aisle (NA) Straddle Truck Source:

Figure 36. Narrow-Aisle (NA) Straddle Truck

Narrow-Aisle (NA) Reach Truck

- Similar to both stand-up CB lift truck and NA straddle truck

- 8-10 ft. minimum aisle width requirement

- Load rests on the outrigger arms during transport, but a pantograph (scissors) mechanism is used for reaching, thereby eliminating the need to straddle the load during stacking

- Reaching capability enables the use of shorter outrigger arms (arms > 1/2 load depth) as compared to NA straddle truck (arms = load depth)

- Counterbalance of the truck used to support the load when it extends beyond the outrigger arms

- Although the NA reach truck requires slightly wider aisles than a NA straddle truck since its outrigger arms do not enter a rack during storage, it does not require arm clearance between loads (arm clearance is still required when the truck must enter a storage lane when block stacking or drive-in or -through racks are used)

- Extended reaching mechanisms are available to enable double-deep storage

mechanisms are available to enable double-deep storage  Turret Truck Figure 37. Narrow-Aisle (NA) Reach Truck

Turret Truck

Figure 37. Narrow-Aisle (NA) Reach Truck

- Greater stacking height compared to other narrow-aisle trucks (40 ft. vs. 25 ft.), but greater investment cost

- Forks rotate to allow for side loading and, since truck itself does not rotate during stacking, the body of the truck can be longer to increase its counterbalance capability and to allow the operator to sit

- Can function like a sideloader for transporting greater-than-pallet-size load

MATERIAL HANDLING

Operator-Down Turret Truck - Operator not lifted with the load; 5-6 ft. minimum aisle width requirement

with the load; 5-6 ft. minimum aisle width requirement Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/ Operator-Up Turret Truck -

Operator-Up Turret Truck - Operator lifted with the load to allow precise stacking and picking; 5-7 ft. minimum aisle width requirement

and picking; 5-7 ft. minimum aisle width requirement Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/  Order Picker - Similar

Order Picker

- Similar to NA straddle truck, except operator lifted with the load to allow for less-than-unit- load picking

- Typically has forks to allow the truck to be used for pallet stacking and to support a pallet during less-than-pallet-load picking

- "Belly switch" used for operator safety during picking

switch" used for operator safety during picking  Sideloader Figure 40. Order Picker Source:

Sideloader

Figure 40. Order Picker

- Forks mounted perpendicular to direction of travel to allow for side loading and straddle load support

- 5-6 ft. minimum aisle width requirement

- Can be used to handle greater-than-pallet-size loads (e.g., bar stock)

to handle greater-than-pallet-size loads (e.g., bar stock)  Tractor-Trailer Figure 41. Sideloader Source:

Tractor-Trailer

Figure 41. Sideloader

- Non-load-carrying tractor used to pull a train of trailers (i.e., dollies or floor hand trucks)

- Extends the transporting capacity of floor hand trucks

- Typically used at airports for baggage handling

trucks - Typically used at airports for baggage handling  Personnel and Burden Carrier Figure 42.

Personnel and Burden Carrier

Figure 42. Tractor-Trailer

- Non-load-carrying vehicle used to transport personnel within a facility (e.g., golf cart, bicycle, etc.)

MATERIAL HANDLING

MATERIAL HANDLING  Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) Figure 43. Personnel and Burden Carrier Source: http://www4 ncsu

Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV)

Figure 43. Personnel and Burden Carrier

Bulk Handling Material Equipment

Materials Handling Equipment that falls into the bulk material handling category is used to control loose materials in bulk form such as food or liquid. Equipment such as conveyor belts or elevators are designed to move large quantities of material in loose form, or in packaged form, through the use of drums and hoppers.

Some equipment used in Bulk Handling

Stackers - Stackers are bulk stockpiling machines that are used to stack material in stockyards in different shapes according to specific requirements.

stockpiling machines that are used to stack material in stockyards in different shapes according to specific

Reclaimers - These devices work closely with stackers. Reclaimers are also large pieces of machinery. They are used to recover bulk material that has been placed in a stockpile. Reclaimers often use bucket wheels to recover the material from stockpiles and, like stackers, are capable of moving horizontally, vertically, and rotationally. The majority of reclaimers used today are computer automated.

of moving horizontally, vertically, and rotationally. The majority of reclaimers used today are computer automated.

Bucket elevators - Elevating products to processing or storage is easy with our industrial duty bucket elevators

Bucket elevators - Elevating products to processing or storage is easy with our industrial duty bucket

Hoppers - Hoppers are wide, bin-like entries that help feed bulk materials into other machines. Generally, a hopper is open at the top and it tapers at the bottom to assist with feeding the machine.

other machines. Generally, a hopper is open at the top and it tapers at the bottom

:

MATERIAL HANDLING

REFERENCES

Anon,

http://www2.isye.gatech.edu/~mgoetsch/cali/logistics_systems_design/material_handling_systems/materi

al_handling_systems.pdf [Accessed 12 Feb. 2017].

(2017). Material

Handling

Systems.

[online]

Available

at:

Bayt.com. (2017). What is the Types of Material Handling Equipment?. [online] Available at:

https://www.bayt.com/en/specialties/q/184810/what-is-the-types-of-material-handling-equipment/

[Accessed 12 Feb. 2017].

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