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Introduction to Content Centric Networking BRKSPG-2704 BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights

Introduction to Content Centric Networking

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Agenda

Introduction

An Experiment

Content Centric Networking

CCN Operation Basics

CCN Node Model

Not Just Cached Content

Merits & Concerns

Further Information

Summary

Questions

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Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Current network infrastructure is still in terms of “where.”

Availability:

Rely on overlay solutions such as CDNs and P2P, heavily increasing bandwidth costs

Security:

Information for securing content is actually based on location

Security is an overlay

Location-Dependence:

Based on connecting two devices together

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A Conversation Over a Wire…. 1914

A Conversation Over a Wire…. 1914 Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ironrodart/ BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ironrodart/

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A Conversation Over a Wire…. 2012

A Conversation Over a Wire…. 2012 BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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A Conversation Over a Wire…. 2012 BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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A Conversation Over a Wire ?

A Conversation Over a Wire ? BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
A Conversation Over a Wire ? BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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A Conversation Over a Wire ? BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
A Conversation Over a Wire ? BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
A Conversation Over a Wire ? BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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A Conversation Over a Wire ? BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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Need to replace “Where” with “What”

Use Named Data instead of Named Host

Packets should address CONTENT, not the HOST

Endpoints should not be aware of the location

 

Use Use wires wires to to move move information information in in space space as as now, now, but…. but… use Memory to move information in time.

 
 

Network elements provide both Wires and Memory at every point in the network

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An Experiment:

Does Anyone have the Time ?

An Experiment: Does Anyone have the Time ?

Dissemination Networking

Data Request by Name

use any and all means available (IP, VPN tunnels, multicast, proxies, etc).

Anyone can Respond

Anything that hears the request and has a valid copy of the data can respond.

Inbuilt Security

The returned data is signed, and optionally secured, so its integrity & association with name can be validated (data centric security)

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Content Centric Networking

Content Centric Networking

What Happens Today is… connection by LOCATION

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What Happens Today is… connection by LOCATION BRKSPG-2704 Network Infrastructure FIB SRC © 2012 Cisco and/or

Network Infrastructure

FIB
FIB

SRC

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DST

Network Infrastructure FIB SRC © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public D

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What we need is…

content by NAME

Network Infrastructure Content FIB Store SRC
Network Infrastructure
Content
FIB
Store
SRC

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DST
DST
Content FIB Store SRC BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

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Content Centric Networking

nytimes Client 1 Client 2 Client 3
nytimes
Client 1
Client 2
Client 3

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Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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Example – Content Distribution

nytimes

nytimes

nytimes
nytimes
Client 1 Client 2 Client 3
Client 1
Client 2
Client 3

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Network provides the Wires and the Memory

Content goes only where there’s INTEREST

Traffic due to routing and control associated with the replicas is minimised

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where there’s INTEREST  Traffic due to routing and control associated with the replicas is minimised

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CCN Operation Basics

CCN Operation Basics

CCN Packets

CCN Packets BRKSPG-2704 Two CCN packet types:  (similar to http “get”) (similar to http response)

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Two CCN packet types:

(similar to http “get”) (similar to http response) Both are encoded in an efficient binary XML.

response) Both are encoded in an efficient binary XML.  © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.
response) Both are encoded in an efficient binary XML.  © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

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Basic CCN Forwarding

Consumer ‘broadcasts’ an

Basic CCN Forwarding  Consumer ‘broadcasts’ an communications media: ’ packet over any and all available

communications media:

’ packet over any and all available

get ‘/parc.com/van/presentation.pdf’

and all available get ‘/parc.com/van/presentation.pdf’ packet identifies a collection of data - all data items

packet identifies a collection of data - all data items whose name has the interest as a prefix.

Anything that hears the respond with that via a

as a prefix. Anything that hears the respond with that via a and has an element
as a prefix. Anything that hears the respond with that via a and has an element

and has an element of the collection can packet:

HereIs ‘/parc.com/van/presentation.pdf/p1’ <data>

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Basic CCN transport

Data that matches an

Basic CCN transport  Data that matches an ‘consumes’ it. must be re-expressed to get new

‘consumes’ it.

CCN transport  Data that matches an ‘consumes’ it. must be re-expressed to get new .

must be re-expressed to get new

an ‘consumes’ it. must be re-expressed to get new . ‒ Controlling the re-expression allows for

.

Controlling the re-expression allows for traffic management and environmental adaptation.



Multiple (distinct) to TCP window).

adaptation.  Multiple (distinct) to TCP window). in same collection may be expressed (similar BRKSPG-2704 ©

in same collection may be expressed (similar

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Content-Based Security

Name->Content mapping verified via per-data packet signature

mapping verified via per-data packet signature packet is authenticated with digital signature ‒ All

packet is authenticated with digital signature All content must be signed by it’s producer

‒ All content must be signed by it’s producer BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.
‒ All content must be signed by it’s producer BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates.

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Content Name Hierarchy

Content Name Hierarchy    Most recent version of slides for Source: Name tree child

 

Most recent version of slides for

Source:

Name tree child nodes are

lexically ordered

this talk:

parc.com/van/talks/mit10-08/v2/s2

<next> assumed if not explicitly

parc.com/van/talks/mit10-08 <rightmost

specified

child>

<rightmostchild> always used

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CCN Naming Convention

Internally, CCN names are opaque, structured byte strings. For example:

CCN names are opaque, structured byte strings. For example: is represented as a component count then,

is represented as a component count then, for each component, a byte count followed by that many bytes:

7 8: parc.com

3: van

3: cal

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Using CCN Names

The only assumption CCN makes about names is hierarchical structure.

Names or components can be encrypted or contain arbitrary binary data.

can be encrypted or contain arbitrary binary data.  The hierarchical structure is used to do

The hierarchical structure is used to do ‘longest match’ lookups

(similar to IP prefix lookups) which helps guarantee log(n) state scaling for globally accessible data.

guarantee log(n) state scaling for globally accessible data.  Although CCN names are longer than IP

Although CCN names are longer than IP identifiers, this structure allows lookups as efficient as IP routing.

Source: Martin Dietzfelbinger, Rasmus Pagh: “Succinct Data Structures for Retrieval and Approximate Membership” – Cornell University Library 0803.3693

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Structure is Strength and Weakness

Name Privacy

NDN Content names related to the content itself

Observer can determine when two requests refer to the same content

can determine when two requests refer to the same content  Content Privacy ‒ Any entity

Content Privacy

Any entity that knows name can retrieve the content

Encryption not applied to publicly available content

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Structure is Strength and Weakness

Cache Privacy

Network neighbours may learn each other content access by identifying cache hits

Multiple copies of content may by in violation of rights agreements

copies of content may by in violation of rights agreements  Signature Privacy ‒ All digital

Signature Privacy

All digital signatures are publicly verifiable – therefore identity of a content signer may leak sensitive information



Research Efforts Underway:

- For example: ANDaNA - http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.2205v2

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Names and meaning

Like IP, a CCN node imposes no semantics on names.

Meaning comes from application, institution and global conventions reflected in prefix forwarding rules.

For example,

/parc.com/people/van/presentations/FISS09

might be the name of a presentation’s data and

/thisRoom/projector

the name of the projector it should display on.

the name of the projector it should display on.  The former is a globally meaningful

The former is a globally meaningful name leveraging the DNS global naming structure. The latter is local and context sensitive—it refers to different objects depending on the room you’re in.

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CCN Node Model

CCN Node Model

Combination of Router and Content Store

parc.com/videos/WdigetA.mpg/v3/s2  Request for content via Face 0 Content Store Face 0 Name Data get
parc.com/videos/WdigetA.mpg/v3/s2
 Request for content via Face 0
Content Store
Face 0
Name
Data
get /parc.com/videos/WidgetA.mpg/v3/s2
parc.com/videos/WdigetA.mpg/v3/s2
Face 1
Pending Interest Table
data: /parc.com/videos/Widget.A.mpg/v3/s2
Prefix
Face
0
 PreferIncomingContentresponseStoreon->FacePIT -1> FIB
Various mechanisms exist to flush
Content cached in content store
HOLD THIS QUESTION…
Face 2
FIB
parc.com
PIT due to DDoS, timeouts, etc
Prefix
Face
0, 1

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Leveraging Conventional Routing

Content Store Face 0 Name Data  Like IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, CCN ContentNames are
Content Store
Face 0
Name
Data
 Like IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, CCN
ContentNames are aggregatable and
routed based on longest match
 However, How does Content the FIB get Names populated are of with
Face 1
varying Content length Prefixes and ? longer than IP
Pending Interest Table
Prefix
Face
addresses
Face 2
FIB
Prefix
Face
 The TLV (Type Label Value) of OSPF
or IS-IS can distribute CCN content
prefixes
parc.com
1
 Therefore, CCN Interest/Data
forwarding can be built on existing
infrastructure without any modification
to the routers

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The Dynamic Routing Scaling Problem

Take today’s largest Internet Routing Table – the DFZ has 4 x 10 5 BGP routes

Growth of DFZ:

1998 – 50k Prefixes

2008 – 250k Prefixes

Today – 400k Prefixes

How Big Should the CCNx Routing Table Be ?

Google has indexed 10 12 Today

Web has 5 x 10 10 Text Pages Today

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The Dynamic Routing Scaling Problem

Take BGP as an example:

High end route-refelctors can handle 4-5 million routes



NDN use DNS Prefixes as first-level search

13 x 10 7 DNS names in gTLD

9.5 x 10 7 in .com alone !

If we add ccTLDs, that is nearly 2 x 10 8

.com alone ! ‒ If we add ccTLDs, that is nearly 2 x 10 8 BRKSPG-2704

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The Dynamic Routing Scaling Problem

If NDN were to just carry TLD, that would be 2 x 10 8 routes

No summarization would be possible

Consider summurization:

Assume carry 2 nd and 3 rd level prefixes

Rough figure 6 x 10 8 routes

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‒ Assume carry 2 n d and 3 r d level prefixes ‒ Rough figure 6
‒ Assume carry 2 n d and 3 r d level prefixes ‒ Rough figure 6
‒ Assume carry 2 n d and 3 r d level prefixes ‒ Rough figure 6
‒ Assume carry 2 n d and 3 r d level prefixes ‒ Rough figure 6

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Dynamic Routing Proposals

OSPF-N

Uses two new Opaque LSAs in OSPF to update FIB of CCNx Nodes

Operational on AsiaFI NDN testbed

Open-Source code that runs on CCNx

Does not address scaling issue

code that runs on CCNx ‒ Does not address scaling issue  Convergence/Ofelia ‒ Break network

Convergence/Ofelia

Break network into ICN AS’s

Have a RIB server as a default lookup if local FIB fails

Have a RIB server as a default lookup if local FIB fails  IRTF Routing Labels

IRTF Routing Labels Proposal

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Not Just Cached Content

Not Just Cached Content

Voice over CCN

Secure Voice over CCN was implemented using Linphone 3.0 and its performance evaluated

Caller encodes SIP INVITE as CCN name and sends it as an interest

On receipt of the INVITE, the callee generates a signed Data packet with the INVITE name as its name and the SIP response as its payload

From the SIP messages, the parties derive paired name prefixes under which they write RTP packets

Source: http://conferences.sigcomm.org/co-next/2009/workshops/rearch/papers/Jacobson.pdf

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Merits & Concerns

Merits & Concerns

Merits of CCN

Very understandable scheme



Shown to work also with streamed media





Clever reuse of existing mechanisms

Easy to deploy on existing routing protocols and IP networks

Easy, human-readable naming scheme

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Concerns/Future Work

The simple hierarchical (URI-like) naming scheme is also a limitation

Will CCN scale to billions of nodes?hierarchical (URI-like) naming scheme is also a limitation ‒ Flooding (send out through all available faces)

Flooding (send out through all available faces)

Flow balance – an Interest for every Data

How large can the FIB grow (soft state)?

Data takes the same (possibly non-optimal) path as Interest

takes the same (possibly non-optimal) path as Interest  Need real-world/at-scale tests to validate performance

Need real-world/at-scale tests to validate performance benefits

Security Architecture Issuesreal-world/at-scale tests to validate performance benefits BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights

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Further Information

Further Information

Further Information

CCNx Project Page – www.ccnx.org

Named Data Networking – www.named-data.net

“Pursuit” Project - http://www.fp7-pursuit.eu/PursuitWeb/

“Convergence” Project - http://www.ict-convergence.eu/

Netinf – www.netinf.org

ANDaNA - http://sprout.ics.uci.edu/projects/ndn/

IRTF ICN Research Group - http://irtf.org/icnrg

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Summary

Content Centric Networking

Summary  Content Centric Networking  CCN Operation Basics  CCN Node Model  Merits &

CCN Operation Basics

 Content Centric Networking  CCN Operation Basics  CCN Node Model  Merits & Concerns

CCN Node Model

Merits & Concerns

Basics  CCN Node Model  Merits & Concerns  Questions BRKSPG-2704 © 2012 Cisco and/or

Questions

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Questions ?

Questions ?

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Final Thoughts

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