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PROCESS DYNAMICS AND

CONTROL
Assignment No: 1

Submitted to: Mr Usman Asghar


Submitted by: Syed Arslan Khalid
Reg No: UW-13-Ch.E-BSc-005

MARCH 2, 2017
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL

CASCADE CONTROL
What is Cascade Control?
In a cascade control arrangement, there are two (or more) controllers of which one controllers
output drives the set point of another controller. For example: a level controller driving the set
point of a flow controller to keep the level at its set point. The flow controller, in turn, drives a
control valve to match the flow with the set point the level controller is requesting.
Elements of cascade control:
The Cascade Control Block Diagram shows a generic cascade control system with two controllers,
two sensors, and one actuator acting on two processes in series. A primary or master controller
generates a control effort that serves as the set point for a secondary or slave controller. That
controller in turn uses the actuator to apply its control effort directly to the secondary process. The
secondary process then generates a secondary process variable that serves as the control effort for
the primary process.
The geometry of this block diagram defines an inner loop involving the secondary controller and
an outer loop involving the primary controller. The inner loop functions like a traditional feedback
control system with a set point, a process variable, and a controller acting on a process by means
of an actuator. The outer loop does the same except that it uses the entire inner loop as its actuator.
Requirements
Naturally, a cascade control system can't solve every feedback control problem, but it can prove
advantageous if under the right circumstances:
The inner loop has influence over the outer loop. The actions of the secondary controller
must affect the primary process variable in a predictable and repeatable way or else the
primary controller will have no mechanism for influencing its own process.
The inner loop is faster than the outer loop. The secondary process must react to the
secondary controller's efforts at least three or four times faster than the primary process
reacts to the primary controller. This allows the secondary controller enough time to
compensate for inner loop disturbances before they can affect the primary process.
The inner loop disturbances are less severe than the outer loop disturbances. Otherwise, the
secondary controller will be constantly correcting for disturbances to the secondary process
and unable to apply consistent corrective efforts to the primary process.

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Cascade control block diagram

Challenges
Cascade control can also have its drawbacks. Most notably, the extra sensor and controller tend to
increase the overall equipment costs. Cascade control systems are also more complex than single-
measurement controllers, requiring twice as much tuning. Then again, the tuning procedure is
fairly straightforward: tune the secondary controller first, then the primary controller using the
same tuning tools applicable to single-measurement controllers.
However, if the inner loop tuning is too aggressive and the two processes operate on similar time
scales, the two controllers might compete with each other to the point of driving the closed-loop
system unstable. Fortunately, this is unlikely if the inner loop is inherently faster than the outer
loop or the tuning forces it to be.
And it's not always clear when cascade control will be worth the extra effort and expense. There
are several classic examples that typically benefit from cascade control-often involving a flow rate
as the secondary process variable-but it's usually easier to predict when a cascade control system
won't help than to predict when it will.

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OVERRIDE CONTROL
Override control, also called selector control, exists when one process variable is the controlling
variable in normal operation. During abnormal operation, however, another process variable
assumes control to prevent some safety, process, or equipment limit from being exceeded.
A key element of an override control strategy is a selector switch, implemented either as a
hardware device or a software function block. Depending on how it's configured, this selector
switch passes the higher or lower of several input signals to its output. There are several ways of
using selector switches in a control strategy. One is to select the higher or lower of several
measurement signals to be passed on as the process variable to a feedback controller. For example,
the highest of several process temperatures may be selected automatically to become the
controlling temperature. As process conditions change, the location of the highest temperature may
change also. The selector switch assures that, regardless of process conditions, the controlling
point is the highest of the measured temperatures.
Placing a selector switch in the measurement side of a controller, though perhaps important from
the vantage point of a particular process application, poses very little technical challenge for the
control engineer. If each of the process sensors responds in a similar way to changes in the
controller output, then the transition from one sensor to another will be virtually imperceptible.
Generally, two control loops connected to a common final control element; one control loop being
normally in control, with the second being switched in by some logic element when an abnormal
condition occurs so that constant control is maintained. A technique in which more than one
controller manipulates a final control element. The technique is used when constraint control is
important.
Introduction
Override control are generally used for protection of system during the surge in process. Override
control is a control method that is used to select the most critical value of process variable from a
set of measurement to control the output. Override means to make preference over a pre-existing
control loop or bypass the running loop and take over the override control depends upon
criticalness of process. This situation usually arises when two or more variables in a system have
to be controlled so that they do not surpass certain limits. These constraints usually arise from
safety concerns, issues with efficiency, and economics of the process. These controllers are used
in case where a choice must be made between inputs, such as emergencies that fix problems. Two
signal selectors are used in order to select an output will be minimum or maximum.
In an Override control process, a selector is used. The two basic types of these override controllers
(Selectors) are high selectors and low selectors. They are generally available as both electronic
and pneumatic selectors. Selectors are also available in a number of different versions that will
accommodate for varying amounts of input signals. Two or more inputs are placed into the selector
and one output comes out depending on the selector.

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High Selectors
High selectors are designed so that they filter out all but the highest value from a multiple input
feed stream. The selector then sends this single highest value through to the output signal.

Low Selectors
Low selectors are designed so that they filter out all but the lowest value from a multiple input
feed stream. The selector then sends this single lowest value through to the output signal.

Override controls
An override control strategy involves a selection between two or more controller output signals
where only one controller at a time gets the opportunity to exert control over a process. All other
de-selected controllers are thus overridden by the selected controller.