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Recommendations for the design Appendix No 3 to SSG 7630E

and sizing of pipelines for pulp suspensions


Date Edition Designation Page
2000-12-01 1 TKR 1(15)

Introduction These recommendations are based on the pump suppliers documentation in this field.

Contents 1 Design data


1.1 Flow properties of pulp suspensions
1.2 Calculation method
1.3 Calculation of friction losses
1.31 Chemical pulp
1.32 Mechanical pulp
1.4 Practical case
2 Design for normal pulp
2.1 Diagram for normal pulp in stainless steel pipe
2.2 Friction losses in bends, valves etc
2.3 Calculation of starting resistance
3 Pump data for pumping pulp
3.1 Pulp as water
3.2 Air in pulp
3.3 Effects of air on pump performance
3.4 Pump performance
4 Bibliography

1 Design data

1.1 Flow properties of The behaviour of a pulp suspension as it flows through a pipe is unusual in several respects.
pulp suspensions For chemical pulp, the pressure gradient passes a maximum and a minimum value as the rate
of flow increases from zero, and it is finally less than the value for pure water. See Diagram 1.
For speeds up to the point D - beyond the intersection of the curves - the suspension flows as
a plug surrounded by a thin boundary layer in which the entire laminar flow takes place. The
character of the boundary layer varies depending on the position of the operating point on the
curve.

A-B The surface of the plug is disturbed by intermittent contact with the pipe walls
B-C The boundary layer substantially consists of pure water in laminar flow
C-E Flow in the boundary layer is turbulent

Plug flow may be considered to cease when the stress at the edge of the plug is equal to the
ultimate shear strength of the network of fibres which form the plug. As speed increases
beyond this point, the plug gradually disintegrates until finally the whole cross section assumes
turbulent flow.

Curves for friction losses in mechanical pulp do not usually have a maximum or a minimum.
Flow properties are modified by the comparatively low strength of the network and by the high
proportion of solid non-fibrous material such as fines, resins, etc.

log H

D
B
C

log v
Recommendations for the design Appendix No 3 to SSG 7630E
and sizing of pipelines for pulp suspensions
Date Edition Designation Page
2000-12-01 1 TKR 2(15)

1.2 Calculation method The calculation procedure used here is based on the method described in Reference 1, p. ,
and illustrated in Diagram 2. It resembles the relationship between the coefficient of friction
and the Reynolds Number in a diagram for a Newtonian liquid, e.g. pure water, in such a way
that a nondimensional group containing the pressure drop DH/L is plotted as a function of
another nondimensional group containing the speed v. A nondimensional ratio which contains
the surface roughness of the pipe walls in accordance with Table 1 is in addition a parameter.
The other factors are the pipe diameter D, density r and dynamic viscosity m for water and the
shear stress D at the pipe walls, where the friction loss curves for pulp and water intersect.

The chief advantages of this method are that it is valid for all forms of flow which normally
occur in a pipe and that it takes account of the surface roughness of the pipe: The stress D is
a measure of the strength of the plug of interwoven fibres which is formed at most speeds in
practical operation. It is primarily a function of pulp concentration C (Diagram 3). It is also
affected by the length-diameter ratio l/d of the pulp fibres (Diagram 4), the relative surface
roughness /D of the pipe (Diagram 5) and factors which influence the stiffness of the fibres,
e.g. the degree of beating (Diagram 5) and whether the pulp had been dried.

10

/D
0.008
0.0004
0
2
H
D
L
A=
4 D 1

0.5

0.05 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10

1
5 2 6
v u
B= 3
D
D
Recommendations for the design Appendix No 3 to SSG 7630E
and sizing of pipelines for pulp suspensions
Date Edition Designation Page
2000-12-01 1 TKR 3(15)

1.3 Calculation of H= friction losses m = dynamic viscosity N s/m 2


friction losses L = length of pipe m shear stress N/m2
v = velocity of flow m/s C = concentration (absolutely dry) %
= surface roughness m I = fibre length m
D = pipe diameter m d = fibre diameter m
density kg/m3

1.31 Chemical pulp 1 Determine the value of D1 from Diagram 3, which presupposes
undried sulphite/sulphate pulp, degree of beating 750 Csf,
fibre ratio l/d = 75 and smooth pipe.

2 Calculate the fibre ratio l/d and read off fA in Diagram 4.

3 Determine /D from Table 1 and read off fR in Diagram 5.

4 Read off fF in Diagram 6.

5 Determine fD. If the pulp has never been dried, fD = 1,


1 if it has been dried and again dissolved, fD = 0.75.
D
N/m 2
1
6 Calculate the stress D
from D = D
fA fR fF fD

7 Calculate the value of the nondimensional velocity group


200 1
v5 2
6
B= 3
D
D
100 8 It is now time to determine the influence of deposits, if any, on
the pipe walls. These will in time change the surface roughness
of the pipe walls. See Diagram 2. If 0.2 < B < 1.5, the matter can
50 be ignored, since an increase in surface roughness results in
lower friction losses. But if B is outside these values, the relative
surface roughness e/D should be corrected and B recalculated.

20 9 Read off in Diagram 2 the value of


H
D
L
A=
10 4 D

for the previously calculated values of B and /D. It may be


5 necessary to interpolate between the three curves plotted.

10 Calculate the friction losses H/L from the known value of A.

Table 1. Absolute surface roughness for different materials


2
Material in m 10-6
Drawn tubes 1.5
Commercial tubes
1
% (steel and wrought iron) 45
0.5 1 2 5
Galvanised steel 150
Concentration Cast iron 260
Absolutely dry Plastics (GAP) 25
Recommendations for the design Appendix No 3 to SSG 7630E
and sizing of pipelines for pulp suspensions
Date Edition Designation Page
2000-12-01 1 TKR 4(15)

1.31 Chemical pulp,


cont.
fA
fR
1.0
1.3

1.2
0.9
1.1

0.8 1.0

80 70 60 50 l/d 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 /D

fF Ns
m2
10-3
1.6

1.4
1.4

1.2

1.2
1.0

0.8
1.0
0.6

800 600 400 200 C.s.f. 0.4

20 30 40 50 60 70 SR 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 C

1.32 Mechanical pulp The curves plotted - particularly those in Diagram 2 - are valid for chemical pulp. Owing to the
lower strength of the network in mechanical pulkp, the friction curve has a different shape and
losses are usually greater. Correction factors should therefore be used. Approximate values
can however be obtained with the method, provided that

1 A must never have a value lower than the maximum value in Diagram 2 for that part of the
curve which is beyond the maximum.
2 fA = 1
For stoneground wood pulp the safety factor 1.2 should be used. The safety factor for thermo-
mechanical pulps should have a lower value. An investigation is in progress to establish this value.

1.4 Practical case 200 tonnes/h of air dry chemical pulp shall be pumped through a 70 m long pipeline of cast
iron, of 300 mm diameter. The pipe has three bends, one tee and one valve. The static
pressure head is 19 m.

The pulp has never been dried, the degree of beating is 500 C.s.f, the temperature 30C and
the concentration 2.7% (absolutely dry). Mean fibre length is 2.4 mm and mean fibre diameter
40 m.

According to the conversion factors below, the volume rate of flow is 281 m3/h.

that Diagrams 8-19 are used in practice for direct determination of the friction losses.
The following calculation is set out to illustrate the method.
Recommendations for the design Appendix No 3 to SSG 7630E
and sizing of pipelines for pulp suspensions
Date Edition Designation Page
2000-12-01 1 TKR 5(15)

1.4 Practical case, cont. 1 Fibre ratio l/d = 60


2 /D = 0.87 10-3 from Table 1
1
3 D
= 27 N/m2 from Diagram 3
4 fA = 0.89 from Diagram 4
5 fR = 1.08 from Diagram 5
6 fD = 1.0
7 fF = 1.05 from Diagram 6
8 = 0.8 10-3 Ns/m2 from Diagram 7
1
D
= fR fA fF D
= 27.25
1
v5 2 6
B = 3
D = 0.772
D

H
D
L
A = = 1.12 10-4
D

H
L = 4.07 m/100 m pipe

Components
Bends: Le = 3 1.2 D = 3.6 D Diagram 20
Tee: Le = 3.4 D Diagram 21
Valve: Le = 1.6 D Diagram 22
Total: Le = 8.6 D = 2.6 m
Total equivalent pipe length: 72.6 m
Velocity head: v2/2g = 0.06 m (negligible)
Total pressure head: 72.6 0.0407 + 19 = 22 m

Conversion from tonnes/day to m3/h

3.79
t/day (air dry) = m3/h (C % abs. dry)
C

4.17
t/day (abs. dry) = m3/h (C % abs. dry)
C

2 Calculations for
normal pulp

2.1 Diagrams for normal Most pipes today are of stainless steel (surface roughness ca 45 m) of standard sizes. This
pulp in pipes of and the assumption of normal pulp which had never been dried, with l/d = 75, degree of
stainless steel beating = 750 C.s.f. and t = 40C form the basis of calculations from Diagrams 8-19.

If the properties of the pulp are substantially different from those of normal pulp,
the friction losses can be estimated by using the factors fA, fF, fD and the expression
H/L = fA fF fD ( H/L)1. The term ( H/L)1 has the value obtained for normal pulp from
Diagrams 8-19. It is however not possible to make a correction for a change in surface
roughness in the same way.
Recommendations for the design Appendix No 3 to SSG 7630E
and sizing of pipelines for pulp suspensions
Date Edition Designation Page
2000-12-01 1 TKR 6(15)

2.1 Diagrams for normal


pulp in pipes of
stainless steel, cont.

H/L m/100 m 9

80

60
50
40 5.0%
4.5%
30
4.0%
20
3.5%

3.0%

10 2.5%
8

2.0%
5
4
1.5%
3

80
mm
3 4 6 10 20 40 60 100 m3/h
0.2 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.2 2.0 3.0 5.0 m/s

H/L m/100 m 10

80
60
50 6.0%
40 5.5%

30 5.0%
4.5%

20 4.0%

3.5%

3.0%
10
8 2.5%

5 2.0%
4

3
1.5%

2
100
mm
4 6 10 20 30 40 60 100 200 m3/h

0.2 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.2 2.0 3.0 5.0 m/s