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Stay Cables
Heavy Lifting
Bridge Erection
Forming systems
Repair and
Bar systems
Ground anchors
Bearings and Joints
Structural Monitoring
The VSL culture 3
The company 4
Quality, Safety and Environment 5
Multistrand post-tensioning system 6
Bonded slab post-tensioning system 13
Monostrand unbonded post-tensioning system 17
Slab on grade post-tensioning system 19
External post-tensioning system 20
Stay cables 22
Heavy lifting 24
Bridge erection 26
Forming systems 28
Repair, strengthening and preservation 30
Bar systems 32
Ground anchors 34
VSoL 36
Ductal 38
Bearings 40
Expansion joints 41
Structural monitoring 42

About VSL

Sydney Airport
La Unidad Bridge Mexico Nina Tower Hong Kong Shenzhen Western Corridor Hong Kong Australia

The VSL culture learning and annual workshops where always attracted the most talented
we present our new products, and motivated people, all with
VSL is a solution network organised equipment and techniques. We also one goal: to be your most valued
around locally-based subsidiaries stimulate knowledge-sharing through construction partner.
providing modern and cost-effective our intranet which contains reference
construction technologies, which are material, management tools and a
developed and updated by centralised dedicated forum where ideas about
expert R&D and technical teams. best practices are exchanged.

Our aim is always to offer not only the Our ultimate goal is to deliver the best
best post-tensioning solutions but also quality service to our clients, with top
innovative construction techniques, quality construction techniques,
designed to increase site safety, save backed by our experience and well-
time, improve durability, and reduce trained specialists in design, methods
costs. and job site construction.
R&D on CS 2000 system

We are always keen to work in Subscribing to the philosophy that

partnership with our clients right from what is good today may always be
conceptual stage and have our design made better for tomorrow, VSL has
and method engineers working closely
with their estimating teams during
tender stage.

Our main strength is the quality of our

highly experienced, multicultural staff.
Our Marketing Staff is dedicated to
listen and understand our clients
needs and to prepare customised
solutions for their projects. We develop
new ways of continuously training our
Lai Chi Kok Hong Kong Shatin T3 Hong Kong
experts through e-learning, video-

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 3
About VSL

Batam Tonton Bridge Indonesia Pennys Bay Viaducts Hong Kong

The company the structure, enabling efficient use Solution finders

of building materials while controlling With offices throughout the world,
Since 1956 deformations under service conditions. VSL offers a comprehensive range
VSLs special construction systems have Complying with national and of professional services for any project.
been used throughout the world since international standards, they are These locally based services include
1956. They are technically proven and approved in every country where feasibility studies, preliminary designs,
have earned a well-deserved the use of post-tensioning requires alternative proposals, structural design
reputation for their quality and official certification. assistance, contractor consulting and
reliability. This has led to VSL becoming field installation, all aimed at finding
a recognised leader in the field of Stay cables, external cables, ground the best solution and insuring the best
special construction systems/methods anchors, heavy lifting value for money. Our locally based
and related engineering. The post-tensioning principle is also offices allow VSL to be close to our
applicable to stay cables, external clients and offer our construction
Post-tensioning as core business cables, structural strengthening and solutions effectively.
VSL technology is based on repair as well as ground anchors using
the principle of post-tensioning strand or bar systems. VSL network
where the prestress is permanently VSLs understanding of post-tensioning VSL operates as a transnational group
introduced into the structure after has also led to the development of the of companies. Its subsidiaries and
the concrete has hardened. This is VSL heavy lifting system which licensees are organised into closely
achieved by the stressing of suitably provides safe and cost-saving solutions co-operating regional units.
arranged, high-strength prestressing for lifting, lowering and horizontal VSL customers directly benefit from
tendons. VSL post-tensioning generates jacking of large and heavy loads and the continuing development of VSLs
favourable stress conditions in many other applications. special construction methods and from
the exchange of information taking
Every area of concrete construction place within the VSL Network. This
Multistrand and monostrand systems means that customers have local
are used in virtually every area of access to all the resources and
concrete construction. While used expertise provided by the VSL Group.
primarily in bridges and buildings, The scope of VSLs value-added services
VSLs special construction systems are is tailored to suit client needs.
also employed for the construction VSL Companies are able to execute all
of concrete containment structures, works using VSL personnel and
anchoring in rock and soil, lifting and equipment. This involvement includes
sliding of heavy loads. appropriate technical consultancy and
support during planning and
construction phases.
Hong Kong Grand Central Tower South Africa

4 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Industrial Ring Road Thailand

Sucharskiego Bridge Poland cables and equipment are given in

the annexes. The dimensions and
strengths indicated are subject to
Quality, Safety and with this in mind, we aspire to change as VSL continuously improves
Environment maintain the highest level of its systems.
satisfaction, health and safety of our Additional tendon sizes are available
VSL to be the preferred solution people. upon request. Alternate dimensions,
network special conditions and various
To assist in achieving this objective the The VSL Group continually strives for strengths may all be accommodated.
VSL group has been pursuing a zero accidents and ensures that their Your local VSL Representative will
dynamic, strong, coherent and responsibility not only extends to their furnish additional details regarding
decentralised QSE (Quality, Safety, direct employees but also to workers specific applications.
Environment) policy for several years. employed by Subcontractors or in any
It has established a committee whose way related to the site and its Services for fully customised solutions
focus is to ensure coordination immediate environment. These services aim to provide fully
of actions, encourage sharing of customised solutions adapted to
experience and promote best practice. This publication represents a summary customer requirements. VSL offers
As a technical leader in the post- of VSLs special construction systems customers the strength and
tensioning industry, VSL works and includes essential design and flexibility of a world-wide network.
continuously, through its quality construction information for VSLs goal is to be a privileged partner
assurance program, to refine, improve, Post-Tensioning projects. Technical and to help find the best-adapted
and expand the scope of its systems data and dimensions of anchorages, solutions to particular needs.
and services. Local QSE teams are
required to have an active and effective
management system that monitors
and continuously improves

Commitment to continuous quality

The management of VSL is committed
to continuous quality improvement
through the participation of all
employees in the preparation,
implementation and evaluation of
improvement activities.

It is recognised that all our employees

are vitally important to our
competitiveness and prosperity and

Avignon Viaducts France

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 5

Sines tank Portugal CS 2000 at Medway Bridge UK CS 2000 on high speed rail Anoia Spain Electrically Isolated Tendons (EIT)

Main characteristics
The VSL multistrand system is characterised by the
following features:
Standardized tendon units using up to fifty-five
13mm (0.5) or 15mm (0.6) diameter strands;
Wide selection of anchorage types;
Steel or plastic PT-PLUS ducts;
VSL HPIR grout or other types of grouting;
Tendons manufactured on-site or in the factory;
No need to determine tendon length in advance;
Simultaneous stressing of all strands in a tendon, with
individual locking of each strand at the anchorage point;
Stressing carried out in any number of phases;
Simple and reliable equipment for installation, stressing
VSL HPI grout or other types of grouting
and grouting.

System description bursting and secondary equilibrium reinforcement form an

integral part of the anchorage and are required to control
Technical data and dimensions are given in the annexes. local zone stresses. For more detailed information on the
For reasons of clarity and simplicity, anchorage anchorage zone design, see VSLs Report Series on Detailing
reinforcement are not shown in the pictures. Primary for post-tensioning.

6 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Live anchorages Type E
The prestressing force is transferred to the concrete by a
Type CS 2000 bearing plate. If necessary, the spiral can be replaced by
This revolutionary anchorage has a composite bearing plate suitably laid out orthogonal reinforcements.
(metal - high performance concrete) and is lighter, smaller
and easier to handle. It comes in 3 different configurations:
CS 2000 - STANDARD for normal applications, Grout tube
CS 2000 - PLUS using VSLs PT-PLUS duct system
Bearing plate (steel)
for enhanced corrosion protection or improved fatigue
resistance, and CS 2000 - SUPER able to provide an
electrically isolated tendon. Anchor head
Anchor head
Duct Wedges
Bearing plate

Grout connection
CS trumpet
Type Sc
Strands This is a compact and easy to handle anchorage system.
Wedges If necessary, the spiral can be replaced by suitably laid out
orthogonal reinforcements.

Protection cap Grout inlet

Bearing plate

Type Gc Anchor head

This is a compact and easy to
handle anchorage system. Duct
If necessary, the spiral can be
replaced by suitably laid out Type Stronghold
orthogonal reinforcements. This compact and easy to handle anchorage system allows
prestressing force to be transferred through two flanges.
If necessary, the spiral can be replaced by suitably laid out
orthogonal reinforcements.

Plastic trumpet

Strands Bearing plate

Bearing plate
Wedges Anchor head

All VSL stressing anchorages can be used as a dead-end anchorage if access is provided. For dimensions of anchorages see annexes.
Anchorage components are not available in all countries. Please check with your local VSL office for availability.

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 7
Multistrand post-tensioning

Couplers and intermediate Intermediate anchorage Type Z and ZU

anchorages Intermediate anchorages are used for those tendons where
the ends cannot be fitted using normal stressing
Coupler Type KC anchorages.
This fixed coupler is used for connections to a cable that has The anchorage head is loosely placed in the blockout and
already been installed and stressed. The strands are moves during the stressing operation on the tendon axis.
anchored using compression fittings positioned onto the Z type intermediate anchorages are used:
coupling head grooves.
Bearing plate For pressure shaft and pressure tunnel ring tendons,
avoiding the use of internal buttresses;
Grout tube Duct For silo and reservoir circular structure ring tendons,
Coupling head K
avoiding the use of external buttresses;
For frame, arch, foundation rafts and shell structure
Sleeve tension ties where there is no or limited access to end
Steel band anchorages.

The VSL type ZU intermediate anchorage has similar

Compression fittings application possibilities as type Z. It is particularly adapted
Tension ring to small cable units in structures without dynamic loading.


Coupler Type Stronghold

Tension ring wiyh anchors
This fixed coupler is used for connections to a cable that has
already been installed and stressed. The strands are Grout tube
anchored using compression fittings positioned onto the
coupling head grooves.
Retainer plate
Coupler Type V
This movable coupler is used for connecting to a cable that
Anchor head Z
has already been installed but not stressed.
The strands of the new cable are anchored using
compression fittings positioned onto the coupling head
of the previously installed cable.

Coupling head K
Anchor head ZU

Tension ring

Compression fittings
with retainer plates

For dimensions of couplers and intermediate anchorages see annexes.

Anchorage components are not available in all countries. Please check with your local VSL office for availability.

8 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Dead-end anchorages VSL Type AF
This type of anchorage is used for vertical tendons
VSL Type P installed once a structure is concreted, where the
This type of anchorage is used where the prestressing force prestressing force has to be transferred to the
has to be transferred to the structure at the far end structure at the lowest end of the tendon and when
of the tendon. It consists of a plate incorporating holes there is no access to the dead-end anchorage. The
for the strands to pass through. The strands are anchored strands are placed in the tendons with compression
using compression fittings bearing onto the plate. fittings at their lower ends, which are then bonded
The compression fittings are locked into position by into the AF anchorage with a special cement AF
a retainer plate. Where the force shall only be transferred grout. Once the AF rout anchorage has achieved
to the concrete using a bearing plate, polyethylene tubes sufficient strength the tendon can be stressed
can be used to sheath the strands between the end of the from the live anchorage and then grouted.
duct and the bearing plate.
VSL Type L
Grout tube This type of anchorage is used for tendons
Seal installed once a structure is concreted and
where there is no access to the dead-end
anchorage. It is often used for Duct B
P-plate vertical tendons in reservoir walls,
Tension ring
for nailing pier head segments to
Compression fittings piers in segmental bridge Duct A
construction, or for horizontal
Retainer plate tendons in slabs or foundation
rafts. The strands are installed into
the duct after concreting and
Grout tube
simultaneously stressed using jacks
VSL Type H at both stressing anchorage ends.
This type of anchorage is the best solution when strands
need to be pushed through on site. VSL Type LD
The prestressing force is transferred to the concrete partially When loops with a smaller radius are required, special half
by bond and partially by end bearing (bulb). The spiral round ducts are available upon request. VSL type LD Loops
(for 5-7 / 6-7 and larger units) and tension ring prevent are available with a 590mm radius. The tendon sizes
inadmissible stresses due to deviation forces acting on the available are the same as type L, the difference is the duct
concrete. The rebar net at the anchorage end zone acts as a configuration as indicated. A tight radius is good for nailing
spacer for individual strands. of precast segments to piers.

Grout tube
Tension ring

Duct sized such that

only two (2) layers of
Spacer strand occur in the loop.


For dimensions of dead-end anchorages see annexes.

Anchorage components are not available in all countries. Please check with your local VSL office for availability.

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 9
Multistrand post-tensioning

Sheathing and All ducts are manufactured in a variety The PT-PLUS system is suitable for all
corrosion protection of standard lengths and are coupled applications but, given its specific
on site. characteristics, is best adapted to:
For conventional applications,
corrugated steel ducts with a Main advantages are: Transverse tendons in bridge deck
minimum wall thickness of 0,25mm Greatly enhanced tendon corrosion slabs and wherever tendons are close
are used, however, the VSL PT-PLUS protection; to the concrete surface;
system with its corrugated plastic duct Improved tendon fatigue resistance; Railway bridges and other structures
and plastic coupler can provide a Reduced sensitivity to stray electric with high fatigue loadings or subject
number of important advantages currents; to stray electric currents;
when compared with conventional Reduced duct friction coefficient; Structures where severe corrosive
stee ducts. For applications requiring The PT-PLUS system, when used environment may be expected;
enhanced corrosion protection and with VSL anchorages, can be adapted Tendons that need to be electrically
improved fatigue resistance of the to provide electrically isolated monitored throughout the structures
tendons, use of the VSL PT-PLUS tendons (EIT). These tendons may be service life.
System with corrugated plastic duct is electrically monitored at any time
recommended. throughout the life of the structure.
This fully encapsulated, watertight
system offers superb corrosion
protection, and the plastic duct
eliminates fretting fatigue between
the strand and duct.

Steel duct
Plastic duct PT-PLUS
Plastic duct PT-PLUS and vent

Tendon profile

PT-PLUS duct

For diameters of ducts see annexes.

10 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
k = 0.001 (range: 0.0008 to 0.0012)
Minimum radius of tendon curvatures
and minimum straight length for To calculate losses due to concrete
internal bonded tendons shrinkage and creep, reference should
Minimum radius be made to the technical documents
of tendon curvature Minimum straight lenght
and standards applicable to each

The relaxation of the prestressing steel

depends primarily on the type of steel
Minimum breaking load of tendon (MN)
(relaxation class), the extent of the
prestressing, and the temperature.
Selected design = friction coefficient;
considerations = sum of all angular deviations For the low relaxation strands
(in radians) over the distance x; commonly used today, maximum loss
Spacing and cover of ducts k = wobble friction coefficient due is 2.5% after 1,000 hours at 20C with
When determining minimum spacing to minor unintentional tendon an initial stressing at 70% of the
and concrete cover requirements, curvatures (installation tolerances). nominal tensile strength. Further
reference should be made to applicable information can be found in the
standards and recommendations. The and k friction coefficients can relevant prestressing steel standards
vary fairly widely and depend upon and manufacturers literature.
Tendon supports several factors, including: the nature
Recommended spacing: and surface condition of Independent of the jack or tendon
Standard steel ducts 0.8 to 1.2m the prestressing steel; the type, type, a loss of approximately 6mm due
PT-PLUS ducts 0.6 to 1.0m diameter and surface condition of to wedge draw-in occurs at lock-off.
the duct, and the installation method. If necessary, compensation can be
Tendon force losses provided by appropriate procedures.
The effective prestressing force at The following values may be assumed
a specific place for design:
and time differs from the initial Tendon in standard steel ducts:
prestressing force. = 0.2 (range: 0.16 to 0.22)
There are several reasons for this. k = 0.001 (range: 0.0008 to 0.0012)
Significant factors include:
Friction losses due to the curvature Tendon in PT-PLUS plastic ducts:
of the tendon; = 0.14 (range: 0.12 to 0.15)
Concrete shrinkage and creep; 10mm nominal
Relaxation of the prestressing steel; Edge distances
Draw-in of the wedges during lock-off.
Tendon unit E (mm)

5-7 30 E
Friction losses along the tendon 5-12 50
can be determined using the following 5-19 50
12.7mm 5-27 80
formula: 5-42 80
Px = Po.e-( + kx), in which: Strand
5-55 80
x = distance from stressing end TYPE 6-7 50 nominal
(in meters); 6-12 50
6-19 80
Px = prestressing force at x; 15.2mm 6-27 80
Po = prestressing force at stressing end; 6-42 100 E
6-55 100

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 11
Multistrand post-tensioning

Placing of anchor head and wedges

Positioning of jack

Placing of anchor head


The unique feature of the VSL post-
tensioning system lies in its special
wedge locking procedure. The wedges
Seating of wedges
always remain in contact with the
strands during the stressing operation.
As the pressure in the jack is released,
the wedges automatically lock in the
conical holes of the anchor head.
Positioning of jack

The objectives in grouting a tendon are two
1. To provide an effective corrosion protection
system, by filling the free space in the tendon
with the grout which provides an alkaline
encapsulation of the tendon, and
2. To achieve an effective bond between the
tendon and the surrounding concrete.
It is therefore essential that grouting be carried
Stressing, measuring, seating of wedges out in a carefully monitored and controlled
manner. Through extensive R&D VSL has
developed a detailed understanding of both the
chemical and practical aspects that affect grout
quality and has produced specific grouting
procedures and grout mixes which are tailored
to suit local conditions and material properties
VSLs HPI high performance cimentitions
grouts. VSL uses combined mixer and pump
units to ensure control over the grout quality
and delivery on-site and can also provide
vacuum assisted grouting procedures for certain
special applications such as long cables, external
Grouting of tendon
tendons or electrically isolated tendons.

For dimensions of the jacks, please see annexes.

For more information on VSL HPI grouting, please refer to the VSL HPI grouting brochure.

12 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Bonded slab

Dubai Festival Saudi Arabia Kens Australia Nina Tower Hong Kong

Construction sequence a reduced labor force, minimizing site

congestion. Most importantly, there
Todays building owners and designers is the quality and service provided by
need to provide a high level of VSLs specialized highly efficient teams.
structural flexibility to meet changing
user requirements. The VSL bonded post-tensioning slab
system has been used in many
Post-tensioning provides greater spans prestigious buildings, bridges and
with reduced structural floor depths, other structures. The system uses up AL Faisaliah Riyadh Saudi Arabia

resulting in larger column-free areas. to five strands 13mm (0,5) or 15mm (0,6)
As a result, internal layouts are not contained in flat-shaped ducting,
dictated by tight column grids. Positive and anchored in a single anchorage.
deflection and crack control and,
if necessary, joint-free water-tight slabs, Strands are individually stressed
free designers from the limitations and gripped by wedge action. After
of traditional reinforced concrete stressing, the duct is filled with
structures. VSL post-tensioning is more a cement grout that fully bonds the
economical than other systems, strands to the surrounding concrete.
especially when fast construction
cycles are envisaged. There is less
material handling on site and

Placing tendons Concreting Stressing Grouting

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 13
Bonded slab post-tensioning

Lugo hospital Spain Prtico building Madrid Spain

Live anchorages
VSL Type SO VSL Type S

Grout tube

Grout tube Flat duct

Recess former
Strands Strands Casting

Anchorage body Anchor block

Recess former

VSL Type Bondtech VSL Type S5 2 VSL Type S5 1, S6 1


Cast in
Grout tube
Grout tube
Duct Grout tube
Duct Wedges
Cast in
Wedges anchorage
Barrels& Strands
Wedges grips Plastic
Recess former
Recess former

Strands Styrene
Recess former

For dimensions of anchorages see annexes.

Anchorage components are not available in all countries. Please check with your local VSL office for availability.

14 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Vincom Towers Vietnam Magarpatta India

VSL Type SK VSL Type S

Sleeve Flat duct

Grout tube Grout tube
Compression fittings Compression fittings

Coupling head SK Grout tube

Bearing plate Cast in anchor

Anchor head

Steel band

Cast coupling block

Dead anchorages
VSL Type H VSL Type P
Grout tube
Grout tube Flat duct
Flat duct
Tension ring Tension ring


Compression fittings
VSL Type N

Grout tube

Bulb Tension ring Flat duct

Individual anchorages
For dimensions of couplers and dead anchorages see annexes.
Anchorage components are not available in all countries. Please check with your local VSL office for availability.

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 15
Bonded slab post-tensioning

Selected design Tendons in standard steel ducts:

considerations = 0.20 (-) (range: 0.16 to 0.22)
k = 0.001 (m-1) (range: 0.0008 to
Spacing of tendon supports: 0.0012)
0.75 to 1.2m (steel ducts)
0.75 to 1.0m (PT-PLUS ducts) Tendons in PT-PLUS ducts:
= 0.14 (-) (range: 0.12 to 0.15)
Minimum curvature radius: k = 0.001 (m-1) (range: 0.0008 to
2.5m (vertical profile) 0.0012)
6.0m (horizontal profile)
The friction losses in the anchorage
Bellvitge Barcelona Spain
Min. straight length at anchorage: due to curvature of the strand and
0.75m friction of the strand in the wedges
usually amount to:
A wedge draw-in of approximately
6mm occurs at lock-off Edge stressing 3% average
Internal pocket stressing 5% average
Friction losses can vary fairly widely The PT slab method allows designers to
depending on factors such as surface reduce building heights or to increase
condition of strands, duct types and free heights between floors.
surface condition, material
properties, installation methods and
on-site workmanship. Generally
speaking, the following friction
Vodaphone building Egypt
parameters can be used.

Traditional design PT slab design

Height saving

Free height
Free height

Free height Free height

RBC Plaza Philippines

16 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Monostrand unbonded

El Golf 2001 Chile Metropolitan US

System description approximately 1mm wall thickness. Tendon characteristics

The monostrands are installed either 13mm/15mm diameter strand
The VSL monostrand unbonded system singly or in bundles of two, three or in accordance with the relevant
has advantages similar to those four. Each strand is individually prestressing steel standards.
of the VSL bonded slab post-tensioning anchored, stressed and locked-off. External diameter of the plastic
system. sheathing: approximately 16mm
To ensure continuous corrosion and 18mm (0,5) respectively.
The VSL monostrand unbonded system protection, special sleeves are used to Permanent corrosion-preventing
uses 13mm (0.5) or 15mm (0.6) join the sheathings to the anchorages. grease and plastic sheathing in
diameter strands, which are given Anchorages can be equipped with a accordance with fib/PTI
a coating of permanent corrosion- protective cap. recommendations (0,6).
preventing grease and are enclosed
in an extruded plastic sheathing. Monostrands feature factory-applied
corrosion protection, very low friction
The grease and plastic provide double losses, and permit the structural depth
corrosion protection, as well as to be fully utilised.
preventing any bonding between the
strands and the surrounding concrete. These light, flexible monostrands can
The plastic sheathing is usually in be easily and rapidly installed, and
polyethylene or polypropylene with because there is no grouting, they
usually lead to economical solutions.

In design, the different post-cracking

behaviour of unbonded versus bonded
systems should be considered. Detailed
information is given in VSLs Post-
tensioned slabs publication.
With certain adaptations, the VSL
monostrand unbonded system can
also be used for post-tensioning
Hilton Buenos Aires Argentina
masonry walls.

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 17
Monostrand slab post-tensioning


VSL Type S VSL Type SF


Anchorage body (casting) Sleeve


Installation piece
Sleeve Anchorage body (casting)


Recess former

Installation nut
VSL Type ST System


Transition cone


Strand Recess former

Coupler type SK

Monostrand 1

Coupling head and
threaded coupling

Monostrand 2

For dimensions of anchorages, stressing jacks, reinforcement of the anchorage zone and design values see annexes.
Anchorage components are not available in all countries. Please check with your local VSL office for availability.

18 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Slab on grade

Coles Myer Australia Tenax Italy

Characteristics would otherwise cause cracking under internal jointing and the cost saving
the worst combinations of available from the construction
The VSL post-tensioning system is temperature and applied loads. The program time saved by casting large
widely used in the construction of prestress applied can even control the areas, all contribute to a competitive
slabs on grade. Warehouses, initial concrete shrinkage sufficiently initial cost.
distribution centres, container to prevent initial shrinkage cracking.
terminals, airports, pavements, Future maintenance
residential slabs and recreational slabs Thinner slab During the life of the slab, the joint
for tennis courts and skating rings are The VSL slab is much thinner than its maintenance costs which the owner
common applications. equivalent in reinforced concrete, and no longer needs to provide, will reap
generally contains no reinforcement great improvements in the efficiency
Eliminate joints except at the perimeter and of the facility.
Joints in reinforced concrete slabs on for trimming at penetrations.
grade have long been a cause of cost A life cycle analysis can be readily
and delay to owners because of the Initial cost undertaken to demonstrate that future
constant maintenance they require. The thinner slab, absence of savings to the ownermore than justify
Owners and operators of facilities with reinforcement, absence of costly the selection of a VSL slab on grade.
slabs on grade can eliminate these
costs by eliminating the joints
themselves. The VSL post-tensioned
concrete slab on grade is cast in very
large areas, often exceeding 2 500m2,
in which there are no joints. In certain
applications, slabs in the order of
10 000m2 have been constructed
without movement joints.

Crack-free performance
The VSL post-tensioning axially
compresses the concrete slab
Nestl plant Chile Austrack Australia
to counteract tensile stresses which

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 19

Boulonnais Viaducts France Carrire Viaduct France Bras de la Plaine Reunion Island

System description
External post-tensioning is well VSL external tendons comprise: A wide selection of VSL anchorage
adapted to bridges due to the resulting Strand bundle; types is available to meet the
reduction of congestion inside the Polyethylene ducts; full range of practical requirements.
concrete and the high degree of Standard multistrand anchorages, In addition to the anchorages
corrosion resistance provided by the and special anchorages permitting illustrated here, intermediate
system. External tendons are easy to complete tendon replacement; anchorages are also available.
inspect and, if necessary, replace. Grouting compound. The strand bundle can be assembled
They are ideal for strengthening from uncoated or individually greased
existing structures and, apart from and sheathed strands. The anchorages
their uses in bridges, can be used for these two types of tendon differ
for a wide range of other applications, only in detail, the principle remains
including buildings, silos and reservoirs. the same.

VSL external post-tensioning system components

Stressing anchorage Strand bundle and sheath Stressing anchorage

20 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Selected design
Saddles at points of deviation
A saddle at a point of deviation
consists of:
A structural element capable of
carrying the loads exerted by
the tendon in the deviation zone;
A part ensuring the geometry of
the deviation.

Globally a saddle at a point of

deviation must satisfy the following
Withstand both the longitudinal and
transversal forces that the tendon
applies to it and transmit these forces
to the structure;
Ensure, without unacceptable Arrangement at point of deviation
angular deviation, the connection
between two straight tendon sections; accordingly, i. e. double sheath as
Unless otherwise stipulated in the shown on alternative (3) of the sketch.
contract, enable removal of the tendon
without traumatic effect on the Minimum tendon radii
structural elements; Minimum tendon radii as recommended
Withstand movements of external in Table 1 must be respected in order to
tendon during stressing without avoid damage to the prestressing steel
compromising the tendon's corrosion and the plastic sheaths, as well as to
protection system. the outer tubing. It is well-established
that friction problems may occur if
Various solutions have been used tendon radii are too small.
in practice, as shown in the sketch.
In most cases, saddles consist of Table 1: recommended minimum tendon radii
a pre-bent steel tube cast into the Tendon size Minimum radius
surrounding concrete or attached to (VSL tendon unit) (m)
a steel structure by stiffening plates. up to 5-19 or 6-12 2.50
The connection between the free up to 5-31 or 6-19 3.00
tendon length and the saddle must up to 5-55 or 6-37 4.00
be carefully detailed in order not to
damage the prestressing steel by sharp
angular deviations during stressing For dimensions see annexes.
and in service. It is also important that Anchorage components are not available
the protective sheath be properly in all countries. Please check with your
joined. If tendon replacement is local VSL office for availability.
a design requirement, the saddle For more information on external post-tensioning,
arrangement must be chosen please refer to VSL Report N 1.

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 21
Stay cables SSI 2000 Stay cable system

Compatible with modern

construction methods Increased corrosion protection
Compact anchorages fully prefabricated in Factory-applied individual
workshop, no anchorage component Full encapsulation
protection treatment, up to
assembly on the deck, single strand Each strand separately
100 years design life in the most
installation with light equipment, easy protected inside
aggressive environments.
force monitoring and adjustment. the anchorage.

High fatigue resistance STRESSING END


of 45% of the stay capacity

over 2x load cycles; excellent
ultimate resistance after
fatigue testing (min. 95% of
the specified stay capacity).

at 45% of tendon capacity over Aesthetics

2,000,000 load cycles; using coloured co-extruded stay
high degree of corrosion resistance pipes, different colours can be
using multi-layer corrosion protection; obtained;
an extruded coating providing vibration damping devices can be
excellent strand corrosion protection placed at the end of the guide pipes
during construction; near the deck.
individual strand encapsulation and
sealing in anchorages; Dynamic stability of the cables
easy installation of the strands into stay pipes with external helical ribs to
the erected stay pipe (single strand suppress rain-wind induced
installation); vibrations;
Udevalla Bridge Sweden
all strands are parallel with no risk of the stay cable system is adapted for
twisting; the initial or future installation of
SSI 2000 description single strand stressing; anti-vibration dampers.
no requirement for on-site cable the new generation of VSL friction
VSL stay cable system grouting; or Gensui dampers dampers to offer
The VSL stay cable system was easy tendon force monitoring and minimum maintenance during
developed to meet the stringent adjustment throughout the cables extended design life.
design, construction and maintenance service life;
requirements of cable-stayed bridges. ability to remove and replace Durability
individual strands without A high degree of corrosion protection:
The VSL stay cable system comprises dismantling the installed anchorages, each strand is individually protected
a tendon formed from multiple and or the entire cable at any time; not only in the stay pipe, but also in
parallel 15-mm (0.6") dia. high tensile system adapted for the initial or the transition part of the anchorage;
7-wire steel strands; future installation of an anti- individual anchorage sealing joints
a greased or waxed strand, with a vibration damper. protect each strand not only in
tightly extruded plastic sheathing. service, but also during bridge
an outer thick-walled plastic stay Characteristics erection;
pipe; VSLs stay cable system has the
factory prefabricated anchorages. Compactness unique feature of providing
reduced size of the anchorage for complete encapsulation for each
The system features are as follows easy installation and savings in the individual monostrand along the
200 MPa minimum fatigue resistance cost of the structure. free length and into the anchorage.

22 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Increased stay anchorage protection
Deviator placed in the guide pipe
povides an additional level of
protection by filtering cable bending
stresses before they reach the
anchorage. Replaceable
Economical Ability to remove
Faster installation Versatile and to replace
and erection cycles. Designed to receive individual strands
Reduced maintenance. in the future vibration damping on demand.
systems (friction dampers)
if necessary.

Neva Bridge Russia VSL stays with architectural bars Friction damper on Uddevalla Bridge Sweden
VSL architectural bars are particularly
suitable and economical for shorter
road bridges, pedestrian bridges and
stays for suspended roofs.

Single strand monitoring

VSL has designed a compact load cell,
the SSI 2000 Hc160, to monitor the
load on a single strand within a stay
cable. This new equipment fits over
one strand and sits on the anchor head
Europa Bridge Portugal
of the stay cable between adjacent
strands, making it easy to install and
Unlike systems used by competitors replace. This load cell offers an
which compromise the encapsulation economical way to have a good
near the anchorage point and result indication of the total force on the stay
in potential exposure of the entire cable.
cable, VSLs stay cable system
reduces the potential exposure to a
single strand.

Reduced maintenance costs

easy corrosion control of anchorage
Industrial Ring Road Thailand
good access to vibration damping
The Hc 160 VSL monostrand load cell
Stay cable installation
system optimised for strand-by-
strand installation, with easily For more information on VSL stays, please refer
handled, lightweight equipment and to the VSL Stay Cables brochure.
reduced construction loads on the For more information on architectural bars,
bridge during construction. please refer to the VSL Architectural bars brochure.

Yarrade Boulevarde Bridge Australia

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 23
Heavy lifting

Waldstadion Germany

Custom engineered necessary temporary structures frames, giving us the capacity to

solutions for tough jobs needed to meet your requirements. perform virtually any project
requiring lifting, lowering or horizontal
For economic or technical reasons, Safety jacking.
todays civil engineering structures and The safety of your personnel and works
industrial plants are often assembled is VSL s first priority. Our specialised
from large, heavy, prefabricated hydraulic lifting equipment is designed
components. VSL Heavy Lifting will to provide the highest level of
often provide the most effective reliability, and VSL field services are
solution for projects where cranes based on a total commitment to safety.
or other conventional handling
equipment cannot be used. Flexibility
Our equipment includes a large
Individual solutions number of hydraulic strand units, jacks,
VSL can plan lifting, horizontal jacking, pumps, control units, monitoring
International Exhibition Centre Hong Kong
or lowering operations and design the devices and modular lifting /jacking

24 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Burj Al Arab - Dubai Herradura - Spain

VSL service package downward movement, the strands VSL has a wide range of pumps with
Our approach is flexible, and the range are immediately gripped by the either single or multiple outlets. The
of our services is tailored to the specific lower anchorage. In this way, the characteristics of these pumps ensure
project requirements. They include: load is raised using a step-by-step the synchronised movement of the
feasibility studies and preliminary process. jacks. Pressure control devices allow
consultation; For lowering operations, VSL s motive forces to be monitored at all times.
project design and planning; units are equipped with an auxiliary The movement speed varies according
design, manufacture, and supply device which automatically controls to the project and, if required, can be in
of special equipment; the opening and closing of the excess of 20 m / hour.
leasing of VSL equipment and anchorages.
execution of work. Control and monitoring systems
Tensile member The lifting of hangar roofs or of
The tensile member consist of 15 mm similar statically overdetermined
Proven equipment for (0,6) strands. The tensile member is structures usually requires that
handling heavy loads anchored to the load by a specially lifting movements be precisely
designed end anchorage. co-ordinated.
VSL strand system This is achieved by specially designed,
The main components of the VSL Hydraulic pumps computer-based multi-point
strand system are the motive unit, VSL electro-hydraulic pumps can be monitoring systems, which allow the
the tensile member with the manually controlled or operated in operation to be centrally controlled
anchorage for the load, and the pump groups from a central control board. and monitored up to the final,
with its controls. precise height.

Motive unit Airbus 380 hangar roof lif France Special hydraulic equipment
The motive unit consists of a Our range of equipment also includes
hydraulic centre hole jack with upper a large number of different hydraulic
and lower anchorages. During lifting jacks. VSL can also design and supply
the jack is extended, causing the custom-built hydraulic systems for
individual strands of the tensile special applications.
member to be gripped by the upper
anchorage and thus to be moved For more information, please refer
upwards. At the start of the pistons to the VSL Heavy Lifting brochure.

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 25
Bridge erection

Shatin T3 Hong Kong

VSL experience construction and facilitate programme simple solutions to demanding

schedule, while maintaining and often problems. The exchange of knowledge
With extensive experience in large improving essential safety and quality within the VSL global network enables
infrastructure and superstructure control measures. Lateral thought the groups considerable experience to
projects, VSL has a proven record of processes encouraged within the be fully utilised and applied in a wide
developing project specific design and production teams provide variety of engineering domains.
construction systems and methods a suitable environment in which to As a specialist bridge partner, VSL can
that promote highly efficient rates of nurture novel, and often remarkably bring the project team an extensive
experience gained from erecting over
100,000 precast bridge deck elements
(providing almost 5 million square
meters of bridge surface) and also
constructing multiple insitu bridges
utilising VSL form travellers and
incremental launching methods.
VSL is committed to offering clients
a best for project service that has
recently led to the development and
successful implementation of various
innovative Partnering and Alliancing
arrangements that have proved to be
highly successful and mutually
West Sydney Orbital Australia beneficial to all parties involved.

26 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Forming systems

Almeria Spain Angara Bridge Russia

VSL slipform and the formwork panels hanging frames and blockouts as well as
from the external frame and internal reinforcement and reinforcing fabric
The VSL Slipform System has been used platforms permit pours over a height fixing, including prefabricated
in the construction of silos, storage of 4.2 m. The internal steel platforms, reinforcement
tanks, containment structures, incorporating the formpanel hooks and truss members of fixed height
chimneys, cooling stacks and bridge rollers, are specifically designed and assembled in "Meccano like fashion"
piers and pylons for over 20 years. manufactured for each project, to form a platform of any plan shape
Slipforming is advantageous when guaranteeing accurate and economic or size
rapid construction between 2 and 6 m assembly operations. easy levelling and plumbing of the
per 24 hours is required which results external platform, which is typically
from continuous working it forms VSL Climbform permits an excellent supported on four, six or eight
a monolithic structure free from production ratio with accurate placing seatings
construction joints. The system is raised of door frames, openings, blockouts, minimum adjustment of individual
by hydraulic jacks with upper working cast-in components and direct placing forms after the initial set-up
platforms for reinforcement fixing and of prefabricated reinforcement cages. an achievable vertical tolerance range
concrete placement and a suspended Another advantage lies in the safety of of 10mm per 4.2 metre height
scaffolding for finishing works. the Climbform. The VSL service package variation of wall thickness by moving
includes: feasibility studies and the internal or external forms
preliminary consultation and pricing; parking the internal platforms at
VSL climbform tender design and planning; design, mid-lift to facilitate blockout and
manufacture and supply of equipment; reinforcement fixing, eliminating the
VSL has also been active in leasing, training of site-staff, requirement for temporary scaffolds
Climbforming for over 20 years. supervision of the works for the first cycle times as low as three days
The VSL Climbform System is a self few levels, followed by dismantling access to external walls for curing
climbing heavy duty construction operation. hanging access stairway.
platform used primarily to lift static
panel vertical wall formwork. Standard features include: Optional features include:
The system provides the wall designer Custom designed formwork panels steel formwork to enable pouring
with complete flexibility in both the which may be ganged in any shape within 50mm of boundaries
structural design and selection of or size to lift as one unit support of concrete placing booms on
finishes. The system is particularly form heights ranging from 2.5 to 4.2 the platform
adapted to the construction of high- metres access hatches and/or temporary
rise building cores. The 6-m high VSL unobstructed access to the forms for removal of platforms to install
Climbform has three platform levels, cleaning and oiling, fixing of door precast stairs

28 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
external trailing platforms system design can accommodate wide
internal trailing platforms to allow variations in segment length, height,
early installation web thickness and deck width and Kaoshiling Mass rapid transit system Taiwan

support of site sheds and toilets on geometry. Vertical deflections at the

the platform leading edge of the traveller assembly slab, web wall and deck slab
provision to allow manhoists to are less than 25mm at maximum loads. concrete.
service the top working platform 7. Stressing of post-tensioning tendons.
provision to locate tower cranes System operation 8. The internal and external formwork
within internal and corridor The VSL Form traveller system is is stripped from the cast and cured
platforms economical and efficient to use. segment and the VSL Form traveller is
collapsible door formers Launching is accomplished by launched to the next segment.
trailing formwork and platforms for advancing the system forward on rails.
vertical and raking walls. The interior formwork remains within VSL services
the previously poured section in order VSL provides design, fabrication,
to facilitate the placing of the material supply and installation
VSL form travellers reinforcing steel in the bottom slab services to the balanced cantilever
and webs of the new segment. construction process. Our engineering
VSL Form travellers have been The segment construction cycle can team supports the custom design of
developed in conjunction with the in- generally be carried out in less than the Traveller System to meet the needs
house design of balanced or free a week. A typical segment cycle would of a specific project and bridge
cantilevering bridge structures. consist of the following steps: configuration. Complete system
The form traveller of either overhead drawings and operation manuals detail
truss or underslung type, is a 1. The system is launched on rails to the all aspects of traveller operation for
hydraulically driven falsework system new segment location. ease of assembly and safe operation.
with built in working platforms and 2. The external formwork is aligned, VSL is ready to provide technical
formwork panels designed to provide levelled and fixed into place. assistance and field supervision of
a rigid frame to minimize deflections 3. Reinforcing steel is placed in the traveller 1st assembly and
under load. bottom slab and web walls. commissioning, launching,
4. The interior formwork assembly is maintenance and dismantling or a
System flexibility advanced, and the top deck slab total turnkey package incorporating
The VSL Form traveller system is soffit and wall forms are levelled and the operation of the system with the
designed for a variety of segment fixed into place. post-tensioning application.
lengths varying from 3m to 5.5m and 5. Reinforcing steel and post-tensioning
can support concrete and formwork tendons are placed in the deck slab. For more information, please refer
loading from 100t to 450t. The traveller 6. Placement of concrete in bottom to the VSL Bridge Erection brochure.

Sinu Bridge Spain Stonecutters Bridge Hong-Kong

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 29
Repair, strengthening and
Upgrading deficient -but in service
structures is a challenging and
growing segment of the construction
industry. VSL strengthening systems
are providing economical solutions
for structures requiring load capacity
upgrade or improvement due to
change of use, deterioration or
construction defects.

Laayoun Wharf Morocco Pisa Tower - Italy

Structural appraisal and diagnosis

Structural remedial work demands
thorough diagnosis of
damage/deterioration and full
assessment of causes, risks and
consequences involved.

VSL employs state-of-the-art

equipment and special inspection
techniques to detect any defects in
concrete, reinforced concrete, and
prestressed concrete structures before
any significant damage occurs.
Close cooperation with material
testing institutes, structural designers
and the latest investigation techniques
enable VSL to prepare precise and
comprehensive reports such as:
Inspection and surveyance of
Fallingwater USA
concrete structures

30 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Figueira da Foz Bridge Portugal

Condition evaluation of concrete A challenging aspect to this process is

structures that deficient structures are in service
Root cause analysis and functioning, therefore, the repair
Design of repair strategies or strengthening systems must be
Badget costing. tailored to serve the intended use of
the structure without interfering with
To repair or not to repair. its occupants or function.
Once the external signs of a structural
problem have been observed, the next As a result of the higher load demands,
step is critical: to identify the existing structures need to be
underlying cause. reassessed and may require
strengthening to meet heavier service
Kingston Bridge UK
Any decision to repair and the repair loads. In general, structural
strategy- should never be based solely strengthening may become necessary
on effect. It should always arise from due to code changes, seismic upgrade
an analysis of the cause. deficiencies that develop due to
environmental effects such as
A solid understanding of the root cause corrosion, changes in use that increase
will help determine whether the service loads, or deficiencies within the
observed effect actually warrants structure caused by errors in design
a repair. or construction.

Many owner-related issues must also A combination of techniques

be assessed - safety, environmental The structural upgrade of concrete
Silo upgrade - USA
effects, change of structural usage, structures can be achieved using one
new design loads, and risk level, of many different upgrading methods
to name just some before a wise such as external or internal post-
decision can be made to repair or tensioning systems, span shortening,
not to repair. externally bonded steel, fiber
reinforced polymer composites (FRP),
Tailor-made systems section enlargement, or a combination
VSL is a one-source solution for of these techniques. Strengthening
structural upgrades or repairs. Our systems must perform in a composite
systematic approach to the analysis, manner with the existing structure
load test design and execution of in order to be effective and share the
strengthening projects allow us to applied loads.
integrate our engineering,
manufacturing and installation
capabilities into a creative, efficient, For more information, please refer
Haivan Vietnam
timely and cost-effective approach. to the VSL Repair and Strengthening Brochure

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 31
Bar system

Hong Kong Stadium Hong Kong Bar technology

give a wide selection of tendon forces. A combination of the above systems

The prestressing force is anchored at may also be specified. Consideration
the end of the bar by a rolled thread, must also be given to the threaded
nut, washer and bearing plate. ends to ensure correct installation
Where necessary bars can be joined of fittings after coating.
with threaded couplers, and clevis
fittings may be used where pin Typical applications
connections are required.
VSL Bars systems are specifically Prestressed beams and columns
designed to suit all geotechnical Precast connections
applications as well as civil works and
building applications. The systems Bridges
range from High Tensile Cold Worked Stay cable
Stressbar to Low Tensile Architectural Hangers
bars, all with compact and easy Temporary prestressing of segments
to assemble fittings. Strengthening
Tension piles and caissons
VSL bar systems are ideal for the
economic application of post- Wharves & jetties
tensioning forces on relatively short Stressed deck planks
Westbound Off-Ramp to Western Arterial Road - Australia tendons. Through the use of Tie backs
threaded connections and
VSL has been manufacturing and anchorages they are simple to use Anchors
designing bars for the construction and lend themselves to many Permanent and temporary
industry since 1971. VSL has an extensive applications. ground anchors
list of hot-rolled products as well as Uplift anchors (dam & foundation)
cold-rolled bars. These have proven All bars and fittings must receive Roof bolting
to be one of the most popular tools protection when installed under Soil nails (slope stabilisation)
of engineers wishing to induce and permanent conditions or used in Crane bases
control loads and forces in structures. an exposed environment. One of the Light towers
following coating systems may be
VSL s product line complies with used. Specialist Engineering
international standards, including ISO, Heavy lifting
Eurocodes, ASTM, Australian Standards, Galvanising Formwork ties or hangers
British Standards, and such like. Greased and sheathed Frame ties
in a polyethylene tube Pile testing
A range of diameters is available to Epoxy paint system Architectural ties

32 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Rock bolts
Stabilising galleries during excavations
Stabilising unstable rock/soil
Flexible attachment thanks to the high level of steel elongation/ductility
A range of different anchoring systems
Grouted, resin anchors, expansion shells
A large number of special accessories

Soil nails
Slope stabilisation
Retaining wall strengthening
Flexible attachment thanks to the high level of steel elongation/ductility,
permitting soil movement
Permanent and temporary use

Foundations (compressive load)
Tensile piles (tensile load)
Ideal for alternating tensile and compressive loadings
Securing of building foundation walls, embankments, compacted soil areas,
high-rise buildings, structures in seismic areas

Ground anchors
Retaining walls
Stabilising deep excavations, anchoring tower cranes
Permanent and temporary use

Tie rods
Retaining walls
Sea walls
Permanent and temporary use

DIN 488 accreditation for B500 steel quality
Convenient for coupling through the use of continuous threading
Efficient coupling solution in areas where there are too many steel components
Alternative to shear studs

Stress bars
High performance for forces ranging from 270 to 1,320 kN
Prestressed/post-tensioned concrete structures
Strengthening of buildings
Temporary prestressing and bracing

Form ties
Same production quality level as high grade stress bars
Additional steel qualities, e.g. St 1,000/1,100 (weldable, high ductility,
suitable for low temperatures), S850/900 steel with cold-rolled thread
Accessories to suit all assembly situations

Architectural stress bars

. Foot bridges
. Small road bridges
. Suspended roofs
. Curtain walls

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 33
Ground anchors

Masjed Dam Iran The Andes Argentina Anchor testing

VSL Anchors can be divided into two releasable or be used as a monitoring electrically non-conductive anchorage
main categories strand and bar anchor. VSL's range of anchors extends isolation. The integrity of the anchor
anchors. The type of anchors used from permanent anchors that can be checked throughout its service
depends on whether it is for rock or Allow electrical resistance life using electrical resistance
soil, for temporary or permanent use, measurements to be taken to check measurements.
whether or not it is to be tensioned, the integrity of the encapsulation
and whether or not permanent during the entire service life, to Force measurements
corrosion protection is required. temporary anchors that can be easily VSL is able to provide specially
extracted after use. VSL also offers load developed load cells for temporary and
VSL offers all of these alternatives can cells that allow the anchor permanent control anchors, as well as
support a full anchor material supply performance to be monitored. for permanent surveillance anchors.
service (anchors and accessories) with The anchor shown on this page The following three types are available:
back-up including design services, represents a typical permanent strand type G hydraulic load cell,
advice, consultancy, testing, anchor with a thick walled permanently installed for control
installation, tensioning, site polyethylene encapsulation acting as anchors;
supervision and monitoring. The a protective barrier against corrosion. type GW hydraulic load cell, used as
construction of the VSL strand anchor Temporary anchors are similarly a removable load cell allowing several
depends on the type of application constructed except that, being permanent anchors to be measured
(rock or soil), designed for a shorter service life, from time to time by moving the cell
the design, the corrosiveness of the corrosion protection requirements are from one anchor head to the other;
environment, the presence of stray usually less demanding. The anchor type D electrical load cell, providing
electrical currents and the intended is not normally encapsulated and can supervision of permanent and
service life. While temporary ground take the form of a bundle of bare temporary anchors and allowing
anchors require limited or no corrosion strands in contact with grout over the continuous load measuring using
protection, permanent ground anchors bond length of the anchor. either a direct or remote reading
(with a service life exceeding two or system.
three years) need to provide a Both types of anchor systems comprise All load cell types are fully compatible
comprehensive permanent corrosion the anchor with a bearing plate, anchor with the VSL Anchor system.
protection system. head and wedges. Our scope of services includes
consultancy, supply and installation of
Specific requirements Electrically isolated anchors load cells, as well as control anchor
Anchorages can be designed to allow These anchors use tight PE readings.
the anchor force to be adjustable, encapsulation combined with an

34 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Typical permanent strand anchor
protective cap

smooth polyethylene grout inlet

sheath in free length
e len

n spacer Temporary VSL stressbar anchor
spreader polyethylene t
coated and gh
e Len Spherical nut
bare strand greased Fre
strand with
transition from tensile / yield Heat shrink Spherical washer
free length strength acc. t Bearing plate
to local gh & sleeve
(smooth Len
polyethylene requirements nd
Bo Grout tube
corrugated poly- sheath)
ethylene sheath Grout Greased bar
to bond length over free length
in bond length (corrugated H.D.P.E. smooth shea-
tightly sea- polyethylene thing over free length
led, strong sheath)
protective CT Stressbar epoxy
cap coated if required Grout tube
Spacers at 1500 max.



Bore hole CT Stressbar


Permanent VSL stressbar anchor Heat shrink

fully encapsulated en
Nitroseal PX220
Fre Spherical nut
Hot-Dip galvanized protective cap

Protective grease
Spherical washer

t Hot-Dip galvanized bearing plate

Len with trumpet

H.D.P.E. smooth or corrugated bore
sheathing over free length
load checks in situations that, in the
External spacers at 1500 max. centres past, had been particularly difficult.
Corrugated sheathing
CT Stressbar Anchor extraction
Internal spacersat 1500 max. centres It is often undesirable to leave

Corrugated shea- temporary anchors in the ground,


Grout tube outer thing (Polyethylene) particularly in urban areas where they

Steel nose cone

Grout tube inner
Bore hole CT Stressbar normally extend into adjacent
property. The method developed by VSL
Internal spacers
for extracting the free anchor length is
Anchor load checks based on a specially designed
VSL performs periodic anchor load mechanism located at the point where
checks using suitable equipment and the strand is disconnected.
competent personnel. This is carried VSL has a long tradition in this special
out by lift-off checks using VSL jacks or EF anchorages where the anchor head technique, with thousands of anchors
the required type GW load cells. has no thread and where projecting successfully extracted.
Standard load checks can be carried strands were cut after installation. The VSL offers also temporary stressbar
out on type EG, ER and EA anchorages. jack has a mechanism to grip standard anchors wich permit partial extraction.
With our specially developed APP jacks, size anchor heads with up to twelve 13
we are in the unique position to carry mm (0.5") strands or seven 15 mm (0.6") For more information, please refer to the VSL
out lift-off checks on anchors with type strands. This allows clients to carry out Ground Anchors Brochure

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 35

Nundah bypass Australia

The VSoL retained earth system is a development of passive resistance on backfill is achieved by the frictional
composite soil reinforcing system that the projected area of the mesh interaction of the soil particles
uses welded wire mesh or polymeric crossbars, which in turn transfers load with the polymeric reinforcing strip.
strips to resist the horizontal forces into the longitudinal bars. In addition to its high performance
generated within an earth backfill. In the case of polymeric strip level, the VSoL system ensures
A retained earth structure is a stable, reinforcement, load transfer from the economical design and construction.
unified gravity mass that can be The system requires only three
designed for use in a wide range of civil components: reinforcing elements,
engineering applications. The VSoL precast facing panels and backfill
system is widely used and accepted as material. This simplicity results in easy
a major construction method in and rapid construction. Cost savings
projects ranging from retaining walls of up to 50% below those of traditional
to highway bridge abutments. retaining wall systems are regularly
The basic retained earth principle achieved.
involves transferring stresses from
the soil to the reinforcing elements. Fast, easy and economical
In the case of welded wire mesh soil The construction of a VSoL structure
Pennys Bay Hong Kong
reinforcement, this is achieved by the is particularly straightforward.

36 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Castel Peak Site Hong Kong La Polvora Chile

prepares preliminary design and cost

estimates, as well as detailed designs,
drawings and specifications.
The company also assists contractors
with the pricing of tenders,
and provides quotations during tender
stages. Execution of the on-site project
can be tailored to suit the customers
Truckroad Dubai
requirements, from a supply only
arrangement to a full sub-contract

Complete flexibility
Typical Section
VSoL system concrete facing panels VSoL retained earth Wall
are available in a wide range of shapes, at a Bridge Abutment
textures and colours. Because local
materials are used in the production
of these precast panels, the visible
exposed surface can easily be coloured
to match the natural surroundings.
Raised relief, sandblasted finish,
exposed aggregate, and conventional
smooth face concrete represent just
Ultrera Spain
a few of the available standard
retained earth panel finishes.
A five-man crew using standard Other facing systems, such as modular
construction equipment can place blocks, and mesh are also available
an average of 75 m2 - and as much as for both permanent and temporary
140 m2 - of wall per shift. structures.

Complete services
VSL advises customers and their Perspective View
consulting engineers during the For more information, please refer VSoL retained earth
Retaining Wall
feasibility stages of projects, and to the VSoL Brochure

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 37

Seonyu Korea

Ductal is a material with a unique In non-structural applications, Ductal quality surface appearance together
combination of superior is used with non-metalic fibres. Passive with high strength and durability.
characteristics. steel reinforcement and prestressing
are not required. Ductal has the The durability properties are those
The material was developed by ability to replicate the micro and of an impermeable material. There
Bouygues in partnership with Lafarge nano-texture of the mould. When is almost no risk of carbonation or
and Rhodia under the generic name combined with the fluidity and the
of Reactive Powder Concrete and is ability to have a range of colours, the
marketed under the brand name of result is a material that provides a high
Ductal. Composed of fine particles
with a maximum size less than 0.8mm,
Ductal reaches compressive strengths
of 170 to 230 MPa.

In structural applications, Ductal

is used without any passive reinforcing
bars. Very fine, high strength steel
fibres are provided to withstand
secondary tensile stresses due to shear,
tension, small bending moments and
concentrated loads. Pre-or post-
tensioning counterbalances the main
tensile stresses due to large bending
moments. The steel fibres also provide
significant ductility to the
Sakata Mirai Japan
cementitious paste.

38 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
penetration of chlorides and sulfides, Typical applications
and the resistance to acids is improved.
Main advantages Beams
Eliminates completely the need for Truss type structures
conventional reinforcement Decks of steel bridges
Greatly improves durability, with a
resistance to permeability 50 times Buildings
better than normal high strength Beams
concrete Slabs
Permits the use of much thinner Permanent floor formwork
sections Curtain wall panels
Provides complete freedom on the Facade panels
shape of the section Columns
Reduces the concrete volume of a False floor panels
structural member to only one third Grandstand seating plats
to one half of its conventional volume
Dramatically reduces the structural Railways
weight to be supported by a structure Sleepers
Provides both direct and indirect cost Sound absorbing panels
Reina Sofia Spain
savings. Noise walls

Strength characteristics (steel fiber reinforced) Highways

Compressive strength (cylinder). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170-230MPa Light poles
Flexural strength (3 point bending test) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-50 MPa Crash barriers
Youngs modulus(E). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-60 GPa Noise walls
Total fracture energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,000-30,000 J/m2
Rheology Pipes
Fluid to self compacting Hazardous waste
Flow (Abrams cone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-70cm containment
Flow (ASTM shock table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250mm Arch culverts

Durability Other
Chloride ion diffusion (CI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12 m2/s Blast protection
Carbonation penetration depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <0.5mm Vaults
Freeze/thaw (after 300 cycles) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%
Salt-scaling (loss of residue). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <10g/m
Abrasion (relative volume loss index) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2

Other properties
Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2450-2550 kg/m3
Entrapped air content. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4%
Freeze/thaw (after 300 cycles) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%
Total porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6%
Shrinkage after heat treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
Creep coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2-0.5
Ductal blast Australia

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 39
Top plate

Stainless steel

Generally, structural bearings Lubricant

are required to connect different parts
of a given structure, such as a bridge
deck to piers and abutments. The most
widely used structural bearings are Guide
reinforced elastomeric bearings and
pot bearings. They are capable of DU-metal

External Sealing Ring


Internal Sealing Ring

Elastomer Pad

Pot (Steel Ring + Base Plate)

Bearing on pier
Anchor Sockets

transmitting forces while absorbing

the structures deformations and
The strength of reinforced elastomeric
bearings is limited by the shear
properties of the elastomeric block,
especially when compression, shear
and bending occur at the same time.
Pot bearings maximise the shear
Pot bearing for
strength of the bearings elastomer incrementally launched bridges
by encasing it in a steel cylinder.
Elastomeric and Pot bearings can be
fixed, guided or free depending on Pot bearing under fabrication

design requirements
VSL offers fixed pot-bearings The sliding plate is equipped with an
which permit movement in one upper stainless steel panel.
or any direction. This is followed by the insertion of
Pot bearings for incrementally neoprene-teflon pads during the
launched bridges have a dual function. launching operation to be carried out.
First, they provide low friction sliding The pads, upper stainless steel panel
surfaces over piers as the deck is and fixing device are removed after
pushed during construction. Thereafter, launching. Finally, the sliding plate is
they become permanent bearings. A connected
pot bearing serving these functions is to a previously embedded steel plate
shown in the picture above. During in the deck.
construction, a fixing device avoids
relative movement between the sliding For more information, please refer to VSL Pot
Pot bearing Type PU
plate and the pot cylinder. bearings and Elastomeric bearings brochures

40 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S
Expansion joints

Joints Chile

Single element steel expansion joints Elastomeric expansion joints and long-lasting. These joints allow
Used in building, pedestrian and Elastomeric expansion joints have horizontal, vertical and oblique
vehicular structures to seal the gap been designed to work as a single movements, remaining tight.
between two structures so that they element, to be absolutely tight The elastomeric material properties
can move independently without are such that the bearings are not
adversely affecting each other. The affected by low temperatures.
joints are of either aluminium or steel Capability of impact absorption is kept
with a flexible seal spanning between during winter. The characteristics
them and can accommodate movement of this materialal also allows resistance
ranges between 15 mm to 40 mm. to wearing and abrasion and
resistance against bad weather
Multi element steel expansion joints conditions, chemical products and fire
Used in highway and bridge structures Typical movement ranges from 40 mm
with large movements due to the up to 330 mm.
effects of concrete shrinkage, thermal
and seismic effects or differential
settlement and ground movements.
Typical movement ranges from 65 mm
per single seal upto 1 m when
connected together. VSL services using
multiple elements include design,
supply, 1st installation and long term
Multi element Single element

C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S 41
Structural monitoring

Wind speed
measured in 3 directions
expressed in m/s

Temperature of cables, concrete

Relevant information is sent expressed in C
straight back to the users desk.
The system works with any IT Humidity
and measurement solution. expressed in %

Rain intensity
VSL expressed in mm

Sun intensity
expressed in W/m2
Remote server
expressed in km/h, veh./h, t, type...

Air quality
expressed in CO, NOX, O3, SO2...

Cable force
expressed in kN

to rin Structural vibration
m oni acceleration expressed in g
.vsl- vibration modes expressed in Hz

Angular movement
two directions expressed in


Stress and deformation
MY expressed in m/m and in mm
BRIDGE The Consultant

Material ageing
expressed in Cl-, mV

Inspection and investigation

paper and multimedia reports
The Owner laboratory or in situ tests

Monitoring should be a simple and evolution and vibration of the concrete

economic activity, adapted to each of structure weather conditions, traffic,
VSL load cell
the specific parts of the structure pollution; to send and to follow-up the
depending on functional and risk behavior of the structure, optimise
analysis. VSLs monitoring package is maintenance; to detect damage and
offered as an additional service to confirm diagnosis of deterioration; to
provide the client with longterm cost validate and memorise know-how for
savings. It can be applied to structures future projects; to optimise life cycle
and to cables (bridges, buildings) either cost of the structure.
as ground anchors, post-tensioning As an additional service, the VSL
tendons, or stay cables. DeMon system allows wireless
In-house R&D has placed emphasis on connection from your office to any type
durability method, measurement and of sensors on site through internet and
sensor configurations, thus allowing to wireless devices. The system provides
both assess the actual condition of real time, 24 hours a day, filtering
stay cable system components and of the data to detect events, to send
predict subsequent evolution. The VSL an alarm and to analyse only
full service monitoring package may be significant events.
used to assess shrinkage, stress

42 C O N S T R U C T I O N S Y S T E M S

VSL International Ltd.

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CH-3014 Switzerland
Phone: +41 32 613 30 30
Fax: +41 32 613 30 55
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Matrix Engineering Company VSL Philippines Inc.
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Fax: + 351 - 21 - 445 83 28
Phone: +20 - 2 - 344 19 00 Phone: +632 672 17 03
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Copyright 2006, VSL International Ltd.

MOROCCO SINGAPORE Printed in France - patented

VSL Singapore Pte. Ltd.
Renfor-Bat The information set forth in this brochure
TANGIER including technical and engineering data is
Phone: +65 - 6559 12 22
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accuracy, this information should not be used or
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SOUTH AFRICA VSL Taiwan Ltd. independent professional examination and
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