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High wind velocity can cause porosities in weld, What must be done to
prevent this from happening?

ANSWER: If welding in windy area cannot be avoided, wind shield or

barrier should be installed.
2. What are the welding parameters that must be considered to produce
quality weld?

Current setting
Length of arc
Angle of electrode
Manipulation of electrode ( weaving or stringer)
Speed of travel
3. What is the ideal length of arc? What is the effect to long arc?


Arc length should not exceed the diameter of the core of

the electrode
Excessively long arc increases voltage and produce
spatter, low deposition rate, undercuts and may be
4. What is the effect on the weld if the electrode is held too closely to the
material being welded?

ANSWER: Holding the electrode too closely decreases welding

voltage, creating an erratic arc that may extinguish itself or cause the
rod to freeze, as well as produces a weld bead with a high crown.
5. How would you prevent welding-related injuries?

Use appropriate welding PPEs
Proper handling of equipment, tools and materials
Awareness to safety practices.
6. How would you avoid electric shock during welding?

Ground all electrical equipment and the work piece.
Use recommended cable size.
Make sure all electrical connections are tight, clean and dry
Keep work area, equipment and clothing dry at all times
Keep cables and connectors in good condition at all times
Avoid open-circuit voltage.
Wear insulated gloves when adjusting equipment.
Follow safety standards.
7. What should be done to prevent warpage or distortion?

Do not over weld.
Use intermittent welding.
Use as few weld passes as possible.
Use backstep welding
Anticipate shrinkage forces.
Use clamps, jigs and fixtures to lock parts in position.
Remove shrinkage forces after welding ( perform peening
and/ or stress relieving.
8. What causes warpage distortion?

ANSWER: Distortion in a weld results from the expansion and

contraction of the weld metal and adjacent base metal
during the cooling cycle of the welding process.

9. What causes of poor penetration and incomplete fusion?

Insufficient root gap.
Too low welding current.
Too slow travel speed.
Incorrect torch angle.
10. What is stress- relieving and why is it performed?

ANSWER: Stress-relieving means controlled heating of the weldment

to an elevated temperature, followed by controlled cooling.
Stress- relieving is one way of removing shrinkage forces
after welding in order to minimize distortion.

11. What is back step welding and why is this technique applied?

ANSWER: Back-step welding is performed to minimize or prevent

distortion and is accomplished by welding segments. If the general
progression of welding is from left to right, each bead segment is
deposited from right to left.

12. How would you prevent the occurrence of slag inclusion and
Insufficient cleaning of weld causes slag inclusion
High current causes undercut.
13. What are the advantages of SMAW process?


Equipment use is simple, inexpensive and portable.

Electrodes provides and regulates own flux.
Lower sensitivity to wind and drafts than gas shielded
welding process
All position capability.
14. Welds thick carbon steel materials has tendency to crack, why?

ANSWER: Cracks on weld in thick carbon steel materials are caused

by the rapid cooling of the weld.
15. What factors must be considered in the selection of electrodes?

Be sure electrode will operate on welding current being
Electrode must match base metal properties.
Electrode must be appropriate size for the job.