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Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. An example of qualitative data would
be an anthropologist's handwritten notes about his or her interviews with people of an Indigenous
tribe. Pieces of data are individual pieces of information. While the concept of data is commonly
associated with scientific research, data is collected by a huge range of organizations and
institutions, including businesses (e.g., sales data, revenue, profits, stock price), governments
(e.g., crime rates, unemployment rates, literacy rates) and non-governmental organizations (e.g.,
censuses of the number of homeless people by non-profit organizations).

Data is measured, collected and reported, and analyzed, whereupon it can be visualized using
graphs, images or other analysis tools. Data as a general concept refers to the fact that some
existing information or knowledge is represented or coded in some form suitable for better usage
or processing. Raw data ("unprocessed data") is a collection of numbers or characters before it has
been "cleaned" and corrected by researchers. Raw data needs to be corrected to remove outliers or
obvious instrument or data entry errors (e.g., a thermometer reading from an outdoor Arctic location
recording a tropical temperature). Data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the "processed
data" from one stage may be considered the "raw data" of the next stage. Field data is raw data that
is collected in an uncontrolled "in situ" environment. Experimental data is data that is generated
within the context of a scientific investigation by observation and recording. Data has been described
as the new oil of the digital economy.[

Data, information, knowledge and wisdom are closely related concepts, but each has its own role in
relation to the other, and each term has its own meaning. Data is collected and analyzed; data only
becomes information suitable for making decisions once it has been analyzed in some
fashion. [6] Knowledge is derived from extensive amounts of experience dealing with information on a
subject. For example, the height of Mount Everest is generally considered data. The height can be
recorded precisely with an altimeter and entered into a database. This data may be included in a
book along with other data on Mount Everest to describe the mountain in a manner useful for those
who wish to make a decision about the best method to climb it. Using an understanding based on
experience climbing mountains to advise persons on the way to reach Mount Everest's peak may be
seen as "knowledge". Some complement the series "data", "information" and "knowledge" with
"wisdom", which would mean the status of a person in possession of a certain "knowledge" who also
knows under which circumstances is good to use it.
Data is the least abstract concept, information the next least, and knowledge the most abstract.
Data becomes information by interpretation; e.g., the height of Mount Everest is generally
considered "data", a book on Mount Everest geological characteristics may be considered
"information", and a climber's guidebook containing practical information on the best way to reach
Mount Everest's peak may be considered "knowledge". "Information" bears a diversity of meanings
that ranges from everyday usage to technical use. Generally speaking, the concept of information is
closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge,
meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation. Beynon-Davies uses the concept
of a sign to differentiate between data and information; data is a series of symbols, while information
occurs when the symbols are used to refer to something.[8][9]

Before the development of computing devices and machines, only people could collect data and
impose patterns on it. Since the development of computing devices and machines, these devices
can also collect data. In the 2010s, computers are widely used in many fields to collect data and sort
or process it, in disciplines ranging from marketing, analysis of social services usage by citizens to
scientific research. These patterns in data are seen as information which can be used to enhance
knowledge. These patterns may be interpreted as "truth" (though "truth" can be a subjective
concept), and may be authorized as aesthetic and ethical criteria in some disciplines or cultures.
Events that leave behind perceivable physical or virtual remains can be traced back through data.
Marks are no longer considered data once the link between the mark and observation is broken. [10]

Mechanical computing devices are classified according to the means by which they represent data.
An analog computer represents a datum as a voltage, distance, position, or other physical quantity.
A digital computer represents a piece of data as a sequence of symbols drawn from a
fixed alphabet. The most common digital computers use a binary alphabet, that is, an alphabet of
two characters, typically denoted "0" and "1". More familiar representations, such as numbers or
letters, are then constructed from the binary alphabet. Some special forms of data are distinguished.
A computer program is a collection of data, which can be interpreted as instructions. Most computer
languages make a distinction between programs and the other data on which programs operate, but
in some languages, notably Lisp and similar languages, programs are essentially indistinguishable
from other data. It is also useful to distinguish metadata, that is, a description of other data. A similar
yet earlier term for metadata is "ancillary data." The prototypical example of metadata is the library
catalog, which is a description of the contents of books.


In communication networks, a node (Latin nodus, knot) is either a redistribution point (e.g. data
communications equipment), or a communication endpoint (e.g. data terminal equipment). The
definition of a node depends on the network and protocol layer referred to. A physical network node
is an active electronic device that is attached to a network, and is capable of creating, receiving, or
transmitting information over a communications channel. [1] A passive distribution point such as
a distribution frame or patch panel is consequently not a node.
Computer network nodes[edit]
In data communication, a physical network node may either be a data communication
equipment (DCE) such as a modem, hub, bridge or switch; or a data terminal equipment (DTE) such
as a digital telephone handset, a printer or a host computer, for example a router, a workstation or a
If the network in question is a LAN or WAN, every LAN or WAN node (that are at least data link
layer devices) must have a MAC address, typically one for each network interface controller it
possesses. Examples are computers, packet switches, xDSL modems (with Ethernet interface) and
wireless LAN access points. Note that a hub constitutes a physical network node, but does not
constitute a LAN network node, since a hubbed network logically is a bus network. Analogously, a
repeater or PSTN modem (with serial interface) is a physical network node but not a LAN node in
this sense.[citation needed][clarification needed]
If the network in question is the Internet or an Intranet, many physical network nodes are host
computers, also known as Internet nodes, identified by an IP address, and all hosts are physical
network nodes. However, some datalink layer devices such as switches, bridges and WLAN access
points do not have an IP host address (except sometimes for administrative purposes), and are not
considered to be Internet nodes or hosts, but as physical network nodes and LAN nodes.

Telecommunication network nodes[edit]

In the fixed telephone network, a node may be a public or private telephone exchange, a remote
concentrator or a computer providing some intelligent network service. In cellular communication,
switching points and databases such as the Base station controller, Home Location
Register, Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) and Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) are
examples of nodes. Cellular network base stations are not considered to be nodes in this context.
In cable television systems (CATV), this term has assumed a broader context and is generally
associated with a fiber optic node. This can be defined as those homes or businesses within a
specific geographic area that are served from a common fiber optic receiver. A fiber optic node is
generally described in terms of the number of "homes passed" that are served by that specific fiber

Distributed system nodes[edit]

If the network in question is a distributed system, the nodes are clients, servers or peers. A peer may
sometimes serve as client, sometimes server. In a peer-to-peer or overlay network, nodes that
actively route data for the other networked devices as well as themselves are called supernodes.
Distributed systems may sometimes use virtual nodes so that the system is not oblivious to the
heterogeneity of the nodes. This issue is addressed with special algorithms, like consistent hashing,
as it is the case in Amazon's.[2]

End node in cloud computing[edit]

Within a vast computer network, the individual computers on the periphery of the network, those that
do not also connect other networks, and those that often connect transiently to one or
more clouds are called end nodes. Typically, within the cloud computing construct, the individual
user / customer computer that connects into one well-managed cloud is called an end node. Since
these computers are a part of the network yet unmanaged by the cloud's host, they present
significant risks to the entire cloud. This is called the End Node Problem.[3] There are several means
to remedy this problem but all require instilling trust in the end node computer.[4]
Defining Two-mode Networks
Networks are representations of systems in which the elements (or nodes) are connected by ties (Wasserman
and Faust, 1994). Most networks are defined as one-mode networks with one set of nodes that are similar to
each other. However, several networks are in fact two-mode networks (also known as affiliation or bipartite
networks; Borgatti and Everett, 1997; Latapy et al., 2008). These networks are a particular kind, with two
different sets of nodes, and ties existing only between nodes belonging to different sets. A distinction is often
made between the two node sets based on which set is considered more responsible for tie creation (primary
or top node set) than the other (secondary or bottom node set).
One of the first two-mode datasets to be analysed was the Davis Southern Women dataset (Davis et al.,
1941), which recorded the attendance of a group of women (primary node set) to a series of events (secondary
node set). A woman would be linked to an event if she attended it. Another category of two-mode networks that
has become popular in recent years is scientific collaboration networks (Newman, 2001). The two sets of nodes
are scientists and papers, and a scientist is linked to a paper if she or he is listed as an author. As scientists
generally decide whether or not they would like to work on a paper, they are often assumed to be the primary
nodes. However, it is not always obvious which node set is the primary one, and in these cases, the research
question guides the choice. For example, in the case of interlocking directorates where the two node sets are
directors and corporate boards, and ties represent affiliation of directors with boards, it is not clear whether
directors or boards are the primary node set (e.g., Levine, 1979; Mizruchi, 1996; Seierstad and Opsahl, 2011).
This is likely to be due to tie formation being a mutual process where the directors must (1) be invited to join the
board, and (2) accept the invitation.

Analyse as one-mode networks?

Two-mode networks are rarely analysed without transforming them. This is because most network measures
are solely defined for one-mode networks, and only a few of them have been redefined for two-mode networks
(Borgatti and Everett, 1997; Latapy et al., 2008). Transforming a two-mode network to a one-mode network is
often done using a method known as projection. This method operates by selecting one of the two node sets
(often the primary node set) and linking nodes from that set if they were connected to at least one common
node in the other set. Although the two-mode structure is discarded in this process, it is possible to define tie
weights based on it. Specifically, the tie weights are often defined as the number of common nodes. This
method was extended by Newman (2001) who argued that tie weights among authors in scientific collaboration
networks should be discounted if the authors collaborated on papers with many others. For more information,
see the page on projection.
The projection of two-mode networks creates a number of issues. First, each tie in a prototypical one-mode
network is assumed to be created separately; however, this is not the case in projected two-mode networks.
For example, while a standard phone call creates a communication tie from one person to another, a director
forms ties with all the other directors on a board when she or he joins that board. This has direct implications
for frameworks that utilize random networks to detect a baseline level (e.g., Opsahl et al., 2008) and when
comparing measures observed in a network with those found in corresponding random networks. This is due to
the fact that ties in classical random networks are assumed to be independent of each other (Erdos and Rnyi,
1959). Although this is neither the case in prototypical one-mode nor projected two-mode networks, the random
networks are less comparable to projected two-mode networks than to prototypical one-mode networks as
multiple ties can be created due to a single event in these networks. Second, depending on the degree
distribution of the non-projected node set, a projected two-mode network tends to have more and larger fully-
connected cliques than prototypical one-mode networks (Wasserman and Faust, 1994). These are produced
when three or more nodes are connected to a common node in the two-mode network (e.g., all the directors on
a single board are connected and form a fully connected clique). This feature impacts a number of network
measures, especially those based on triangles including the structural holes measures (Burt, 1992, 2005) and
the clustering coefficients (for a review, see Opsahl and Panzarasa, 2009). To exemplify the cliques, and the
many triangles, produced when projecting a two-mode network, the figure below shows the main component of
the interpersonal network among Norwegian directors.

Weighted Two-mode Networks

Weighted two-mode network
The ties in two-mode networks can often be differentiated based on the interaction strength. In these cases, the
network would be a weighted two-mode network. As with weighted one-mode networks, tie weights should be
based on a ratio scale (i.e., 0 equals nothing, and a value of 4 is twice of 2). For more information, see the
page on Defining Weighted Networks.
An example of such a network is online forums where users (node set 1) can post multiple messages to topics
or threads (node set 2). Among other measures, there are two ways of operationalising tie weights in these
networks. First, it might be the number of messages a user post to a thread. This way wound count the number
of interaction in a thread, but be insensitive to the size of messages. As such, a second way of defining tie
weights is sum the number of characters in the posted messages. While including the size of messages, this
method fails to incorporate the back-and-forth of content. Nevertheless, by include tie weights, the analysis of
an online forum might be more accurate than simply ignoring them.

A node is a basic unit used in computer science. Nodes are devices or data points on a larger
network. Devices such as a personal computer, cell phone, or printer are nodes. When defining
nodes on the internet, a node is anything that has an IP address. Nodes are individual parts of a
larger data structure, such as linked lists and tree data structures. Nodes contain data and also may
link to other nodes. Links between nodes are often implemented by pointers.

Encrypt" redirects here. For the film, see Encrypt (film).
This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. For an overview of cryptographic
technology in general, see Cryptography.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that
only authorized parties can access it. Encryption does not of itself prevent interference, but denies
the intelligible content to a would-be interceptor. In an encryption scheme, the intended information
or message, referred to as plaintext, is encrypted using an encryption algorithm,
generating ciphertext that can only be read if decrypted. For technical reasons, an encryption
scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm. It is in principle
possible to decrypt the message without possessing the key, but, for a well-designed encryption
scheme, considerable computational resources and skills are required. An authorized recipient can
easily decrypt the message with the key provided by the originator to recipients but not to
unauthorized users.

Symmetric key / Private key[edit]
In symmetric-key schemes,[1] the encryption and decryption keys are the same. Communicating
parties must have the same key before they can achieve secure communication.

Public key[edit]

Illustration of how encryption is used within servers Public key encryption.

In public-key encryption schemes, the encryption key is published for anyone to use and encrypt
messages. However, only the receiving party has access to the decryption key that enables
messages to be read.[2] Public-key encryption was first described in a secret document in 1973;
before then all encryption schemes were symmetric-key (also called private-key). [4]:478
A publicly available public key encryption application called Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) was written
in 1991 by Phil Zimmermann, and distributed free of charge with source code; it was purchased
by Symantec in 2010 and is regularly updated.[5]


Encryption has long been used by militaries and governments to facilitate secret communication. It is
now commonly used in protecting information within many kinds of civilian systems. For example,
the Computer Security Institute reported that in 2007, 71% of companies surveyed utilized
encryption for some of their data in transit, and 53% utilized encryption for some of their data in
storage.[6] Encryption can be used to protect data "at rest", such as information stored on computers
and storage devices (e.g. USB flash drives). In recent years, there have been numerous reports of
confidential data, such as customers' personal records, being exposed through loss or theft of
laptops or backup drives. Encrypting such files at rest helps protect them should physical security
measures fail. Digital rights management systems, which prevent unauthorized use or reproduction
of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering (see also copy protection),
is another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest. [7]
In response to encryption of data at rest, cyber-adversaries have developed new types of attacks.
These more recent threats to encryption of data at rest include cryptographic attacks, [8] stolen
ciphertext attacks,[9] attacks on encryption keys,[10] insider attacks, data corruption or integrity attacks,
data destruction attacks, and ransomware attacks. Data fragmentation[12] and active defense[13] data
protection technologies attempt to counter some of these attacks, by distributing, moving, or
mutating ciphertext so it is more difficult to identify, steal, corrupt, or destroy.[14]

Encryption is also used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred
via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless
intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines. There have been
numerous reports of data in transit being intercepted in recent years. [15] Data should also be
encrypted when transmitted across networks in order to protect against eavesdropping of network
traffic by unauthorized users.[16]

Message verification[edit]

Encryption, by itself, can protect the confidentiality of messages, but other techniques are still
needed to protect the integrity and authenticity of a message; for example, verification of a message
authentication code (MAC) or a digital signature. Standards for cryptographic software and hardware
to perform encryption are widely available, but successfully using encryption to ensure security may
be a challenging problem. A single error in system design or execution can allow successful attacks.
Sometimes an adversary can obtain unencrypted information without directly undoing the encryption.
See, e.g., traffic analysis, TEMPEST, or Trojan horse.[17]

Digital signature and encryption must be applied to the ciphertext when it is created (typically on the
same device used to compose the message) to avoid tampering; otherwise any node between the
sender and the encryption agent could potentially tamper with it. Encrypting at the time of creation is
only secure if the encryption device itself has not been tampered with.

Encryption is a security method in which information is encoded in such a
way that only authorized user can read it. It uses encryption algorithm to
generate ciphertext that can only be read if decrypted.

Types of Encryption

There are two types of encryptions schemes as listed below:

Symmetric Key encryption

Public Key encryption


Symmetric key encryption algorithm uses same cryptographic keys for

both encryption and decryption of cipher text.


Public key encryption algorithm uses pair of keys, one of which is a

secret key and one of which is public. These two keys are mathematically
linked with each other.

In terms of security, hashing is a technique used to encrypt data and
generate unpredictable hash values. It is the hash function that generates
the hash code, which helps to protect the security of transmission from
unauthorized users.

Hash function algorithms

Hashing algorithm provides a way to verify that the message received is
the same as the message sent. It can take a plain text message as input
and then computes a value based on that message.

Key Points

The length of computed value is much shorter than the original message.

It is possible that different plain text messages could generate the same value.

Here we will discuss a sample hashing algorithm in which we will multiply

the number of as, es and hs in the message and will then add the number
of os to this value.

For example, the message is the combination to the safe is two, seven,
thirty-five. The hash of this message, using our simple hashing algorithm is
as follows:

2 x 6 x 3 ) + 4 = 40

The hash of this message is sent to John with cipher text. After he decrypts
the message, he computes its hash value using the agreed upon hashing
algorithm. If the hash value sent by Bob doesnt match the hash value of
decrypted message, John will know that the message has been altered.

For example, John received a hash value of 17 and decrypted a message

Bob has sent as You are being followed, use backroads, hurry

He could conclude the message had been altered, this is because the hash
value of the message he received is:

(3x4x1)+4 = 16

This is different from then value 17 that Bob sent.


Decryption is the process of

taking encoded or encrypted text or other data and converting it back
into text that you or the computer can read and understand. This term
could be used to describe a method of un-encrypting the data
manually or with un-encrypting the data using the proper codes or

Data may be encrypted to make it difficult for someone to steal the

information. Some companies also encrypt data for general protection of
company data and trade secrets. If this data needs to be viewable, it may
require decryption. If a decryption passcode or key is not available, special
software may be needed to decrypt the data using algorithms to crack the
decryption and make the data readable.
Data Encryption and
Encryption is the process of translating plain text data (plaintext) into something that
appears to be random and meaningless (ciphertext). Decryption is the process of
converting ciphertext back to plaintext.

To encrypt more than a small amount of data, symmetric encryption is used.

A symmetric key is used during both the encryption and decryption processes. To
decrypt a particular piece of ciphertext, the key that was used to encrypt the data must
be used.

The goal of every encryption algorithm is to make it as difficult as possible to decrypt

the generated ciphertext without using the key. If a really good encryption algorithm is
used, there is no technique significantly better than methodically trying every possible
key. For such an algorithm, the longer the key, the more difficult it is to decrypt a piece
of ciphertext without possessing the key.

It is difficult to determine the quality of an encryption algorithm. Algorithms that look

promising sometimes turn out to be very easy to break, given the proper attack. When
selecting an encryption algorithm, it is a good idea to choose one that has been in use
for several years and has successfully resisted all attacks.