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CEE 332

2.10 Thermal effects

Observation: When a material undergoes a change of temperature T,


it also undergoes a change of geometry:
expansion if T > 0
contraction if T < 0
If T is not too large, then
T = T
T = thermal strain
T = change of temperature (+ for temperature increase)
= coefficient of thermal expansion
(units: 1/F or 1/C)
Temperature change produces
expansion or contraction only
there is no distortion. 2001 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a
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trademark used herein under license.

Example PROBLEM 2.51 - A rod consisting of two cylindrical


portions AB and BC is restrained at both ends. Portion AB is made of
steel (Es = 200 GPa, s = 11.7 106 / C and portion BC is made of
brass (Eb =105 GPa, b = 20.9106/ C). Knowing that the rod is
initially unstressed, determine the compressive force induced in ABC
when there is a temperature rise of 50C. (Use superposition)

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CEE 332

2.11-2.15 Poissons ratio, multiaxial loading

Observation: When a material


elongates in one direction, almost
all materials will also contract in
the other directions. This is called
the Poisson effect.
Consider the axial loading
situation shown.
x
x = , y = z = 0
E
y = z (for isotropic materials ... that is, for materials
whose behavior does not depend on direction)

lateral strain = Poissons ratio


= = y = z (Greek nu)
axial strain x x is dimensionless

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Some values of

Material
2014-T6Al 0.33
Ti 0.33
Au 0.42
Diamond 0.08
Rubber 0.49
Cork ~0
Lakes Foam 0.7
Simon Denis Poisson
(1781-1840)
All materials: 1 < < 1/2.
Many materials: = 1/4 to 1/3.
Materials with < 0 are rare ...

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Generalized Hookes law


For an element of material subjected to multi-
axial loading, the normal strain components
resulting from the stress components may be
determined from the principle of superposition.
This requires:
1) Strain is linearly related to stress.
2) Deformations are small.
3) Material is isotropic (no direction dependence).
With these restrictions:
x y z
x = +
E E E
x y z
y = +
E E E
x y z
z = +
E E E
123 123 123
strains due strains due strains due
to stress in to stress in to stress in 52
x direction y direction z direction

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CEE 332

Rearranging terms, generalized Hookes law, for linear-elastic


isotropic materials, is
x
x =
E

E
( y + z) + T
include
y these terms
y =
E

E
( x + z ) + T
for thermal
z effects
z =
E

E
( x + y) + T

These relations can be inverted, and with T=0, stresses in terms of strains are:

E
x =
(1+ )(1 2 )
[
(1 )x + (y + z ) ]
Note what
E happens
y =
(1+ )(1 2 )
[(1 )y + (x + z )] when > 1/2!

E
z =
(1+ )(1 2 )
[
(1 )z + (x + y ) ] 53

Dilatation and bulk modulus


Relative to the unstressed state, the change in volume is
e = 1 (1+ x )(1+ y )(1+ z ) = 1 1+ x + y + z
= x + y + z
1 2
=
E
( x + y + z )
= dilatation (change in volume per unit volume)
For element subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure
3 (1 2 ) p
e = p =
E k
or p = ke. Note the similarity to = E
E
k= = bulk modulus
3 (1 2 )

This is called Hookes Law for hydrostatic pressure


When material is subjected to uniform pressure, if
we require the dilatation to be negative (these are 0 < < 12
sometimes called conventional materials) then

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CEE 332

Shear strain
A cubic element subjected to a shear stress will
deform into a rhomboid. The change of shape
(distortion) is measured by the shear strain.

xy = shear strain (Greek gamma)


= change in angle between two initially
perpendicular line segments.

units: radians (... actually, it is dimensionless).

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Hookes law for shear stress shear strain

A plot of vs. (torsion test) is similar to


plots of vs. , except that strength values
(shear stress where failure starts) are
approximately half. For linear elastic
isotropic materials:

Hookes Law for shear


xy = G xy yz = G yz zx = G zx

G = modulus of rigidity or shear modulus.


units: force/area

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Example A rectangular block of


material with modulus of rigidity G
= 90 ksi is bonded to two rigid
horizontal plates. The lower plate
is fixed, while the upper plate is
subjected to a horizontal force P.
Knowing that the upper plate
displaces 0.04 in. under the action Strategy:
of the force, determine: Determine the average angular
deformation (or shearing strain)
a) the average shearing strain in the of the block.
material, and Apply Hookes law for shear
b) the force P exerted on the plate. stress shear strain to
determine the shear stress.
Use the definition of shearing
stress to find the force P.
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Example A rectangular block of


material with modulus of rigidity G
= 90 ksi is bonded to two rigid
horizontal plates. The lower plate
is fixed, while the upper plate is
subjected to a horizontal force P.
Knowing that the upper plate
displaces 0.04 in. under the action Strategy:
of the force, determine: Determine the average angular
deformation (or shearing strain)
a) the average shearing strain in the of the block.
material, and Apply Hookes law for shear
b) the force P exerted on the plate. stress shear strain to
determine the shear stress.
Use the definition of shearing
stress to find the force P.
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SOLUTION

Determine the average angular deformation


(or shearing strain) of the block.
0.04 in.
xy tan xy = xy = 0.020 rad
2 in.

Apply Hookes law for shearing stress and


strain to find the corresponding shearing
stress.
D D xy = G xy = (90 10 3 psi)(0.020 rad) = 1800 psi

Use the definition of shearing stress to find


the force P.
P = xy A = (1800 psi )(8 in.)(2.5 in.) = 36 103 lb

A P = 36.0 kips

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Relationship between E, , and G


Before a load is applied, sketch an
isosceles triangle on the bar.

After the axial load is applied, the


isosceles triangle deforms into the shape
of a general right triangle.

See 2.15 for derivation ... or ....


1 x
Start with tan =
4 2 1+ x
Use a trig identity.
Use x = x E where x = F A0 (1.11 notes).
Use = G where = F 2A0 (1.11 notes).
Algebra ....

E E
assumes linear elastic isotropic material
= (1+ ) or G =
2G 2 (1+ )

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CEE 332

Summary: Hookes law for a linear elastic isotropic material

x
x =
E

E
( y + z) + T
include
y
y =
E

E
( x + z ) + T these terms
for thermal
z effects
z =
E

E
( x + y) + T

yx
yx =
G E = elastic modulus
yz G = shear modulus
yz =
G = Poissons ratio
xz
xz = E
G G=
2(1+ )
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Example A circle of diameter d = 9 in. is scribed on an unstressed


aluminum plate of thickness t = 3/4 in. Forces acting in the plane of the
plate later cause normal stresses x = 12 ksi and z = 20 ksi.
For E = 10 x 106 psi and = 1/3, determine the change in:
a) the length of diameter AB,
b) the length of diameter CD,
c) the thickness of the plate, and
d) the volume of the plate.

= 12 ksi

= 20 ksi
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SOLUTION:
1) Apply generalized Hookes Law to 2) Evaluate the deformation components.
determine the three components of
B A = x d = (+0.533 10 3 in./in.)(9 in.)
normal strain.
x y z B A = +4.8 103 in.
x = +
E E E
C D = z d = (+1.600 10 3 in./in.)(9 in.)

=
1
(12 ksi ) 0 1 (20 ksi )
10 106 psi 3 C D = +14.4 103 in.

= +0.533 103 in./in. t = yt = (1.067 10 3 in./in.)(0.75 in.)


x y z t = 0.800 10 3 in.
y = +
E E E
= 1.067 103 in./in. 3) Determine the change in volume
x y e = x + y + z = 1.067 103 in 3 /in 3
z = + z
E E E V = eV = 1.067 103 (15 15 0.75 ) in 3
3
= +1.600 10 in./in.
V = +0.1800 in 3

Or, V = V final Vorig = (15 in)(1+ x ) (15 in)(1+ y ) (3/ 4 in)(1+ z )


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(15 in)(15 in)(3/4 in) = same result

2.17-2.20 St.Venants principle, stress concentrations, plasticity


Adhmar Jean Claude Barr de Saint-Venant (1797- 1886)
Q: Is the method of load application important?

Loads Uniform state P


applied to =
rigid end A
plates of stress

Loads
applied to
sharp
wedges

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CEE 332

Q: Is the method of load application important? A: Yes, but ....

Loads applied by the rigid frictionless plates results in a uniform


distribution of stress and strain.
Concentrated loads result in very large stresses in the vicinity of the
load application point.
However, the stress and strain distributions become uniform at a
relatively short distance from the load application points.
Saint-Venants Principle (1855) describes this effect.
For all of the stress distributions shown, dA is the same.

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SaintVenants Principle
Two statically equivalent force systems applied to the same
region of a body produce essentially the same state of stress
and deformation at sufficiently large distances from the
region of loading (i.e. distances from the loaded region that
are larger than the size of the loaded region).

Examples of
statically
equivalent force
systems

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CEE 332

Stress Concentrations
A Stress Concentration is a localized increase in stress due
to a geometric or compositional change in the material.
Stress concentration factors can be determined many
different ways: analytically, experimentally, finite elements.
For design, the maximum stress is usually most important
(as opposed to the full stress distribution)

max = K ave
max = actual max. or peak stress
K = stress concentration factor
Anet = x-sectional area thru the plane w/ max. stress
ave = average stress supported by the plane w/ max. stress
= Fapplied Anet
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Stress Concentration factors for a hole in a long plate

Remark: about D away from


the hole, according to St. P
Venants principle, the stress is ave = max = K ave
(D 2r)t
close to P/A.

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CEE 332

Rather than using a plot for stress concentration factors, some


references use a polynomial best fit*. E.g.,

2r 2r
2
2r
3

K 3 3.13 + 3.66 1.53 + ...


D D D
Anet = (D 2r )t
P P
ave =
(D 2r )t Dt
t = thickness of the plate
Note: if r << D, then K 3

* Warren C. Young, Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain, McGraw-Hill.


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Some extremes ....

Really small hole:

2r
0 K 3
D

Really big hole:


2r
1 K 2
D
(Note that although K>2, ave >)

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CEE 332

Stress Concentration factors for symmetric fillets in a bar

Q: What happens as r > 0 ?


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Example The bar shown is made of steel with E = 30(10)6 psi


and Y = 30 ksi.
a) Determine the value of the axial force P which will cause the
bar to begin yielding.
b) Determine the largest value of the axial force P the bar can
support (the collapse load).

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Plastic deformations
Previous analyses assumed linear, elastic
stress-strain behavior. Provided stresses
remain below the yield stress, all
deformations are reversible.
For brittle materials, linear elastic
behavior can often be used all the way to
rupture.
For ductile materials, linear elastic
behavior can be used only until yielding
begins. Once yielding starts, permanent
deformations occur.

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Some popular models for plastic deformations

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Stages of plastic deformation Assume elasticperfectly plastic material.

Elastic: maximum stress is


A
P = ave A = max less than the yield stress.
K

Initial yield: Maximum stress


Y A just reaches the yield stress.
PY =
K

Continued yield: a region of


plastic deformations develops
near the hole and grows in
size.
Fully plastic: plastic region
PU = Y A
expands until the section is at
= K PY a uniform stress equal to the
yield stress.
collapse load! 75

Residual stresses

If a member is loaded into the plastic range, after the external forces are
removed, residual stresses will often remain in the member.
Example: Consider the strip with a hole from the previous slide.

Apply force P until the cross


section by the hole is fully plastic.

Remove P. The cross section by


the hole has the residual stress field
shown (assuming re-yielding in
compression does not occur).

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Residual Stresses
1. Thermal Residual Stresses: W /I shape

Distribution of Residual-Stress in W section

CE-409: Lecture 07 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 77

Residual Stresses
1. Thermal Residual Stresses: W /I shape

20 Ws shapes were investigated:


It Revealed that flange-tip stress frc varied from 4.1 to 18.7
Ksi, the average being 12.8 ksi
Residual stresses in web center varied from 41Ksi
compression to 18.2Ksi tension.
Showing some Ws develop residual tension over entire web,
instead the pattern shown.

CE-409: Lecture 07 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 78

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CEE 332

PROBLEM 2.102 Rod ABC consists of two cylindrical portions


AB and BC; it is made of a mild steel that is assumed to be
elastoplastic with E = 200GPa and y= 250MPa. A force P is
applied to the rod until its end A has moved down by an amount
m= 5mm. Determine the maximum value of the force P and the
permanent set of the rod after the force has been removed.

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