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JIGJIGA UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

THE PREVALENCE OF CAMEL GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATHELMINTHS IN


SELECTED DISTRICTS OF FAFAN ZONE, EASTERN ETHIOPIA

A Proposal Submitted to Jigjiga University College of Veterinary Medicine for the


Partial Fulfilment of the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM)

By:

Hassan Abdi Hussein (0206/02)

Advisor Dr: Mulisa M. (Msc, DVM)

Co-advisors Dr: Petros A. (Msc, DVM)

November, 2014

Jigjiga, Ethiopia.
Table of Contents
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.......................................................................................... i
1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................ 1
2 OBJECTIVES...................................................................................................... 2
2.1 General Objectives.......................................................................................... 2
2.2 Specific Objectives......................................................................................... 2
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS............................................................................... 3
3.3. Study population................................................................................................ 3
3.4. Study designs.................................................................................................... 3
3.4.1. Type of Study............................................................................................... 3
3.4.2. Sample Size Determination.............................................................................. 4
3.4.3. Sample collection, transport and handling...........................................................5
3.4.4. Coprological examination............................................................................... 5
4. DATA ANALYSIS................................................................................................... 5
5. EXPECTED OUTPUT.............................................................................................. 5
6. ACTION PLAN FOR THE RESEARCH........................................................................6
7. REFERENCES....................................................................................................... 7

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CSA Central Statistics Agency

EPG Egg Per Gram

GIT Gastrointestinal Tract

LCRDB Livestock Crop and Rural Development Bureau

MASL Miles above Sea Level

SRSE Somali Regional State of Ethiopia

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1 INTRODUCTION

The one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries) plays an important role in the subsistence
economy of the pastoral society of the eastern Ethiopian Somali by providing milk, meat and
it is also as sole source of transportation as well as socio-cultural aspects such as prestige,
compensation for blood, dowry and the like (Bekele, 2002). The ability of the camel to
survive in harsh areas of the world, its endurance in prolonged drought, and above all its high
potential to convert the scanty resources of the desert into milk and meat makes them more
important to the pastoralists (Wosene, 1991). The camels have been bred owing to the
extraordinary power to withstand thirst and hunger for long duration in the most inhospitable
ecological conditions of the world (Al-Dahash and Sassi, 2009).

Although camels were considered in the past, and for a fairly long time, as resistant to many
disease causing factors, it has been proved that camels are susceptible, the same as other
livestock or even more, to the common disease causing pathogens affecting other animal
species (Abbas and Agab, 2002). Pathogenic diseases, poor nutrition and traditional
management systems as well as lack of veterinary services have hampered their full
utilization, despite the importance of dromedary in the semi-arid and arid areas where the
environment is harsh and hostile (Bekele, 2002). In Ethiopia, gastrointestinal parasites are
one of the major obstacles in the growth and development of animal health. Factors like
constant exposure to parasitic infestation include variable geo-climatic condition, shortage of
food and lack of knowledge of farmers in treating GIT parasites play an important role in
proliferation of the parasites and their diseases (Durani, 1991).

Gastrointestinal helminths cause losses through morbidity and hidden effects on feed intake,
efficiency of nutrient utilization and also reduce growth rate in young animals, impaired
fertility and low calving rates of camels. As a result, it leads to reduction in productivity and
performance of the infested animal (Bekele, 2002). Signs and symptoms of GIT
nemathelminths in camels are numerous, mainly weight loss, diarrhoea, anaemia, gastritis
and enteritis. However, the clinical manifestations of nemathelminthosis may be subclinical
or asymptomatic, in which case the animal appears normal but performs below its full
potential (Borji et al., 2010).

Knowledge on camel husbandry management and parasitic diseases control is still very
unreliable and sufficient information is not available in Ethiopia; researches that have been

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conducted on camel GIT helminths prevalence are very limited. Therefore, the current study
will be performed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nemathelminths of camels in
and around Jigjiga woreda to obtain baseline data so as to design effective control options. In
this study, an attempt will be made to identify the age, sex and body condition of affected
individuals in the context of the production system and management practices that are
assumed to be associated with camel GIT nemathelminthiasis.

2 OBJECTIVES

2.1 General Objectives


To estimate the prevalence of camel Gastrointestinal Nemathelminths in selected
district of Fafan zone.

2.2 Specific Objectives


To identify most predominant GIT Nemathelminthic species responsible for camel
GIT infestation on the study area.
To assess the impact and consequence of parasitic infection on the production of
camels in pastoral community.

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3. MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Study Area

This study will be conducted in two purposely selected districts of Fafan zone, namely Jigjiga
and Gursum. Somali Regional state of Ethiopia (SRSE). Fafan zone is one of the nine
administrative zones of the SRSE. The zonal and also regional capital, Jigjiga city, is located
630km southeast of Addis Ababa. The zone is situated in the northern part of SRSE and
borders in the East with Republic of Somalia, in the West with Oromia regional state and Fik
zone of SRSE and in the south with Degahbour zone. It has eight districts namely Jigjiga,
Kebribeyah, Harshin, Babile, Awbare, Gursum, TulluGule and Gollechane. The total land
cover is 40,861 km2 of which the rangeland extends over 36, 629 km 2 (LCRDB, 2012). About
52.6%, 31% and 7% of the landscape of the zone can be categorized as flat to gentle slopes,
hills and steep slope, respectively. Midland (15002300 m.a.s.l.) agro-ecology constitutes
about 95% of the Jigjiga zone (IPS, 2002). Temperature of the area is generally high all the
year round with mean minimum and maximum values being around 20 0C and 350C,
respectively. The mean annual rainfall is 660 mm and bimodal. The camel population of the
region is estimated at 1,078,000 from which 81,221 are found in Fafan zone (LCRDB, 2005).
In Fafan Zone pastoralism, agro-pastoralism and sedentary production systems comprise
34.1%, 56.8% and 9.1% respectively (Belaynesh, 2006).

3.3. Study population

The study animals will consist of all indigenous breeds of one hump camel (camelus
dromedaries) reared under pastoral management system which allows free grazing, usually
mixed with livestock from other villages, and in which the animals move from feed shortage
area to those improved with feed intake especially during drought season.

3.4. Study designs

3.4.1. Type of Study

A cross-sectional study will be conducted from December 2014-March 2015 to estimate the
prevalence of camel GIT Nemathelminthiasis among the one humped camel herds kept under
pastoral management system in two purposively selected districts of fafan zone namely
Jigjiga and Gursum districts.

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3.4.2. Sample Size Determination
Sample size will be determined based on 80.8 % prevalence of camel GIT parasites at Yabello
district (Teke, et al., 2014). Then the sample size will be calculated as per the method
described by Thrusfield (2005) with 5 % acceptable error and 95% confidence level and a
total of 238 animals will be sampled from the study area.

3.4.3. Sample collection, transport and handling

Faecal samples will be directly collected from the rectum using clean hand gloves and
approximately 10g amount of faeces will be placed into separate polyethylene plastic bags to
avoid spoiling and cross contamination. Proper dating, labelling and coding of the sample
will be accomplished on the spot including records of sex, age and body condition score of
individual animals will be categorized as poor, medium and good then the collected samples
will be immediately transported to Parasitological Laboratory of the College of Veterinary
Medicine in Jigjiga University through perfectly maintained icepack and stored there at 4oc
maximum of one day until the analysis is commenced.

3.4.4. Coprological examination

Faecal samples will be grossly visualized to determine colour, consistency and presence of
adult worms or other contaminants. Qualitative faecal Examination will be conducted in
which faecal samples would be processed by applying faecal floatation technique for the
detection of parasite eggs as described by (Soulsby, 1982). Finally using McMaster the faecal
egg counting (EPG) is to be performed to determine parasite load as described by (Urguhart,
et al., 1998).

4. DATA ANALYSIS

All collected data will be entered to MS excel sheet and analyzed by using SPSS version 19.
The prevalence and hypothesized risk factors like age, sex, body condition, health status and
history of deworming will be related using Chi-square test (2) and P < 0.05 will be
considered as statistically significant in all cases.

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5. EXPECTED OUTPUT

The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in pastoral camel herds in and around


Jigjiga woreda will be determined.
Major GIT helminths infection in camles of the study area will be identified and
Associated risk factors with camel GIT helminthosis will be also elucidated.

6. ACTION PLAN FOR THE RESEARCH

Table 1: Details of research plan

S.N Details Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

1 Site Selection/visiting the X


study area

2 sample collection X X X
and laboratory work
3 Progress report X X

4 Data entry and X X X


Analysis

5 Thesis write up X X

6 Thesis submission X

7 Defense X

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7. REFERENCES

Abbas, B. and Omer, O. H. (2005): Review of infectious diseases of the camel. Veterinary
Bulletin, 75:116.
Al-Dahash, S. and M. Sassi, (2009): A preliminary study on management, breeding and
reproductive performance of camel in Libya. Iraq. J. Vet. Sci., 23: 276-281
Bekele T (2002): Epidemological studies on gastrointestinal helminthes of dromedary
(Camelus dromedarius) in semi-arid lands of eastern Ethiopia. Veterinary
parasitology 105: 139-152.
Belaynesh, D. (2006): Floristic Composition and Diversity of the Vegetation, Soil Seed Bank
Flora and Condition of the Rangelands of the Jigjiga Zone, Somali Regional State,
Ethiopia.MSc. Thesis, School of Graduate Studies, Alemaya University, Ethiopia
Borji, H., Razmi, G.R., Movassaghi, A.R., Naghibi, A. & Maleki, M. (2010): A study on
gastrointestinal helminths of camels in Mashhad Abattoir, Iran. Iranian Journal of
Veterinary Research 11: 174179.
Durrani, A.Z., (1991): Faecal culture technique, MSc. (Hons) Thesis, University of
Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
CSA (2012): Central Statistical Agency of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
Agricultural Sample Survey of 2011/12 (2004 EC) Volume II Report on Livestock
and Livestock Characteristics (Private Peasant Holdings), Central Statistical Agency,
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

IPS (Industrial Project Service) (2002): Resource Potential Assessments and Project
Identification Study of Somali Region, Vol.3 Agricultural Resources. Industrial
Projects Service, Pp 401.
Livestock Crop and Rural Development Bureau (LCRDB) (2012): Camel Development Road
Map (Draft Document).Somali National Regional State of Ethiopia.
LCRDB (2005): Details of the livestock population of the SRS by zone, woreda & species (as
estimated by Somali Region LCNRDB based On IPS 2000 data)
Soulsby, E.J.L., (1982): Helminths arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals.7 ed.
london and Bailliere Tindall, pp: 231-250.
Teka, F., Ayalew, N., Fikadu, A. and Kasahun, D. (2014): Prevalence of Gastrointestinal
Parasites and Efficacy of Anthelmintics against Nematodes in Camels in Yabello
District, Southern Ethiopia. Acta Parasitologica Globalis 5 (3): 223-231

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Thrusfield, M. (2005): Veterinary Epidemiology, 3rd ed. Blackwell Science Ltd, UK. Pp 233-
250.
Urguhart, G., Armour, M., Duncan, J., Dunn A. and Jennings, F. (1998): Veterinary
Parasitology, 3rd edition. Black well science Ltd., pp: 231.
Wosene, A. (1991). Traditional husbandry practices and major health problems of camels in
the Ogaden, Ethiopia Nomadic People, 29:21-30.