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# XII -

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2.

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[5].

2.1.

. ,
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, = 0,
:
I r Il x
(1) f ( x )
= (erf ( ) + 1) + I l .
2 2
u
2
e dt .
t 2
(2) erf (u ) =
0
(2)
,
a ,

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( )

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3* , :
( x2 + y 2 )
1
(3) G ( x, y, ) = e 2 2
.
2 2

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2.2.

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[7]. ,
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1 0 1

: 2 0 2 ,

1 0 1

1 2 1

0

0 0 [7].
1 2 1

, .
f f
=
(4) f G=
x , Gy , ,
x y
Gx G y
.

(5) | f |=f = Gx2 + G y2 ,
,
f ( x, y ) . ,
f .
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:
Gy
(6) ( x, y ) = arctg ( ),
Gx
( x, y ) f ( x, y )
x .
( x, y ) ,
.
, .

2.3. -
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.
45 .
o

: = 0
o

= 180o :
(7) f ( x, y 1) < f ( x, y ) > f ( x, y + 1) ;
= 90 = 270 :
o o

= 90
o

(.1).
= 45 = 225 :
o o

= 135 = 315 :
o o

## (10) f ( x + 1, y + 1) < f ( x, y ) > f ( x 1, y 1) .

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2.4.

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(11) I P ( x , y ) top _ threshold => I P ( x , y ) =
255 ;
(12) I P ( x , y ) low _ threshold => I P ( x , y ) =
0;
(13) low _ threshold < I P ( x , y ) < top _ threshold => I bufP ( x , y ) =
100 ,
bufP , top _ threshold
, low _ threshold .

, .
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(. 2)
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. 2. , 0,
100

2.5.

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I P ( x, y ) =100 = > P ( x, y ) =
bufP

(14) I P( x+k , y+k ) = 255 => I P ( x, y ) =
255 ;
( x, y ) = ( x + k , y + k )

k {1, 0,1} .
(14), .
(.
3).
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. 3. ,
(14)

(. 4)
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3.

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3 + 2n , n -
.

, 1 n .
(15) I=
Pr ( xr , yr ) I=
Pc ( xc , yc ) 255 .
(16) I Pp ( xr + k , yr + k ) = 0 ,
k [1...n ] .
(17) | xr xc | n + 1 | yr yc | n + 1 .
I Pr
255 ( ,
255), I
Pc 255,
Pp ( xr + k , yr + k )
0,
n + 1 , 8- ,
0, .
(. 5).

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4.

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(.7):
(18) I P . ( x, y ) I P . ( x, y ) =
I P . ( x, y ) ,
I P ( x, y ) .
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. 7. ; ,
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5.

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[3].

( ,Grey-LevelCo-
occurrenceMatrix) [6].
P L L
L
I :
(19) , (i , j ) | {( k , s ), (t , v ) : =
Pr= I (t , v) j} | ,
I (k , s ) i,=
i, j P (i, j = 1, L) ; I (k , s )
I (t , v)
(k , s ) (t , v) ; r I (k , s ) I (t , v) ;
I (k , s ) I (t , v)
, .
(. 8) 4 4 .
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. 8. .

:
123 32 68 245

7 96 38 121
.
67 200 48 72

10 54 160 201
. I P ( x , y ) < 50 ,
0; ,
50 I P ( x , y ) < 150 , 1;
1 0 1 3

0 1 0 1
150 I P ( x , y ) < 200 , 2; I P ( x , y ) 200 , 3: .
1 3 0 1

0 0 2 3
:
#(0, 0) #(0,1) #(0, 2) #(0,3)

#(1, 0) #(1,1) #(1, 2) #(1,3) .
#(2, 0) #(2,1) #(2, 2) #(2,3)

#(3, 0) #(3,1) #(3, 2) #(3,3)
0 , 45 ,90

135 ,
.
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2 6 1 1 4 1 0 3

6 0 0 2 1 4 1 0
P0 = ; P45 = ;
1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

1 2 1 0 3 0 0 0
2 5 1 1 2 3 0 2

5 2 0 3 3 2 0 0
P90 = ; P135 = .
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

1 3 0 0 2 0 1 0

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4-

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6.

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1. , . .
: . 2005 1007.
2. ., . //
. 2004. 928.
3. ..
,
// :
: .. . 2014. . 5, 4(22), .
1939.
4. CANNY, J.F. A computational approach to adge detection,
M.I.T. Lab, MA, Rep. AI-TR-720, 1986.
5. CANNY, J.F. Finding edges and lines in image, M.I.T. Artificial
Intell. Lab., Cambrigde, MA, Rep. AI-TR-720, 1983.
6. HARALICK , R.M.Texture features for image classification /
R.M. Haralick, R. Bosley // Procedings Third Earth Resources
Technology Satellite Symposium. 1973. Vol. SP-351. P.
19291969.
7. SOBEL I., FELDMAN G. A 3x3 Isotropic Gradient Operator
for Image Processing, 1968

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