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What I have done in life! / Lo que he hecho en mi vida!

In this last learning activity, you will learn how to describe events and situations that
started in the past and are still taking place in present time. For that purpose, we will
be working on the present perfect tense together with some useful vocabulary to be
used with it. / En esta ltima actividad de aprendizaje usted aprender cmo
describir eventos y situaciones que iniciaron en el pasado y an estn ocurriendo en
el tiempo presente. Con este propsito, trabajaremos el tiempo presente perfecto
junto con algn vocabulario til que se puede usar con dicha estructura.

Introductory material / Material introductorio

Dear learner, / Estimado aprendiz:

This material will help you study the topics related to learning activity 4. / Este
material le permitir estudiar los temas relacionados con la actividad de aprendizaje
4.

You will learn about: / Los temas a tratar son:

1. Present perfect. / Presente perfecto.


2. Yet, just and already - Have you ever? I have never / Yet, just y already -
Alguna vez ha? Nunca he
3. Talking about education. / Hablando de educacin.
4. Indefinite pronouns. / Pronombres indefinidos.
5. Quantifiers: enough, quite, many, too much, a little, etc. (I have done
nothing). / Cuantificadores: suficiente, un poco, muchos, mucho, un poco,
entre otros. (No he hecho nada).
6. Vocabulary: health and lifestyle. / Vocabulario: salud y estilo de vida.

Through the contents mentioned above, you will also review the following topic: / A
travs de los contenidos mencionados arriba, tambin repasar el siguiente tema:

Simple past - life experiencies. / Pasado simple - experiencias de vida.

Lets begin! / Empecemos!


1. Present perfect / Presente perfecto

A. Richard and Johana want to go away somewhere for a vacation. Read the
conversation between them. / Richard y Johana quieren salir a algn lugar de
vacaciones. Lea la conversacin entre ellos.

Richard, we Yes, youre right.


need to go away But, where do we
for a vacation! go?

Look! I got these vacation


Well, I want to go
brochures from the travel
to the beach.
agency. Lets have a look.
Have you ever
What do you prefer, hot or
been to Miami?
cold weather?
Yes, but forget about
Yes, I have. I traveled the US. Lets go to
with Nicole last year. somewhere else.
But, I havent been to Have you traveled to
Malibu, have you? Cabo?

No. Look at this


brochure. It is about
Greece Dont tell
Yes, Ive traveled me youve been
to Cabo. there too!

(Johana picks up a
brochure for
Cuba). What about
Cuba?
Great! We need
No, I have never
to call the agency
been there yet. I
and ask about the
like the idea.
prices.

Yes, sure. Lets do


it!

Fuente de imgenes: SENA

Note: we use present perfect to talk or ask about a general experience in the past. /
Nota: usamos presente perfecto para hablar o preguntar acerca de una experiencia
general en el pasado.

To make the present perfect use have / has + past participle. / Para hacer el
presente perfecto use have / has + pasado participio.

I have traveled to Cabo.


She has been to Miami.

Before the Past Now


past

Note: in contrast, we use the simple past to talk or ask about a specific moment in
the past. / Nota: en contraste, usamos el pasado simple para hablar o preguntar
acerca de un momento especfico en el pasado.
I traveled with Nicole last year.

Past Now
B. The form of the present perfect is: have / has + verb (past participle). Listen - read
to the following sentences from the conversation between Richard and Johanna
to see how the structure is formed. Then, look at the box to see all the possible
forms. / La forma del presente perfecto es: have / has + verbo (pasado participio).
Escuche, lea las siguientes oraciones de la conversacin entre Richard y Johana
para ver cmo se forma la estructura. Luego, observe la tabla para ver todas las
posibles formas.

a. I have traveled to Cabo.


b. You have been there too.
c. Have you traveled to Cabo?
d. I havent been to Malibu.

Positive Negative Interrogative Short Wh-


form form form answers questions
I have I have not Have you Yes, I have. Where have
done the done the done the No, I they gone?
chores. chores. chores? havent.
Why has he
Ive done I havent Has she Or phoned?
the chores. done the played No, I have
chores. tennis? not.
She has
played She has not Yes, she
tennis. played has.
tennis. No, she
Shes hasnt.
played She hasnt
tennis. played Or
tennis. No, she has
not.

C. There are some questions that we can ask and answer based on the
conversation. Lets have a look. / Hay algunas preguntas que podemos preguntar
y responder basndonos en la conversacin. Observemos.
a. Where has Johana been to? She has been to Miami and Cabo.
b. Have they planned their trip? No, they havent.
c. Has Johana traveled with Nicole? Yes, she has.
d. What have they decided? They have decided travel to Greece.
e. Have they been to Greece? No, they havent.

Now, look at some questions and answers about things someone has done. /
Ahora, observe algunas preguntas y respuestas sobre cosas que alguien ha
hecho.

Questions Answers

No, I have never been there.


Have you ever been to
England?
Yes, I have been there.
No, I have never tried spicy food.
Have you ever tried spicy
food?
Yes, I have tried spicy food.
No, I have never traveled to Australia.
Have you ever traveled to
Australia?
Yes, I have traveled to Australia.

Note: We use ever in interrogative sentences to ask if someone has done


anything in his / her life until now. Put ever before the main verb. / Nota: Usamos
ever en oraciones interrogativas para preguntar si alguien ha hecho algo en su
vida hasta ahora. Coloque siempre ever antes del verbo principal.

We use never in affirmative sentences to say that someone has not done
anything. Put never before the main verb. / Usamos never en oraciones
afirmativas para decir que alguien no ha hecho algo. Coloque never antes del
verbo principal.

D. Now, lets have a look of the spelling of past participle form of the verbs. / Ahora,
observemos la forma de escribir los pasados participios de los verbos.

a. For regular verbs the past participle is the same as the past simple (+ ed). /
Para verbos regulares el pasado participio es el mismo al del pasado simple
(+ ed).

Examples / Ejemplos:
Infinitive Past simple Past participle
Wait Waited Waited
Travel Traveled Traveled

b. For irregular verbs the past participle is sometimes the same as the simple
past. / Para verbos irregulares el pasado participio algunas veces es el mismo
al del pasado simple.

Infinitive Past simple Past participle


Catch Caught Caught
Begin Began Begun
Tell Told Told
Speak Spoke Spoken

2. Yet, just and already - Have you ever? I have never / Yet, just y
already - Alguna vez ha? Nunca he

The adverbs yet, just and already can be used alongside the form of present. / Los
adverbios yet, just y already pueden ser usados junto con el presente perfecto.

A. Yet in interrogative sentences / Yet en oraciones interrogativas

We use it to ask if something we think is going to happen has occurred. Put it at the
end of the sentence. / Tambin usamos yet en oraciones interrogativas para
preguntar si algo que pensamos que iba a pasar ha pasado. Coloque yet al final de
la oracin.

Examples / Ejemplos:

Have you taken your medicine yet? / Has tomado tu medicina ya?
Has it rained yet? / Ya ha llovido?

B. Yet in negative sentences / Yet en oraciones negativas

We use it to say that something has not occurred. Put it at the end of the sentence. /
Usamos yet en oraciones negativas para expresar que algo no ha ocurrido. Coloque
yet al final de la oracin.

Examples / Ejemplos:
I havent done my homework yet.
She hasnt seen the movie yet.

C. Just in affirmative sentences / Just en oraciones afirmativas

We use it to say that something happened very recently. Put just before the main
verb. / Usamos just en oraciones afirmativas para decir que algo pas muy
recientemente. Coloque just antes del verbo principal.
Examples / Ejemplos:

The plane has just landed.


My mom has just called.

D. Already in affirmative sentences / Already en oraciones afirmativas

We use already in affirmative sentences to emphasize that something happened


before the present time and / or earlier than expected. Put already before the main
verb. / Usamos already en oraciones afirmativas para enfatizar que algo pas antes
del tiempo actual y / o antes de lo esperado. Coloque already antes del verbo
principal.

Examples / Ejemplos:

Ive already read Vargas Llosas last novel. It is brilliant!


My teacher has already given the final essay to us.

Note: We use already and yet to add emphasis. For example: / Nota: usamos
already y yet para enfatizar. Por ejemplo:

Ive already done my chores. Can I go to the park now?


My dad hasnt retired yet.
It has already snowed although it is not winter yet.

3. Talking about education / Hablando de educacin

You can talk about your own or someones educational history using the present
perfect. You can also describe what you have done for an academic course or a
class. Lets have a look at some useful language related to education. / Usted puede
hablar sobre su historia educativa o la de alguien ms usando el presente perfecto.
Tambin puede describir lo que ha hecho para un curso acadmico o una clase.
Observemos una seleccin del vocabulario til relacionado con educacin.
A. Look at the following words related to places and people in education and their
definitions. / Observe el siguiente vocabulario relacionado con personas y lugares
en educacin y sus definiciones.

Professor Student Teacher


A university teacher. A person that studies at a A person who
school, college or teaches in a
university. school or college.

Graduate Librarian Principal


A person who has already A person who works in a The head of a
obtained a University library. school.
degree.

Nursery school Public school Private school


A school for infant and A school where students A school where
toddlers. have free education since you have to pay
it is paid by the since it is non-
government. government.
University Elementary school High school
A college in which people A school for young A school for old
study to obtain a children. It usually takes children. It usually
professional degree. students from 6 to 10 takes from 11 to
years old. 17 years old.

Fuente de imgenes: Fotolia (s.f.)

B. Read the list of academic programs, courses and classes. / Lea la lista de
programas acadmicos, cursos y clases.

Degrees / Ttulos
Technical Tcnico
Bachelor Pregrado
Master Maestra
Doctorate Doctorado
Postgraduate Posgrado

Study areas / reas de estudio


Administration Administracin
Agronomy Agronoma
Architecture Arquitectura
Art Arte
Biology Biologa
Business Negocios
Chemistry Qumica
Economics Economa
Engineering Ingeniera
Geology Geologa
History Historia
Languages Idiomas
Law Derecho
Linguistics Lingstica
Medicine Medicina
Philosophy Filosofa
Physics Fsica
Political science Ciencia poltica
Psychology Psicologa
Social work Trabajo social
Teaching Docencia
Veterinary Veterinaria

Note: If you want to learn about specific degrees within the above mentioned areas,
please, have a look to the glossary of this learning activity. / Nota: si desea conocer
programas especficos dentro de las reas mencionadas arriba, por favor, revise el
glosario correspondiente a esta actividad de aprendizaje.

C. Look at the following sentences and the verbs used in them. / Observe las
siguientes oraciones y los verbos usados en ellas.

Verb used /
Sentence / Frase Spanish / Espaol
Verbo usado
I have never cheated on a test.
/ Nunca he hecho trampa en un To cheat. Copiar o hacer trampa.
examen.
Carlos has dropped out
university twice. / Carlos ha
To drop out. Abandonar o cancelar.
abandonado la universidad dos
veces.
They have already done their
homework for tomorrow. /
To do homework. Hacer la tarea.
Ellos ya han terminado la tarea
de maana.
We have started a new class
To start a class Iniciar una clase o
this week. / Hemos iniciado
or course. curso.
una nueva clase esta semana.
She has passed all the
To pass a test or Aprobar o pasar un
English tests. / Ella ha pasado
course. examen o curso.
todos los exmenes de ingls.
Yenny has failed the French
course again. / Yenny ha To fail a course Reprobar o perder un
reprobado el curso de francs or exam. curso o examen.
otra vez.
D. Read the following questions and possible answers. These are helpful for starting
conversations in educational contexts. / Lea las siguientes preguntas y sus
posibles respuestas; stas son de ayuda para iniciar conversaciones en
contextos educativos.

Questions / Preguntas Possible answers / Posibles respuestas

What have you studied? / I have studied law - engineering. / He estudiado


Qu has estudiado? derecho - ingeniera.
Have you studied
Yes, I have. I took a course last year. / S, lo he
English? / Has
hecho. Tom un curso el ao pasado.
estudiado ingls?
Have you taken
swimming classes? / No, I havent. I dont like water. / No, no lo he
Has tomado clases de hecho. No me gusta el agua.
natacin?
Have you failed any
Yes, I have I failed chemistry last year. / S. Perd
class? / Has perdido
qumica el ao pasado.
alguna materia?
Have you passed the
literature exams? / Has Yes, I have. I studied a lot for them. / S. Estudi
pasado los exmenes de mucho para ellos.
literatura?
Have you done the
No, I havent done it yet. / No, no la he hecho
homework? / Has
todava.
hecho la tarea?
Have you prepared the
science presentation? /
Has preparado la Yes, Ive just finished it. / S. Acabo de terminarla.
presentacin de
ciencias?
Have you done a
postgraduate course? /
Yes, I have already done one. / S, ya hice uno.
Has cursado algn
posgrado?
Has the teacher reviewed
the papers? /Ha el Yes, he has. He handed them in yesterday. / S, ya
profesor revisado los lo hizo. Los entreg ayer.
trabajos?

4. Indefinite pronouns / Pronombres indefinidos

A. Nicole traveled to Madrid last summer. Read the following text to know some
details about her journey. / Nicole viaj a Madrid el verano pasado. Lea los
siguientes textos para conocer detalles sobre su viaje.

Fuente: SENA

Somewhere in Madrid

Last summer I traveled to Madrid. I had an international conference there.


Unfortunately, some things in my journey werent so exciting. First, when I arrived to
the airport there was nobody waiting for me, I had to wait for two hours until
someone picked me up. Second, the food in the hotel was absolutely bad. Every day,
I had to walk around the hotel to find somewhere to eat. In the congress nothing
was different. When I arrived there, no one was able to give the correct directions. I
didnt know where to go so I got completely lost. However, everything wasnt that
bad. I ate something different every day. I met a lot of people. I visited some
interesting and historical places. I hope I can travel again soon!
Note: we use indefinite pronouns to refer to people, things or places without saying
exactly who or what they are. / Nota: usamos pronombres indefinidos para referirnos
a personas, objetos o lugares sin decir exactamente qu o quines son.

Examples / Ejemplos:

When I arrived to the airport there was nobody waiting for me.
Every day I had to walk around the hotel to find somewhere to eat.
I ate something different every day.

B. Indefinite pronouns can be used to refer to things, places or people. Please, look
at the following chart: / Los pronombres indefinidos pueden ser usados para
referirse a cosas, lugares y personas. Por favor, observe la siguiente tabla:

Interrogative and Negative and


Affirmative
negative verb affirmative verb

Things Something. Anything. Nothing.

Places Somewhere. Anywhere. Nowhere.

Somebody. Anybody. Nobody.


People
Someone. Anyone. No one.

C. Now, lets have a look at how to use the indefinite pronouns. / Ahora, observemos
cmo usar los pronombres indefinidos.

a. We use something, someone, somewhere or somebody when we dont say


exactly who, what or where. / Usamos algo, alguien o algn lugar cuando no
sabemos exactamente a quin, a qu o al lugar al que nos estamos refiriendo.

Examples / Ejemplos:

Somebody stole my bike.


I was starving. I ate something five minutes ago.
He went to somewhere nice last weekend.

b. We use anything, anybody, anywhere in interrogative sentences. / Usamos


anything, anybody, anywhere en preguntas.
Examples / Ejemplos:

Did you hear anything?


Was anyone in the house?

c. We use anything, anybody, anywhere, etc., with negative verb. Read the box
to find out about their use. / Usamos anything, anybody, anywhere, entre otras
con verbo negativo. Lea la tabla para conocer su uso.

Correct Incorrect

They didnt go anywhere last They didnt go nowhere last


Saturday. They stayed at home. Saturday. They stayed at home.

What did you do yesterday? What did you do yesterday?


I didnt do anything. I didnt do nothing.

There wasnt anybody in the There wasnt nobody in the


classroom. classroom.

d. We use nobody, nothing, nowhere, etc., in short answers. / Usamos nobody,


nothing, nowhere, entre otras en respuestas cortas.

Examples / Ejemplos:

Who was in the kitchen?


Nobody.

Where did they go?


Nowhere.

e. We use nobody, nothing, nowhere, etc., in affirmative sentences. Read the


box to find out about their use. / Usamos nobody, nothing, nowhere, entre otros
en oraciones afirmativas. Lea la tabla para conocer su uso.
Correct Incorrect
Did you hear any news? Did you hear any news?
No. I heard nothing. No. I didnt hear nothing.

I met nobody / no one. I met anyone.

They went nowhere. They went anywhere.

5. Quantifiers: enough, quite, many, too much, a little, etc. (I have done
nothing) / Cuantificadores: suficiente, un poco, muchos, mucho, un
poco, entre otros. (No he hecho nada)

A. John meets Richard in the street. Read the conversation between them. / John se
encuentra a Richard en la calle. Lea su conversacin.

Hi
Richard! Hey John.
How are
you?
In fact, not Why?
so well. Whats
happening?

I feel sick. I dont


know, but I feel like I
dont have any What have
energy. you been
doing?
I have been
studying. My final I had them
exams are next last week.
week. But, let me
ask you
something.
How much
sport or
exercise do
you do in a
week?

How much
None. Im too
fast food do
busy.
you eat?
A lot. I dont
have enough
That sounds
time to cook.
bad. And how
much coffee
do you drink?

I have no idea! I How much


drink many cups water do you
of coffee every drink?
day. About ten.
A little, I prefer
drinking soda.

John, you have to stop


doing that! You have a
terrible lifestyle. You
should drink a lot of water
and stop drinking soda.
Moreover, you have to do
more exercise. That
would be good for you.
But, the worst habit you
have is the fast food. You
cant eat it every single
day. Instead of eating fast
food you have to eat
many fruit and
vegetables.
Youre totally right.
That should help. Yes, I can
help you if
you want.

Really? That will


be awesome!

Fuente de imgenes: SENA

Note: a quantifier is a word or phrase which is used to indicate the amount or


quantity. / Nota: un cuantificador es una palabra o frase la cual se usa para indicar la
cantidad de algo.

Examples / Ejemplos:

Richard: How much fast food do you eat?


John: Well, I eat too much. I dont have enough time to cook.
Richard: That sounds bad. And how much coffee do you drink?
John: I have no idea! I drink many cups of coffee per day, like ten I think so.

B. Now, lets have a look of how to use the quantifiers. / Ahora, observemos cmo
usar los cuantificadores.

a. Too, too much, too many / Demasiado

We use too, too much, too many to say more than necessary. / Usamos
too, too much, too many para decir ms que necesario.
We use too much + uncountable nouns. / Usamos too much +
sustantivos no contables.
We use too many + countable nouns. / Usamos too many + sustativos
contables.

Examples / Ejemplos:

He has an unhealthy life. He eats too many cakes.


I am so stressed. I have too much work to do.
She said she isnt going out. She is too tired.

Note: In English we use too + an adjective. / Nota: en ingls usamos too + un


adjetivo.

Correct Incorrect

I have to stop eating fast food. I am I have to stop eating fast food. I am
too fat. too much fat.

They cant go out with us because They cant go out with us because
they are too busy. they are too much busy.

b. Enough / Suficiente

We use enough before a noun to mean all that is necessary. / Usamos


enough antes de un sustantivo para decir que todo es necesario.
We also use enough after an adjective. / Tambin usamos enough
despus de un adjetivo.

Examples / Ejemplos:

Do you drink enough water?


I dont do enough exercise.
My apartment isnt big enough.

c. A little, a few / Un poco, unos pocos

We use a little (very little) and a few (very few) to talk about small quantities.
We use a little / very little with uncountable nouns.
We use a few / very few with countable nouns.
Examples / Ejemplos:

I drink a little soda.


I eat very little sugar.
She has very few friends.
I bought a few strawberries.

6. Vocabulary: health and lifestyle / Vocabulario: salud y estilo de vida

To talk about habits or lifestyle we use the following useful language: / Para hablar
de salud y estilo de vida podemos usar estas expresiones:

Fuente: SENA
Possible answers / Posibles
Questions / Preguntas
respuestas
How much fast food do you eat? I eat too much. / I never have any.
How much do you walk in a day? A lot. / A little.
How much sport and exercise do you
A lot. / A little. / Not enough.
do in a week?
How many cigarettes do you smoke
A few.
per day?
How much time do you have for
Very little. / Not enough. / A lot.
yourself?
How many portions of fruit and
A lot. / A few.
vegetables do you eat per day?
How often do you wear sunscreen? Only when Im on holiday.
How much water do you drink? Very little. / Not enough. / A lot.

Contextualization / Contextualizacin

Read to the conversation between Johana and Nicole. / Lea la conversacin entre
Johana y Nicole.
Good. Im too
tired. This week
Hi, Jo. How is has been
everything terrible. We
going? have had so
many things to
do.

I know, all the Thats true. We


exams and havent had
presentations, we enough time to
have had little time sleep these days.
for ourselves. I feel exhausted.
Im glad the week I have already
is almost over. started but I still
Have you written have 500
the history essay hundred words
yet? left to write. Im
going to finish it
tomorrow. What
about you?

At least you
have started. I Why is
havent had the that?
time to write.
I havent chosen the
topic yet. I searched
the web about
colonial history but I Really?
didnt find it Nothing at
interesting. all?

You have to
change your
Absolutely nothing.
topic then.
Yeah, youre right. I
need to find Just let me
something else I know if you
really like. need any help.

Sure.

Lets change the


topic. Have you
thought about next About
year? University?
Only a few. I
Yes! Have you
havent made
looked at any
up my mind
programs yet?
about it.

I read a few
brochures about
the languages
program. I liked
I also have mixed it but I am also
feelings about my curious about
career. Im not sure psychology. I
about it. I have need to find
considered medicine more information
and also engineering. on both
programs.
What have you looked
at?
Lets see what
Absolutely!
happens in the next
few months.

Totally For the time


agree! being; lets enjoy
our tea.

Fuente de imgenes: SENA


Comprehension / Comprensin

A. Now, based on the conversation, choose true or false. / Ahora, basado en la


conversacin seleccione falso o verdadero.

True False
Nicole and Johana are at
school.
They are on holiday.
Nicole has finished her
history essay.
Johana has started her
essay.
They are looking at
University programs.
They have finished their
tea.
Johana has considered a
psychology career.
Nicole has already
applied to a medicine
school.

B. Answer the following questions: / Responda las siguientes preguntas:

1. Nicole and Johana are tired because:

a. They have played basketball at school.


b. They have had too much homework for school.
c. They have worked a lot at the library.

2. Nicole has considered the following careers:

a. Medicine and psychology.


b. Languages and law.
c. Medicine and engineering.
3. Nicole has had mixed feelings about her:

a. Final tests.
b. History essay.
c. Future career.

4. Johana offered Nicole help in:

a. Choosing a topic for the history essay.


b. Choosing a university program.
c. Choosing a history book to read.

C. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the present perfect using the
language in the box. Remember to make all the necessary changes in the verbs. /
Complete las oraciones con la forma correcta del presente perfecto usando los
verbos en el recuadro. Recuerde hacer todos los cambios necesarios en los
verbos.

think / not start / decide / not sleep / feel / not finish / end / search / write / not
make up

1. Nicole ______________ ______________ high school.


2. Johana ______________ ______________ her mind about what to study at
University.
3. ______________ they ______________ their careers yet?
4. Nicole ______________ ______________ her history essay.
5. ______________ the week ______________ yet?
6. They ______________ ______________ well during the last week.
7. Both Nicole and Johana ______________ ______________ about university
programs.
8. Johana ______________ ______________ exhausted.
9. Nicole ______________ ______________ the web on history topics.
10. Johana ______________ ______________ part of her history essay.

Practice 1 / Prctica 1

A. Read about Marion, a language teacher who loves traveling. Then, complete the
text with the phrases from the box. / Lea sobre Marion, una profesora de lenguas
a quien le encanta viajar. Luego, complete el texto con las frases que encuentra
en el recuadro.

Since I started / I have traveled / I lived in Germany / I left / took a long break /
we opened / We have visited several cities / I havent got the return ticket to
Argentina yet / I have already booked

I started teaching languages many years ago. ___________, I have taught English
to thousands of students. Thanks to my job, ___________to several places in the
world and I have learned about different cultures. From 1994 to 2000
___________, where I worked at a public school in Nuremberg.
___________Germany in 2001 when I got married and moved to India. My
husband, Ron and I lived in Mumbai for five years. In 2006 we left India and
___________and visited Africa where we did voluntary work in Uganda. That was
a renovating experience. In 2008 we arrived to Latin America where
___________a language school in the city of Buenos Aires. ___________in
Central and South America. For example, we have been to Bogota, Lima, Mexico
city and Rio de Janeiro. We fell in love with the Latin-American culture. We have
had the greatest time of our lives here. I have just flown to England where Im
going to stay for some time with my family and friends. ___________Because my
husband is in charge of the School now, so I dont have to worry about it for some
time. For that reason, ___________a holiday with my friends to Greece.

B. Now, read the complete text again. Read the questions and choose the best
option. / Ahora, lea el texto completo nuevamente. Lea las preguntas y escoja la
mejor opcin.

I started teaching languages many years ago. Since I started, I have taught
English to thousands of students. Thanks to my job, I have traveled to several
places in the world and I have learned about different cultures. From 1994 to
2000 I lived in Germany, where I worked at a public school in Nuremberg. I left
Germany in 2001 when I got married and moved to India. My husband, Ron and I
lived in Mumbai for five years. In 2006 we left India and took a long break and
visited Africa where we did voluntary work in Uganda. That was a renovating
experience. In 2008 we arrived to Latin America where we opened a language
school in the city of Buenos Aires. We have visited several cities in Central and
South America. For example, we have been to Bogota, Lima, Mexico city and Rio
de Janeiro. We fell in love with the Latin-American culture. We have had the
greatest time of our lives here. I have just flown to England where Im going to
stay for some time with my family and friends. I havent got the return ticket to
Argentina yet because my husband is in charge of the School now, so I dont
have to worry about it for some time. For that reason, I have already booked a
holiday with my friends to Greece.

1. In how many countries has Marion lived since she started teaching?

a. 2.
b. 5.
c. 4.

2. Where has she had the best time of her live?

a. Latin America.
b. India.
c. Africa.

3. For how long did she live in India?

a. 3 years.
b. 4 years.
c. 5 years.

4. What language has she taught?

a. Spanish.
b. English.
c. German.

5. Where has she just booked a ticket to?

a. Greece.
b. Argentina.
c. England.

C. Write the correct past participles of the following verbs. / Escriba los pasados
participios de los siguientes verbos.

1. Go. ______________
2. Be. ______________
3. Buy. ______________
4. Sing. ______________
5. Do. ______________
6. Try. ______________
7. Write. ______________
8. Catch. ______________
9. Wear. ______________
10. Read. ______________
11. Drive. ______________
12. Tell. ______________
13. Wait. ______________
14. Speak. ______________
15. Walk. ______________
16. Dig. ______________
17. Make. ______________
18. Forget. ______________
19. Become. ______________
20. Give. ______________

D. Choose the correct past simple form. / Escoja la opcin correcta del pasado
simple.

1. What _____________ after the school?

a. Did you did.


b. you did.
c. did you do.

2. I _____________ to bring the bread.

a. forgot.
b. forgotten.
c. forget.

3. She _____________ the ball.

a. didnt caught .
b. didnt catched.
c. didnt catch.
4. Sarah and Jeff _____________ to the Saturday night concert.

a. gone.
b. went.
c. go.
5. _____________ at the meeting?

a. was he.
b. did he be.
c. were he.

E. Correct the mistakes in the highlighted phrases. / Corrija los errores en las frases
resaltadas.

1. Ive never ate spicy food.

____________________________________________________________.

2. What year have you finished high school?

____________________________________________________________.

3. They havent came yet.

____________________________________________________________.

4. He left the office at 4:00 but he yet hasnt arrived.

____________________________________________________________.

5. Did you heard the thunder?

____________________________________________________________.

6. She havent called us.

____________________________________________________________.

7. Theys just finded a new apartment.

____________________________________________________________.
8. Have you ever were to Cabo?

____________________________________________________________.

9. Can I go out to play? Ive finish already my homework.

____________________________________________________________.

10. Did you sent the e-mail?

____________________________________________________________.

F. According to the picture write the correct sentences. / De acuerdo con la imagen
escriba las oraciones correctas.

Fuente: SENA

She
Australia She has been to Australia.
Portugal
Peru
Japan
He
Spain He hasnt been to Spain.
Russia
China
Scotland

They
Brazil They have been to Brazil.
Cuba
Finland
Argentina

G. Write the verbs parentheses in the present perfect or simple past form. / Escriba
los verbos en parntesis en la forma del presente perfecto o el pasado simple.

A: _____________ you ever _____________ any English novels? (read)


B: Yes, I _____________English literature when I was in high school. (study)

A: _____________you _____________ the eggs yesterday? (buy)


B: No, I _____________ _____________ time. (not / have)

A: _____________you _____________ the new X-men movie? (watch)


B: No, I _____________ _____________ it yet. (not / watch)

A: _____________you _____________to the supermarket last night? (go)


B: Yes, I finally _____________ to. (go)

A: _____________ you ever _____________ to a famous actor? (speak)


B: Yes, I _____________ Carlos Vives last year. (meet)

H. Choose the correct indefinite pronouns. / Escoja el pronombre indefinido correcto.

1. My bag was on the table. __________________ has taken it.


a. nobody.
b. anybody.
c. somebody.

2. Look! There is __________________ in your hair.

a. onething.
b. something.
c. nothing.

3. They were arguing. But after the discussion she said __________________
and left the room.

a. anything.
b. nothing.
c. everything.

4. How was your last weekend?


It was perfect. We travelled to the coast. __________________ went as we
wished.

a. everything.
b. nothing.
c. something.

5. Hey, have you seen my wallet?


No, why?
Ive looked for it, but I dont find it.
Dont worry. It should be __________________ here.

a. Nowhere.
b. somewhere.
c. anywhere.

Practice 2 / Prctica 2

A. Look at the picture. Select true or false for each statement. / Observe la imagen.
Marque las frases como verdadero o falso.
Fuente: SENA

True False
There isnt anywhere
to sit.
Someone is smoking.
The man on the right
is saying something
to the guy.
There is nothing to
eat.

B. Read the phrases from 1 - 6 and from a - f below. Match the phrases that should
be linked together according to their meaning. One is done for you as example. /
Lea las oraciones de 1 - 6 y de a - f. Una las frases que deberan estar juntas de
acuerdo con sus significados. Una ya est hecha como ejemplo.

1. I cant sleep. _d__


2. Hes really obese. ____
3. I cant go to a party. ____
4. I cant pay you now. ____
5. My backpack is so heavy. ____
6. I cant live in that apartment. ____
a. I dont have enough money.
b. He eats too much fast food.
c. I have too many things in it.
d. Theres too much noise.
e. It isnt enough big.
f. Im too old.

C. Complete the sentences with the correct verb form of the verbs from the box. /
Complete las oraciones con la forma correcta de los verbos en el recuadro.

fail / study / cheat / do / take / revise / study.

1. If I want to watch TV, I have to _________________ all my homework.


2. I forgot we have our final exam today. I didnt _________________ for it.
3. Our chemistry teacher is really good. He always _________________ the
previous lessons.
4. My brother has just _________________ his English exam.
5. The principal was furious because some students had _________________
on the exam.
6. She is so sad. Although she studied for the text, she has _________________
it.
7. Laura, do you want to go out this night?
I would like to, but I have to study. Im _________________ my last exam
tomorrow morning.

D. Read the following questions and match them to the correct subject areas. / Lea
las siguientes preguntas y relacinelas con el rea de estudio adecuada.

Who wrote A hundred years of


solitude?
a. Biology

What is the capital of Scotland?

b. Geography

What's the difference between Na+ c. History


and Na?

Whats 62 (1+2)?

d. Literature

Who created the first alphabet?

e. Chemistry

What are examples of a carnivorous


and a herbivorous reptile?
f. Maths

Pronunciation practice / Prctica de pronunciacin

Note: This practice must be completed using the multimedia version of the study
material. There you will find the corresponding sound files. / Nota: esta prctica
debe ser completada usando la versin multimedia del material de estudio. All
encontrar los archivos de audio correspondientes.

A. Listen to the following words. Click on the word with different sound. / Escuche
las siguientes palabras. Seleccione la palabra con un sonido diferente.

1. Vowels / Vocales

i Sleep. Sister. Beach.

Live. Study. Need.


Painting. Weekend. Things.

n Think. Next. Lunch.

Compost. Vomit. Come.

u Two. Dose. School.

Conservation. Does. Son.

o Chickenpox. Go. Not.

s Dessert. Passport. Salmon.

z Bruise. Used. Disease.

2. Verbs with -ed endings / Verbos que finalizan en -ed

ed = /d/ Helped. Enjoyed. Belonged.

ed = /t/ Crashed. Dressed. Jailed.

ed = /d/ Exported. Worried. Demanded.

B. Listen to each of the following words and identify their stress pattern. / Escuche
las siguientes palabras e identifique el patrn de estrs.

Dangerous.
Relatives.
Semester.
Autumn.
Infection.
Relax.
Fascinated.
Christmas.
Panama.
Exciting.
Appointment.
Infection.
Chickenpox.
Information.
Garbage.
Operation.
Container.
Medicine.
Guitar.
Hazards.
Demonstration.
Precious.
Annoyed.
Dangerous.
Committed.
Fascinated.
Nosebleed.
Kilometer.
Populated.
Smartphone.
Inspired.
Expensive.
References / Referencias

Fotolia. (s.f.). Christ Church college. Oxford, England. Consultado el 25 de


septiembre de 2014, en http://co.fotolia.com/id/49019658

Fotolia. (s.f.). Creative kids class. Consultado el 25 de septiembre de 2014, en


http://co.fotolia.com/id/60804027

Fotolia. (s.f.). Female graduate. Consultado el 25 de septiembre de 2014, en


http://co.fotolia.com/id/67559259

Fotolia. (s.f.). Group student near blackboard. Consultado el 25 de septiembre de


2014, en http://co.fotolia.com/id/55298696

Fotolia. (s.f.). Librarian placing a book. Consultado el 25 de septiembre de 2014,


en http://co.fotolia.com/id/42731380

Fotolia. (s.f.). Portrait Of College Student With Backpack and digital tablet.
Consultado el 25 de septiembre de 2014, en http://co.fotolia.com/id/59479482

Fotolia. (s.f.). Principal and teacher. Consultado el 25 de septiembre de 2014, en


http://co.fotolia.com/id/39902631

Fotolia. (s.f.). Professor with class. Consultado el 25 de septiembre de 2014, en


http://co.fotolia.com/id/57672232

Fotolia. (s.f.). Schoolboy sitting at desk with classmates in a row. Consultado el


25 de septiembre de 2014, en http://co.fotolia.com/id/54047753

Fotolia. (s.f.). School building. Consultado el 25 de septiembre de 2014, en


http://co.fotolia.com/id/54218624

Fotolia. (s.f.). Teacher. Consultado el 25 de septiembre de 2014, en


http://co.fotolia.com/id/52571231

Fotolia. (s.f.). University campus. Consultado el 25 de septiembre de 2014, en


http://co.fotolia.com/id/55672500
Document control / Control del documento

Name Position Dependence Date

Theme expert Direccin de


Asesor English Dot formacin
Kelly Johanna September
Works - Programa profesional.
Vera Diettes 2014
de bilingismo Direccin General

Authors Theme expert Direccin de


Asesor English Dot formacin September
Nicole Bruskewitz
Works - Programa profesional. 2014
de bilingismo Direccin General

Centro
Rachman Copy editor Lnea October
Agroindustrial.
Adaptation Bustillo Martnez de produccin 2014
Regional Quindo

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