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1.0 What is internet?

The Internet, sometimes called simply "the Net," is a worldwide system of


computer networks - a network of networks in which users at any one computer
can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer (and
sometimes talk directly to users at other computers).

2.0 Is web and the Internet the same?

The Internet is not synonymous with World Wide Web. The Internet is a massive
network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of
computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can
communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the
Internet. The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information
over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on
top of the Internet.

3.0 How did the internet come about?

It was conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S.
government in 1969 and was first known as the ARPANet. The original aim was to
create a network that would allow users of a research computer at one university to
"talk to" research computers at other universities. A side benefit of ARPANet's
design was that, because messages could be routed or rerouted in more than one
direction, the network could continue to function even if parts of it were destroyed
in the event of a military attack or other disaster.

Today, the Internet is a public, cooperative and self-sustaining facility accessible to


hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Physically, the Internet uses a portion of

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the total resources of the currently existing public telecommunication networks.
Technically, what distinguishes the Internet is its use of a set of protocols called
TCP/IP (for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Two recent
adaptations of Internet technology, the intranet and the extranet, also make use of
the TCP/IP protocol.

For most Internet users, electronic mail (email) practically replaced the postal
service for short written transactions. People communicate over the Internet in a
number of other ways including Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Internet
telephony, instant messaging, video chat or social media.

The most widely used part of the Internet is the World Wide Web (often
abbreviated "WWW" or called "the Web"). Its outstanding feature is hypertext, a
method of instant cross-referencing. In most Web sites, certain words or phrases
appear in text of a different color than the rest; often this text is also underlined.
When you select one of these words or phrases, you will be transferred to the site
or page that is relevant to this word or phrase. Sometimes there are buttons,
images, or portions of images that are "clickable." If you move the pointer over a
spot on a Web site and the pointer changes into a hand, this indicates that you can
click and be transferred to another site.

Using the Web, you have access to billions of pages of information. Web browsing
is done with a Web browser, the most popular of which
are Chrome, Firefox and Internet Explorer. The appearance of a particular Web site
may vary slightly depending on the browser you use. Also, later versions of a
particular browser are able to render more "bells and whistles" such as
animation, virtual reality, sound, and music files, than earlier versions.

The Internet has continued to grow and evolve over the years of its existence. IPv6,
for example, was designed to anticipate enormous future expansion in the number
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of available IP addresses. In a related development, the Internet of Things (IoT) is
the burgeoning environment in which almost any entity or object can be provided
with a unique identifier and the ability to transfer data automatically over the
Internet.

4.0 Who owns the internet?

No one actually owns the Internet, and no single person or organization controls
the Internet in its entirety. The Internet is more of a concept than an actual tangible
entity, and it relies on a physical infrastructure that connects networks to other
networks.

5.0 What is the total number of worldwide internet users?

According to Internet Live Stats, as of August 12, 2016 there was an estimated
3,432,809,100 Internet users worldwide. The number of Internet users represents
nearly 40 percent of the world's population. The largest number of Internet users by
country is China, followed by the United States and India.

The first billion Internet users worldwide was reached in 2005.

6.0 Why is the internet so important?

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The Internet is important for a huge variety of reasons, and it affects and facilitates
nearly every aspect of modern life. The Internet is extremely important in many
fields, from education and healthcare to business and government.

The Internet has had an enormous impact on education, streamlining access to


information and making it easier for individuals to engage in online learning.
Distance education programs make it easier for students from a variety of
backgrounds to attend classes remotely, cutting down the need for travel and
reducing the resources required for education.

The Internet has also made access to information and communication far easier.
Rather than searching the library, users can access vast amounts of information
from home computers. Internet access has a huge impact on businesses, allowing
employees to work remotely from home and communicate more efficiently.
Healthcare is another field greatly affected by the advent of the Internet.
Improvements in online connectivity and communication technology allow
physicians much greater access to medical resources. Doctors in rural areas can
also use the Internet to communicate with experts all over the world, improving the
quality of patients' diagnoses and treatments.

Politics and government are another area in which the Internet is important.
Government organizations use the Internet to improve organization and
communication, and voters can go online to gain more information about current
issues. According to Web Junction, 54 percent of adults went online to get
information about the 2010 U.S. midterm elections.

7.0 How can the internet be accessed?

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The two key ingredients for connecting to the internet
The range of devices that can be used to connect to the internet
Two types of internet connection services

THE TWO KEY INGREDIENTS FOR CONNECTING TO THE INTERNET

Connecting to the internet requires two key ingredients:


A device capable of connecting to the internet.
Access to an internet service that will allow that device to get connected.
Basically, there are many types of both of the above things.

In other words, its possible to connect to the internet on an ever-increasing range


of devices. Plus, theres also quite a few different types of services that allow these
devices to get online.

Peoples choice over the various devices and means of getting online varies
according to many factors, including lifestyle (whether theyre at home or out and
about), how frequently they need to access the internet (everyday for a number of
hours or just occasional use), the types of things they want to use the internet to do
(catch up with email or download and watch films and tv programmes), and budget
(internet access companies usually charge to use their services).

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Lets unpackage the above in a bit more detail...

THE RANGE OF DEVICES THAT CAN BE USED TO CONNECT TO THE


INTERNET

The most common devices people use today to get online, include:
Desktop computers
Laptop computers
Mobile phones
Tablets
E-readers

However, the range of devices capable of connecting to the internet is ever-


expanding and shifting our understanding of what being online means.
In recent years, weve seen the emergence of smart watches, central heating
systems, and even refrigerators, which by connecting to the internet can perform
all sorts of enhanced and useful functions.

Still, the most traditional devices used for accessing and browsing the internet
today are desktop computers, laptop computers, tablets and smartphones.

TYPES OF INTERNET CONNECTION SERVICES

There are two key types of service that can provide you with internet access. They
are:

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Fixed internet
Mobile internet

FIXED INTERNET
As the name suggests, this is an internet connection that is fixed to a specific
location (such as a home, office or shop) meaning that the internet connection is
unique to that property, and as such you can only access it when youre physically
situated there.
Today, the three most common types of fixed internet connection are:

ADSL broadband
The most widely used form of internet connection, ADSL (Asymmetric Digital
Subscriber Line) uses a propertys existing phoneline to get online.
This form of broadband has been available for a while, making it often the most
cost-effective way of getting online yet not the fastest (average download
speeds of 8.4 Mb) compared to the two other available forms of internet
connection now available in the UK, cable and fibre broadband.

Cable broadband
Instead of using a phone line as ADSL does, cable broadband establishes an
internet connection via a specialised cable that shares the same line as your TV
service.
Cable broadband generally offers higher speeds than ADSL connections (average
download speeds of 50.5 mb), but as a cable broadband connection is often shared
with many other users, speeds can suffer from time to time due to congestion
during peak times.
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Fibre broadband
The most recently rolled out form of internet connection in the UK (and therefore,
still not that widely available) is fibre broadband.
Fibre broadband claims to offer more consistent and reliable speeds than cable and
ADSL (average download speeds of 59.4mb) allowing multiple devices to be
performing high-capacity tasks, simultaneously, without any slow down or
breakages in the connection, making it an attractive proposition for busy family
homes or office environments.
Choosing a fixed internet service provider
Many companies provide installation of one of the above types of fixed internet
connection, with ongoing access to the connection at an agreed speed and data
usage offered, mostly on a contract basis.
Some companies are more specialised in one type of connection than another. For
instance, Virgin Media specialises in cable broadband connections as it is also a
TV service provider. Whilst BT, as the owner of the majority of the UKs telephone
lines, is most well-known for providing ADSL broadband though many third-
party companies are allowed access to BTs network and offer their own ADSL
broadband services. As the owner of the new infrastructure that allows for latest
fibre broadband, BT is also currently the sole provider of this next-generation
service.
Mobile internet
Mobile internet is a way of getting online anywhere without relying on a fixed-
location connection as the name suggests, by using your mobile device.
Mobile phone operators provide access to this alternative method of internet usage.
When you sign up to a mobile phone operators services either on a contract or
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pay-as-you-go basis you can include access to a certain amount of data
(measured in megabytes), allowing you to use your mobile device to connect to the
internet within that capped usage limit.
Mobile internet is currently offered at two different speeds and capability levels:
3G mobile internet: has been around for many years and typically offers basic
access and download speeds that allow users to complete basic tasks such as load a
web page or access an email. 3G mobile internet is gradually being replaced by
4G services.
4G mobile internet: is the more recently available level of mobile internet
available, offering much higher speeds than 3G. In fact, due to excellent
connection and download speeds, 4G might eventually replace fixed internet
connections in more rural parts of the country that may struggle to get access to
quicker connections.

In conclusion
Here's what we've covered:

Its possible to connect to the internet via a range of devices.


In order to get your internet-enabled device online, you need to use a
specialised service for accessing the internet.
These internet access services are generally of two types: fixed or mobile.
The device and method you choose for getting online, really depends on the
type of environment you wish to be using the internet in (your home, or out
and about), plus how your want to use the internet and how frequently.

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Wilson, David Stokes, Nicholas (2006). Small business management and


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"The Open Market Internet Index". Treese.org. 1995-11-11. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
"World Stats". Internet World Stats. Miniwatts Marketing Group. 30 June 2012.
"Who owns the Internet?", Jonathan Strickland, How Stuff Works. Retrieved 27
June 2014.
"The Tao of IETF: A Novice's Guide to Internet Engineering Task Force", P.
Hoffman and S. Harris, RFC 4677, September 2006.
The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition: "capitalize World Wide Web and
Internet"
"Internetted". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.
September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library
membership required.) nineteenth-century use as an adjective.
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the basic hypertext construct. A link is a connection from one Web resource to

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another. Although a simple concept, the link has been one of the primary forces
driving the success of the Web.
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"Brief History of the Internet". Internet Society. Retrieved 9 April 2016. It
happened that the work at MIT (1961-1967), at RAND (1962-1965), and at NPL
(1964-1967) had all proceeded in parallel without any of the researchers knowing
about the other work. The word "packet" was adopted from the work at NPL

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