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ANDREW M.

GLEASON / Harvard University

Fundamentals
of Abstract Analysis

LADDISON-WESLEY, PUBLISHING COMPANY


READING, MASSACHUSETTS PALO ALTO LONDON DON MILLS, ONTARIO
CONTENTS

Chapter 1. Sets
1-1. The notion of set 1
1-2. Equality 2
1-3. Parentheses 3
1-4. Membership 3
1-5. The empty set 3
1-6. The list notation 4
1-7. Set inclusion 5
Chapter 2. Logic
2-1. Propositions and logical connectives 8
2-2. Tautologies 10
2-3. The conditional 13
2-4. Propositional schemes and quantifiers 15
2-5. Proof and inference^ 19
2-6. Set formation 24
2-7. The set-theoretic paradoxes 25
2-8. Dummy variables 26
Chapter 3. The Set-Theoretic Machinery
3-1. Binary set combinations 29
3-2. The power set 37
3-3. Ordered pairs and direct products 37
3-4. Functions 40
3-5. Relations 49
3-6. Indexed unions and intersections 0 50
3-7. Indexed direct products 53
Chapter 4. Mathematical Configurations
4-1. Structures and configurations 55
4-2. Definitions, postulates, and theorems . . . ._;. . . . . 59
4-3. Consistency 62
4-4. The classification problem 63

Chapter 5. Equivalence
5-1. Equivalence relations and partitions . 65
5-2. Factoring functions 67
Chapter 6. Order
6-1. Order relations 70
6-2. Maps of ordered sets 73
ix
CONTENTS

6-3. Linear order 75


6-4. Bounds 77
6-5. Complete ordered sets 79
6-6. Well-ordering 82
Chapter 7. Mathematical Induction
7-1. Chains 84
7-2. Inductive proof 85
7-3. The natural numbers and inductive definitions 88
Chapter 8. Fields
8-1. Binary operations 94
8-2. Fields 96
8-3. The elementary arithmetic of fields 99
8-4. Whole numbers and rational numbers 100
8-5. Ordered fields 104
8-6. Archimedean ordered fields 107
8-7. Complete ordered fields . . 108
Chapter 9. The Construction of the Real Numbers
9-1. The arithmetic of the natural numbers 112
9-2. Fractions and rational numbers 116
9-3. The positive real numbers 121
9-4. Real numbers 126
Chapter 10. Complex Numbers
10-1. Complex number systems .' 130
10-2. Permanent notation 132
10-3. Conjugates and absolute values 132
10-4. Exponents 134
Chapter 11. Counting and the Size of Sets
11-1. Similarity and dominance 136
11-2. Finite sets 141
11-3. Countable sets 143
11-4. Another form of inductive definition 144
11-5. The axiom of choice 148
11-6. Cardinal numbers 155
Chapter 12. Limits
12-1. Convergent sequences 160
12-2. Limits and arithmetic 168
CONTENTS XI

12-3. Infinity and the extended real number system 173


12-4. Superior and inferior limits 175
12-5. Criteria for the existence of limits 180
12-6. Subsequences 182
Chapter 1 3. Sums and Products
13-1. Finite sums and products 186
13-2. Infinite series 191
13-3. Infinite products 212
13-4. Numeration and calculation 217
Chapter 1 4. The Topology of Metric Spaces
14-1. Metric spaces > 223
14-2. Convergence 229
14-3. Closure, closed sets, and open sets 232
14-4. Continuous functions 239
14-5. Uniform continuity and uniform convergence 245
14-6. Homeomorphism 249
14-7. Complete spaces 253
14-8. Compact spaces 266
14-9. Separable spaces 273
14-10. Connectedness 278
Chapter 15. Introduction to Analytic Functions
15-1. Differentiation 287
15-2. Power series 0 293
15-3. Analytic functions 298
15-4. The exponential and circular functions 308
15-5. The modulus principle 315
15-6. The logarithm N 319
15-7. Exponents .-J 324
15-8. Geometric considerations 326
Answers and Solutions 340

Index of Symbols and Special Notations 395

Index 397