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© Govt. of India Controller of Publication

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ISSN 0579-4706

PGSI. 337

700-2011 (DSK-II)

GEOLOGY

AND

MINERAL RESOURCES

OF

THE STATES OF INDIA

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA Miscellaneous Publication

No. 30, Part III – ODISHA

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ıFÊFWaáFμF PÊFPÊFÕF “ÇÅFËFŒF ıFk - 30 ⁄FFçF III Published by order of the Government of India

Published by order of the Government of India

2011

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© INDIA, GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (2011)

1st Published 1974

2nd edition 2012

Compiled by

the officers of Operation: Odisha

Manuscript processed for printing by

Ibha Chowdhury, Basudev Ray and Amjad Ali Senior Geologists

under the supervision of S Ramamurthy, D. K.Choudhury, K. Sanyal, B.C. Roy and Pradip De Directors Publication Division,

Price:

Rs. 463.00 9 $

Published by the Director General, GSI, 27 J. L. Nehru Rd. Kolkata 700016 and printed at M/s Arunima Printing Works, 81 Simla Street, Kolkata 700006, Phone: 91-33-22411006, E-mail: apw@vsnl.net

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Foreword

A country’s economy depends on its natural resources, like the minerals and fuels for industry, soil for agriculture and water for irrigation and power. The Geological Survey of India, the national agency, has been carrying out Systematic Geological Mapping since 1851, to assess the potentiality of minerals

and fuels. It brings out the Geological Maps and Publications as the outcome of the geological work done. The first edition of the, “Geology and Mineral Resources of the states of India, part-III, Orissa” was printed in 1974. This series of publication gives an up to date account of the geology and mineral resources of the state.

A lot of data has been accrued to the Specialized Thematic Mapping, Quaternary / Geological Mapping, Exploration of the minerals and research oriented projects. This immense data is synthesized in the present volume. Odisha is bestowed with rich resources of Iron, Bauxite and Chromite. The minerals of the state, viz., nickel, manganese, cassiterite and vanadiferous magnetite are promising. Most of the mineral deposits of the state are of the proven category. Owing to the discovery of Late Quaternary Volcanic Ash in river basins, the Quaternary Geology of Odisha is defined for the first time, as will be seen in this volume.

The state of Odisha is swayed by the Precambrian rocks, over an area of 89,000 sq. km. The Dimension Stones, having a wide variety, about twenty in number, and lineated all over the compass of the state, owe their origin to the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt, Singhbhum-Bastar Cratonic intrusives like anorthosite, granophyre, alkali syenites and gabbro-dolerite dykes, etc. The chapter on ‘Dimension Stone’ is included in this volume to provide information on its occurrence, mining feasibility and district wise locations.

The information furnished in this publication will be of immense help to district level administrators dealing with the planning; geoscientists, academicians, entrepreneurs, students, and to them aspiring for the welfare and development of the state which, in turn, will step up the commitments of Geological Survey of India to contribute/ disseminate geoscientific information.

India to contribute/ disseminate geoscientific information. Kolkata (A. Sundaramoorthy) Dated Director General

Kolkata

(A. Sundaramoorthy)

Dated

Director General Geological Survey of India

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Rocks are records of events that took place at the time they formed. They are books. They have a different vocabulary, a different alphabet, but you learn how to read them.

iv

JOHN MCPHEE

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GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES OF ODISHA Contents

Page

FORWORD

iii

INTRODUCTION

1

PHYSIOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE

2

GENERAL GEOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY

3

GEOLOGY OF THE PRECAMBRIAN TECTONIC DOMAINS

3

Eastern Indian Craton (ELC) and Singbhum-Gangpur Mobile Belt

3

Archaean

5

Archaean-Proterozoic

8

Proterozoic (Undifferentiated)

9

Palaeo Proterozoic

10

Bastar Craton

14

Archaean

14

Archaean- Proterozoic

14

Proterozoic

14

Meso-Neoproterozoic

15

Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt

16

Archaean-proterozoic

17

Gondwana Supergroup

23

Palaeozoic-Mesozoic

23

Late Cretaceous Volcanics and Sediments

25

Cainozoic Formations

26

Tertiary Formations

26

Quaternary Formations

27

MINERAL RESOURCES

31

Asbestos

31

Kalahandi District:

31

Sundargarh District

31

Mayurbhanj District

31

Basemetals

31

Lead & Zinc

31

Sundargarh district

31

Mayurbhanj District

32

Bolangir District

32

Kalahandi District

32

Deogarh District

32

Copper

32

Mayurbhanj District

32

Sambalpur district

33

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Page

Bauxite

33

Kendujhar District

33

Phulbani District

34

Sundargarh District

34

Mayurbhanj District

34

Nuapada District

34

Rayagada District

34

Beach Sand Minerals

34

Cassiterite (TIN ORE)

34

Malkangiri District

34

Sonepur District

35

Boudh district

35

Malkangiri District

35

CLAY

35

China Clay

35

Koraput District

35

Cuttack District

35

Dhenkanal District

35

Sundergarh District

35

Ganjam District

36

Phulbani District

36

Kendujhar District

36

Balasore District

36

Mayurbhanj District

36

Bolangir District:

36

Fire Clay

37

Sundergarh district

37

Cuttack District

37

Puri District

37

Dhenkanal District

37

Sambalpur District

37

COAL

37

Talchir Coal Field

38

Ib River Coal field

38

Chromite

39

Jajpur District

39

Dhenkanal District

40

Kendujhar District

41

Balasore District

42

Koraput District

42

Sundargarh District

42

Gemstones

42

Kalahandi District

42

Bolangir District

42

Sonepur District

43

Sambalpur District

43

Nuapada District

43

Rayagada District

43

Boudh District

43

Angul District

44

Deogarh District

44

viii

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Page

Jharsuguda District

44

Phulbani District

44

Glass Sand

44

Cuttack District

44

Dhenkanal District

44

Kendujhar District

44

Koraput district

44

Mayurbhanj district

44

Gold

44

Angul District

44

Kendujhar District

44

Koraput district

45

Mayurbhanj District

45

Sundargarh district

46

Sambalpur district

46

Graphite

46

1. Sargipalli Belt

46

2. Titlagarh Belt

47

3. Tumudibandh belt

47

4. Nishikal – Kinchikhal Belt

47

5. Muniguda belt

47

6. Dhandatapa Belt

48

Iron Ore

48

Sundargarh district

49

Kendujhar district

49

Kyanite

50

Angul district

50

Sundergarh district

50

Mayurbhanj district

50

Limestone and Dolomite

50

Sundergarhgarh district

50

Biramitrapur

50

Lanjiberna

50

Purnapani

50

Hatibari

51

Pahartoli

51

Dublabera

51

Gotitanger

51

Khatukurbahal

51

Purkapali

51

Koraput district

51

Malkangiri district

51

Nawarangpur district

51

Baragarh district

52

Kedunjhar district

52

Nuapada district

52

Manganese

52

Bolangir district:

53

Sundergarh district

53

Sambalpur district

54

Mica

54

Kalahandi district

54

ix

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Page

Koraput district

54

Phulbani district

54

Bolangir district

54

Sundergarh distric

54

Nickel

54

Jajpur district

54

Kendujhar distric

55

Mayurbhanj district

55

Platinum

55

Jajpur district

55

Kendujhar district

55

Mayurbhanj district

56

Pyrophyllite

56

Quartz / Quartzite

56

Sundergarh district

56

Bolangir district

56

Sillimanite

56

Sundergarh district:

56

Sambalpur district

56

Soapstone

57

Cuttack district

57

Kendujhar district

57

Koraput district

57

Mayurbhanj district

57

Sundergarh district

57

Vanadiferous Magnetite

57

Mayurbhanj District

57

Kendujhar and Balasore Districts

58

Dimension Stone-Granite

58

Ganjam-Nayagarh-Khurda-Cuttack-Phulbani-Baudh Segment

59

Koraput-Rayagada Segment

59

Kalahandi-Bolangir-Nuapada Segment

59

Sambalpur-Deogarh-Sundergarh segment

59

Sambalpur-Angul-Dhenkanal Segment:

59

Kendujhar-Mayurbhanja-Balasore Segment

59

Resources

60

Districtwise Occurrence of different Commercial varieties of Dimension Stone-Granite

60

REFERENCES

62

LOCALITY INDEX

70

APPENDIX

74

PLATE : Geological and Mineral map of Odisha (1:2,000,000 scale)

x

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MISC. PUB. NO. 30(III)

1

Introduction

The State of Odisha lying along the east coast of India within latitudes 17 o 48’ – 22 o 34’ North and longitude 81 o 24’ – 87 o 29’ East, has an area of about 1,55,842 Sq.km and a sprawling 480 km of coastline against Bay of Bengal to the east. It is bounded by the states of Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and West Bengal to the north, south, west, and northeast respectively. The state comprises dominantly of Pre-cambrian rocks (73%) ranging in age from Mesoarchaean to Neoproterozoic. Phanerozoic rocks, represented by the Gondwana Supergroup (Late Palaeozoic – Middle/Late Mesozoic) and minor Tertiary patches, constituting about 8% of the state. The remaining 19% of the state is covered by Quaternary formations.

In view of its vast mineral resources and excellently preserved rock record ranging in age from Early Precambrian to Recent, the state represents a veritable paradise for earth scientists and justifiably remained the hunting ground for geologists ever since the beginning of geological studies in India in 1850s. Since then for over a century, several scientific studies were made. These include : (i) recognition of the Talchir boulder bed, postulation of early Gondwana glaciation hypothesis and discovery of the coal measures of Talchir and Ib river basins (Oldham, 1856; Blanford, 1872 and Ball, 1877) (ii) studies on aluminous laterites and bauxites (Ball, 1877; Fox, 1934, 1942 and Krishnan, 1935) (iii) coining of the term khondalite for the high grade metasupracrustals of the Eastern Ghats belt after the Khond inhabitants of Kalahandi (Walker, 1902), (iv)

discovery of major iron ore deposits at Gorumahisani – Badampahar area of Mayurbhanj (Bose, 1907) (v) discovery of Tertiary beds near Baripada (Bose, 1904) (v) classification of manganese ores (Fermor, 1909), (vii) studies on charnockite rocks (Fermor, 1911; Crookshank, 1938; Ghosh, 1941), (viii) delineation of major iron-ore deposits of Bonai-Keonjhar region (Jones, 1934), (ix) studies on Gangpur Group of Metasediments (Krishnan,1937) and(x) identification of Late Quaternary volcanic ash in major river basins of Odisha (Devdas & Meshram, 1991)

Geological mapping and mineral exploration programmes in the state gathered appreciable momentum in post-independent India. Presently, the entire state has been geologically mapped on 1:50,000/1:63,360 scale by GSI. In addition, several crucial segments have also been mapped on 1:25,000 scale. Besides GSI, other Government agencies (State Directorate of Mines and Geology, Atomic Minerals Division, NGRI, Odisha Mining Corporation and CMPDI etc.), many universities and research institutions have also contributed significantly to enrich our knowledge on the geology and mineral resources of the state. An up-to-date synopsis of available information on the geological framework and mineral resources of Odisha is presented in this compilation. The text is accompanied by a 1:2,000,000 compiled Geological and Mineral map of the state. During compilation, unpublished/ published information of the department and published literature have been consulted.

1

1

1

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Physiography and Drainage

Odisha is divisible into four major physiographic regions: the Northern Plateau, the Central River Basin, the Eastern Ghats hill ranges and the Coastal Plains.

The Northern plateau, covering the districts of Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Deogarh, Sundargarh and parts of Dhenkanal, Balasore and Sambalpur, is an undulating country having a general slope from north to south. The average elevation of the plateau in the central area, forming the watershed of the Brahmani and Baitarani rivers, is about 1000 m above M.S.L. Hill ranges mark the northeastern part of the plateau with elevations above 1000 m. Notable peaks are represented by Malaygiri (1188 m) in Dhenkanal district, Mankadanacha (1117 m) in Kendujhar district and Meghasani (1166 m) in Mayurbhanj district.

The Central River Basin occurs between the Northern Plateau and the Eastern Ghat hill ranges and covers parts of Bolangir, Sambalpur, Dhenkanal and Cuttack districts. It comprises the catchment areas of the major rivers of the state, viz., Mahanadi, Brahmani, Tel and Baitarani rivers and their tributaries. Though largely a peneplain, the Central River Basin is occasionally marked by isolated hills, which rise abruptly from the plains.

In the south and southwestern parts of the state, the Eastern Ghats hill ranges stretch for about 400 km in a NNE-SSW direction covering the districts of Koraput, Navrangpur, Malkanagiri, Ganjam, Kalahandi, Boudh, Phulbani and parts of Puri, Khurda, Cuttack, Dhenkanal

and Bolangir districts. Most of this segment has a general elevation of ~ 900 m above M.S.L. and form the watershed of some rivers. Major hill ranges in the Eastern Ghats rise above 1500 m; the notable peaks being Deomali (1673 m) and Turiakonda (1599 m) in Koraput district and Mahendragiri (1531 m) in Ganjam district.

The Coastal Plains form an extensive alluvial tract lying between the Eastern Ghat hill ranges and the coast. It stretches for about 480 km and include parts of Balasore, Cuttack, Puri and Ganjam districts. The Chilka Lake, the widest lagoon in India, is a prominent coastal feature of Odisha.

The major rivers in Odisha are represented by Mahanadi, Brahmani and Baitarani, others are Subarnarekha, Burhabalang, Indravati, Vansadhara, Nagavalli, Kolab, Rushikulya and Machkund. The Northern Plateau is drained by the Baitarani, Subarnarekha and Burhabalang river systems, all flowing eastward through the coastal plains to the Bay of Bengal. The Central River Basin, consisting of the Gondwana graben, is drained by the Ib-Mahanadi and Brahmani river systems. These rivers also flow eastward into the Bay of Bengal. The Eastern Ghats hill ranges are drained by north and north-easterly flowing Tel River, southerly flowing Vanshadhara and Nagavalli rivers and westerly and south-westerly flowing Machhkund, Indravati and Kolab rivers. The tributaries of the Rushikulya River in the Eastern Ghats hill ranges flow in the N-S direction and the Rushikulya River flows eastwards in the coastal plains into the Bay of Bengal.

2

2

2

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General Geology and Stratigraphy

The State of Odisha exposes rocks ranging in age from Meso archaean to Recent. The generalized geological succession of rocks, is given in Table-I.

The Precambrian terrain in the state represents the northeastern extension of the Indian Precambrian Shield and exposes parts of two major cratonic domains (the Eastern Indian Craton and Bastar Craton) as well as bordering mobile belts (parts of the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt and the Singhbhum - Gangpur segment of the Satpura Mobile Belt). The cratonic domains preserve appreciable volumes of medium to low-grade supracrustal rocks as disconnected belts within granitoids. The mosaic of granitoids and supracrustal rocks is overlain, at places, by platformal sedimentary/ volcano sedimentary successions and intruded by several generations of mafic/ultramafic rocks, dyke swarms, younger granitoids and acid volcanics. The Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) borders the Eastern Indian Craton (EIC) to the south and part of the Bastar Craton (BC) to the east. EGMB exposes mainly high-grade granulites derived from both sedimentary and igneous protoliths, granitoids and a varied assemblage of intrusive plutonic rocks. The Singhbhum – Gangpur segment of the Satpura Mobile Belt borders the EIC to the north and exposes medium-grade supracrustal assemblages, mafic- ultramafic rocks and granite intrusives. The geographic distributions of the major Precambrian lithotectonic domains are :

Eastern Indian Craton : Northern and (North Odisha Craton) Northwestern and Singhbhum-Gangpur Odisha Mobile Belt

Part of Bastar Craton : Western Odisha

Part of Eastern Ghats

:

Central and

Mobile Belt(EGMB) southern

Odisha

The Phanerozoic rocks in the state are represented by the non-marine continental facies rocks of Gondwana Supergroup (Upper Palaeozoic–Upper Mesozoic) and the marine Baripada Beds (Lower Tertiary). The Quaternary formations are represented by laterite, bauxite, sandstone and Quaternary sediments (including volcanic ash beds).

GEOLOGY OF THE PRECAMBRIAN TECTONIC DOMAINS

Eastern Indian Craton (EIC) and Singbhum- Gangpur Mobile Belt

EIC represents an Archaean – Palaeoproterozoic granite-greenstone terrain. It is bounded by two crustal- scale shear/thrust zones, viz., the Singhbhum (copper belt) shear zone in the north (exposed in the state of Jharkhand) and the Gohira – Sukinda shear/thrust zone in the south. These two shear/thrust zones isolate the EIC from the Singhbhum – Gangpur segment of the Satpura Mobile Belt occurring in the north & northeast and the EGMB occurring in the south respectively.

Despite several years of studies by a large number of workers, the lithostratigraphic classification and correlation of the low-grade supracrustal rocks of the EIC and their time relation with the spatially associated granitoid components continue to remain debated. Major lithostratigraphic components of the EIC, as envisaged and designated by a large number of workers through several years of work are enlisted below:

Supracrustal sequences : Older Metamorphic Group (OMG), Iron Ore Supergroup, Garumahisani Badampahar Group, Bonai Group (Lower and Upper), Dhanjori Group, Simlipal Group, Kolhan Group etc.

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3

3

Present day formation; Bankigarh Formation; Kaimundi Formation; Bolgarh/Naira Formation

Table -I Generalised stratigraphic succession of the rocks of different domains in Odisha

SUPER GROUP/GROUP/FORMATION

Baripada Formation Minor Inter Trappeans

(As) SB Granite/Nilgiri Granite (Aot) OMTG (Ao) OMG

Lt. Pleistocene to Early Holocene

Miocene Lower Cretaceous to Palaeocene

AGE

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GEOL. SURV. IND

   

Granitoids, anorthosites Alkaline Complexes Pairi Group(Pt 2 Pr)

 

Eastern

Ghats

Super

Group

EGMB

 

(Proterozoic

Migmatite

Charnockite

Group

Khondalite

Group (Ak)

Mahadeva Formation

Atgarh Formation Kamthi Formation Raniganj Formation Barren Measure Barakar Formation Karharbari Formation Talchir Formation

BASTAR CRATON

Indravati(Pt 23 ij) Chhattisgarh Chandarpur(Pt 23 cc)

Sabari Group(Pt 23 sb)

Proterozoic Supergroup

 

Alkaline & Ultramafic rocks (Pts)

Granite gneisses and Granites (Pt 1 /A?Pt 1 )

 

Bengpal Group (Ab)

 

Up. Permian to Lr. Triassic Early Permian

   

Meso Neo

Pt 2

Jurassic Cretaceous Up. Permian to Triassic

Lr. Carb. To Permain

 

Pt 3

(Neo)

(Meso)

Pt 1

(Palaeo)

 

Tamparkola (Pt 1 t)/

 

A/Pt

 

EAST INDIA CRATON & SINGHBHUM-GANGPUR MOBILE BELT

 

Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (A?Ptc) Ultramafics of Sukinda-Nuasahi (Apt) Granitic Complex of NW Odisha (Apt 1 p) Bonai Granitic Complex (Granitoids of Pallahara, Deogarh, Bhuban) (Apt 1 b)

IRON ORE

GROUP

SUPER

 
 

Gondwana Supergroup

 

(Pt 1 b)/

Romapahari (Pt 1 r)

 

Granophyre (Mayurbhanj Granite(Ptg) Newer Dolerite (Ptn) Gabbro, norite, anorthosite (Pt)

   
 

Kolhan Group (Pt 12 Kh)

 

Bhuasani

Upper Bonai Group (pt 1 b)/

Simlipal Group (Pt 1 si)/

1 g)/ 1 s) /

(Pt (Pt

Group

Gangpur Group

Singhbhum

Group

(Pt 1 dh)/

Dangoaposi Lava (Pt 1 dp)/

Dhanjori Lava (Pt 1 dh)

 

Lower Bonai Group (Apt 1 b)

Gorumahisani-Badampahar Gr.

 

Permo-carboniferous to lower Cretaceous

 

Gangpur Granitic (Pt3 g )

 

Granitoid

Dhanjori Group

(Pt 1 b)/

Bonailava

Neo Proterozoic

Palaeo Neo

Proterozoic

Palaeo

Proterozoic

undifferentiated)

A

 

Proterozoic

Undifferentiated

ARCHAEAN/ PROTEROZOIC (Apt 1 b)

 

ARCHAEAN

(Ag)

 

P

 

R

E

C

 

M

B

 

R

I

A

N

 

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MISC. PUB. NO. 30(III)

Granitoids : Older Metamorphic Tonalitic Gneiss (OMTG), Singhbhum granitic complex, Bonai granitic complex, Nilgiri granitic complex, Mayurbhanj granite, Gneisses and granitoids of the Deogarh – Pallahara – Bhuban belt, Tamparkola granite – acid volcanics etc.

Mafic – ultramafic complexes : Baula – Nuasahi and Sukinda ultramafic complex.

Gabbro–anorthosite complexes : Mayurbhanj Gabbro- Anorthosite complex.

Mafic Dyke swarms: Newer Dolerite suite.

Singbhum-Gangpur Mobile Belt is represented by an arcuate segment stretching from north of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha through Singhbhum district in Jharkhand and further west to the Gangpur region of Odisha.It comprises an agglomeration of metasediments of multiple depositional troughs with volcanics and various types of granitoids and igneous intrusives. The metasediments and metavolcano sedimentaries along this medium-grade (amphibolite-facies) mobile zone belong to two groups, viz. the Gangpur Group and the Singhbhum Group. Structural and geochronological studies over the last three decades established that the Gangpur-Singhbhum Groups of rocks form a curvilinear medium-grade Proterozoic mobile zone skirting the Archean Eastern Indian Craton (EIC). The generalized stratigraphic succession of EIC and Singbhum- Gangpur Mobile Belt is as follows:

Age wise (starting from Archaean) synoptic geological accounts of the major litho-stratigraphic components of the EIC and Singbhum-Gangpur Mobile Belt are presented below.

Archaean

Older Metamorphic Group (OMG) : OMG, comprising a suite of amphibolite facies metasupracrustal rocks is considered to be the oldest recognisable lithologic component of the EIC. Originally named as “Older Metamorphics” by Jones, (1934) and designated as “Older Metamorphic Series” by Dunn, (1940), the suite was subsequently renamed as “Older Metamorphic Group” (Sarkar and Saha, 1977). These typically occur as enclaves ranging in size from a few square meters to about 200 sq.km within younger granitoids and gneisses. In terms of lithology, the OMG comprises pelitic schists with several thick bands of para amphibolite, relatively thin bands of quartzite, quartz-

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sericite schist, local bands of quartz-magnetite – cummingtonite schists and talc-tremolite schists. The type area of the OMG is located west of Champua (22 o 04’E: 85 o 40’N) (Saha et al., 1988). The metasediments of the OMG are intruded by sill-like masses of ortho amphibolite and biotite -hornblende – bearing tonalitic – granodioritic rocks, the latter belonging to the OMTG suite. The mineral assemblage in the OMG supracrustals indicates metamorphism in the temperature range 620 ° C – 650 ° C at pressures ranging from 5-5.5 kb (Saha et al., 1984).

The OMG metasediments gave Ar-Ar (hornblende) ages of ca. 3.3 Ga and K-Ar (hornblende and biotite) ages of ca. 3.2 Ga (Sarkar et al., 1969; Baksi et al., 1987). On the basis of the above data, it is concluded that the closing stage of metamorphism of the OMG supracrustals as well as the associated OMTG suite of granitoids occurred at ca. 3.2 Ga (Saha et al., 1988). 207 Pb/ 206 Pb dating of detrital zircons from OMG supracrustals gave ages in the range 3.5 – 3.6 Ga and implied an older limit of ca. 3.5 Ga for OMG sedimentation (Goswami et al., 1995; Mishra et al., 1999). U-Pb (zircon) dating studies by Basu et al., (1996) indicated a Pb-loss event at ca. 3.35 Ga.

Older Metamorphic Tonalitic Gneisses (OMTG) :

OMTG comprises a suite of biotite – hornblende – bearing tonalitic – granodioritic gneisses. Believed by most workers to be the oldest granitoid component in EIC, these intrude and partially granitise the OMG supracrustals. These also occur as numerous rafts and enclaves of varying sizes in the younger granitoids. The largest patch of the OMTG rocks covers about 900 sq.km extending from Champua in the west to Khiching in the east and from Juldiha in the north to Palasponga in the south. Relatively smaller mappable enclaves of the OMTG rocks are also recorded near Rairangpur, Onlajhari and Asana – Manda areas (Saha et al., 1984).

The OMTG suite is considered to have been generated by moderate degrees of partial melting of OMG ortho-amphibolitic rocks (Saha, 1994; Sharma et al., 1994). Moorbath et al., (1986) reported a whole- rock Pb-Pb isochron age of 3.38 Ga for the OMTG suite. The suite yielded Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron, K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages in the range 3.0 – 3.2 Ga (Saha, 1994).

Dey (1991) reported dark-coloured tonalitic rafts as enclaves within Singhbhum Granite around Rairangpur.

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Designated as ‘Older Raft Tonalite or ‘ORT’, these rocks are considered by Dey (op. cit) to be the oldest granitoid component in the EIC on which the supracrustals of Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group were deposited. He considered the OMTG to be an earlier phase of Singhbhum Granite and not related to ‘ORT’.

Singhbhum Granitic Complex: A major part of the granite batholith, commonly referred to as the

Singhbhum Granitic Complex, occupies large tracts in Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj and Dhenkanal districts of Odisha. The granitic complex, with numerous enclaves

of granitised metasupracrustal rocks, cover an area of

approximately 8,000 km 2 of the EIC. This composite batholithic complex comprises at least 12 magmatic

bodies of biotite-granodiorite-adamellite-granite

emplaced in three distinct phases (Phase I - III) (Saha, 1972). Of the 12 magmatic bodies, 7 occur in the State

of Odisha. Sarkar and Saha (1983), distinguished three

phases of granitic activity in the batholith on the basis of increasing K 2 O/Na 2 O ratios. Phase-I rocks are relatively K-poor granodiorite – trondhjemite whereas Phases – II & III comprise gradational suites of granodiorite – adamellite – granite. Subsequently, based on REE patterns and Eu anomaly, Saha et al., (1988) grouped Phases – I & II into type-A (Singhbhum Granite/ SBG-A) and Phase – III into type-B (Singhbhum Granite/ SBG-B). From geochemical and geochronological

studies (Moorbath and Taylor, 1988; Ghosh et al., 1996; Saha, 1994; Mishra et al., 1999), it was inferred that the SBG-A (Phases – I & II) was emplaced ca. 3.3 Ga go by partial melting of freshly accreted amphibolite at the base of the crust and SBG-B (Phase – III) was generated

at ca. 3.1 Ga ago by partial melting of a crustal protolith,

probably a siliceous garnet-granulite (Saha et al., 1988; Saha, 1994). Saha et al. (1988) observed that only SBG-

B (Phase-III) rocks show abundant enclaves of OMG

supracrustals, OMTG granitoids and Iron Ore Supergroup supracrustals, whereas SBG-A (Phases – I

GEOL. SURV. IND

According to Saha et al., (1984), the granite batholith is composite in nature and comprises four units. The Kaptipada tonalite – granodiorite and a granite suite from this complex have been dated at ca. 3.27 Ga and ca. 2.37 Ga respectively by Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron method (Vohra et al., 1991).

Iron Ore Supergroup (IOG): The BIF-bearing low- grade supracrustal sequences of IOG of the EIC are :

Gorumahisani – Badampahar, Bonai – Kendujhar (also known as Noamundi – Koira), Tomka – Daitari – (Mahagiri), Malayagiri and Deogarh. The mutual correlation of the above BIF-bearing sequences and their stratigraphic relation with the granitoids are controversial. Three contrasting views exist in this regard.

(i) All the isolated BIF-bearing supracrustal sequences of the EIC belong to a single stratigraphic unit (Jones, 1934; Dunn, 1940; Dunn and Dey, 1942; Sarkar and Saha, 1962, 1977; Acharya, 1993; Sengupta et al., 1997. Sarkar and Saha (1962) redesignated all the BIF-bearing supracrustals of the EIC as belonging to the ‘Iron Ore Group’ which were described earlier as Iron Ore Stage by previous workers. Dunn and Dey (1942) and Sarkar and Saha (1962) opined that the Singhbhum Granite is intrusive into the IOG. However, subsequently Saha et al., (1988) considered that only part of the Singhbhum Granite (SBG-B) is intrusive into the IOG and the older component (SBG-A) along with the OMG and OMTG suites formed the basement. However, several authors considered the Singhbhum Granitic complex as the basement for the IOG supracrustals (Iyengar and Anand Alwar, 1965; Banerji, 1974; Mukhopadhyay, 1976; Banerjee,

1982b).

&

II) do not show such enclaves. The bulk chemical

(ii)

According to Iyengar and Anand Alwar (1965),

composition of the composite batholith is estimated to

Iyengar and Banerjee (1964), Banerjee (1974),

be

granodioritic (Saha et al., 1984).

Iyengar and Murthy (1982) and Chakraborty and

The Nilgiri Granite batholithic Complex covering

Majumdar (1986), the BIF-bearing supracrustal sequences belong to two stratigraphic units, the

an

area of approximately 1200 sq km occurs as an arm

older one typified by the Gorumahisani-

of

the eastern part of the Singhbhum Granitic Complex

Badampahar Group and the younger one typified

south of Simlipal and is separated from the main

 

by the Bonai – Kendujhar sequence (Noamundi

Singhbhum granitic complex by a 5-8 km wide screen

Group of Banerji, 1974). Iyengar and Banerjee

of

metasupracrustal rocks. The massif is composed of

(1964) correlated the Gorumahisani – Badampahar

tonalite – granodiorite – granite and migmatitic rocks.

 

sequence with the Tomka – Daitari sequence.

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MISC. PUB. NO. 30(III)

(iii) According to Prasad Rao et al., (1964) and Acharya, (1976, 1984), the BIF-bearing supracrustal sequences belong to at least three stratigraphic units. In order of younging, these are:

Gorumahisani, Tomka - Daitari and Bonai – Kendujhar sequences. It may be noted that Prasad Rao et al., (1964) envisaged at least six discrete sequences of supracrustal rocks in parts of EIC in Odisha [including equivalents of Dhanjori and Kolhan sequences for the fifth and sixth sequences of Prasad Rao et al., (op.cit), Mazumder, 1978].

In general, rock types recorded in the various BIF- bearing metasupracrustal sequences are siliciclastic sediment, conglomerate, quartzite, quartz-schist, meta- argillite, ferruginous mica-schist, talc-tremolite, actinolite-chlorite and hornblende schist, amphibolite, ferruginous shale and phyllites, banded haematite/ magnetite quartzite (BHQ/BMQ), banded haematite jasper (BHJ), banded chert, mafic/ultramafic rocks and volcanics (both mafic and felsic) etc. Mineable iron and/ or manganese ore deposits characterize many of the sequences, viz., Gorumahisani – Badampahar, Bonai – Kendujhar, Gandhamardan, Tomka – Daitari (iron ore) and Bonai – Kendujhar (manganese ore). In detail, there exists a subtle difference in the order, nature and package of supracrustal assemblages in the various isolated basins.

The possibility of the existence of more than one generation of BIF-bearing sequences gained ground in GSI with the extension of mapping in different parts of the EIC. Iyengar and Murthy (1982) proposed the name ‘Iron Ore Supergroup’ to include two sequences of BIF- bearing horizons, viz. older Badampahar Group (Gorumahisani Group of Banerji, 1974) and younger Koira Group (includes BIF-bearing supracrustals of Bonai – Kendujhar area which is correlatable with the Noamundi Group of Banerji, 1974). The classification and nomenclature of BIF-bearing formations, as presently adopted in GSI are :

Iron Ore Supergroup Lower Bonai Group (Archaean-Proterozoic) Gorumahisani–Badampahar Group (Archaean)

Archaean

Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group : In the type- area, Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group of rocks form an approx. 100 km long N-S trending easterly convex

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arcuate belt extending from Rajnagar in Singhbhum District to Jashipur in Mayurbhanj District. The metasupracrustals in this belt comprises pillowed metabasalts with interbedded chert, quartzite, BIF (BMQ dominant), hornblende schists, epidiorite, and phyllite with interlayers of acid volcanics and tuff. The mafic volcanics in the sequence are represented by frequently pillowed and spinifex-textured peridotitic to basaltic komatiites, Sukinda high magnesia basalt (SHMB) and high-Mg tholeiites (Acharya, 1993). OMTG is reported to intrude the Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group of rocks (Behera et al.1994; Jena and Behera, 1998).

The Tomka – Daitari, Malaygiri and Deogarh BIF- bearing sequences are considered to be equivalents of Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group (Prasad Rao et al., 1964; Iyengar and Murty, 1982; Banerjee et al., 1987). The Tomka – Daitari sequence comprises metavolcanics, banded black chert, banded cherty quartzite and arenaceous to argillaceous phyllites in the basal part and BIF and quartzite in the upper part. The metalavas are represented by Sukinda high Mg-basalts (SHMB) and acid volcanics (Saha, 1994). The Malayagiri sequence, as depicted by Ray and Acharyya, 1997, comprises schistose to pebbly quartzite/conglomerate and quartz- schists with interlayers of meta ultramafites in the basal part followed successively by BIF, metapelites and meta- ultramafites.

The BIF-bearing supracrustal sequence of Deogarh area is exposed in the southwestern part of the EIC and has been studied by GSI extensively for several years (Mazumder, 1996). The sequence overlies a migmatitic granite-gneiss basement (with enclaves of tonalitic gneisses) with a basal polymictic conglomerate and comprises quartzite, cherty quartzite with mica schist, phyllite, metapelite, psammopelite, metavolcanics and BIF. The supracrustal sequence is traversed by linear masses of metapyroxenite and metagabbro. Microgranitic rocks, showing frequent gradations to sub-volcanic variants intrude the sequence. The volcanic package in the sequence is represented by high magnesia basalt (HMB), tholeiite, andesite, rhyodacite and rhyolite.

Stratigraphic relation between OMG and Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group: OMG rocks, considered to be the oldest supracrustals in the EIC, are exposed mainly in the Champua – Onlajhari areas of Kendujhar and Mayurbhanj districts. The continuous exposures of the Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group

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starts to appear near Jashipur and Raipada. The Singhbhum Granitic Complex occupies the intervening zone between these two supracrustal belts, Recent detailed mapping studies by GSI established the continuation of OMG-rocks across Singhbhum Granite to Gorumahisani – Badampahar area through a chain of mappable xenoliths (Behera et al., 1994; Jena and Behera, 1998). Based on the above finding, Jena and Behera (op.cit) concluded that the supracrustal rocks of Champua (OMG) and Badampahar area (Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group) are temporally correlatable, thus reiterating the earlier opinion of Iyengar and Murty (1982). The OMTG suite shows distinct intrusive relation with OMG supracrustals in the Champua – Onlajhari area.

Archaean-Proterozoic

Lower Bonai Group: The Lower Bonai Group, in its type area in the Bonai – Kendujhar region, exposes BIF-bearing horizons underlain by shale and volcanics (dominantly mafic with relatively minor acid and intermediate types), local dolomitic limestone, siliciclastic sediments and conglomerate. Shale and volcanics overlie the BIF-bearing horizons in this sequence. Recent studies revealed that the BIF-bearing supracrustals of the Bonai – Kendujhar area overlie both Singhbhum and Bonai Granitic Complex with a basal quartz pebble conglomerate (QPC) horizon (Sinha et.al., 1997) disposed in an asymmetric synclinal structure, described as ‘Horse Shoe Syncline’. A thick and extensive mafic volcanic – quartzite sequence flanks the BIF horizon of IOG rocks of Kendujhar – Bonai area (Lower Bonai Group) along its western, southern and eastern parts, is variously designated as Danguaposi Lava (Dunn, 1940; Banerjee, 1982b), Nuakot Volcanics (Iyengar and Murthy, 1982), Malangtoli Lava (Saha, 1994), Nuakot Volcanic Province (Sahu et al., 1998). The basaltic flows of this sequence are in general quartz- normative and encompass the compositional range of tholeiitic basalt – basaltic andesite – andesite (Sahu et al.,op. cit.). The stratigraphic relation of this volcanosedimentary sequence with the IOG sediments of Bonai – Kendujhar area is highly debatable.

Bonai Granitic Complex : The Bonai Granitic Complex occurs to the west of the Singhbhum Granite Complex. These two batholithic complexes are separated by a wide belt (50-70 km) of supracrustal and volcanic rocks of the Iron Ore Supergroup. In areal extent, the

GEOL. SURV. IND

Bonai Granitic Complex is approximately one fifth of the size of the Singhbhum Granitic Complex (Sen, 2001). Essentially a composite granite batholith like the Singhbhum Granitic Complex, the Bonai Granitic Complex comprises mainly trondhjemite – granodiorite – granite with zenolithic enclaves of older trondhjemitic rocks, banded gneisses, metasupracrustals, mafic/ ultramafic rocks, amphibolites and metalavas (Sengupta et al., 1991; Saha, 1994). The Pb-Pb and U-Pb (zircon) age of the xenolithic enclaves of older high Al 2 O 3 trondhjemitic rocks range between 3.38 – 3.34 Ga whereas the younger host trondhjemites gave Pb-Pb age of ca. 3.16 Ga (Sengupta et al., 1991, 1996).

The Granitoids of Deogarh – Pallahara – Bhuban Belt occurring in the south-central and south-western parts of EIC, are variously designated as Pallahara gneisses (Sarkar et al., 1990), Palkam Gneisses (Mahalik, 1994) etc. The granitic gneisses and granitoids of this belt have several features, which distinguish them from the Singhbhum Granitic Complex and its temporal equivalents (Bonai, Nilgiri etc.). These include (i) syenomonzonitic affinity, (ii) presence of amphibole (hornblende, riebeckite) as mafic mineral with/without biotite, (ii) presence of magnetite, allanite, zircon and primary sphene as important accessories (Saha, 1994). The granitoids are often granophyric to microgranitic.

Recent mapping by GSI has revealed the presence of mappable enclaves of biotite-tonalitic gneisses within younger granitoids in the Asanali area of the Deogarh supracrustal belt. The younger granitoids (often microgranitic) in the Deogarh belt are emplaced along major fractures/ductile shear zones and migmatise earlier tonalitic – granodioritic gneisses. Several suites of these younger granitoids, showing distinct intrusive relation to the supracrustal sequences as well as older granitic gneisses, have yielded Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron ages in the range 2.3–2.4 Ga (GSI, unpublished data).?

From a 207 Pb/ 206 Pb (zircon) Ion Microprobe study, Mishra et al., (2000) infer a minimum age of 2.8 Ga for some of the granitic gneisses of Bhuban area. The dated granitic gneisses are reported to contain xenocrystal zircons of ca. 3.5 Ga age and show evidence of zircon overgrowth at ca. 2.48 Ga due to later metasomatic/ metamorphic effects (Mishra et al., op. cit).

Granitic Complex of Northwestern Odisha: In the Keshaibahal – Kuchinda belt of northwestern Odisha,

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MISC. PUB. NO. 30(III)

Panda and Dash (1997) reported the presence of four generations of granitoids. The oldest among these are compositionally tonalitic to granodioritic. The Sambalpur Granite in this belt has been dated by Rb-Sr wholerock isochron method at ca. 2.4 Ga (Choudhury et al., 1996).

Mafic–Ultramafic Complex of Sukinda, Nuasahi:

Major mafic-ultramafic complexes of the EIC are located in the Baula – Nuasahi and Sukinda areas. In addition, several small masses of mafic-ultramafic rocks are intermittently exposed along an arcuate belt in the southeastern marginal zones of the craton. In Baula – Nuasahi area of Kendujhar District, an ultramafic – mafic suite, comprising dunite – peridotite – pyroxenite and gabbro/anorthosite, intrude meta-supracrustals (quartzite – quartz schist) equivalent to the Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group. Granite and dolerite dyke swarm, in turn, intrude the ultramafic – mafic suite. The linear steeply dipping intrusive mass extends for about 3 km in N-S direction with a maximum width of 1 km. The complex comprises an early suite represented by enstatitite/bronzitite, serpentinised dunite, hurzburgite and chromitite and a younger suite of pyroxenite, metagabbro – leucogabbro (with Ti-V magnetite) (Nanda and Patra, 1994). The eastern marginal zones of the complex are brecciated. The complex hosts chromite, vanadium-bearing titaniferous magnetite and noble metal mineralization (Mukherjee, 1958, 1969; Auge et al., 1999). The noble metal (PGE) mineralization in the complex is confined to the brecciated zones; the brecciation of the ultramafic rocks has been induced by gabbro intrusion (Auge et al., op. cit). The gabbroic rocks of the complex (Bangur Gabbro) have yielded zircon (SHRIMP) age of 3122 ± 5 Ma making the Baula PGE mineralization as one of the oldest in the world (Auge et al., 2003). Auge et al., (op.cit) correlated the gabbro- anorthosites of this area with the Mayurbhanj Gabbro- Anorthosites.

Located in the Jajpur – Dhenkanal districts, the Sukinda Complex occurs as a ~ 20 km long and 2-5 km wide body trending ENE-WSW from Kansa to Maruabil. The complex is emplaced as a concordant mass within metasupracrustals of Tomka – Daitari – Mahagiri belt and is stated to form synformal structure in the host rocks (Banerjee, 1972; Chakrabarti et al., 1980). Basu et al., (1997) considered the complex to be an integral part of the metasupracrustal, volcano-sedimentary sequence of Iron Ore Group. The intrusion comprises magnesite-

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bearing serpentinised ultramafics (dunite-peridotite) with chromitite and pyroxenite and a major source of chromitite ore and the complex hosts six fairly thick (10-40m) chromite seams. High degree of lateritisation of the ultramafic rocks of the complex has given rise to a nickeliferous laterite cover. The complex is intruded by granitoids of ca. 2.3 Ga age (GSI, unpub. data) and dolerite dykes.

Page et al., (1985) opined that the Baula – Nuasahi and Sukinda complexes have ophiolitic affinity. Bose (2002) envisaged arc-type magmatism to explain the lithotectonic milieu of the mafic-ultramafic complexes.

Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex : Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex is a composite mass of Archaean (?) to undifferentiated Proterozoic age and comprises mainly granite gneiss, migmatites and composite gneiss with enclaves of para and ortho metamorphites, dolerite dykes and veins of pegmatite, aplite and quartz. A vast stretch of adjacent Jharkhand state is occupied by this gneissic complex and a small part of it extends southward and occupies the northwestern part of Odisha in contact with Gangpur Group of rocks.The para metamorphites include crystalline limestone, calc-granulite,calc-silicate rocks and mica schist whereas the orthometamorphites are represented by hornblende schist, metagabbro, anorthosite, metapyroxenite, metanorite, pyroxene granulite, etc. The rocks of this complex generally trend in NE-SW to ENE-WSW with moderate (40 ° -50 ° ) dips towards north.

Proterozoic (Undifferentiated)

Gabbro - anorthosite Complex : In Gorumahisani area of Mayurbhanj district, flanking the Simlipal Complex, gabbro-anorthositic rocks are reported. These are reported to intrude the meta supracrustal rocks of the Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group as well as the Singhbhum Granitic Complex (Saha et al., 1977; Chakrabarty et al., 1981). Auge et al., (2003) correlated the gabbro-anorthosites of this belt to the 3.122 Ma old Bangur Gabbro of Baula area.

Newer Dolerite Suite of Dyke Swarms: Mafic dyke swarms constitute an important lithologic component in the EIC and occur extensively in Singhbhum, Kendujhar and Mayurbhanj districts of Jharkhand and Odisha. Dunn and Dey (1942) coined the term ‘Newer Dolerite’ to collectively denote these dyke swarms,

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which according to them represented the youngest stratigraphic unit in the terrain. The dykes are represented mainly by dolerites and gabbros, though minor ultramafic, noritic and granophyric dykes are also reported. The dykes show broadly four orientations, viz., NE-SW, NW-SE, N-S and E-W of which the first two are more common (Guha, 1963). Saha et al., (1973) distinguished three petrogenetic types in the ‘Newer Dolerite’ suite viz., (i) accumulates (ultramafic and noritic dykes), (ii) products of direct crystallization (dolerite – gabbro) and (iii) products of partial melting (leucogranophyric dykes). Reported K-Ar ages of the dykes range from 923-2144 Ma (Sarkar et al., 1969; Sarkar and Saha, 1977; Mallick and Sarkar, 1994). Mallick and Sarkar (1994) inferred three periods of mafic dyke activity at 2100 ± 100 Ma, 1500 ± 10 Ma and 1100 ± 200 Ma. Verma and Prasad (1974) inferred the presence of at least three generations of mafic dykes from palaeomagnetic studies. Available data thus suggest multiple generations of mafic dyke activity in the EIC. It may be noted that different generations of dykes have distinct geochemical signatures (Mallick and Sarkar,

1994).

Palaeo Proterozoic

Upper Bonai Group : The supracrustal sequences, lying west of the Bonai Granitic Complex, was mapped and described by Prasad Rao et al., (1964) and Ramachandran and Raju (1982). Though subsequently

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studied by many workers, the basic stratigraphic framework provided by the earlier workers has remained unchanged. The lithostratigraphy of the various units in this belt is given in Table – 2.

Three groups of supracrustals occur in the area intervened by unconformities and intrusive and/or extrusive granitic activity. The rocks belonging to the oldest sequence (Group – I) are intruded by components of Bonai Granitic Complex and are correlated with the Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group. Enclaves of these rocks abound in the Bonai Granitic Complex. The Group-II supracrustals rest over the Bonai granitoids as well as the Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group with a pronounced polymictic basal conglomerate with pebbles of fuchsite quartzite, banded chert, heamatite jasper and basic rocks (Ramachandran and Raju, 1982). This sequence lacks BIF and is designated as the Upper Bonai Group. The Group – II or the Upper Bonai Group defines a northerly plunging synformal structure (Ramachandran and Raju, op. cit). They observed that the synformal fold is a syncline as it contains youngest bed at the core. The Upper Bonai Group of supracrustals are intruded by granite (Tamparkola) – acid volcanic association (ca.2.8 Ga old).

The Group – III sequence overlies the Group – II rocks with a faulted contact for the most part and is reported to show progressive Barrovian metamorphic zones from south to north and finally merges with the Gangpur Group

Table – 2: Lithostratigraphy of rocks occurring west of Bonai Granitic Complex (Modified after Ramachandran and Raju, 1982)

Group – III

Garnet – staurolite bearing argillaceous schists with calc-silicate/calc-gneiss rocks; carbon phyllites – quartzites ——————————————————— Unconformity ———————————————— Granite – acid volcanics (Tamparkola)

Group – II

Ultrabasic/basic sills and dykes Lava flows and tuffs Ferruginous shale Intraformational conglomerate Meta lavaIntercalated argillaceous and arenaceous sedimentsBasal conglomerate ——————————————————— Unconformity ———————————————— Granitoids of the Bonai Complex

Group – I

Sheared quartz reefs Metabasic/ultrabasic intrusives Metavolcanics (metalava, chlorite-schist, amphibolite etc.) Fuchsite quartzite, quartz-schist, mica-schists Base not seen

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of rocks and post-dates intrusion of Tamparkola granitoids (Ramachandran and Raju, op.cit). The Group – III rocks, representing transition between the cratonic Upper Bonai Group (correlated with Dhanjori sequence) and the Gangpur Group of mobile zone are correlated with the lower horizons (Chaibasa Formation) of the Singhbhum Group. Mahalik (1987) combined all the lithologies lying above Bonai Granite (including Group – III supracrustals) under Darjing Group.

Dhanjori Group : The Dhanjori volcanosedimentary sequence (Dunn and Dey, 1942) is located in the NNE edge of the EIC. The sequence comprises a lower formation (Lower Dhanjori Formation) dominated by metapelites with volcanogenic components followed upwards by quartzite and conglomerate. The Lower Dhanjori Formation is intruded by mafic-ultramafic intrusives and interlayered with acid volcanics and intermittent Au-W-U bearing quartz pebble conglomerate (QPC) bands (Gupta et al., 1985). The predominantly volcanic Upper Dhanjori formation comprises high-Mg volcaniclastic, basaltic komatiite, alkali olivine basalt overlain by low-K tholeiitic metabasalt (Gupta et al., op.cit). The type sequence of Dhanjori Group is confined within the geographical limits of the State of Jharkhand. Iyengar and Anand Alwar, (1965) opined that the Dhanjori Group of rocks overlie the Iron Ore Supergroup of rocks and are correlatable with the Simlipal Group.

Simlipal Group: Volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Simlipal basin has spectacular circular map pattern. This large basin overlies the Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group in its type area and is isolated from the Dhanjori basin by the Mayurbhanj Granite batholith. The sequence starts with a basal conglomerate and a dark phyllite succeeded by a zone of volcanic breccia, spilitic lava and tuff intercalated with quartzite. In this basin, volcanism was interspersed with sedimentation. The volcanic rocks in the basin are represented mainly by spilitic lava of ocean-floor affinity and extensive acid volcanics. The volcanics alternating with siliciclastic sediments are intruded by mafic-ultramafic intrusives. A highly differentiated ~ 800 m thick sill (Amjhori Sill) (dunite – peridotite – picrite – gabbro – quartz diorite) occurs at the centre of the basin (Iyengar and Banerjee, 1964; Iyengar et al., 1964; Iyengar and Anand Alwar, 1965; Iyengar et al., 1981a).

Singhbhum Group : The Singhbhum Group,

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represented by a lower arenaceous and an upper arenaceous to argillaceous and carbonaceous metasedimentary sequence unconformably overlying the Dhanjori and Gorumahisani Groups, occupy a very small portion at the northeastern border of Odisha. This group of metasediments of Singhbhum Mobile Belt is actually best developed in the north, covering a large area of adjoining Singhbhum district of Jharkhand State. The basal conglomerate contains pebbles of fuchsite quartzite, banded grey white chert, haematite-jasper and basic rocks. In addition, there are four intraformational conglomerate beds at different stratigraphic levels of this sequence. A crustal-scale ductile shear zone(Singhbhum shear zone) with polymetallic mineralization (specially copper) has affected the Singhbhum, Dhanjori and Gorumahisani Group of rocks and running in an arcuate E-W to NW-SE direction entered into the Mayurbhanj district of Odisha with a southeasterly swing and died down into the alluvium to the south of Kesharpur(22 ° 07 :

85 ° 41 ) . In Odisha, this group of rocks is represented by conglomerate, quartzite, mica schist, phyllite, garnetiferous phyllite, hornblende schist and epidiorite with repeated cycle of sedimentation forming several bands of same rock formation in different stratigraphic horizons. These rocks are disposed in a NNW - SSE to N-S trends with moderate to high angle (45 ° - 65 ° ) dip towards east and form a major northerly plunging synform around the syntectonic Romapahari Granite as its core at Kesharpur- Dudhiasol –Madansahi copper prospect. Both the rocks of core and limbs bear the imprints of shearing and faulting. Intrusive and extrusive igneous activities, represented by meta ultramafic and mafic sills and dykes (now amphibolite) are also recorded in this sequence. Proterozoic Singhbhum Group stratigraphically correlatable with the Gangpur Group, have signatures of polyphase deformation, metamorphism and crustal reworking.

Gangpur Group : In the northwestern part of Odisha,

a Group of psammopelite and calcareous metasediments

with a basal sheared conglomerate is found to unconformably overlie the Lower Bonai Group forming

a conspicuous hill range all along its southern boundery

and was described as Gangpur Series by Krishnan(1937). This group of metaspracrustals belonging to Singhbhum-Gangpur Mobile Belt of Lower Proterozoic age include a sequence of arenaceous, carbonaceous, calcareous,and argillaceous rocks. The

basal conglomerate which marks an erosional unconformity is designated as Raghunathpally

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conglomerate and contains pebbles of vein quartz,grey quartzite, and carbonaceous quartzite. Earlier, the Gangpur Group of rocks were believed to be folded into a sigmoidal anticlinorium plunging eastward (Krishnan, 1937) and were overlain by the Iron Ore Series of rocks of Jones(1934). Subsequent studies (Banerjee, 1968; Kanungo and Mahalik, 1967, 1975) revealed that the Gangpur Group of rocks are disposed in a synclinorium and is younger than the Iron Ore Group.However recently published geological quadrangle map (GQM) of 73 B confirms the fold to be synclinal synclinorium. The basal conglomerate band is succeeded upward by mica schists and phyllites containing thin bands and lenses of Gondite. The carbonaceous and calcareous beds occurring more or less continuously in definite horizon form the lithostratigraphic marker horizons. The carbonaceous rocks with small lenses of banded magnetite quartzite are invaded by basic sills at several places, represented by epidiorite, amphibolite, and talc chlorite schist. The revised lithostratigraphic succession of the Gangpur Group as established by GSI in the Sundargarh District of Odisha (Banerjee, 1968) is given below:

Dublabera Dolomite

Jharbera carbonaceous phyllite and quartzite

Mica schist and Gondites

Kumarmunda banded carbonaceous quartzite

Grey and purple phyllite and quartzite

Birmitrapur – Lanjiberna Limestone and dolomite

Laingar carbon-quartz phyllite

Katang Limestone and dolomite

Mica-schist and quartzite

Raghunathpalli Conglomerate

Based on the palaeocurrent data of the Gangpur rocks,Kanungo and Mahalik (1975) suggested that the sediments are transported from the southern cratonic domain. The palaeoslope directions reported for both the Gangpur and Singhbhum Groups indicate northerly sediment transport from south (see Mazumder, 1978 and the references therein). The Gangpur Group is correlated with the Singhbhum Group (Annon, 1974). Structural studies by Chaudhuri et al., (1980) indicated that the tectonic history of the Gangpur Group is similar to that of the Chaibasa Formation (lower stratigraphic horizon of the Singhbhum Group). This justifies the correlation of the Gangpur Group with the Singhbhum Group rather than considering it to be homotaxial with the Kolhans as postulated by Iyenger and Murthy (1982).

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Mafic sills and dykes and several small stocks of S- type Neoproterozoic granitoids (Etma, Ekma, Timna etc.) intrude the Gangpur Group of rocks. The rocks bear evidence of multiple deformation and metamorphism resulting in disruption of earlier fold geometry and thermal metamorphism of surrounding sediments . Banerjee (1968) envisaged at least two episodes of prograde metamorphism: the first one leading to the development of garnet-bearing assemblages. Development of staurolite is attributed to contact metamorphism induced by later intrusion of granitoids. The S-type granitoids intruding the Gangpur Group have yielded (Rb-Sr isochron )ages within the range 1000- 800 Ma (Pandey et al., 1998).

Dhanjori Lava : In Odisha small exposures of Dhanjori lava are occurring in the north eastern part of EIC, south of Rakha (Jharkhand), adjacent to eastern part of Singhbhum Granite and northern part of Mayurbhanj Granite. They are underlain by quartzites and metapelites of Dhanjori Group. At places the lavas are interbedded with grey sericite phyllite .The Dhanjori lavas are fine grained epidiorite,which is a fine grained hornblende rock with little quartz, occasional feldspar,and abundant epidote, and chlorite. Leucoxene are also noticed in some cases.Sometimes the hornblende is tremolitic. The rocks are vesicular-amygdaloidal, the amygdules are formed by epidote, chlorite,calcite and chalcedony. The Dhanjori lavas and interbedded tuffs are sheared and metamorphosed to hornblende schist and biotite schist along the shear zone. From petrological point of view the Dhanjori lava shows a close similarity with Dalma volcanics and they are thought to be nearly contemporaneous (Saha,1994). The Dhanjori metavolcanics are essentially tholeiitic in composition (Dunn and Dey,1942),while Gupta et al(1985) grouped the Dhanjori metavolcanics into two units i.e a) Mafic- ultramafic high –Mg vitric tuff and b)Low K tholeiite with locally alkali rich olivine basalt.

Bonai Lava (Malangtoli Lava): The thick and extensive mafic volcanic rocks flanking the Iron ore Group of rocks of the ‘Horse Shoe Synclinorium’ of Bonai-Keonjhar region, along its western and southern parts are designated as Bonai lava (Malongtoli lava). The volcanics/lavas are exposed over 800 sq. Km. area (Saha, 1994) to the west of Kendujhargarh and the north of Palalahara (21 28’ : 85 15’). The lavas are in general quartz-normative tholeiitic basalts – basaltic andesite – anderite in composition. The lavas are vesicular and the

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vesicles are filled up by quartz, chlorite – zeolite and chert. The lavas are, at places, intercalated with shale and is associated with ash beds and agglomeratic rocks.

Close interbedded / intercalated relationship of lava and shale probably indicates a sub aqueous origin for the lava.

Dangoaposi / Jagannathpur Lava : An area of about 200 sq. Km. lying south of Jagannathpur at the Jharkhand – Odisha border and at the NE corner of Horse Shoe is occupied by Synclinorium composed of extensive flat lying lava flows – designated as Jagannathpur / Dangoaposi Lava, which are very weakly metamorphosed, locally basaltic rocks of having tholeiitic, andesitic in composition. The bulk composition of the basaltic rock is andesite tholeiite with differentiates of oligoclase andesites.

Saha (1994) on the basis of major element chemistry and disposition opined that they represent continental setting of eruption. The K-Ar whole rock date (1629 + 39 Ma) of Jagannathpur lava is probably suggestive of contemporaneity of the metamorphism of Dalma and Jagannathpur lava suites (Saha, 1994).

Mayurbhanj Granite : Mayurbhanj Granite represents a composite granite batholith occurring along the eastern fringe of the EIC, flanking the Simlipal complex . The batholith comprises three phases. In order of emplacement, these are:

a) a fine-grained, homophanous, biotite-hornblende bearing granite with granophyric texture, representing the main Mayurbhanj Granite body occurring along the northwestern and southeastern margin of the Simlipal basin, A suite of Mayurbhanj Granite has yielded a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of ca. 2.08 ± 0.7 Ga (Iyengar et al., 1981 b). The 207 Pb/ 206 Pb zircon ages (Ion Microprobe) of the granite are reported to be much higher, viz., :

Phase – I : 3092 ± 5 Ma and Phase – II : 3080 ± 8 Ma (Mishra et al., 1999). According to them this age may be considered as the time of broad stabilization of Singhbhum Craton. b) a coarse grained, occasionally foliated and gneissose ferrohastingsite-biotite granite designated as Bhuasani Granite occurring as an elliptical body of an area around 15 sq. km at the northeastern corner of the Simlipal complex in the

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Chakdar pahar area( 22 ° 00 ;86 ° 30 ).It is a solitary composite mass of sodagranite, considered to be an offshoot of Mayurbhanj Granite,composed of very fine grained matrix of quartz and feldspar,(Iyengar,1956). Subsequent study revealed that the body is a composite one with a core of moderately coarse ferrohastingsite-biotite granite with granophyric textures enveloped by aplitic leucogranite (Saha,1994). c) a N-S elongated granite body designated as Romapahari Granite occurring at the northeastern extremity of Odisha state and at the Odisha-West Bengal border and west of Baharagora. It is fine grained, composed mostly of microcline perthite,quartz and oligoclase. Biotite is mostly altered and marginally granulated . Saha, (1994) defined it as biotite aplogranite.The Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of the Romapahari Granite is found to be 1895±46 Ma (Saha,Op cit). These granitic rocks, having ‘A’type geochemical affinity, are reported to show intrusive relations with Singhbhum Granite, Iron Ore Supergroup, Dhanjori Group, Singhbhum Group and the gabbro-norite- anorthosite suite of rocks (Saha et al., 1984).

Tamparkola Granite – Acid Volcanics : The granite

– acid volcanics suite of Tamparkola crop out as a

roughly ovoid body just west of the Upper Bonai sequence in western Odisha. The suite comprises amphibole-bearing microgranite-granophyre – medium

– grained granite along with rhyolitic volcanics. This

silicic volcano-plutonic assemblage intrudes the older Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group of supracrustals as well as the younger Upper Bonai sequence. The microgranitic suite from this association has yielded a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of ca. 2.78 Ga (GSI, unpub. data). In situ Pb-Pb (zircon) dating by Ion Microprobe revealed the following ages : granite : 2809 ± 8 Ma, rhyolite : 2836 ± 67 (Bandopadhyay et al., 2001).

Kolhan Group : The Kolhan Group is represented by an undeformed platformal sequence comprising basal polymictic conglomerate, fine to medium grained purple quartzite-sandstone, gritty quartzite with some shale- slate and minor limestone. The type area of this group lies in Jharkhand state, north of Koira area. Only a few patchy exposures of this group, occurring as outliers, have been mapped in the Koira area of Odisha. The polymictic conglomerate at the base contains pebbles of banded iron formation, quartzite, vein quartz and at

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places iron ore. The pebbles in the Kolhan basal conglomerates indicate that the sequence was deposited as a platformal cover sediment over a basement comprising the Singhbhum Granite and the Iron Ore Supergroup of rocks. The outlier, occurring to the east of Roida on Durgaparbat (toposheet 73 F/8), is the largest exposure of Kolhan sequence (~1sq. km) so far mapped in the Odisha state.

Bastar Craton

Part of the eastern marginal zone of the Bastar Craton is exposed in western Odisha. This cratonic crustal strip is bounded by the Mahanadi graben in the northeast and the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt in the east and southeast. The major lithostratigraphic components of the Bastar Craton, exposed in parts of western Odisha are : Archean supracrustals of the Bengpal and Bailadila Groups, granite gneisses and granitoids ranging in age from Neo archaean to Palaeoproterozoic, a wide variety of post-tectonic silicic intrusives with alkaline affinity, mafic/ultramafic rocks and several Meso- Neoproterozoic sequences of platformal sediments. Agewise (starting from Archaean) synoptic geological accounts of the major litho-stratigraphic components of the Bastar Craton are presented below.

Archaean

Archaean Supracrustals : The Archean supracrustal assemblages of the Bastar Craton are divisible into three major lithostratigraphic units. In order of younging, these are represented by Sukma, Bengpal and Bailadila Groups (Crookshank, 1963; Ramakrishnan, 1990). Mappable exposures of supracrustal rocks belonging to the Sukma and Bailadila Groups are not reported from western Odisha. However, a small outcrop of interbanded quartzite and banded heamatite quartzite (BHQ), possibly belonging to the Bailadila Group, is recorded in the Hirapur hills.

A group of low grade volcano-sedimentary rocks exposed as small lenses and bands and also as long linear

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bands within the granite gneiss-migmatite country at the southwestern part of Odisha near the border with Chhattisgarh are called Bengpal Group after the name of a small village Bengpal (18 ° 08; 81 ° 11 ) in Chhattisgarh from where they were first described. A major outcrop of Bengpal Group of rocks is noted in the Tulsi Dongar Hill Range area. The Bengpal Group of rocks are represented by phyllite, quartz-sericite schist, feldspathic quartzite,mica schist, andalusite schists and gneiss,grunerite gneiss,BMQ,BHQ, amphibolites, ultrabasic rocks, talc-tremolite-chlorite schist . These are considered to be equivalents of the rocks of Iron Ore Super Group (Gorumahisani Group) because of their similarity in lithological assemblage by iron bearing sediments with metavolcanic sequence and their age has been considered to be Archaean. The Bengpal group of rocks are exposed mostly in Chhattisgarh and a small part has been extended to Odisha.

Archaean- Proterozoic

Granite-gneisses and Granites : The cratonic crustal strip in western Odisha represent the immediate cratonic foreland to the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt. Granite gneisses and granitoids constitute a significant lithologic component in this zone. The granitic gneisses are represented by epidote-hornblende-bearing fissile gneisses, hornblende-biotite gneisses, biotite-gneisses, feldspathised pink porphyroblastic granite gneisses and banded migmatitic gneisses. The granitic rocks are generally massive and contain amphibole and/or biotite as mafic minerals. In contrast to the largely per- aluminous EGMB granitoids, these granitoids are largely metaluminous and lack garnet. Granitoids of Neoarchean(?) and Palaeoproterozoic ages are reported from this zone (Table-3).

Proterozoic

Alkaline and Ultramafic Rocks : In the Khariar – Paikmal – Padampur segment of western Odisha, several post-tectonic dykes of granophyre, microgranite,

Table – 3. Isotopic ages of granitoids in the cratonic zone of western Odisha

Granitoids

Age/method

References

1. Granitic gneisses, west of Kolab

2. Pujariguda granite

3. Cholanguda granite

2.67 Ga (Rb-Sr WRI) 2.11 Ga (Rb-Sr WRI) 2.30 Ga

Sarkar et al., (1994 a,b.c,d) Pandey et al., (1989) Pandey et al., (1989)

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analcime-bearing syenite, syenite, monzo syenite grading to garnet – hornblende – biotite albite syenite are recorded within granitic gneisses of Bastar Craton close to the EGMB. The rocks are unmetamorphosed and locally display chilled margins and flow structures. In the same belt, ultramafic rocks (harzburgite, Iherzolite) intruding granitic gneisses are also reported (Nanda et al., 2000). In the Bhela – Rajna area of Nuapara District, Pattanaik (1996) reported an epizonal to sub-volcanic igneous complex comprising silica-oversaturated alkaline rocks of ‘A’ type magmatic lineage, the emplacement of which was controlled by N-S trending crustal fractures. Pattanaik and Mishra (2000) envisaged linkage between developments of crustal fracture, emplacement of the alkaline complex and graben formation related to deposition of the sediments in Khariar basin.

Meso-Neoproterozoic

Chhattisgarh Supergroup : Five disconnected exposures of Meso-Neoproterozoic platformal/cover sediments belonging to Chhattisgarh Supergroup are exposed in western Odisha . Some of these represent the eastern and southeastern edges of larger basins, which lie to the west in the Chhattisgarh State. Ball (1877) considered these to be parts of a single continuous basin.

The lithounits of Chhattisgarh Supergroup occurring within Chhattisgarh Basin represents multiple cycles of sedimentation (Das et al., 1992; Das et al., 2001)and covers extensive areas in southern Chhattisgarh and also extend into the adjoining Odisha State. The southeastern and easternmost margins of the main basin, comprising respectively, the lithocomponents of the oldest Singhora and Barapahar protobasins, are exposed in Odisha. In the Barapahar area of Odisha, nearly 1000 m thick sedimentary pile is exposed (Pascoe, 1973) and the sediments are intensely folded and faulted. The eastern margin of the basin shows faulted contact with the Gondwana sediments along Mahanadi lineament and the EGMB. The sequence in the Singhora protobasin has been subdivided into four formations, which essentially represent alternations of arenaceous and argillaceous horizons. The arenaceous formations mainly consist of feldspathic sandstone, quartzite, siltstone, shale and limestone whereas the argillaceous formations are represented by calcareous shale of purple to reddish- brown colour. The evidence of syndepositional volcanic

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activity is noted in the Singhora protobasin (Chakraborti, 1997; Das et al., 2001).

The elongated oval-shaped Khariar Basin covers

a total area of more than 1500 sq.km in parts of

Chhattisgarh and Odisha states. The eastern margin of

the basin, bordered by the EGMB in Odisha, is structurally disturbed. In Odisha, the sedimentaries lie over the granitoids of Bengpal Group with a pronounced unconformity. The sedimentary sequence of the Khariar

– Nawagarh Plateau, comprising dominantly arenites

with argillites and calcareous intercalations (with stromatolites), is formally designated as Pairi Group

and is divided into six formations (Das et al., 2001). In Odisha, the sedimentary sequence attain a maximum thickness of 700 m and comprises a lower sequence of gravel-sandstone-subarkose with thin shale intercalations and disseminations of glauconite pellets, a middle sequence of rhythmic pebble-gravel beds and sandstone and an upper sequence of alternate bands of cross-bedded subarkose and wave-ripple marked sandstone (Srivastava, 1997). Srivastava (op. cit) designated the sequence in Odisha as Khariar Group and correlated

it with the Chandarpur Group of Chhattisgarh

Supergroup of Murti, (1996) and Singhora Group Chandrapur Group of Das et al., (1992). The kimberlite diatremes, occurring beyond the western margin of the basin in Chhattisgarh state, are reported to contain xenoliths of Khariar sediments implying their post- Khariar emplacement.

A sedimentary basin located just south of the Khariar basin and west of Ampani (Ampani Basin) is occurring as an outlier of approximately 220 sq.km area. The eastern margin of the basin is marked by a NNE-SSW trending boundary fault along which the basement gneisses as well as the overlying sedimentaries display effects of shearing. The sequence comprises gritty conglomerate at the base followed upwards by sandstone, siltstone and purple-coloured shale with calcareous bands (Balakrishnan and Babu, 1987). Dutt (1963,1964) considered the Ampani sequence to be a part of Chhattisgarh – Indravati master basin and correlated with Upper Kurnool. Balkrishnan and Babu

(op. cit) opined that the Ampani sediments are equivalent

to Chandrapur Group of Chhattisgarh Supergroup. Dutt

(1963) proposed the name ‘Indravati Series’ for a

sequence of sedimentaries of Bastar and adjoining parts

of Odisha after the name of the river draining the largest

exposure where the entire sequence is exposed. The

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sequence was later redesignated as Indravati Group (Sharma, 1975). Bulk of the roughly quadrangle-shaped Indravati basin (~ 900 sq.km) fall in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh State; only the eastern part of the basin is exposed in Odisha. The southeastern margin of this craton-marginal basin displays a pronounced tectonic contact with the EGMB.

The Indravati sequence comprises conglomerate, sandstone, shale, limestone and stromatolitic dolomite. Ramakrishnan (1987) divided the sequence into four formations, viz., the lowermost Tirathgarh Formation followed upwards by Chitrakut Formation, Kanger Limestone and Jagdalpur Formation. The basinal rocks are nearly flat-lying with low dips towards the centre of the basin. The sequence is intruded by kimberlite pipes in Bastar area of Chhattisgarh State.

The eastern margin of the triangular-shaped Sabari Basin (~ 700 sq.km) (Ghosh, 1934) is exposed in extreme southwestern part of Odisha. The sedimentary sequence, correlatable with the Indravati Group, comprises a basal conglomerate and quartzite followed upwards by purple shale, limestone and interbands of shale and phyllite.

Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt

The Eastern Ghats constitute a major Precambrian Mobile Belt of the Peninsular India designated as Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB). It extends for over 1000 km from Odisha to southeastern parts of Andhra Pradesh along the east coast of the Indian Peninsula, representing one of the most highly deformed and metamorphosed crustal segment of the Indian Shield. The belt is widest in Odisha (~ 300 km) and covers the major part of southern Odisha. The Gohira – Sukinda shear/thrust belt, separates it from the Eastern Indian Craton lying to the north. The eastern margin of the belt is truncated by Bay of Bengal. The western margin of the belt has a thrusted contact with the Bastar Craton. It is characterized by a distinctive association of garnetiferous graphite bearing sillimanite schist and gneiss (khondalite) and large masses of charnockite within a garnetiferous granite gneiss - migmatite country. The name khondalite was first coined by T.L. Walkers (1902) after the name of a group of hill tribe “Khonds” who inhabit the area in Kalahandi district. The rocks are dominantly gneissose though schistose variety is also recorded to occur with graphite and mostly they form

GEOL. SURV. IND

lofty linear hill ranges extending roughly NE-SW. Though 20% of the total hard rock area of the State of Odisha is covered by the rocks of the Eastern Ghat, a typical section exposing all the lithounits of both Khondalite and Charnockite groups is rare.

The rock types in the EGMB are thus represented by the following major rock associations, viz.,

1. Khondalite Group of rocks

2. Charnockite Group of rocks

3. Mafic granulites

4. Meta-ultramafic rocks

5. Migmatitic granitic gneisses/leptynites/granitoids

6. Plutonic alkaline complexes

7. Massif-type anorthosite complexes

A broad lithological zonation is noted in the belt (Narayanaswamy, 1975; Ramakrishnan et al., 1998). In the Odisha sector, from east to west, these zones are the Eastern Khondalite Zone, Central Migmatite Zone, Western Khondalite Zone, Western Charnockite Zone and the Westernmost Transition Zone (Ramakrishnan et al., op. cit).

The Mahanadi and Godavari rifts divide the EGMB into three segments across its length, viz. (i) northern segment (ii) central segment and (iii) southern segment (Sarkar and Nanda, 1998). Of the above three segments, the northern and part of the central segment lie within the State of Odisha. These segments subtly differ in terms of lithotectonic assemblages and tectonothermal history (Sarkar and Nanda, op. cit., Mezger and Cosca, 1999). The northern segment of EGMB, exposed north of the Mahanadi graben, is bounded by two major WNW-ESE trending shear and/or thrust belts, viz., the Gohira – Sukinda shear-thrust belts in the north and Tikra shear belt in the south. In this segment, the NE-SW regional trend of the central EGMB segment veers to WNW-ESE. The characteristic features of this segment are - dominance of arenaceous facies in the high-grade supracrustal package and presence of charnockite rocks of Late-Archean age (Sarkar et al., 2000). The central segment lies between the Mahanadi and Godavari grabens and a substantial part of this segment lies in southern Odisha. All the massif-type anorthosite complexes of the EGMB are confined within this segment. The Khondalitic Group of metasupracrustals in this segment are locally manganiferous and graphitic. Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonomagmatic activity and

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Pan-African (0.6 ± 0.1 Ga) thermal rejuvenations are other notable features of this segment (Sarkar et al., 1981; Sarkar and Nanda, 1998; Sarkar and Paul, 1998; Mezger and Cosca, 1999). The various lithological assemblages noted in the Odisha sector of the EGMB are broadly divided into three groups viz. Khondalite Group, Charnockite Group and Migmatite Group which are described below.

Archaean-proterozoic

Khondalite Group : The term ‘Khondalite’ was first coined by Walker (1902) to collectively denote a rock suite comprising sillimanite- and garnet-bearing siliceous schists/gneisses (± graphite), associated with garnetiferous quartzite and calc-silicate rocks. The name was given after the ‘Khond’ tribe of the Baudh- Khandmal area of Odisha. Banerjee (1982a) suggested that the term should be used to denote a group rather than a singular rock-type. A useful term for regional mapping purposes, the term Khondalite Group is now used to collectively denote the high-grade metasupracrustal assemblages in the EGMB. These constitute the most abundant lithology in the EGMB. In Odisha, the relative proportion of argillaceous, arenaceous and calcareous components in the Khondalite Group is roughly in the proportion 60:30:10. In addition, Mg-Al rich granulites (with sapphirine) constitute a minor but significant lithologic component of the group. The argillaceous component is essentially a quartz- sillimanite-graphite schist/gneiss. Graphite sometimes occurring in mineable quantities. These schists and gneisses imperceptibly grade into leptynitic gneiss/ granulite with increasing k-feldspar contents suggesting major role of partial melting of metapelitic rocks in their genesis. The arenaceous component in the suite is represented by a variety of narrow, often impersistent, quartzite bands. These include coarse crystalline quartzite, manganiferous quartzite, garnetiferous quartzite, sillimanite-graphite-bearing quartzite, sillimanite-garnet-bearing quartzite etc. The calcareous components in the suite comprise linear masses of calc- silicate rocks and calc-granulites composed mainly of diopside-garnet-scapolite-wollastonite-bearing assemblages.

Traditionally, the khondalitic suite of rocks is considered to be paragneisses (Narayanswami, 1975). Based on a detailed geochemical study of khondalitic suite of Odisha, Dash et al. (1987) concluded that

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khondalites are high-grade equivalents of a deeply weathered soil profile. The intimately associated quartzites and calc-silicate granulites were interpreted to be originally silcretes and calcretes respectively. However, Nanda and Pati (1991) refuted the hypotheses of Dash et al., (op. cit) and reiterated the essentially metasedimentary character of the suite.

Charnockite Group : Several compositional types represent the orthopyroxene-bearing siliceous rocks (quartz – orthopyroxene ± plagioclase ± K-feldspar ± garnet) of EGMB, viz., tonalitic (enderbite), granodioritic (charno-enderbite), adamellitic-granitic (charnockite), monzonitic - quartz-monzonitic (mangerite) and even syenite-quartz-syenitic. The charnockitic rocks represent the second most abundant rock type in the EGMB. Field and geochronological studies suggest the presence of more than one generation of charnockitic rocks in the belt (Sarkar and Paul, 1998; Sarkar et al., 2000). The mode of occurrence is also varied. These rocks form large linear massif as in the Western Charnockite Zone of the belt. Smaller masses such as the Tikri hypersthene syenites (Sarkar and Nanda, 1994) are also noted. From the northern segment of the belt, Archean charnockite massifs (Riamal – Rengali massif), originating from ‘C’-type magma (Kilpatrick and Ellis, 1992) are reported (Sarkar et al., 2000). Nanda and Pati (1998) envisaged ‘C’ –type magmatism for the genesis of the charnockites of the Western Charnockite Zone. In some parts of EGMB in Odisha, minor occurrences of patchy charnockites are noted on granite-gneiss-migmatitic rocks. The mode of genesis of the patchy charnockites, is, however, highly controversial; opposing views range from remnant origin to nascent growth (Halden et al., 1982; Park and Dash, 1984; Nanda, 1994; Bhattacharya et al., 1993; Dobmeier, 2000; Dobmeier and Raith, 2000).

The charnockitic rocks forming large massif, as in the Western Charnockite Zone, are distinctly metaluminous and show distinct calc-alkaline affinity (Nanda and Pati, 1998; Subba Rao et al., 1998). Relatively rare syenitic – monzosyenitic variants even show alkaline affinity (Sarkar and Nanda, 1994). Available data strongly indicate magmatic protoliths for bulk of the charnockitic rocks of the Eastern Ghat belt. The belt is also characterized by the presence of several generations of charnockitic rocks (Sarkar and Paul, 1998; Sarkar et al., 2000) (Table-4), which originated through varied petrological processes.

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Table – 4. Episodic generation of charnockitic rocks in Odisha sector of EGMB (modified after Sarkar et al., 2000)

Occurrences

Age (Ma)

Method

Reference

1. Angul

ca.1000

U/Th-Pb (zircon) -do- Rb-Sr WRI Rb-Sr WRI -do- -do- 207 Pb- 206 Pb (Zircon) (Ion Microprobe) -do-

Aftalion et al., (1989) Paul et al., (1990) Sarkar and Nanda (1994) Shaw et al., (1997) Sarkar et al., (2000) Sarkar et al., (2000) Bhattacharya et al., (2001)

2. Phulbani

ca. 1000

3. Tikri

970 ± 30

4. Rayagada

ca. 1000

5. Riamal

2743 ± 103

6. Rengali

2735 44

7. Jenapore

2814 – 3044

8. Chilka Lake

Ca. 1000

Bhattacharya et al., (2002)

Two-pyroxene bearing mafic granulites (± garnet) are ubiquitous in the EGMB. These generally occur as linear concordant masses within the khondalitic and charnockitic suite of rocks and are regarded by most workers as mafic sills/dykes and flows (Sarkar and Paul, 1998 and references therein). Generally tholeiitic in composition, the mafic granulites from Odisha show geochemical affinity with island arc or MORB tholeiites (Bowes and Dash, 1992; Nanda and Pati, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1994 a). Granulites having intermediate silica contents and andesitic chemistry represent a relatively minor but significant component in the belt (Crookshank, 1938; Sarkar, 1994). Mafic granulites of Rayagada area have been dated by Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron method at ca. 1.46 Ga (Shaw et al., 1997). Meta-ultramafic rocks generally occur as highly deformed, boudinaged, concordant masses within khondalite and charnockite suite of rocks and are generally more abundantly distributed in the Western Charnockite Zone of the belt (Nanda and Pati, 1994; Sarkar et al., 1994 b). Unmetamorphosed spinel-Iherzolite and olivine-bearing websterite bodies are reported to intrude mafic granulites close to the interface between the EGMB and the Gondwana Supergroup of rocks near Kiakata in Angul district (Patra et al., 1996).

Migmatite Group : Migmatite Group consisting of migmatitic garnetiferous granitic gneisses and siliceous granulites (leptynites), next to khondalitic and charnockitic rocks, occupy large tracts of the Eastern Ghats in Odisha. These are the most dominant lithology in the Central Migmatite Zone of the belt. Two major types of gneisses are noted, hornblende-biotite bearing granitic gneisses with garnet and hypersthene (resulting from the migmatisation of earlier orthogneisses and charnockitic rocks) and garnetiferous quartzofeldspathic gneisses with biotite and sillimanite (leptynitic para- gneiss). The second type of gneisses are strongly

peraluminous and has strong S-type affinity. Field relations and structural studies suggest several generations of granitic leucosomes in the belt are generated by partial melting of pelitic rocks during major thermal events (Halden et al., 1982; Sarkar et al., 1989). S-type granite plutons, developed in response to major partial melting events, are noted in several parts of EGMB in Odisha. Several occurrences of migmatitic granitic rocks and granitoids have been dated and belong to Neoproterozoic (Angul: 956-1159 Ma, Aftalion et al., 1989; Sankarda granite: 1000 Ma, Ludu Ludi migmatitic granites: ca. 800 Ma, Harbhangi migmatitic gneiss: ca. 880 Ma, Sarkar et al., 1994 a; Chilka lake: 913 Ma, Bhattacharya et al., 2002). Shaw et al., (1997) reported Mesoproterozoic Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age (ca. 1.4 Ga) for some leptynitic rocks of Rayagada area.

Several Alkaline Plutonic rocks / complexes are reported to occur as intrusives in the EGMB of Odisha sector. These intrusives are characteristically confined along the western and northern peripheral zones, viz., Koraput (Walker, 1908, Bose, 1970); Khariar (Srinivasachari and Balakrishnan, 1973; Madhavan and Khurram, 1989); Baradangua (Bhattacharya, 1964; Sahu, 1976; Das and Acharya, 1997); Rairakhol (Panda et al., 1993); Kankarakhol – Lodhajhari (Rath et al., 1998). In the 32 km-long arcuate Kankarakhol – Lodhajhari belt, located along the northern marginal zone of the EGMB in Deogarh District, 19 small isolated masses of alkaline rocks have been reported (Rath et al., op. cit). The rock assemblages in the alkaline complexes are given in Table-5. In all the occurrences, undersaturated nepheline- bearing syenites constitute the most dominant rock member.

The alkali syenite rocks are miaskitic (with agpaitic index consistently <1). The emplacements of the intrusions are tectonically controlled and follow the

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Table – 5. Alkaline complexes in the Odisha sector of the EGMB

Alkaline complexes

Rock assemblages

References

1. Kankrakhol – Lodhajhari

Hornblende syenite, biotite syenite, hornblende -biotite syenite and nepheline syenite (hornblende and/or biotite)

Rath et al., (1998)

2. Baradangua

Nepheline syenite (Biotite)

Bhattacharya (1964), Sahu (1976); Das and Acharya

(1997)

3. Rairakhol

Nepheline syenite (hornblende and/or biotite), syenite, quartz-syenite)

Panda et al., (1993, 1998)

4. Koraput

Alkali gabbro, calc-alkali syenite, perthite syenite, nepheline syenite (amphibole and/or biotite), alkali granite

Walker (1908), Bose (1970)

5. Khariar

Gabbro, essexite, shonkinite, malignite, nepheline syenite (pyroxene, pyroxene+ amphibole, amphibole, biotite)

Srinivaschari and Balakrishnan (1973), Sahu (1980), Madhavan and Khurram (1989)

major lineament zones. Available isotopic age data on the alkaline complexes in the Odisha sector of the EGMB are given in Table-6.

The low initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the alkaline rock suites (I Sr ) ranging from 0.70286 – 0.70347 imply their derivation from mantle-derived melts. Available age data suggest episodic generation of alkaline rocks in the belt (Sarkar and Paul, 1998).

Various occurrences of massif-type anorthosite complexes of the EGMB, reported from Odisha sector,. are represented by the Chilka Lake complex (Perraju, 1960, 1973; De, 1969; Sarkar et al., 1981), Bolangir Complex (Tak, 1972; Mukherjee et al., 1986; Bhattacharya et al., 1998), Turkel (Chatterjee, 1965; Maji et al., 1997), Jugsaipatna (Sinha Roy and Bandopadhyay, 1966; Nanda and Panda, 1999), Angul (Bhattacharya and De, 1964), Koraput (Bose, 1970), Bandpari (Sinha Roy and Bandopadhyay, 1967) and Kundru (Sinha Roy and Bandopadhyay, 1967). Of the above, the Chilka Lake and Bolangir complexes represent major intrusions and cover more than 1000 sq. km. The rock assemblages in the anorthositic suites are given in Table-7.

Recent U-Pb dating studies indicate Neoproterozoic ages for the Chilka Lake (ca. 780 Ma) and Bolangir complexes (ca. 870 Ma) (Krause et al., 1998).

Structure and Metamorphism of Precambrian Domains : In the EIC, the supracrustal rocks of the Iron Ore Supergroup show evidences of at least three phases of deformation (F 1 -F 3 ). The first folds are preserved only as rootless intrafolial folds. The first and second- generation folds, in most of the areas, are coaxial. The F 2 folds are reported to vary in geometry from upright to inclined; reclined F 2 folds are also reported. The F 3 cross folds are generally represented by open warps. In the Gorumahisani – Badampahar belt, the first two generations of folds are highly appressed. The Tomka – Daitari as well as Malaygiri sequences also show superposed folding (Banerjee, 1972;Mitra and Basu Mallick, 1990). Mazumder (1978) studied the satellite imageries and aerial photographs and suggested the Deogarh belt to be a highly deformed segment. In the Deogarh sequence, the interference of first two phases of folding, whose axial traces run WNW-ESE to E-W, have generated hook-shaped interference patterns. The superposition of F 3 cross folds (with NNE-SSW to N-S trending axis) on earlier folds have given rise to doubly plunging structures in the belt.

Table – 6. Isotopic age data on the alkaline rock complexes, Odisha sector, EGMB.

Alkaline complexes

Age (Ma) and method

References

1. Koraput

856 ± 18 (Rb-Sr WRI *), I Sr :0.70286

Sarkar et al., (1989)

2. Khariar

1436 ± 58 (Rb-Sr WRI *), I Sr :0.70347 1500 ± 3-4 (U-Pb zircon)

Sarkar et al., (1994 d) Aftalion et al., (1998)

3. Rairakhol

1413 ± 23 (Rb-Sr WRI), I Sr :0.70330

Sarkar et al., (1994 c)

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Table – 7 Massif-type anorthosite occurrences in the Odisha sector of the EGMB

Alkaline complexes

Rock assemblages

References

1. Chilka Lake Complex (>1200 sq. km)

Anorthosite – leuconorite-norite – minor jotunite and quartz mangerite

Sarkar et al., (1981)

2. Bolangir (~ 1000 sq. km)

Anorthosite – leuconorite – ferrodiorite

Bhattacharya et al., (1998)

3. Turkel (81sq. km)

Anorthosite – leuconorite – ferrodiorite

Maji et al., (1997)

4. Jugsaipatna (30 sq. km)

Norite – leuconorite – noritic anorthosite – anorthosite; late dykes of websterite

Nanda and Panda (1999)

5. Angul (~ 10 sq. km)

Anorthosite – leuconorite

De (1969)

6. Koraput (1.5 km x 0.2 km)

Anorthosite – leuconorite – gabbro(diorite) and late ultramafic rocks

Bose (1970)

7. Bandpari

Anorthosite – leuconorite – norite

Sinha Roy and Bandopadhyay (1967)

8. Kundru (~ 1sq. km)

Olivine norite – leuconorite – anorthosite

Sinha Roy and Bandopadhyay (1967)

The regional structure of the Bonai – Kendujhar basin is a low-plunging synclinorium overturned towards southeast. Chatterjee and Mukherjee (1981) recognized three phases of folding in the sequence (F 1 -F 3 ). F 1 folds are isoclinal with low plunge trending in NNE and westerly dipping axial planes. F 2 folds, nearly coaxial with F 1 , are upright to inclined open folds. F 3 open folds, with easterly or westerly plunging axis are superposed on F 1 /F 2 . The interference of F 2 and F 3 produced dome and basin structures.

In the area to the west of Bonai Granite batholith, Ramachandran and Raju (1982) recorded superposed folding both in the older supracrustal Gorumahisani – Badampahar Group and overlying younger Upper Bonai sequences. The younger Upper Bonai sequence in the area defines a northerly plunging open F 3 synformal structure.

The supracrustal rocks of the EIC show metamorphic mineral assemblages symptomatic of green-schist to amphibolite-facies metamorphism. The grade of metamorphism appears to be marginally higher along the southern parts of the craton.The contact zone between EIC and EGMB, disposed broadly along Gohira – Sukinda shear/thrust belt, is marked by linear belt of pink granitic rocks and migmatites with several zones of dislocation and ductile shearing and rotation of structural trends in both the domains (Banerjee et al., 1987; Bhattacharya et al., 1994; Rath et al., 1998; Mahalik, 1994; Moitra, 1996; Sarkar et al., 2000).

The Singhbhum – Gangpur mobile belt, which

borders the EIC to the north, has polyphase deformational and metamorphic history (Banerjee, 1968; Chaudhuri and Pal, 1977). Three phases of penetrative folding characterize this mobile belt. The southern margin of this mobile belt in Singhbhum district, Jharkhand, is marked by the high-strain Singhbhum Shear Zone or Copper Belt Thrust zone. This shear probably extends into Mayurbhanj District of Odisha with lesser intensity where it is seen as several parallel N-S trending faults/shears. Mapping in western Gangpur has delineated a major shear zone, which might represent the western or southwestern extension of the Singhbhum Shear Zone.

EGMB bears signatures of polyphase deformation and high-grade metamorphism. The first phase of folding (F 1 ) is observed mainly as tightly appressed isoclinal rootless intrafolial folds on bedding (S o ) in metapelitic rocks with the development of a strong and pervasive secondary metamorphic foliation (S 1 ) axial planar to the first folds (Sarkar et al., 1981; Halden et al., 1982; Bhattacharya et al., 1994; Biswal et al., 1998). The regional structural trend of the EGMB is defined by the gneissosity/schistosity (S 1 ) axial planar to the first folds. The regional trend in the EGMB is dominantly NE-SW in the southwestern part (Koraput District), which gradually changes to N-S in the western part (Kalahandi District) and then to ENE-WSW through NE-SW in the northern part.

The second-generation (F 2 ) folds are developed on a regional scale. In most of the areas, F 2 folds have developed due to near coaxial refolding of early F 1 folds

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so that the axial planes of F 2 folds (S 2 ) are parallel to the axial planes of F 1 folds (S 1 ) (S 1 //S 2 ). Pervasive transposition of S 1 foliation planes by axial planar S 2 fabric is a common feature in the belt (Sarkar et al., 1981; Bhattacharya et al., 1994). The mutual interference of F 1 and F 2 folds resulted in the formation of hook-shaped fold interference patterns and are reported from many parts of the belt (Sarkar et al., 1981; Bhattacharya et al., 1994). Along the marginal zones, the style and geometry of the F 2 folds are different and shows angular in relations with F 1 folds. In the northwestern marginal zones of the belt, Biswal et al., (1998) described mesoscopic F 2 folds with extreme non-cylindrical shape suggestive of sheath-type folds. In the northern marginal zones, Kar (1995) reported high angular relation between F 1 and F 2 axes leading to the development of arrowhead interference patterns. Axial plane shears, mylonitic fabric, cataclasites and pseudotachylites parallel to S 2 have been noted by several workers (Sarkar et al., 1981; Bhattacharya et al., 1994; Biswal et al., 1998). Close to such shear zones, F 2 fold axes show steep plunges implying rotation of F 2 folds by progressive simple Biswal et al., (1998) attributed development of F 2 sheath fold in the Lathore area of western Odisha to progressive heterogenous simple shear along axial planes of F 2 folds.

The third generation folds (F 3 ) show varying attitude and geometry. The axial planar structure related to F 3 folds is developed only locally as fracture / shear cleavage (Sarkar et al., 1981; Bhattacharya et al., 1994; Biswal et al., 1998). However, at some places along the marginal zones, S 3 represents the dominant structural fabric along which ductile shearing has taken place (Gupta et al., 2000). Dome and basin interference patterns have resulted due to interference of F 2 and F 3 folds.

Several major brittle to brittle-ductile shear belts dissect the EGMB in the Odisha segment (Moharana, 1982; Chetty and Murthy, 1998; Ramakrishnan et al., 1998; Mahalik, 1994; Sarkar et al., 2000). Prominent among these are: (1) NE-SW trending: Sonepur – Koraput – Kolab – Machkund – (Sileru), Chilka Lake, Digapahandi and Rairakhol – Pentabahal – Kankarakhol,(2) E-W trending: Mahanadi, Angul – Dhenkanal,(3) ENE-WSW trending Aska – Taptapani, Bhanjanagar, Gohira, Tikra,(4) N-S trending Tel, Nagavali and (5) NNW-SSE trending Vamsadhara.

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Several major fault/shear zones dissect the cratonic domain in western Odisha. Major shear zones include the E-W trending Ong Shear Zone and the ENE-WSW trending Ib-Mahanadi Shear Zone. Several faults are noted in the segment, which define the eastern boundaries of Meso-Neoproterozoic platformal sediments.The boundary between EGMB and Bastar Craton is marked by shear zones, alkaline igneous activity and abrupt changes in bouger anomaly. The contrasting structural styles and intensity in the grade of metamorphism across the Bastar craton-EGMB contact zone are well documented (Rath et al., 1998; Biswal and Jena, 1999; Gupta et al., 2000; Bhattacharya, 2002). Biswal and Jena (1999) delineated a 2 km-wide, southeasterly dipping, ductile shear zone (Lakhna Shear Zone) between the EGMB and the Bastar craton in Bolangir and Kalahandi districts of Odisha. Well developed quartzo-feldspathic mylonites with S-C fabric, asymmetric porphyroclasts, quartz ribbons and intergranular faults are noted along this shear zone. Rath et al., (1994) and Biswal and Jena (1999) envisaged a thrusted contact between the EGMB and the Bastar cratonic domain in the Khariar-Paikmal-Padampur area of Western Odisha, where the khondalites of EGMB form ‘nappe’-like sheets over-ridding the cratonic gneisses.

EGMB, in general, records ultra-high temperature (UHT) metamorphism (~ 950 o C) at appreciably high pressure (8-9 kbar) for peak metamorphic conditions (see Dasgupta, 1995 for a summary). Available field and P- T-t data suggest two periods of high-grade metamorphism in the central segment of the EGMB (Sengupta et al., 1990; Dasgupta, 1995; Sarkar and Paul,

1998).

From Chilka Lake area of Odisha, Sen et al., (1995) reported UHT metamorphism (1100 o C, ~ 10.5 kbar). From Rayagada area, Shaw and Arima (1998) reported corundum-quartz assemblages in iron-rich metapelites suggesting extreme high P-T conditions (~ 1100 o C, ~ 13 kbar) of possible first-phase metamorphism. In the spinel bearing metapelites, the peak metamorphism condition of second phase of metamorphism (950 o C, 8.7 – 9.0 kbar) is reported to be followed by near isobaric cooling to 800 o C and subsequent decompression from ~8 to 6.5 kbar (Shaw and Arima, 1997). The overall P-T path of Rayagada area is inferred to be characterized by two decompression segments connected by an intermediate cooling segment (Shaw and Arima, 1996,

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1997 and 1998). UHT metamorphism (900-950 o C) at ca. 10 kbar, subsequent decompression down to 6.5-7.5 kbar at ca. 750 o C followed by near isobaric cooling is reported from western marginal zones of EGMB in Odisha (Neogi et al., 1999; Gupta et al., 2000).

Precambrian Crustal Evolution : The Precambrian crustal mosaic of Odisha comprises Mesoarchaean to Neo Archaean cratonic nuclei (Eastern Indian Craton and eastern marginal part of Bastar Craton), parts of a high-grade Neo Archaean – Pan-African Mobile Belt (EGMB) and a medium-grade Palaeoproterozoic – Neoproterozoic mobile belt (the Singhbhum – Gangpur belt).

The Bastar and Eastern Indian Cratons presumably constituted a continuous cratonic domain, now isolated by the Mahanadi rift. The oldest metasupracrustal rocks of the cratonic domains are represented by OMG in the Eastern Indian Craton and the Sukma Supracrustals of the Bastar Craton. The nature of rock assemblages in these Mesoarchaean supracrustal sequences indicates derivation from a mixed provenance comprising some sialic components. The basement on which these sequences were deposited remains unknown. These earliest metasupracrustals in the EIC were metamorphosed and synkinematically intruded by Older Metamorphic tonalitic-granodioritic gneisses followed

by several phases of granitic intrusions (at least three) represented by components of the Singhbhum – Bonai

– Kaptipada granite batholiths.

Available evidences strongly suggest the existence of two generations of BIF-bearing metasupracrustal

sequences (Iron Ore Supergroup) in the EIC. The relatively older sequence, represented by Gorumahisani

– Badampahar Group of supracrustals, predate intrusion

of extensive Late-Mesoarchaean granitic activity and can be considered to have a minimum age of ca. 3.3 Ga. The initial cratonisation of the Archean nucleus at ca. 3.1 Ga appears to have been accompanied by ultramafic mafic intrusions (with gabbro-anorthositic components) and further granitic activity along peripheral parts of the craton. The supracrustal evolution of the relatively younger BIF-bearing sequence (Lower Bonai Group) was accompanied with or followed by crustal

downsagging and rifting causing extensive mafic volcanism. This sequence appears to post-date voluminous granitic activity of Late-Mesoarchaean. The volcanosedimentary successions belonging to Upper

GEOL. SURV. IND

Bonai Group, Dhanjori Group and Simlipal Group appear to have developed immediately after the supracrustal evolution of the Lower Bonai Group. The Neoarchaean – Palaeoproterozoic evolutionary history of the EIC is marked by development of silicic volcano- plutonic and plutonic assemblages specially along western and southern margins. Several phases of mafic dyke activity, with distinct geochemical signatures, affected the cratonic domain between Palaeoproterozoic and Early Neoproterozoic.

The lithotectonic and metamorphic evolution of the Singhbhum – Gangpur Mobile Belt, spanning Palaeoproterozoic – Neoproterozoic, have been modeled variously involving Wilson cycle processes in part or full, viz., intraplate subduction of EIC along southern margin of the mobile belt (Sarkar and Saha, 1977), microcontinental collision between ‘Singhbhum microplate’ and the ‘Chhotonagpur microplate’ (Sarkar, 1982), back-arc marginal basin tectonics accompanied by southerly-directed subduction (Bose and Chakrabarti, 1981) and intracratonic extension, rifting and ensialic orogenesis (Gupta et al., 1980). Available isotopic age data of Singhbhum – Gangpur Mobile Belt suggest basin initiation at craton-margin in the Early Palaeoproterozoic. The volcanosedimentary supracrustal assemblages of the mobile zone underwent a major tectonothermal event in the Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.6 Ga) followed by rejuvenation at 1.0 ± 0.1 Ga.

The EGMB, with its prolonged tectonomagmatic and metamorphic history spanning Neoarchaean to Pan- African, is considered to be a product of Wilson-cycle processes culminating in continent – continent collision involving EIC, Bastar craton and the mobile zone crust (Banerjee et al., 1987; Sarkar, 1994; Moitra, 1996; Banerjee, 1997; Biswal et al., 1998; Biswal and Jena, 1999; Bhattacharya, 2002).

Multiple episodes of tectonothermal activity, granitisation and crustal reworking and episodic igeneous activity in the EGMB have caused obliteration of stratigraphic relations in the granulite assemblages. From the available isotopic age data, five major events in the Precambrian crustal evolution history of the EGMB can be envisaged, viz. Neoarchaean (2.6 ±0.2), Palaeoproterozoic (2.1 ± 0.2 Ga), Mesoproterozoic (1.45 ±0.2 Ga), Neoproterozoic (0.95 ±0.15 Ga) and Pan- African (0.6 ± 0.1 Ga) (Sarkar and Paul, 1998).

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MISC. PUB. NO. 30(III)

It must be stressed that our understanding of the

complex tectonostratigraphic relationships between cratonic and mobile belt domains on one hand and intra- cratonic entities on the other, is far from complete and has only started to crystallize.

In the pre-drift continental assembly (Lawver and

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While the Lower Gondwana rocks are a vast repository of coal, the Upper Gondwana sandstones have

been used in the construction of Lord Jagannath temple

at Puri, Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar and partly the

Sun Temple at Konark. The Jain caves at Khandagiri and Udaigiri, located near Bhubaneswar, have also been carved out of these sandstones.

Scotese, 1987), the Indian land mass was joined with (i) East Antartica along its present-day east coast and (ii) southern Southwestern Australia in the northeast. The

The generalized lithostratigraphic succession of the Gondwana rocks in the State is presented in Table – 8

Mahanadi Graben has been inferred to be the continuation of the Phanerozoic Lambert rift of East

Talchir Basin : It constitutes the southernmost

Antartica (Fedorov et al., 1982). In the above pre-drift continental configuration, the EGMB was juxtaposed

segment of the Lower Gondwana basin within the Mahanadi graben. Bounded by latitude 20 o 53’ – 21 o 12’

against the Rayner Complex of East Antarctica (Grew

N

and longitude 84 o 24’ – 85 o 23’ E, it occupies an area

and Manton, 1986; Yoshida, 1995). The Satpura Mobile

of

over 1800 km sq.km.

Belt (in which the Singhbhum – Gangpur mobile zone defines the southern part) is inferred to have been a continuation of the Albani mobile belt of southwestern Australia through the reworked granite-gneiss terrain of Meghalaya plateau (Harris, 1994). The Eastern Indian Craton, sandwitched between the EGMB in the south

The Lower Gondwana rocks of the Talchir Basin rest unconformably on the Precambrian basement comprising granitoids, hornblende gneiss, leptynite, granulites, mica schist, phyllite and amphibolite. The base of the Gondwana sequence,exposed along the

and Singhbhum – Gangpur segment of the Satpura mobile belt in the north, can be correlated with the

southern margin of the basin, is defined by the Talchir Formation, which comprises more than 325 m thick pile

cratonic terrains of southern Southwestern Australia.

of

glacial and periglacial deposits. The Talchir boulder

Gondwana Supergroup

Palaeozoic-Mesozoic

A profound hiatus in the stratigraphic record of

Odisha since the deposition of the Vindhyan rocks and their uplift was broken towards the end of the Palaeozoic Era (Upper Carboniferous – Early Permian). Glacio- lacustrine and fluvial sediments were deposited in linear basins along faulted troughs over the Precambrian basement. These sediments, characterized by fluvial assemblages of interbedded sandstone-shale sequence, plant remains of Glossopteris – Gangamopteris and vast coal deposits, were designated as Gondwanas by Medlicott (1872) and Fiestmantel (1876). In Odisha, Gondwana rocks are exposed over an area of 12,415 sq. km along a NW – SE trending linear belt in the Mahanadi valley. Three major basins (Talchir, Ib river and Athgarh) and a number of small patches (outliers) at Katiringia, Gaisilat, Athmalik, Chhatarpur in the districts of Angul, Dhenkanal, Sambalpur, Sundargarh, Phulbani, Baudh,

Bolangir, Cuttack, Khurda, Puri and Ganjam, expose Gondwana rocks in the state.

bed, the basal most unit of this formation constitutes a conspicuous and characteristic datum line in the geology

of India. The boulders frequently show facets and striae

of glacial origin. The lithounits comprise tillite, conglomerate, fine to medium grained greenish sandstone, shale, rythmite and turbidite.

The Talchir Formation is conformably overlain by 2-270m thick Karharbari Formation that comprises massive, pale brownish yellow, medium to coarse grained sandstone, shale and some superior quality coal.

The Barakar Formation, which conformably overlies the Karharbari, comprises more than 325 m thick pile of medium to fine grained feldspathic sandstone and thick coal seams with a oligomictic conglomerate

at the base. The Barakar rocks are conformably overlain

by a sequence of fine to medium grained light grey to

greenish grey bioturbated standstone, greenish shale and coal at the base and a succession of pale greenish sandstone with rare shale and coal bands, purple clay bands and ferruginous coarse-grained pebbly sandstone

at the top. These rocks, having a thickness of more than

250 m, were previously classified as Raniganj, Panchet

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24

GEOL. SURV. IND

Table – 8. Lithostratigraphic succession of Gondwana sequences in Odisha

Age

Formation

Talchir Basin

Ib river Basin

Athgarh Basin

Early

Athgarh

-

-

Sandstone,

Cretaceous

shale, basalt

and intertrappeans

Early Triassic

Kamthi

Medium grained light grey ferruginous sandstone, pink clay and pebbly sandstone

Very coarse to coarse grained pebbly cross- bedded sandstone, red shale

?

Late Permian

Raniganj

?

Cross laminated sandstone, interbedded sandstone-shale with minor coal and phosphatic claystone bands in the lower part

?

Late Permian

Barren Measures

Very coarse to coarse and medium grained greenish grey feldspathic sandstone with intercalations of grey shale, lenses and shreds of chocolate and reddish brown clay and clay- ironstone nodules

Dark, grey shale, fine grained sandstone, clay – iron stone bands, phosphatic bands and nodules in the upper part

?

Early Permian

Barakar

Conglomerate, arkose, carbonaceous shale and thick coal seams

Sandstone, shale, fireclay and thick coal seams

?

Early Permian