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Laboratory Report No: 01

Experiment Name: Breakdown characteristics of air gaps

Name of the Instructor:
Module Code: EE 5002
Module Title: High voltage engineering
Date of Submission: 26 /11/2016

Breakdown Characteristics of Air


1. To study the foster HVDC generator, Ferranti HVAC generators

2. To determine the breakdown characteristics of sphere-sphere, plate-

plate and rod-rod gaps under positive DC, negative DC and AC high

Study about the control panel and method of operation of the high voltage
generators. Adjust the gap setting of the plate-plate gap from 0.5cm to
4.5cm in steps of 0.5cm and obtain the breakdown voltage for positive DC
high voltages.

Repeat the experiment for negative DC and AC high voltages. Follow the
same procedure for plate-plate and sphere-sphere gaps. Note down the
atmospheric pressure and temperature.

1. HV lab arrangement with diagrams.

Model lab arrangement for sphere-sphere break down test

2. Comment upon the necessity and usefulness of safety
procedures taken in conducting the experiment.

- This is a high voltage applying experiment, so we have to make sure the

safety precautions very well to avoid damages to equipments and injuries
to ourselves as well.

- When the object starts to spark, the system will trip the circuit through
an earth conductor, so the circuit will disconnect without continuing. This
operation provides safety to the equipments.

- We have to stand away from the experiment setup while supplying the
high voltage.

- The existing metal parts in the surrounding also have to be earthed, to

avoid sparking with them.

3. Methods of HVAC and HVDC generation.

In the practical we applied only the AC voltage. But for the information I
can say one of high voltage lab equipments is HAEFLEY High Voltage equipment.
This HV equipment can be used in multiple applications in high voltage
technology and used in generation of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC), High
Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) and Impulse voltage.

4. What is the need of a 2 M ohms resistor?

- The high rated resistor is used to control (reduce) the current flowing in
the circuit. If not high current flow may harmful to the equipments and not
desirable to do the practical.

5. for a given pair of electrode discuss the factors that affect the
breakdown voltage of air.

- Influences of atmospheric conditions:

Pressure (P), temperature (T), and humidity (h c) of air influence density of

air, free paths of electrons, collision ionization, and attachment of
electrons. Therefore, atmospheric conditions influence breakdown
voltages of air gaps.

Breakdown voltages measured in different atmospheric conditions have to

be transformed into values in standard atmospheric conditions for
comparison. And also breakdown voltages of air gap decrease with
increasing altitude, because density and pressure of air decrease with
increasing of altitude.
- Influences of field non-uniformity:

In power transmission application, breakdown voltages of rod-to-rod and rod-to-

plane arrangements are used to determine insulation distances in cases of
symmetric and asymmetric electrode arrangements, respectively.