0 Голоса «за»0 Голоса «против»

Просмотров: 28299 стр.overpressure evaluation

Mar 20, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

overpressure evaluation

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 28

overpressure evaluation

© All Rights Reserved

- Fault Lines
- Dragon Teeth: A Novel
- The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs: A New History of a Lost World
- Life As We Knew It
- Remarkable Creatures
- Arctic Drift
- Arctic Drift
- Zero Hour
- The Map That Changed the World: William Smith and the Birth of Modern Geology
- The Map That Changed the World: William Smith and the Birth of Modern Geology
- Pile Design and Construction Rules of Thumb
- Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883
- Krakatoa
- Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World's Superpowers
- Geography For Dummies
- Inside the Earth
- Aftershock
- Geotechnical Engineering Calculations and Rules of Thumb
- Rogue Wave
- Bones of the Earth

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 299

1

ENI S.p.A. DEPARTMENT ACTIVITY' DEPT. TYPE SECTION N.

STAP P 1 M 6130

TITLE

OVERPRESSURE EVALUATION MANUAL

DISTRIBUTION LIST

Eni - Agip Division Affiliated Companies

Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Drilling & Completion Units

STAP Archive

Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Subsurface Geology Units

Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Reservoir Units

Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Italian Activities

Eni - Agip Division Headquarter Coordination Units for Foreign Activities

NOTE: The present document is available in Eni Agip Intranet (http://wwwarpo.in.agip.it) and a

CD-Rom version can also be distributed (requests will be addressed to STAP Dept. in

Eni - Agip Division Headquarter)

f

e

d

c

b Issued by P. Magarini C. Lanzetta A. Galletta

28/06/99 28/06/99 28/06/99

The present document is CONFIDENTIAL and it is property of AGIP It shall not be shown to third parties nor shall it be used for

reasons different from those owing to which it was given

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 2 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

INDEX

1. INTRODUCTION 4

1.1. PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT 4

1.2. IMPLEMENTATION 4

1.3. UPDATING, AMENDMENT, CONTROL & DEROGATION 6

2. ORIGIN OF OVERPRESSURES 7

2.1. DEFINITIONS 7

2.1.1. Rock Medium 7

2.1.2. Effective Tension Principle 7

2.1.3. Overburden Gradient 9

2.1.4. Pore Pressure Gradient 11

2.1.5. Fracture Gradient 12

2.2. ORIGINS OF OVERPRESSURES 12

2.2.1. Rate of Sedimentation 14

2.2.2. Diagenesis 26

2.2.3. Osmotic Phenomenon 41

2.2.4. Tectonics 43

2.2.5. Artesian Pressures 46

2.2.6. Reservoir Geometry 46

2.2.7. Re-Pressurisation Of A Reservoir 46

2.3. SUB-PRESSURES AND THEIR ORIGIN 46

2.3.1. Sub-Pressures Due To Prolonged Well Production 46

2.3.2. Anomalous Drop Of The Ground Water Table 49

2.3.3. Sub-pressures Caused By Tectonic Phenomena 49

3. SEISMIC METHODS 51

3.1. TYPES OF SEISMIC WAVES 51

3.1.1. Longitudinal And Transverse Elastic Waves 52

3.1.2. Rayleigh Waves 53

3.1.3. Love Waves 53

3.1.4. Seismic Noise 54

3.2. PROPAGATION OF SEISMIC WAVES 57

3.2.1. Factors Affecting The Propagation Of Seismic Waves 57

3.2.2. Propagation Of Seismic Waves: Reflection And Transmission (Refraction) 59

3.3. SEISMIC REFLECTION METHOD 63

3.3.1. Fundamental Principles 63

3.3.2. Evaluation Of Reflection Velocity 69

3.4. SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING 80

3.4.1. Seismograms 80

3.4.2. Steps In Seismic Data Processing And Correction 84

3.5. LAND AND MARINE SEISMIC SURVEYS 104

3.5.1. Land Seismic Surveys 104

3.5.2. Marine Seismic Surveys 112

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 3 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

3.6.1. Forms of Presentation Of Seismic Data And Their Meaning 124

3.6.2. Pressure Gradient Calculation 139

4.1. INTRODUCTION 172

4.2. PREDICTION AND CALCULATION FROM ANALYSIS OF DRILLING PARAMETERS 173

4.2.1. Drilling (Penetration) Rate 173

4.2.2. Determination Of Overpressure Trends From Penetration Rate 178

4.2.3. D-Exponent And dc-Exponent 181

4.2.4. Sigmalog 187

4.2.5. Torque 198

4.2.6. Overpulls 199

4.2.7. Pumping Pressure 199

4.2.8. Mud Pit Levels 199

4.2.9. Mud Flow Rate 199

4.2.10. Hole Fill-up 200

4.2.11. Increase Of Cuttings At Shale Shaker 200

4.2.12. Mud Salinity 200

4.2.13. Percentage Of Montmorillonite 200

4.2.14. Mud Resistivity And pH 201

4.2.15. Shale Resistivity 201

4.2.16. Gas Shows 202

4.2.17. Shale Density 203

4.2.18. Mud Temperature 206

4.3. OVERBURDEN GRADIENT CALCULATION FROM SIGMALOG 209

4.3.1. Drilling Porosity Calculation 210

4.3.2. Bulk Density Calculation 212

4.3.3. Overburden Gradient Calculation 214

4.3.4. General Considerations 214

4.4. FRACTURE GRADIENT CALCULATION 215

5.1. DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL ELECTRIC LOGS 218

5.1.1. Spontaneous Potential (SP) 218

5.1.2. Origin Of Spontaneous Potential 220

5.1.3. SP Current Flow 222

5.1.4. Static SP (Clean Formations) 223

5.1.5. Effect Of Interstitial Shale On SP - The Pseudostatic SP 225

5.1.6. Shale Base-Line Shifts 229

5.1.7. Factors Affecting the Shape And The Amplitude Of The SP Peaks 230

5.1.8. Induction Log - IES 233

5.1.9. Acoustic Logging: Sonic Log 241

5.1.10. FDC (Formation. Density Compensated) Log 244

5.2. PRESSURE GRADIENTS CALCULATIONS 250

5.2.1. Overburden Gradient Calculations 250

5.2.2. Pore Pressure Gradient Calculations Form Electrical Logs 275

5.2.3. Limitations Of The Use Of Methods Based On The Processing Of Electrical Logs 298

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 4 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

1. INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this manual is to guide technicians and engineers, involved in Eni-Agips

Drilling & Completion worldwide activities, through the Manuals & Procedures and the

Technical Specifications which are part of the Corporate Standards.

Such Corporate Standards define the requirements, methodologies and rules that enable to

operate uniformly and in compliance with the Corporate Company Principles. This, however,

still enables each individual Affiliated Company the capability to operate according to local

laws or particular environmental situations.

The final aim is to improve performance and efficiency in terms of safety, quality and costs,

while providing all personnel involved in Drilling & Completion activities with common

guidelines in all areas worldwide where Eni-Agip operates.

1.2. IMPLEMENTATION

The purpose of this treatise is to provide a homogeneous and above all critical revision of

the theories on the origins of overpressures and of the methods for the determination and

calculation of overburden, pore pressure, fracture gradient and to analyse their impact on

drilling operations.

Though the literature on the topic is vast, it has, nonetheless, never been brought together

systematically and in particular, the practical angles of prediction and interpretation of

overpressures have not been adequately developed. This work seeks to fill that gap by

extending, in detail, the interpretation and calculation stages with examples, diagrams and

working recommendations. This is done in such a way as to benefit not only those who deal

with these topics, such as students, but also those who are directly involved, both in Drilling

and Production Engineering Departments and out in the field.

Knowledge of pressure gradients is of primary importance in planning and operating an oil

well, furnishing all the indispensable information necessary in order to logically plan drilling

and production activities.

In fact, if the pressure gradients are known, the following can be determined:

Optimum casing string depths.

Grade and thickness of the casing required to resist expected stress.

Density and optimum rheological characteristics of the drilling mud and

cementing slurry.

Capacity of the drilling rig, which is linked to the dimensions (length and

diameter) and weight of the casing strings.

Preparation, and optimisation of the hydraulic programme (pump choice, surface

equipment, bit characteristics, etc.).

Choice of safety equipment, such as BOPs (blow-out preventers), choke

manifold, and surface equipment in general.

Choice of wellhead.

Choice of Drilling Control Unit.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 5 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

production tests, acidification, fracturing and well completion.

Cost estimate of the operation.

The treatise opens with a brief summary (Section 2) of various theories relating to the

theme of overpressure origins or, in a more general sense, of abnormal pressure origins.

From a practical point of view, it certainly is not easy to establish the reason for the

existence of abnormal pressure gradient formations, since very often their origins lie in a

combination of various causes.

Of practical interest, however, is their determination and location, although defining the

causes themselves may facilitate the subsequent interpretative phase.

The determination of pressure gradients can take place in successive phases: the first

phase, essential in draughting the drilling programme, is based for the most part on

analyses and processing of seismic data and on data taken from possible reference wells. It

is obvious that if the drilling is explorative and is being done for the first time in a certain

area, the seismic data may be the sole source of information available. For this reason, the

methods based on seismic data analyses are dealt with, in detail, in section 3 of this

treatise. The section begins with an exhaustive treatment of the theory and the how-to of

seismic surveying, both onshore and offshore. Its principal purpose is to clarify the

assumptions, the working hypotheses, and the interpretative difficulties that the

geophysicist comes up against. This acquaints the drilling and production technician with

the degree of reliability that should be ascribed to the data he works with, and on which he

then bases his operating programme.

In section 4, the methods for recording and processing drilling parameters are reviewed; this

stage is set-up and carried out in the field itself, and is invaluable in checking predictions

and adjusting of operative decisions, made on the basis of the seismic analysis,

accordingly. In fact, the drilling programme must be regarded as a guide to operations and,

indeed, should not be taken by the letter; the indications it gives are not binding, but are to

be subjected to continuous verification and checking during the actual drilling. Should new

situations emerge, differing from those expected, the programme must be changed in time

and adapted to the new well conditions. It is, therefore, easy to understand the importance

of these surveys. A recent step forward in this field are sensors and recorders installed on

site that provide continuous and automatic measurement, recording and precise storage of

the most important parameters and the adoption of calculating systems which allow their

continuous, automatic and real time processing. It goes without saying that where an

interpretative process is necessary, the role performed by the technician is crucial in

obtaining reliable and meaningful results.

Should the predictions made from the seismic survey, and the results obtained processing

the drilling parameters be incongruent, it is logical to assign greater credibility to the latter.

This is because they relate to the well being drilled and, taken as a whole, more clearly

reflect the actual condition of the formations met in drilling.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 6 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

equipment), the methods using resistivity logs (IES) and acoustic logs (Sonic Log) are

examined, respectively. In this case, the data on the gradients are available only after the

fact, which is to say, after a certain length of hole has already been drilled; thus they do not

have the same immediateness as the methods based on seismic or drilling parameters.

Nevertheless, they constitute an important survey moment, because they provide a

convincing comparison and, in case of doubt or interpreting difficulties, also permit

calibration of the preceding methods.

After this brief explanation, it follows that all the listed methods are to be considered as a

whole, and that the conclusions, which can be reached through the application of one or

other of the described techniques, must undergo a continuous critical appraisal. This is the

only way to obtain reliable gradient values, which in turn may lead to well-thought out and

rational decisions.

This manual is a live controlled document and, as such, it will only be amended and

improved by the Corporate Company, in accordance with the development of Eni-Agip

Division and Affiliates operational experience. Accordingly, it will be the responsibility of

everyone concerned in the use and application of this manual to review the policies and

related procedures on an ongoing basis.

Locally dictated derogations from the manual shall be approved solely in writing by the

Manager of the local Drilling and Completion Department (D&C Dept.) after the

District/Affiliate Manager and the Corporate Drilling & Completion Standards Department in

Eni-Agip Division Head Office have been advised in writing.

The Corporate Drilling & Completion Standards Department will consider such approved

derogations for future amendments and improvements of the manual, when the updating of

the document will be advisable.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 7 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

2. ORIGIN OF OVERPRESSURES

2.1. DEFINITIONS

2.1.1. Rock Medium

A rock, either loose or indurate, is a poliphase medium, consisting of a solid phase, a liquid

phase and/or a gas phase.

The solid phase makes up part of the rock volume and consists of solid matter whose

mineralogical composition, shape and size may differ from one rock to another depending

on its geological history.

The liquid and/or gas phase is contained in the empty spaces within the rock, that is in the

spaces between the grains in unconsolidated loose rock and between fissure walls in

indurated rock.

The rock characteristic of containing a certain number of more or less interconnected empty

spaces, called pores, is defined as Total Porosity. It may vary according to the number,

size, shape and space distribution of pores within the rock. Their nature may be:

Primary: when pores were formed at the same time as the rock.

Secondary: when pores were formed after the formation of the rock, as a result

of lithogenics.

Not all of the pores within a rock medium permit gravitational water (i.e. water subject to

gravity, as opposed to absorbed or capillary water) to flow underground freely under

hydrostatic pressure. Fluid flow may be established only through interconnected pores

(Effective Porosity). Within the natural environment, rock media with equivalent total

porosities but having different effective porosities are frequently met with; because of such

different effective porosities, the resistance to fluid flow within the rocks may vary. Any

increase in the resistance to fluid flow through a rock medium may, as it will be better

shown later, give rise to abnormal pressure gradients, thus favouring the build up of

overpressured zones.

To render this point clearly, let us consider a certain volume of loose rock with intergranular

spaces partly filled with air and partly with water, and let us suppose that it is divided into

two parts by a flat internal surface which passes through the contact points without

intersecting the grains. In such a case, it is easy to examine the forces acting through this

surface and how they distribute themselves among the various solid and fluid rock

components.

If A is the surface area, it can be said that:

A = ap + ag + a Eq. 2.1

where:

ap and ag = Total sectional areas of the pores filled by water and gas

a = Total contact area among the grains

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 8 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Assuming:

N = Component perpendicular to the dividing surface of the resultant of the

forces acting through A

n

n

i=1

1

i = Perpendicular component of the grain interactions through their contact

Pg = Intergranular air pressure

Pp = Intergranular water pressure

to satisfy the equilibrium conditions in the direction perpendicular to the surface, it must be

that:

n Eq. 2.2

N = n1i + Pp x a p + Pg x a g

i =1

As for the tangential components:

n Eq.2.3

T = t 1i

i=1

where:

T = Component, tangential to the dividing surface, of the resultant of the

forces acting through A

n

t

i=1

1

i = Components of the forces acting among the grains

By introducing the Total Pressure concept as:

N Eq. 2.4

Pov =

A

T Eq. 2.5

=

A

we obtain:

n Eq. 2.6

N n 1

i

Pp x ap + Pg x a g

Pov = = i=1

+

A A A

n Eq. 2.7

T t 1

i

= = i=1

A A

Effective Pressure is defined as:

n Eq. 2.8

n 1

i

Pc = i=1

A

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 9 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

which stands for the forces transmitted within a granular mass through the solid grains.

Where the gas volume is smaller than the water volume, in which case water saturation of

the rock medium is about 100% (Sw = l), the Eq. (1.6.) becomes:

a Eq. 2.9

Pov = Pc + Pp x ( 1 )

A

since:

ag 0

and thus:

a g x p g 0 and a p = A a

Because of the very small contact area between grains (i.e. a/A<<< 1), it follows that:

Pov = Pc + Pp Eq. 2.10

This equation gives the distribution between the liquid and the solid phase of the forces

applied to a granular mass. From the last equation it may be noted that one part of the total

pressure exerted is borne by the interstitial fluids and the other by the solid skeleton.

The weight of a rock medium produces a stress that affects the mechanical behaviour of

the medium itself, and therefore has to be determined. This may be done where simple

morphological and stratigraphical conditions exist and especially where a horizontal ground

surface stretches far enough for the depth under consideration, and where there are

uniform, horizontal properties within the rock medium. The pressure within the rock medium

due to its own weight is called overburden or lithostatic.

With a horizontal surface, both the horizontal uniformity and the radial symmetry with

reference to any vertical axis having to be met at the same time, tangential stresses on

vertical and horizontal planes must be absent. Horizontal and vertical directions are thus

main directions.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 10 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The total vertical pressure Pov, acting on a point at a depth H from the ground surface, is

easily obtained from the equilibrium conditions of the prismatic element above an area A

through the point being considered, having weight G. Thus we have:

G = Pov x A Eq. 2.11

With a constant unit volume weight b :

G = b x H x A Eq. 2.12

we obtain:

Pov = b x H Eq. 2.13

In general, if b is expressed in g/cc and H in m:

Pov = b x H / 10

where b is constant:

+ b,n x Hn ]/ 10 Eq. 2.14

where b,i is constant for each layer of thickness, Hi :

1 H

10 O

Pov = b dH with b with varying at each point

The overburden gradient Gov is the pressure increment for a unit increment of depth. It

gives the average apparent or bulk density at a given depth.

In general it will be, with Gov expressed in g/cc:

Eq. 2.15

Pov x 10

Gov = = b where is constant

H b

=

+ H

b,n

10

Gov

H1 + H2 + n

with b,i constant for each layer of thickness, Hi :

H

Gov =

1 o

b dH

where b varies at each point

H

10

O

dH

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 11 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

With the above equations it is easy to calculate the overburden pressure at each

subsurface point, once the densities of the layers encountered are known.

The quantity P indicates the pressure of the interstitial fluids within the rock medium. The

fluids may be under normal (hydrostatic) pressure conditions or abnormal conditions, when

particular geological situations are met with; these will be detailed in the paragraphs dealing

with overpressure origin.

In the first case, the fluid pressure at a given depth is normal since the fluids within the rock

medium have a pressure which is equivalent to the hydrostatic pressure at the same depth.

Hydrostatic refers to the pressure of a vertical fluid column having a given density and

height equal to the depth being considered. It is given by:

1 Eq. 2.16

Pp = x fl x H

10

where:

fl

3

= Fluid density, g/cm

Pp = Pore pressure,

H = Depth, m

Abnormal pressures are due to a fluid pressure which may be higher or lower than the

hydrostatic pressure.

Pore pressure gradient, i.e. the pressure variation as a function of depth, is defined by:

pp Eq. 2.17

Gp = for every 1m of depth

H

p p x10

Gp for every 10m of depth

H

Under normal conditions Gp is equal to the density of the fluids in the pores, whereas, under

abnormal conditions Gp will be higher or lower than the density value.

When calculating the hydrostatic pressure, the fluid will always be assumed to be water,

being the most common subsurface fluid. The most commonly encountered density values

for subsurface water are in the range of 1.00 to 1.07g/cc. To make calculations easier, the

value normally used by Eni-Agip is 1.03g/cc, which is close to average, because of the

salinity of the water commonly found underground.

In terms of pore pressure gradient, a rock formation is at normal pressure when the pore

2 2

pressure gradient is G = 0.103Kg/cm / 1m or also Gp = 1.03kg/cm / 10m. Higher values

indicate over-pressure, whereas lower values indicate under-pressure.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 12 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

When a pressure is applied to a well bore, tensile stresses can develop on its walls. When

tensile stress exceeds both the horizontal compressive stress and the rock tensile strength,

a fracture will result in the direction of least resistance.

Skipping superfluous details, we shall only deal with the equations used by Eni-Agip for

fracture gradient calculation, once overburden gradients and pore pressure gradients have

been defined.

When dealing with elastic formations, the fracture gradient Gfr is obtained by an equation

derived from the more general Terzaghi equation:

2

G fr = G p + (G ov Gp ) Eq. 2.18

1

If the drilling fluid is water or wherever water deeply invades the formation, Gfr is given by:

(

Gfr = Gp + 2 Gov Gp ) Eq. 2.19

With plastic formations, such as clays, marls, etc.:

Gfr = Gov Eq. 2.20

The Poisson modulus may have the following values:

= 0.25 for clean sands, sandstones and carbonate rocks down to medium

depth

= 0.28 for shaly sands, sandstones and carbonate rocks at great depth.

Abnormal pressures are frequently encountered in every part of the world, in recent

formations (including Pleistocene) as well as in ancient formations down to Cambrian.

A normal pressure geological environment may be looked upon as an open hydraulic

system, such as the one made of permeable formations which allow the presence of

hydrostatic conditions. On the contrary, those systems with high abnormal pressures may

be considered closed, where fluid transfer is prevented or greatly reduced.

Normal and abnormal pressure formations may co-exist only when separated by a

permeability barrier acting also as a pressure barrier. In theory, any material or a

combination of materials may serve as such a barrier, reducing or preventing the movement

or passage of large fluid volumes.

A pressure barrier may be of a physical or chemical nature or a result of a combination of

both (Refer to Table 2.1).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 13 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

In general, the formation of a pressure barrier depends on many factors, among them:

Phenomena, sometimes complex, which deform clay minerals under a physical

load (e.g., weight of sediments).

Clays as semi-permeable membranes.

Type and quantity of clay minerals present in the rock.

-4 -6

Very low permeability clays (10 10 millidarcies).

Non-Newtonian behaviour of water trapped in clay interstices.

Interaction between rock, gases and organic acids.

Type, concentration and diffusivity of cautions.

Vertical Massive Shales and Siltstones

Massive Salt

Anhydrite

Gypsum

Limestone, Mari, Chalk

Dolomite

Transversal Faults

Salt and Shale Diapirs

Vertical/Transversal Combination

Table 2.1- Most Common Types of Permeability and Pressure Barriers

(by Fertl and Timko, 1972)

siderite, etc.).

Composition and possible interaction of brackish waters.

Rapid subsurface temperature and pressure changes.

When added to the effect of geological time, all of these factors or a combination of them

may change the physico-chemical environment and produce slow lithological changes

within these covering rocks which may then become pressure and permeability barriers.

As it has already been pointed out, various and often many overimposed factors may create

abnormal pressures. Subsurface phenomena have their source in geological, physical,

geochemical and mechanical processes. It is often very difficult, if not impossible, to identify

the effect and to evaluate the importance of each factor because of the simultaneous

occurrence of several of these phenomena.

The most common conditions and causes of the build-up of overpressures will be examined

in the following pages.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 14 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

General Outline

This is perhaps the most common cause of overpressure.

During sedimentation, the materials that accumulate within a sedimentary basin are subject

to compaction because of loads from overlying sediments. The gradual compaction

following each subsequent weight increment initially causes a hydraulic imbalance, due to

the incompressibility of the fluids within the pores. Entrapped fluids are slowly expelled from

the pores and pressure equilibrium is re-established. Thus, superficial sediments show

higher porosity and a resultant higher fluid content than in the case of sediments found at

greater depths.

When the geological factors affecting deposition and the hydraulic features of the rock are

such as to impede the excess water from leaving the pores, the rock medium will be

abnormal. Since the fluid pressure within the pores will certainly be higher than the

hydrostatic pressure, thus rock porosity will be higher than where normal outflow conditions

exist.

Clay formations, marls and sands with very high clay content are the types of rock most

subject to overpressures.

In describing the process of compaction, several authors have noticed that the degree of

compaction and the presence of abnormal pressures are not only dependent on the

mechanism of water ejection, as mentioned before (which is rather slow in the case of clay

compaction), but also on other geological factors related to deposition. Some of these

factors can be identified as:

Clay deposition rate.

Deposition rate of the overlying sedimentary beds.

Initial clay density.

Density of overlying sediments.

Clay thickness.

Thickness of overlying sediments.

Mineral composition of the clays.

Age of the formation.

These parameters, in various combinations, bring about different pressure distributions and

a different density profile for clay formations.

At any rate, of the three zones into which the clay pressure curve is divided (hydrostatic,

transition and high pressure, Refer to Figure 2.1), the transition zone is the one most

affected by these parameters.

The Compaction Theory, which has proved to be valid for calculating the pressure curve in

many experimental cases, will be used later on to emphasise the effects of various

geological parameters.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 15 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 16 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The following paragraphs will cover the evaluation of the interaction between liquid and

solid phases when a saturated rock medium is subjected to a tensile stress applied to a

boundary surface.

As far as the liquid phase is concerned, two different conditions may be defined:

1) Un-drained. When the rock medium is delimited by an impermeable boundary or if

there are instantaneous situations or events so short-lived that the movement of water

particles within the pores may be considered nil:

2) Drained: if the rock medium is delimited by a permeable boundary and conditions

change slowly in relation to the rate of filtration of interstitial water.

In the first case, the interstitial pressures induced within the rock medium cannot balance

the external hydraulic conditions; furthermore, since the amount of water within the porous

medium is unchanged, and assuming the medium to be saturated and the water and

granules making up the solid skeleton to be incompressible, un-drained conditions

correspond necessarily to incompressibility of the medium.

In the second case, interstitial pressures are in, or tend to reach, a state of equilibrium with

the external hydraulic conditions. Any variation in the volume of the porous medium

corresponds, under the assumptions made above, to a variation in the amount of water.

A change in stress of a rock medium under un-drained conditions brings about a change in

the interstitial pressures. This is easy to calculate when the solid skeleton is assumed to be

linearly elastic.

Let us first suppose that the porous medium is saturated with water and that the change in

pressure, following the application of a stress, be represented by Pp. The volumetric

deformations of the solid skeleton will be given by:

V m Eq. 2.21

I

= I

V k

where:

kI =

(

3 1 2 I ) Eq. 2.22

EI

Im =

1 I

3

(

x + Iy + Iz ) Eq. 2.23

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 17 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

with:

I

k = Modulus of volume compressibility of the solid skeleton

I

= Poissons modulus for the solid skeleton

I

E = Youngs modulus

I

m = Average effective stress

Under the assumption made in the previous paragraph and also assuming a negligible

compressibility for the grains, a volume change V of the rock medium can only be caused

by a change in the volume of the pores.

For un-drained conditions, interstitial fluid volume is constant and therefore is:

V = 0 Eq. 2.24

or

1 Eq. 2.25

V I

Im = 0

k

Therefore:

Im = 0 Eq. 2.26

According to the effective stress principle:

Im = m Pp Eq. 2.27

where:

m = Total average stress

giving:

m = Pp Eq. 2.28

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 18 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

When the distribution of the induced stress is radically symmetrical, one may state

(assuming linear elasticity, isotropy and homogeneity):

m =

1

(Pov + 2 Pr ) = Pp Eq. 2.29

3

where:

Pov = Total vertical stress

Pr = Total horizontal stress

r =

1

[ Pr 0.5(Pov + Pr )] = 0 Eq. 2.30

E

from which:

Pr = Pov Eq. 2.31

and, by substituting Eq. 2.31 into Eq. 2.29:

Pov = Pp Eq. 2.32

Any load increment produces an interstitial pressure change when un-drained conditions

are maintained.

Compaction Theory

If a rock medium is subjected to external stresses and boundary conditions of

impermeability are removed, drainage conditions are established. Water is free to move

within the intergranular spaces and unsteady filtration movement sets in.

The pressures, induced under Un-drained conditions and not balanced by boundary

conditions due to the present of formations, establish a hydraulic gradient and, thus, a

hydrostatic gradient (filtration movement), which changes over time and with the steady

lessening of over-pressures.

If the total applied stress remains constant, interstitial pressure changes correspond to

effective stress variations, with subsequent deformation of the rock medium. This process

of overpressure dissipation is called compaction.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 19 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

As far as the natural characteristics of the medium are concerned, this process is controlled

by the viscous resistance between water and solid skeleton and by its compressibility. With

the introduction of viscosity and an unsteady state, time enters as a variable in the

description of this phenomenon; in other words, compaction takes place during an interval

of time dependent upon the permeability coefficient and the deformability of the solid

skeleton.

The rheologic model which best fits this phenomenon is represented by coupling elastic and

viscous elements in parallel (Kelvins body) (Refer to Figure 2.2.). The rock medium is

represented by the combination of water and springs within the cylinder; the hydrodynamic

filtration resistance is represented by the friction loss due to the flow of water through the

orifices.

The closing of the orifices corresponds to an un-drained condition, while their opening

represents a drained condition.

When studying compaction, interstitial pressure distribution and variations with time may be

deduced from the Continuity Law by equating the volume of liquid flowing through the

boundary surface per unit of time to the corresponding change in the volume of the rock

medium and from Darcys law (relating to the flow of fluids).

The general equation for compaction is given by:

1 2 P P + k P = 1 x e

2 2 Eq. 2.33

k x + k

fl X 2 y 2 z 2 1 + e 0 t

y z

where:

fl = Water density

eo = Porosity ratio =

1

By limiting the analysis to uni-directional flow and deformation (in the vertical direction) and

using the following assumptions:

Total saturation (Sw = 1)

Slight deformation as compared to the thickness of the medium

Linear elasticity for the solid skeleton

Sudden and continuous application of external stress

Homogeneity and isotropy of the medium.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 20 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 21 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

k z x E ed 2 P P Eq. 2.34

x =

fl z 2 t

where:

k z x E ed

= Compaction coefficient

fl

Eed = Compressibility modulus (derived from the compressibility curve for

clays)

fl = Fluid density (water)

kz = Vertical permeability coefficient

Assuming a time-dependent external stress rather than one constant over time, the

following equation holds:

x E ed x 2 =

fl z t t

By defining the boundary conditions for a clay formation, the overpressures at any instant

during compaction can be calculated.

This paragraph covers the reconstruction of density and pressure profiles for a clay

formation taking into account the extent of clay compaction at the end of the following three

stages of evolution of the deposition process:

1) At the end of clay sediment deposition;

2) After the clay has been overlaid by a thin sequence of permeable sediments under

hydrostatic pressure (sand and clay interbeddings);

3) After the clay has been overlaid by a thick sequence of permeable sediments under

hydrostatic pressure.

For each of the stages just mentioned, the sequence of clay sediments is bordered

underneath by an impermeable substratum so that the greatest distant covered by the

water particle to get to the draining surface is equal to the thickness of the clay sediments.

In order to emphasise the role played by the geological factors and, most of all, the

deposition rate, the dissipation of overpressures between successive stages of compaction

has not been considered.

1) Calculations require the values for kz, S = fl / E ed and the dimensions of the

formation being investigated and its deposition rate.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 22 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The value of these parameters may change; they can, however, be included within the

single parameter Q, in order to facilitate the comparison between clays with different

hydraulic properties, thickness and sedimentation rate. The overall parameter Q may be

defined as:

fl I Eq. 2.36

Q= x sh x

E ed k

where:

k = Rock permeability

Eed = Compressibility modulus

sh = Deposition rate

l = Sediment thickness.

Through application of the Compaction Theory, the density and pressure profiles for this

stage have been obtained and are shown in Figure 2.3. An examination of the curves

produces the following conclusions:

In the transition zone, pore pressures are only marginally sensitive to the values

of Q.

In the high-pressure region (i.e. the deepest zone), changes in the values of Q

are apparent in the range 0 to 20; for values of Q above this range, pressure

and density values are quite constant.

pressure, for both rapid and slow depositions, are shown in Figure 2.4

In case of a rapid burial, the transition zone has density values lower than for a

slow burial; a rapid sedimentation traps water in clay pores, since it does not

allow the development of a drainage zone in the transition zone. Very much

different is the situation for a slow deposition, as the drainage phase has more

time to develop.

In the high pressure zones, pressure values are similar for both cases.

In the high pressure zones, density values decrease for a slow burial, whereas

they increase in the opposite case.

3) In the case of burial below a great thickness of permeable sediments, the situation is

almost identical to that seen in Point 2, but with clearly greater pore pressure values

(Refer to Figure 2.5)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 23 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(At the end of shale deposition process)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 24 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(After slow or shale rapid burial due to the action of a thin permeable and normally pressured

layer)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 25 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(After slow or rapid shale burial due to the action of a thick permeable and normally pressured

layer)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 26 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

2.2.2. Diagenesis

Overpressures may develop as a consequence of diagnoses; i.e. of the post-depositional

alteration process of sediments and of component minerals. Diagenetic processes include

the formation of new minerals, re-distribution and re-crystallisation of substances present in

the sediments, and lithification.

The most important and frequent processes in the development of abnormal pressure

zones are the following:

Diagenesis of clays

Diagenesis of volcanic ash

Diagenesis of sulphates

Secondary precipitation of cementation material

Decomposition of organic matter.

Clay Diagenesis

Introduction

Studies started in 1950 in several sedimentary basins with the support of laboratory

experiments have by now proved that during diagnosis, under the effects of pressure,

temperature and ion activity, clays of montmorillonite composition change to clays of illite

composition, passing through an intermediate phase, which is of maximum importance

when explaining overpressures and migration of subsurface organic fluids.

Montmorillonite is a clay mineral generally found at minor depth and which reaches a

hydrostatic equilibrium relatively quickly, losing excess water easily. When this clay, due to

subsidence, is found at depths of between 2,000 and 4,000 m, desorption of the liquids

(crystallisation water) between the elemental placelets takes place and, therefore, a further

loss of liquid occurs.

Temperature plays a very important role at this stage: in fact, as the temperature increases

with depth, crystallisation water is changed to mobile interstitial water. Due to the fact that

the mobilisation rate of the crystallisation water is higher than the expulsion rate, an

overpressure develops within the clay. Such clay, which is at this point no longer

montmorillonite but Montmorillonite-Illite in composition, remains overpressured until all the

excess liquid is able to flow out, which coincides with the complete transformation to illite

clay; this occurs when clays are found at considerable depth.

Under these temperature and pressure conditions, Illite clays will be at a normal gradient.

Several authors, such as Powers, Burst, Magara, have dealt with the questions of why and

how the physical-chemical process of montmorillonite dehydration takes place, by trying to

correlate the conditions found in different sedimentary basins; however, not all of them are

in agreement in considering diagnosis the principal cause of overpressure development.

Before looking at the question in greater detail, a brief description of the most important

clays is given in the following section.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 27 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The clay minerals are hydrous silicates with layered/sheet-like structure, belonging to the

Phyllosilicate group.

The basic units in the clay mineral structure are tetrahedra and octahedra that link together

to form a sheet network. These layers are in turn linked to each other in a direction

perpendicular to the layer itself.

In the tetrahedral units, Si (sometimes replaced by Al) is at the centre of the tetrahedron

(co-ordination solid), while oxygen ions (or hydroxyl ions) are placed at the vertices. The

tetrahedra are bonded to one another on a plane to form a two-dimensional sheet network

with hexagonal meshes. In all the tetrahedra, the fourth vertex is oriented in the same

direction.

The octahedral units form sheet networks, in which a layer of aluminium (or magnesium)

ions Iies between two layers formed of oxygen and hydroxyl ions. The most common

octahedral units are Al2 (OH)6 (Gillsite) and Mg3 (OH)6 (Brucite).

The various types of clay minerals come from the combinations of tetrahedral and

octahedral units in elemental placelets (Figure 2.6). Several cases may be thus

individuated:

1) Elemental placelets consisting of an octahedral unit and a tetrahedral unit (Kaolinite,

Ser-pentine);

2) Elemental placelets consisting of an octahedral unit between two tetrahedral units

(Ulite, Mont-morillonite);

3) Elemental placelets consisting of three-layer packages of the previous type

interlayered wirh an octahedral unit (Chlorite Group).

The basic structure which is referred to in order to define a Montmorillonite (Smectite) clay

and an illite clay is that of Pyrophyllite, as shown in Figure 2.7. It consists of two tetrahedral

units that include an octahedral unit. The charge of the whole structure is zero and thus the

linkage between the elemental placelets is due to the existence of the Van der Waals

forces (Van der Waals bond).

By ion substitution in the basic structure, the Smectite group and the Illite group are formed.

The first group is obtained through the substitution of Si with Al; this causes an imbalance in

the electric charge, Al being trivalent with respect to tetravalent Si.

The imbalance leads to the absorption of cations and liquids between the elemental

placelets, thus establishing the main characteristic of these clays, i.e. absorption and

significant ion exchange properties. The general formula for the Smectites is Al4 Si8 O2O

(OH)4 nH2O.

The Illite group features, aside from the Al to Si substitution, the presence of potassium and

sodium ions that, being bonded between the various elemental placelets, neutralise the

electrical imbalance and make the structure fissile. By comparing the Illite and the Mica

structures, a casual substitution of Si ions by Al ions is noted in the Illite, while in the Micas

one Si ion of four is substituted.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 28 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The Illite general formula is Ky Al4 (Si8 AIy) O20 (OH)4 where y value may vary between 1.0

and 1.5. Iliite contains very small amounts of water; other features include the total absence

of organic liquids and a low ion exchange due to the presence of potassium and sodium

ions.

To sum up, the Smectite group prototype mineral is Pyrophyllite, while the IlIite group

prototype is Muscovite.

(Composed of two layers of silica tetrahedrons and one central octahedron)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 29 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(In Three-Layered Sheets)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 30 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

All clays existing in nature absorb liquids. However, Smectites have a particular

predisposition towards this phenomenon, due to their expanded structure. For this reason,

most of the studies on clay expansion have been done on Smectites and in particular on

Montmorillonite.

Two absorption mechanisms have been identified: crystalline and osmotic.

Crystalline absorption results from the absorption of monomolecular layers of water on the

surface of the placelets. The first layer is bonded to the placelet surface and to the

hexagonal structure of the water by a hydrogen bond (Figure 2.8.); the water molecules are

connected in the classic hexagonal structure. The subsequent layers are bonded like the

first, but the bonding force decreases with their distance from the surface. The water within

the first 10 A has a specific volume 3% Iower than free water and, therefore, a greater

viscosity. The presence of cations affects the crystalline structure of water in two ways: a)

many cations become hydrated; b) the cations bond themselves to the placelet surface in

substitution of the water molecules. When the Montmorillonite is exposed to water vapour,

the water enters between the placelets and the clay structure expands.

Figure 2.9. shows a relationship between water vapour pressure and the increase of water

and distance between the placelets.

It is clear that the absorption energy in the first layer is rather high and decreases rapidly

with distancing from the surfaces.

Using X-rays, Navish measured the distance between the elemental placelets of a single-

ion Mont-morillonite, while it was immersed in a salt-saturated solution in which cations were

equal to those present on the clay faces. In all cases, the distance between the placelets

with respect to the initial situation, increased moderately with decreasing concentration; the

absorption of one layer of water molecules corresponded to each moderate increment. The

results obtained indicate that not more than four layers of water can be absorbed.

Osmotic absorption occurs when the concentration of cations between the placelets is

higher than that of the solution in the pores. Consequently, the water is pulled between the

placelet surfaces increasing its penetration and permitting the development of the double

electric layer which is a function of the distribution of ions in contact with a negatively or

positively charged surface. The value of the potential taken on by the ions is described in

Figure 2.10. The maximum value is found near the surfaces and falls to nothing at a certain

distance. Two principal zones can be distinguished:

1) The Stern layer, next to the surface

2) The diffused layer, which extends from the end of the Stern layer to the formation

water.

since it operates on the basis of the differing electrolytic concentrations that exist between

placelets and pores.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 31 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 32 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 2.9 - Relationship Between Water Vapour Pressure, Water Content And Distance

Between Unit Layers Of Montmorillomnite

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 33 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(According To Gouy(B) And Zeta Potential Diagram A)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 34 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Various theories have been advanced on the subject of dehydration, the most interesting

being those of Powers, Burst and Magara.

Powers stated his theory in four principal points:

1) Expanded clays, like Montmorillonite, are changed into IIIite through a process of

burial;

2) Montmorillonitic clays absorb a greater number of water molecules on the surfaces of

elemental packages than Illitic or other non-expanding clays. In Figure 2.10 the

distribution of the monomolecular layers of water proposed by Powers can be seen;

3) The last four monomolecular Iayers of water absorbed by the elemental placelets of

Montmorillonite are not dewatered because of an increase in pressure due to burial,

but because of electrostatic attraction forces that are generated during the absorbtion

of the potassium ions;

4) A high water density value is reached in the last four layers.

If the Montmorillonite is deposited in a delta or marine environment and the overburden has

reached the thickness of several hundred metres, an equilibrium is established between the

water contained in the clay pores and the water absorbed by the Montmorillonite particles. A

further increase in pressure resulting from burial is insufficient to displace the water

remaining trapped in the pores. At depths greater than 500-1,000 metres, much of the water

present is hydration water distributed in the four monomolecular layers between the

elemental placelets (Figure 2.12A).

As the Montmorillonite is changed into Illite, the water present between the placelets is

expelled and becomes free water (Figure 2.12). In this way there is an increase in water

transferred as a result of dehydration. Thus, an increase in porosity and permeability is

obtained.

At the pressures existing between 2,000-3,000 m, the water molecules are located too far

from the particle surface to be held by the double electric layer force. In this way, the water

is expelled from the pores and a complete transformation into Illite occurs (Figure 2.12). The

relationship between the expelled water and the burial depth is shown in Figure 2.13; these

curves permit the determination of porosity, permeability and formation density values.

The latest hypothesis proposed by Powers, and confirmed by laboratory analysis predicts a

3

density of 1.4g/cm for the water between the Montmorillonite packages.

In the process of diagenesis, the change of crystallisation water into interstitial water, with a

3

density of 1 g/cm , creates a variation in volume of about 40%. This represents the volume

between the particles necessary to accommodate the desorbed water in the process of

diagenesis in order to maintain a hydrostatic gradient. This value is hypothetical, since

Montmorillonitic clays made up solely of Montmorillonite do not exist in nature, because

usually other minerals are present. The real value of volume variation lies between 2.5%

and 20%, at least for clays of the Gulf Coast, U.S.A. Such a mechanism, according to

Powers, could explain the creation of overpressures.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 35 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The compressibility of water at the depths considered and at the temperature reached is

practically zero. Therefore, any quantity of water introduced, no matter how small, definitely

creates some overpressure, since it cannot be compressed. The problem can be compared

to trying to add liquid to an already full container. In conclusion, the Powers theory can be

summarised by granting the existence of two stages of dehydration (Figure 2.13):

a) The first due to-compaction;

b) The second due to diagenesis.

According to Burst, on the other hand, the process of dehydration develops in three stages,

as indicated in Figure 2.14. In the first stage, the pore water, or the excess water present in

the elemental placelets, is expelled by the increase in pressure due to burial. The water

content in clay sediments, in this initial phase, reaches 70-80%. Following the dehydration

caused by compac-tion, the water content is reduced to about 30% (20-25% becomes water

held in the elemental placelets and 5-10% water held in the pores).

In the second stage, the pressure, with respect to the temperature, is ineffective as a

dehydrating agent. To better explain the concept an analogy can be made using chemical

phenomena which occur in ice during a change in state. The water molecules in the solid

are more tightly imprisoned compared to those in the liquid; the former can gain mobility

only through a certain amount of heat. A similar situation is encountered in the case of

water imprisoned in hexagonal configurations within the elemental placelets as already

seen in the description of the expansion mechanism. When the speed of the molecules is

sufficient to permit their escape from their tight imprisonment and to move around freely, the

ice becomes water and analogously, in the case at hand, the water between the placelets

becomes pore water. The effects of pressure and temperature during the change in state

are in opposition to each other since the density of the placelet water is greater than that of

the free water. The thermodynamic system that evolves from this state of compaction

requires an expansion rather than a contraction of volume, as it is deduced from the

increase in volume of the formations observed in the compaction of sediments. Therefore

the transition phase consists of the transformation of a denser water, highly oriented in the

placelets, into less dense water, free in the porous space.

In agreement with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the conclusion is that the pressure,

contrary to the temperature, does not fundamentally affect the phenomenon. In fact, it has

been verified that increasing pressure by thousands of atmospheres is approximately equal

to raising the temperature by 10%. Thus, changes of pressure with depth appear to be too

small to have any significant thermodynamic effect on the clay-water system. This

affirmation modifies the generally accepted theory that the increase in pressure due to

burial was responsible for compaction and overpressure. The amount of water freed is

equal to 10-15% of the volume of the formation.

In the third stage, the increase in volume of the water, having a density equals to that of

capillary water, is gradually reduced in the elemental placelets due to a further increase in

temperature. This final dehydration stage is very slow, requiring tens or even hundreds of

millions of years to reach completion.

Figure 2.13 shows the progression of the expelled water curve against depth. A comparable

progression is to be found for permeability and porosity.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 36 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

As far as the origin of overpressures are concerned Bursts theory agrees with Powers. In

both the Powers and Burst theories it is advanced that the dehydration may be the principal

cause of the creation of overpressures at the depths considered.

Magara disagrees with this theory. According to the analyses performed by this author, the

liberation of 10-15% of crystalline water, as foreseen by Burst, may provoke an increase of

2% in clay density, while the calculations performed by Magara, using the density log, lead

to conclude an increase of 6% in density. In the same way, other areas of disagreement

with the theories of Powers and Burst are to be found. In this way, Magara reaches the

conclusion that the dehydration of Montmorillonitic clays is not the principal cause of

overpressures.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 37 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 38 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(With Depth And Temperature According To Powers And Burst Heroes)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 39 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(During The Dehydration Process)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 40 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Significant amounts of organic matter are contained in several types of clays and in the

shales, formed as a consequence of mud burial. Inevitably, over its geological history,

organic matter tends to be transformed into coal, oil, etc.

During the organic matter dehydration process a certain amount of gas is produced, both

directly and by reaction with CO2. This occurs at first by bacterial action, close to the

surface, and subsequently at a greater depth, in the burial process by the thermochemical

degradation that precedes, accompanies and follows the formation of oil, coal or

carbonaceous matter as a function of the hydrogen content of the organic matter.

The methane (CH4) thus generated in the clay or in the compacted shales may escape from

the rock, both as gas dissolved in water or oil and, in part, as free gas. At the initial stage of

clay deposition, when the porosity value is high, gas can escape easily. Should the

decomposition of organic matter continue, when a decrease in the clay permeability and in

the liquid content of the pores occurs, pore water will tend to trap the free gas in small

bubbles. This phenomenon might create overpressure conditions for two reasons:

1) The continuous formation of methane creates a back-pressure in the medium that

resists fluid expansion.

2) The continuous development of the gas dispersed in the liquid produces a reduction

in rock permeability for both the phases.

consequence of burial, the simultaneous formation of gas will augment this tendency. Or, in

conditions of hydrostatic equilibrium, as a consequence of burial, methane production may

be the only cause of overpressure.

Sulphate Diagenesis

It is known that the change of calcium sulphate (CaSO4) from its hydrate state, i.e. gypsum

(CaSO4, 2H2O) into its anhydrous state, i.e. anhydrite (CaSO4), is a reaction connected to

the post-sedimentary diagenetic process. Such reaction involves water release and a 40%

volume reduction of gypsum. When the released water cannot flow freely due to the

presence of permeability barriers, overpressures develop affecting the formations at their

top and/or at their base.

The phenomenon is reversible, i.e. anhydrite may become hydrated with the consequent

1

15-25% volume increase for its semi-hydrate (CaSO4, /2 H2O) up to a 40% for its hydrated

state, that is, gypsum.

It is needless to say that even a partial reaction in a closed system, which does not allow for

dilatation, will cause high overpressures.

The precipitation of materials dissolved in the formation water may develop overpressures

in a hydraulically closed system that was initially under hydrostatic conditions. We can

consider for instance the cases of carbonate, sulphate, chloride, silica precipitation, etc.

There will be a reduction of the pore space with consequent pressurisation of the fluids

contained in it.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 41 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

This process can only get started when there is a variation in at least one of the factors

contributing to keeping salts in solution; ie, temperature, pressure, composition of the

solution, and concentration of each singe component.

Overpressure conditions may also be created in a hydraulically open system. During

sediment compaction, secondary precipitation may decrease the permeability to such a

degree that it may, impede the flow of the liquids present in the pores before burial.

Osmosis is defined as the spontaneous flow of water between two solutions of different

concentrations, or between pure solvent and solution, when they are separated by a semi-

permeable membrane (Figure 2.15). The osmotic flow will continue until the chemical

potential of the two solutions, divided by the barrier, becomes equal.

At equilibrium, a pressure difference is created, which is a function of temperature and

concentration. in fact, if the temperature is constant, the pressure difference varies with the

concentration difference (Figure 2.16); while if pressure is constant, the concentration

difference varies with the temperature. The importance of osmosis as a cause of

overpressures is due to the fact that, under particular geological conditions, there may be a

flow in the direction of a closed volume, and as a consequence, a pressure increase will

result.

The most favourable lithology for the production of this phenomenon is a sequence of thin

sand and clay interbeddings, while the phenomenon would not be possible in the case of

two sand layers divided by a very thick clay layer. Researchers found that clays behave as

a semi-permeable membrane and that their efficiency increases with increasing clay purity.

Berry, reaching the same conclusion, defined the factors that may affect the flow rate of

various chemical compounds through the membrane. They are:

1) The nature of chemical compounds in solution.

2) The degree of dissociation of chemical compounds.

3) Non-ionic absorption by rock.

4) The absorption of bivalent cations in comparison to monovalent cations in the cation

ex-change phase in rock.

5) Filtration velocities of different compounds.

6) The degree of mass effect on the transport velocities of different chemical

compounds.

The osmotic phenomenon needs a true membrane in order to develop. Young and Low

conducted experiments using typical clay samples and solutions at varying concentrations.

They got results which differed rather a lot from the theory and they concluded that the

clays known as semi-permeable did not actually fall under this definition, due to the possible

existence of microfissures, high concentrations of fine silica inside the pores and other

irregularities.

Although the studies on the behaviour of clay as semi-permeable membranes lead to

controversial conclusions, the osmotic phenomenon may be of some importance as one

cause, though not always primary, of overpressure.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 42 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(From A More Dilute To A More Concentrate Solution Jones, 1969)

(Is Almost Inversely Proportional To The Concentration Differential Jones 1969)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 43 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

2.2.4. Tectonics

Introduction

In the course of their history, the rocks present in the earths crust undergo deformations

due to stresses of tectonic origin (dislocation), which modify their original geological

structure.

The sedimentary rocks are almost always of marine origin, except for the case of deltaic or

coastal sediments and for this reason are deposited almost horizontally on the sea bottom:

If any region, flat or mountainous, appears to be formed of similarly horizontal layers, this

means that the zone has undergone a simple vertical movement (vertical uplift) without

disturbing the original depositional condition; otherwise, if the layers show a different

orientation, the movement undergone must have been caused by stresses, known as

tectonic, oriented in different directions.

Tectonic stresses have a mostly horizontal orientation, so much as to be called tangential to

the earths surface. These stresses may be compressive or tensile or tend to rotate two

parallel surfaces of a body in opposite directions with shearing effects.

The rocks, tectonically stressed, are either deformed plastically or are fractured, and at

times both conditions occur. Among the several types of dislocation due to tectonic

phenomena, the following stand out:

Folds: Tangential stresses (orogenic) along the earths trust cause rock masses

to fold repeatedly giving rise to more or less complex structures, the surfaces of

which are exposed to erosion. Folds are classified according to structure, origin

and type of deformation. The main fold types are: monoclines, anticlines or

upfolds and synclines or troughs or down folds. The central part of a fold is the

core; the hinge line coincides with maximum curvature; the sides or limbs meet

at the hinge line; the axial plane passes through the hinge line while the axis

through the core.

The vergence refers to the direction of inclination.

Faults :are fractures with displacement; i.e. a relative displacement of the two

sides. The displacement can have either a vertical or horizontal component, or

both.

For the most part, deformations are of tectonic origin and, therefore, caused by strains or

oriented stresses that were produced in the course of orogenesis; but they may also be of

other origins such as magmatic or diapiric intrusions, effects of gravity, etc.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 44 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The mechanism, which abnormal pressures build up as a consequence of tectonic stresses,

is quite similar to the one responsible for overpressures due to compaction, the only

difference being that in the former case it is dependent on the speed of tectonic stress

application rather than on the rate of deposition.

The new state of stress produces at first an hydraulic imbalance within the formation, so

that the fluids, in order to restore hydrostatic equilibrium, are slowly forced out of the rock

pores. When the permeability of the formation does not allow a normal outflow, or when the

same is delayed with respect to the rate of the stress applied to the excess water in the

pores, the rock medium will be in an anomalous condition. The pressure of the fluid inside

the pores is certainly higher than the hydrostatic pressure so that rock porosity will be higher

than in the case of a rock formation which has been completely drained

Situations such as these may occur within the core of a fold where compressive stresses,

which may occasionally reach very high values, accumulate. As orogenesis develops, faults

may be generated along with folds, the former being surfaces along which the mechanical

resistance of the rock has been exceeded. In fact, in highly compressed overturned folds,

the overturned side usually tends to become thinner with respect to the normal side and to

the hinge, thus becoming stretched folds. As a consequence of lamination of the limb, folds

with faults (Figure 2.17) are generated having been more or less overthrusted as a

consequence of a movement having a horizontal component. The thrust along the fault

surface may improve, or worsen, the flow of the excess water by causing the contact of

impermeable or slightly permeable layers with permeable layers under hydrostatic

conditions or with impermeable layers, thereby preventing any possible drainage.

It may also happen that permeable layers, under pressure because of the new stress state,

come into contact with impermeable layers thus inducing abnormal pressures. When the

fault surface allows the outflow of the excess water towards permeable layers where

drainage can take place, the overpressure may lessen.

Diapiric phenomena (Figure 2.18), magmatic intrusions or the effects of gravity may also

induce additional stresses which, with respect to tectonic stresses, are of clearly minor

intensity, slower and less violent.

All things considered, the increase or decrease of the overburden pressure on the rock

formation, that may occur both during the orogenic phase and as a result of erosion, may

be taken into account: they may facilitate the build-up of overpressures because of the new

conditions of equilibrium thus established.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 45 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 2.17 - Passages From A Recumbent Fold To A Fault-Fold (3) (After Moret)

Figure 2.18 - Diapiric Structures (A1, A2) And Origin Of A Salt Dome (A3)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 46 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Artesian pressures are encountered in situations such as the one shown in Figure 2.19 i.e.

in porous formations with high outcrops, between impermeable rocks. In such a case the

formation pressure inside the pores is the hydrostatic pressure as calculated for an

elevation H and not H1, and is higher than normal pressure.

In hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs having a particular type of geometry (such as very thick

and inclined lenses or highly folded anticlines), the formation pressures of the higher part of

the reservoir are abnormal. In fact, while the formation pressure along the water table is

normal, at the top of the reservoir, since the hydrocarbon density is lower than that of water,

the pressure is higher than normal. Such a situation is shown in Figure 2.21

To make all this clearer, assume, for example, the formation pressure to be normal at

2 2

2,000m (i.e. Gp = 1.03kg/cm - 10m) which means Pp = 206kg/cm . At 1,500m, the water

2 2

top, the pressure will still be normal, Pp = 206 - 51.5 = 154.5kg/cm ; where 51.5 kg/cm is

3

the pressure of a column of water 500m high and with a density of 1.03g/cm . At a depth of

2 2

1000m, Pp = 119.5kg/cm (154.5 - 35 where 35kg/cm is the pressure exerted by a column

3

of hydrocarbons having a density of 0.70g/cm and 500m high); in such a case at 1,000m

2

the pore gradient will be Gp = 1.195kg/cm 10 m, which is higher than normal

This holds for any reservoir having a geometry of the type shown in Figure 2.21

Normal pressure reservoirs, especially at a minor depth, may sometimes be repressurised,

which means that they may be brought to higher than normal pressures as a result of

hydraulic communication that can be established with deep formations at higher pressure.

Such communication may take place along non-sealing faults or because of a poor

cementing of intermediate and production casing strings and for various other reasons.

Many factors contribute to the presence of sub-normal pressures, i.e. pressures lower than

the hydrostatic gradient. Amongst these, the particular ones listed below should be noted.

Several reservoirs in an advanced state of production show a reduction in pressure down to

values even below the hydrostatic pressure; this pressure is then transmitted to the

surrounding water table (Figure 2.20)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 47 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 48 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(As Results Of Structure)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 49 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

In dry or semi-dry regions such as Arabia, Iran, etc., ground water is found sometimes at a

depth of hundreds or even thousands of metres; under these conditions the pore pressure

gradient is always lower than normal.

The same is often the case at high altitudes such as the Zagros mountains in Iran, due to

the fact that the ground water table is at a significant depth, as a consequence of local

hydro-geological conditions (Figure 2.22).

Occasionally, in areas of recent orogenesis such as the sides of the Rocky Mountains in the

USA or those of the mountain range in Indonesia, wells have been drilled which cross areas

where under-pressured and over-pressured zones alternate. This seems to be due to

compressive stresses that have stretched some formations, while compressing other

formations as shown in Figure 2.23.

This example shows formation B to have been stretched due to tangential thrusts with a

consequent increase of its effective porosity which, in turn, because of the enlargement of

the pores, has been followed by a drop in the formation fluid pressure below its hydrostatic

value.

The opposite effect occurs in the case of formations A and C which are subjected to a

reduction in porosity and are thus in overpressure.

Abnormal pressures have been observed in areas subject to liftings and subsequent

erosions, i.e. porous formations, such as sands, under lying thick clay formations, have

been lifted by tectonic movements and the upper sediments have been partially eroded. As

a result, a decrease of the overburden pressure has occurred, favouring the expansion of

sands and clays still present (expansion due to load reduction). The extent of this is

obviously dependent on the geological time from the onset of the phenomenon, on the

change of geothermic gradient faced by the formation and the nature of the sediments. The

volume increase, corresponding to an increased porosity, favours the absorption of fluids by

the clay from the underlying sands where, as a consequence, the interstitial pressure drops

below hydrostatic values. Cases of sub-pressure caused by reduction of deposition loads

have been observed in some sedimentary basins in the USA).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 50 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 51 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

3. SEISMIC METHODS

The only way to obtain information, prior to well drilling, on the nature and characteristics of

the subsurface, is through geophysical prospecting.

The most important and extensively used geophysical method for oil prospecting is the

seismic reflection method. Although seismograms are used mainly by geophysicists and

geologists for subsurface structural and lithological interpretation, recently they have also

become of great interest and help to the drilling engineer.

Two of the most important applications of seismic data are in the detection of formations

characterised by abnormal pressures and in the forecasting of probable pressure gradients.

Experience has shown that starting with good seismic data and proper interpretation, it is

possible in most cases to pin-point the overpressure tops within 100 to 200m of their

location. Pore pressure gradients can be estimated with an approximation of .0.15 -

2

0.20kg/km 10m of the real values in the well; even better approximations are obtained

when calculating overburden gradients. Naturally, the determination of fracture gradients is

strictly dependent on the correct evaluation of the pore pressure gradients.

Before discussing how to calculate pressure gradients by means of seismic data, the basic

principles of seismic methods used in the Oil Industry must be discussed, with particular

attention paid to the seismic reflection method.

Seismic methods are based upon the study of the propagation of elastic waves (very similar

to acoustic waves) in the ground, generally caused by a controlled explosion on the earths

surface. These are macroscopic waves resulting from and dependent on the elastic and

mechanical properties of the material within which they occur and propagate; they depend

on the resistance of materials to deformation. For deformations to be elastic, the material

concerned does not necessarily have to be a truly elastic medium; in fact all continuous

material media are elastic, at least within a certain range of applied stress.

Let us suppose that in a certain part of the medium a deformation takes place; in other

words, that the medium in that region has, at a certain moment, a shape different from that

at equilibrium. The deformation is permanent if the medium stays deformed once its cause

is removed. It is elastic when the medium tends to return to a condition of equilibrium, that is

to eliminate the deformation. The continuous structure of the medium (i.e., the fact that

each element of it is in contact with the surrounding ones) causes the progressive

propagation of the deformation from element to element until the whole medium is involved

(over a variable range of time, with a relatively noticeable amplitude). Through this action of

contact each element, not in equilibrium, is subjected to a restoring force by the nearby

elements. At the same time, this element acts upon the surrounding elements with a force

that tries to move them from their initial positions. Because of their mass, these elements

react to such stress with a certain delay and with an even greater delay they transmit it to

the adjoining ones, and so on. In this way, the initial stress propagates into the medium at a

well-defined and finite velocity.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 52 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The way waves propagate is a typical process of transmission; i.e., of contact

action.

The finite velocity at which this transmission takes place depends on the

elasticity and density of the medium and is an effect of inertia.

Vibrations in a medium can be longitudinal or transverse, the former when vibration occurs

in the same direction as the perturbation propagation the latter when the medium vibrates

perpendicularly to this direction. These two types of waves belong to a group called body

waves, propagating in a homogeneous, infinite medium; in any case, when the medium is

stratified or has a free surface, another type of wave can be generated (surface waves),

the most common being the Rayleigh and Love waves, of minor importance from the

seismic point of view.

True elastic waves propagate in a medium as a consequence of elastic reactions within that

same medium. These waves can be longitudinal (or compressional or primary, P) or

transverse (or shear or secondary, S).

Transverse waves (Figure 3.1) are due to elastic forces acting against the sliding of the

various layers of a medium over one another; longitudinal waves (Figure 3.2) are due to

elastic forces opposing the compression and the dilatation of the medium.

Fluids and gases can transmit only longitudinal waves, since forces of the first type do not

exist in them, whereas solids can transmit both types of waves. Since the elastic constants

involved in the propagation of transverse and longitudinal waves are different, their velocity

of propagation is also different.

The velocity of propagation of longitudinal waves, Vp, in a given medium is represented by

the equation:

The velocity of propagation of transverse waves is given by:

where:

= Lam modulus

= Rigidity modulus

= Density

Y = Youngs modulus

= Poissons ratio

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 53 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

This means that in a solid medium the longitudinal waves are always faster, around twice as

fast, than the transverse waves. In particular if = 0.25, the ratio Vp / Vs = 3 it means that

the P wave is 1.7 times faster than the S wave.

If a liquid, in which = 0 is considered, it can be seen that the transverse waves do not

propagate.

In Table 3.1the velocities of propagation of several fluid and solid media, are shown.

Medium Temperature oc Vp, m/sec Vs, m/sec Vp/Vs

Air 0 331 - -

Hydrogen 0 1270 - -

Carbon Dioxide 0 416 - -

Helium 0 871 - -

Water 19 1461 - -

Steel 19 6110 3230 1.89

Glass 79 4740 2830 1.68

Copper 19 5080 2250 2.26

Table 3.1- Wave Velocity in Common Materials

This type of wave develops on the free surface of a semi-infinite medium. The deformation

propagating through the medium is a combination of dilatations and shear stresses. The

particles move along a vertical plane parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave and

has an elliptical, retrograde orbit (Figure 3.3).

RayIeigh wave velocity, VR is given by:

VR = 0.92 Vs Eq. 3.4

where Vs is the velocity of propagation of a transverse wave in the same medium.

Rayleigh waves are the principal component of ground roll, a disturbance normally seen in

reflections.

These are another kind of surface wave, developing in a low-speed surface layer overlying

a semi-infinite medium.

The motion of particles is transverse and takes place along the horizontal plane (Figure

3.4); this type of wave propagates by multiple reflection between the top and the bottom

surfaces of the surface layer. Since they have no vertical component, they are never

recorded by geophones.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 54 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The term noise, as used in seismology, refers to all kinds of disturbances that can mask or

interfere with a signal of interest.

Consequently, the concept of seismic noise depends on the circumstances. In fact, when

the signal of interest is represented by reflections, surface and refraction waves are treated

as disturbances to be discarded; whereas, if refraction signals have to be recorded,

reflections are to be discarded.

In seismic prospecting, noises can be divided into two groups:

Coherent noise - from surface and air waves with a frequency below 20Hz;

Incoherent noise - from unforeseen events of random amplitude and origin

defined as environmental noise or microquakes. These disturbances can

usually be attributed to the wind (60-100Hz), the sea, and the environment itself

(e.g. disturbances induced by high-voltage transmission lines: 50-60Hz).

Because of the presence of these various kinds of disturbances, the improvement of the

signal-to-noise-ratio is a major objective in the recording of the signal; this objective is

reached in seismic prospection, in which signal source and signal detector are both under

control, by strengthening the signal (stronger source), decreasing the noise, particularly the

coherent noise (locating explosives at greater depth and proper geophone arrays), and

finally by using detectors of appropriate sensitivity (frequency band width outside that of the

main noise).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 55 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 56 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 57 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

3.2.1. Factors Affecting The Propagation Of Seismic Waves

Seismology studies how elastic waves (appropriately named seismic) propagate in the

ground, in particular those waves generated by artificial energy sources; seismic waves

irradiate from the source according to well-known principles of propagation such as

Huygens and Fermats Principles.

Huygenss Principle states, in short, that each particle affected by sound waves becomes in

turn a source of energy itself. The resulting wavefront is the envelope of all single

elementary wavefronts. If the ray of the spherical wave is large, the wavefront can be

treated as a plane. Lines perpendicular to the wavefront are called seismic rays or

raypaths.

Fermars Principle can be summarised by stating that seismic rays follow preferential paths

that are the shortest, time-wise

Wave type, velocity and direction of propagation vary according to the physical properties

and dimensions of the medium. The geometry of a medium dictates the direction of

propagation of a seismic wave, while its physical properties (elasticity and density)

determine the velocity of propagation. The simplest medium is homogeneous, isotropic and

perfectly elastic; where waves travel along rectilinear paths at a constant velocity.

In nature, media are surrounded by other media or are interlayered with levels of different

physical properties. Consequently, a wave undergoes a series of alterations each time it

interferes with a discontinuity. Therefore, velocity, direction of propagation, spectral

structure and energy content vary as the wave moves from, one layer to the next. The

velocity of propagation of longitudinal waves, for example, which are those studied in

seismic prospection, varies in subsurface rocks between 600-7,000m/sec (Refer to Table

3.2).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 58 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Acoustic Impedance

Medium Density g/cm2 Velocity Vp m/sec

Z(g/sec cm2) x 104

Anhydrite 2.82 - 2.93 3,500 5,500 99 161

Basalt 2.70 3.30 5,500 6,300 149 208

Chalk 1.94 2.23 2,100 4,200 41 94

Clay 1.50 2.50 1,100 2,500 17 63

Dolomite 2.75 2.85 3,500 6,900 96 197

Granite 2.52 2.82 4,750 6,000 120 169

Gypsum 2.31 2.33 2,000 3,500 46 81

Limestone 2.58 2.80 3,400 7,000 88 196

Marl 2.25 2.86 2,000 3,500 45 100

o

Oil 0.60 0.90 1,275(23 C) 8 11

Air 0,0013 330 0.004

Water 0.98 1.01 1,430 590 14 16

Salt 2.14 2.18 4,200 5,500 90 120

Sand 1.60 1.90 600 1,850 10 35

Sandstone 2.15 2.70 2,100 4,500 45 122

Shale 2.41 2.81 2,700 4,800 65 135

Table 3.2 - Velocity of Longitudinal Waves in Various Mediums

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 59 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The density of a rock, and therefore the velocity of propagation of seismic waves through it,

is affected by several factors, such as:

Geological age: the increase in velocity with depth is greater for younger

sedimentary rocks.

Porosity: porosity increments cause a decrease of velocity.

Elastic anisotropy: due to layering in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, the

velocity in the direction parallel to a layer is always greater than across it.

Humidify: liquids decrease seismic velocity, when this is above 1,400m/sec.

Lithic nature e.g. an increase in silica content decreases velocity, whereas an

increase in carbonates increases velocity.

waves is inversely proportional to the square root of the density, but at first glance, it seems

that the velocity increases with increasing density. The explanation lies in the fact that, as a

material becomes more compact with a consequent increase in density, its elastic modulus

increases. So, on one hand, the medium becomes more compact, hence denser, with burial

(and with geological age in general) because of the pressure of overlying sediments,

consequently showing a decrease in velocity propagation, while on the other hand, elasticity

increases to such an extent that in turn it causes an overall increase of velocity.

If a wavefront hits a discontinuity between two elastic media, characterised by different

velocities and densities, part of its energy will be reflected and part transmitted.

For a reflection to occur, it is necessary that velocity and density in the two adjoining media

separated by an interface, be different. The parameter expressing the combined effect of

velocity V, and bulk density is called acoustic impedance, Z, and is represented by the

product V. The higher the contrast of acoustic impedance, the stronger the reflection;

when Z has the same value in the two adjoining media, no reflection takes place even if

their speed and/or density change.

The ratio between reflected and incident energy is called the reflection coefficient R, and is

given in case of an incident wave perpendicular to an interface (angle of incident = 0), by

the relation:

Z 2 Z 1 2 V2 1 V1 Eq. 3.5

R= =

Z 2 + Z 1 2 V2 + 1 V1

where:

Z1 and Z2 = Acoustic impedances of the two media.

In case of an inclined incidence (angle of incidence different from 0), the reflection

coefficient varies according to the angle of incidence with which the seismic wave intersects

the interface between the two media and not only with the acoustic impedance.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 60 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

coefficient; what is left of the incident energy transmitted into the successive medium. The

ratio between the amplitude of the transmitted wave and that of the incident wave is called

the transmission coefficient (or transmittance). The two way transmission coefficient, Tr is

defined, for a normal incident, by the relation:

4 Z 1Z 2 4 1 2 V1 V2 Eq. 3.6

Tr = =

(Z 2 + Z1 )

2

( 2 V2 + 1 V1 )

2

2

Tr = 1 R Eq. 3.7

When the incidence is inclined, the transmission coefficient varies with the angle of

incidence and with the properties of the two media on either side of the interface.

When variation in the direction of propagation takes place at an interface, the transmission

is normally referred to as refraction. This happens each time the incidence is oblique. The

angle of refraction depends on the velocity contrast in the two adjoining media and not on

the contrast of acoustic impedance as in the case of reflection. When the velocity in the

second medium is greater than in the first one, the refracted ray deviates from the normal

and vice versa

The refraction of a seismic wave is ruled by Snells law, relating the angles of incidence i1

and refraction i2 to the velocities in the two media, V1 and V2:

sin i1 V Eq. 3.8

= 1

sin i 2 V2

The above relation is of great importance in the study of seismic ray propagation: it follows

that when a ray passes from a medium with velocity V1 to another with velocity V2 (with V2 >

V1) it deviates from the normal to the point of incidence, i.e. if V2 > V1 it will also be i2 > i1. In

particular when i2 = 90 it will be:

V1 Eq. 3.9

sin i1,c =

V2

And, in this case, the refracted ray travels along the interface of the two media without

entering the lower one (Figure 3.5). This particular value of the incidence angle is called the

critical angle or limit angle and is of great importance in the application of reflection

seismic.

If the incidence angle is greater than the critical angle, i.e. i1 > i1c = there will be no refracted

ray but total reflection (Figure 3.6).

Through the application of Snells law (a second Law States that the incidence angle is

equal to the reflection angle), it is possible to understand which main requisites must be

satisfied in the utilisation of:

Seismic reflection methods: in this case the receivers (geophones) are sited at a

short distance from the source of energy so that the incidence angle i1 is very

small and certainly smaller than the critical angle, i1,c (Figure 3.7).

Seismic reflection methods the geophones are sited at great distance from the

source of energy so that the incidence angle i1 matches the critical angle i1,c

(Figure 3.8).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 61 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 62 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(At An Interface Geophones Layout)

(Geophones Are Placed Very Close To The Energy Source)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 63 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

3.3.1. Fundamental Principles

As previously stated, the seismic reflection technique is the most extensively used

geophysical method. particularly in the search for structural information. This method

determines depth and inclination of geological discontinuities in great detail and, in addition,

it is the only one that determines with equal precision the setting of formations at different

depths.

Every geological discontinuity, hit by a wavefront generated by a surface explosion, reflects

part of the incident energy. In the simplest case of a single plane discontinuity, the travel

time of a seismic wave, reflected by an interface at an angle to the direction shot point-

receiver (Figure 3.9) and assuming a constant velocity in the first medium, is given by the

general equation:

Tx =

1

V0

(

4Z2 + 4Z x sin

1/ 2

) Eq. 3.10

where:

Tx = Total travel time

Vo = Velocity of seismic wave

X = Distance shot point-receiver

Z = Perpendicular distance between shot point and reflector (depth)

= Dip angle of layer

When the reflective layer is horizontal ( = 0) (Figure 3.10), the general Eq. 3.10 becomes:

Tx

1

V0

(

4z 2 + x 2 )1/ 2 Eq. 3.11

If the receiver is located on the shot-point, i.e. if x = 0, the travel time will be:

z Eq. 3.12

T0 = 2

V0

where:

To = Two-way vertical time

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 64 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(For A Seismic Wave Reflected By An Interface With A Dip Angle)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 65 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(For a Seismic Wave Reflected by a Horizontal Interface)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 66 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The general Eq. 3.10 can therefore be re-written in the following way:

Tx =

1

Vo

(

V02 + x 2 + 2xt 0 V0 sin )

1/ 2 Eq. 3.13

Xm = 2Z sin

2z cos

Tm =

Vo

For a horizontal reflector, the curve time-distance for all points between the shot-point S

and the receiver, is a hyperbola with apex at point x = 0; the relative time T0 corresponds to

the vertical reflection and represents the hyperbolas apex. This apex is not symmetrical in

relation to the time axis but is shifted by 2z sen for layers inclined at angle . The angle

is assumed negative when the layer dips in the direction receiver-shot-point, positive in the

opposite case.

In the case of a horizontal reflector, Eq. 3.11 is better explained by the following example. in

Figure 3.11, SS represents the earth surface on which the shot-point (point O) and the

geophones (point W) are located. When the explosion takes place, the seismic waves

propagate in all directions. The wave, propagating vertically, strikes the reflecting plane RR

and is sent back surface along the vertical path OPO , where it is recorded by a geophone

at point O.

The waves generated by the explosion also strike reflector RR along a multitude of diagonal

paths (e.g., path OT) and are sent back to surface along path TW. The times, T0 and

required by the seismic waves to cover distances OPO and OTW respectively, are

recorded by geophones at points O and W, separated by the distance x. With this

information, it is possible to calculate, both the depth z of the reflecting horizon and the

wave velocity V0 in the interval considered, by applying the following equations:

OPO = T0 x V0 = 2z Eq. 3.14

OTW = Tx x V0 Eq. 3.15

Extending segment OP vertically down to its specular point O, from the fundamental laws

of optics, it derives that:

OTW = O' TW

OPO = O' PO

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 67 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

and therefore:

Eq. 3.16

O' TW 2 = O' PO 2 + OW 2

Tx2 x V02 = T02 x V02 + x 2 = 4z 2 + x 2 Eq. 3.17

Solving for Tx:

Tx =

1

V0

(

4z 2 + x 2 )1/ 2 Eq. 3.18

1/ 2 Eq. 3.19

X2

V0 = 2

( 2

Tx T0 )

Since:

OPO = To x Vo = 2z

it is possible to determine the vertical distance z, between surface and reflecting horizon:

z = (To x Vo ) / 2 Eq. 3.20

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 68 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 69 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Considering Eq. 3.11:

Tx =

1

(4z 2 + x 2 )1/ 2

Vo

after the shot the following terms are known, because they have been measured:

x = Distance between shot-point and geophones

Tx = Time lag between shore and signal reception at the geophone

Both Vo and z are still to be determined, giving an equation with two unknown factors. The

solution of this equation, in terms of depth, is carried out by determining the velocity of

propagation of the seismic wave based on one of the methods subsequently described. The

determination of the velocity is of fundamental importance, since wrong estimates of this

parameter can lead to totally distoned representations of geological situations and introduce

extreme errors in calculating pressure gradients.

The main methodologies for estimating reflection velocities are the following:

The most-accurate methods for the determination of velocity take advantage of wells

already drilled. Two types of well analysis are applied:

The conventional method of well shooting

The continuous velocity survey.

Well Shooting

Well shooting involves suspending a geophone or hydrophone inside the well by means of

a cable and recording the time necessary for the energy to travel from the shot-point, close

to the well, to the geophone location (Figure 3.12). The geophone is constructed to

withstand the high pressure and temperature common in oil wells. The cable has a threefold

role: it supports the geophone, measures the depth at which it is working, and contains

conductors that bring signals to surface for recording.

The shots are fired at one or more points near the wellhead. Between one shot and the

next, the geophone is moved to obtain a set of travel times from surface down to various

depths. Geophone depths are selected to include the most important geological markers,

such as tops of formations, stratigraphic unconformities as well as intermediate positions so

that the interval between two successive measurements is small enough to assure

reasonable accuracy (often 200m apart).

Figure 3.13. shows the results of a typical well survey. The vertical travel time t, relative to

depth z, is obtained by multiplying the measured time,tm. by the factor z / z + x 2 to

correct for the effective distance between the geophone and shot-point, i.e.:

z Eq. 3.21

t = tm x

x2 + z

2

The average velocity between surface and depth z is given by the ratio:

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 70 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

z Eq. 3.22

Vm =

t

Figure 3.13. gives the average velocity Vm and the vertical travel time t as a function of

depth, z. If depth and time relative to two different shots are subtracted and divided one by

the other, the interval velocity, Vint, or the average velocity in the interval (zm - zm), is

obtained:

zm zn Eq. 3.23

Vint =

t m tn

Shooting a well gives the average velocity with good accuracy of measurement. It is,

however, an expensive method as it involves not only the cost of a half to one day of a

seismic crew, but also the stand-by time of the rig itself, which is often higher than the

seismic operation itself.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 71 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 3.13 - Representation Of Average Velocity (V) And Interval Velocity (Vi) Versus Depth

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 72 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The continuous seismic survey utilises one or more ultrasonic pulse generators and two to

four detectors housed in a single unit, called a sonde, that is lowered into the borehole.

Figure 3.14a. a. shows the sonde for BHC-SL (Borehole Compensated - Sonic Log)

developed by Schlumberger. It consists of two sources of seismic pulses, S 1 and S2, and

four receivers, R1-R2-R3; R4; the distance between R1,-R2, R3 and-R4 is two feet. The velocity

is found by measuring the difference, in travel time, of a pulse moving from S2 to R2 and R4,

and similarly for a pulse moving from S2 to R1 and R3 and then averaging the differences.

The sonde is lowered into wells filled with drilling mud, that has a seismic velocity of about

1,500m/sec; however, the first energy to arrive is from longitudinal waves Pp that have

travelled in the rock surrounding the borehole. Errors, caused by variations in well diameter

and by the thickness of mud-cake near the transmitters, are eliminated by measuring the

difference in arrival time at the two receivers; errors due to similar variations near the

receivers are minimised by averaging the results of the two pairs of receivers. The Sonic

Log (Figure 3.14b) shows the transit time (in sec/ft), as a function of depth, divided by the

distance between the receivers; the result obtained is the reciprocal of the velocity at which

the longitudinal waves travel in the formation.

2

x r Method

This method is based on the equation:

x2 2 Eq. 3.24

t2 = 2

t0

VRMS

Plotting as a function of x, a straight line is obtained with a slope equal to 1/V2RMS whose

2

intercept on the time axis, for x = 0, is t . Having determined. for each reflector, both VRMS

and to, we can calculate the corresponding depth. The same procedure is repeated for all

other reflectors. (Figure 3.15).

2 2

The analysis of the x - t diagram can supply sufficiently accurate data on the velocity at

the condition that:

1) The recordings are of good quality and have a sufficient number of reflections

2) Accurate corrections are made on the events taking place near the surface

3) Field work and seismic data interpretation are carried out with accuracy

4) The velocity distribution is simple (there must not be lateraI variations in velocity or

particularly complex structures)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 73 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 74 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 75 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Once the velocities, regarding the two successive and parallel reflectors, have been

determined using the equation:

X2 Eq. 3.24

t = 2 + t 20

2

VRSM

where:

1/ 2 Eq. 3.25

n n

VRMS = V02 / t i

i=1 i =1

the interval velocity Vint can be determined by applying Dixs formula.

2

Indicating with VRRMS,n the root mean square velocity regarding the n-th reflection, and

wth VRMS,n-1 the velocity regarding the next overlaying reflection, we have:

n n 1 n Eq. 3.26

V

i=1

i

2

t i = Vi2 t i + Vint2 t int = Vn2 t i

i=1 i=1

n 1 n Eq. 3.27

V

i =1

i

2

ti = Vn21 ti

i =1

2

Introducing Eq. 3.27 in Eq. 3.26 and solving for Vint we obtain Dixs formula:

n n 1

Eq. 3.28

2

v int = v n2 t i v n21 t i / t int

i=1 i=1

t - t Method

The t - t method is based on equation:

x2 Eq. 3.29

t n

2V 2 t o

that can also be written in the form:

X Eq. 3.30

V=

2 to t n

With a symmetric geophone set-up, the term tn can be calculated from the arrival times of

a reflection at the shot-point (to) and at the outside geophone group.

The values of tn obtained with this method are prone to large errors, mainly because of

the uncertainties in the correction of near-surface events. To obtain results of some

usefulness, it is necessary to have a great number of measurements available that are

subsequently averaged in the hope that environmental variations and other uncertainties be

reduced to an acceptable level the t - t analyses usually require hundreds of recordings.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 76 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The transit time interval between the two Sonic Log receivers is measured by an instrument

that automatically records the signal arrival at each of the two receivers and computes the

time interval. Since the signal at the receiver is not a sharp pulse, the detector is activated

by the first peak (or trough) which exceeds a certain threshold value. At times, detectors are

nor activated by the same peak (or trough) arriving simultaneously at the two receivers,

therefore causing a fictitious increment in transit time. This effect, called cycle-skip, is

readily seen on the Sonic Log and it is easily allowed for, since the error is exactly equal to

the known interval between two successive cycles of the pulse.

The Sonic Log is automatically integrated to obtain the total transit time and recorded on the

log as a function of depth by a sequence of pips at 1msec intervals. However, there is a

certain tendency to accumulate small systematic errors in the integrated result and,

therefore, check shots are made at the base and top of the sonic log that the effect of the

cumulative error can be reduced by distributing the different linearly with depth. The sonde

often includes a seismometer of the type used for the well shooting to facilitate the taking

of the check shots.

Sonic Logs are generally used for porosity determination, since porosity seems to be

dominant in seismic velocity. Although seismic logs are of great help to the geophysicist,

they are not usually carried out for geophysical purposes and, as a consequence, they

often do not give all the information the geophysicist would require. For example, check

shots are not necessary for the determination of porosity and therefore are frequently

omitted; in addition, the log normally does not cover the whole well profile and it is rarely

recorded in shallow part of the well. As a consequence, data from the Sonic Log are

frequently incomplete and, in order to calculate velocities, assumptions must be made,

where data are missing to the detriment of accuracy.

The arrival time of reflected energy depends not only on the depth of reflection and the

velocity in the medium above the reflector, but also on the offset between the energy

source (shot-point) and the receivers. Several methods utilise this dependence on the

offset to measure velocity.

2 2

Two classical methods, such as- the x t method and the t -t method, are based on

the: offset, although they are now rarely used.

3-Readings Method

This is the method most used at present to calculate reflector characteristics, i.e. depth, dip

and velocity of sound wave propagation, using only readings from reflection seismics. The

method is illustrated by the case in Figure 3.16. The data of the problem are as follows:

point x Is the shot-point;

points x1, x2, x3 Are the distances of geophones from shot-point x.

X1 = 500m

X2 = 1,000m

X3 = 1,500m

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 77 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

After the shot, the return energy from the reflecting layer is recorded by the three

geophones after the following times:

Tx1 = 1.639 sec

Tx2 = 1.802 sec

Tx3 = 1.984 sec

Depth, z

Reflection velocity, Vo

Inclination of the reflecting layer,.

The problem is solved by applying the general Eq. 3.10 of reflection, tying the reflection

time to the models geometric parameters; i.e:

Tx =

1

v

(4z 2

+ x 2 + 4zx sin ) Eq. 3.10

This equation must be solved in terms of z,, Vo. Having the data relative to the three

points of recording, recorded and known, it is possible to obtain and solve a second grade

system of three equations with three unknowns:

Tx2.1 =

1

Vo2

(

4z 2 + x 12 + 4zx 1 sin ) Eq. 3.31

Tx2.2

1

( )

= 2 4z 2 + x 22 + 4zx 2 sin

vo

1

Tx.23

Vo

solving the first equation for Vo2 :

V =

2

o

Tx2.1

solving the second equation for sin, after substituting the term Vo2 with the previous Eq:

2

T2x .2 2 Tx 2

Eq. 3.33

4z 2 + x 22 4z 2 x 1

T2x.1 Tx21

sin =

Tx22

4zx1 4zx 2

Tx21

Equally, substituting Vo2 and sin with the relative equations, the third one is solved for z:

where:

b

x 23 + x 3 x 2

1 x1

1 a Tx2,1 Tx2,1 a

z=

2 Tx2,3 2

1 Tx ,3

2 2

1 Tx,2 Tx ,3 1

2

1 Tx,2

+ x1 x1 1 x3 + x 3

Tx2,1 a Tx2,1 a Tx2,1 Tx2,1 a a Tx2,1

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 78 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

where:

TX2,2 Eq. 3.35

a = X1 x2

Tx2,1

Tx22 Eq. 3.36

b = x 22 x12

Tx21

In this example, entering the starting data into the various equations, the following values

are obtained for the three unknowns:

z = 1,498m

o

sin = 0.4962 ( =33 )

Vo = 1997 m/sec

Rounding off readings of reflection times can lead to considerable variations, which may not

be ignored. Had the reflection times been corrected to two decimal figures, as is usually

done in practice:

Tx,1 = 1.64sec

Tx,2 = 1.80sec

Tx,3 = 1.98sec

z = 1,477m

o

sin = 0.4625 (=30 )

Vo = 1961m/sec

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 79 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 80 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

3.4.1. Seismograms

Field data from geophysical surveys consist of a set of recordings for each shot-point.

As previously stated, the purpose of seismic survey in: hydrocarbon exploration is to obtain

vertical sections of the area of interest from which a stratigraphic and structural

interpretation is formulated.

These illustrations, called seismic sections, are obtained by processing single field

recordings, each called a file, if in the form of data recorded on magnetic tape, and

seismogram, if in a graphic format.

A seismogram is, therefore, the graphic expression of the signals received by the various

geophones in subsequent time instants following a shot; these date are in the form of wavy

lines, called traces. Highs and lows of traces (peaks and troughs) represent the greatest

vertical oscillations of the ground subjected to seismic vibration (Figure 3.17).

The number of traces in a seismogram is the same as the number of geophones in the

layout, normally 24, 48 or 96. Figure 3.18. shows a seismogram from a recording with a

central shot-point. Perpendicularly to the direction of traces on the seismogram are the time

lines, usually at 10msec intervals.

As it can be seen, initially the traces are almost straight, the small oscillations being due to

disturbances not related to the shot. The first event recorded is the time break, that

appears as a sudden sharp peak on any trace, pre-selected by the recording engineer. The

time break is the instant of the shot and gives the zero time, from which arrival times of

reflected events are measured.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 81 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

In surveys carried out with explosives, the second event is the up-hole break, that is the

signal comes directly from the shot and is important in making corrections for surface

effects. The first group of events to be recorded progressively on all traces, is made up of

first breaks caused by the first arrival of signals at the various geophones, beginning from

those nearest to the source. The first breaks represent that part of the signal which, having

entered the first superficial layer with an angle of incidence not inferior to the critical angle,

is refracted, travels along the lower interface and then returns to surface where it: is

recorded. Since first break recordings take place consecutively for the various geophone

groups, their peaks will align along lines diverging in one or more directions from the trace

of the group nearest to the source, according to the layout of the geophones. Reflected

signals will then begin to appear; they, too, will be received excessively, since ray-paths

from a same reflector; increase with increasing source-geophone distance. The line joining

reflection peaks on the seismogram is a curve with its apex on the source and downward

concavity. Supposing ray-paths drawn vertically downwards, the situation depicted in Figure

3.20is reached. The curving, caused by the geometry of: the survey method, obviously

becomes less prominent in deeper reflections. During data processing, appropriate

corrections in the survey geometry are introduced and consequently reflections can better

reveal the setting of the layers. As previousIy seen, the curved line joining r:eflection peaks

is a hyperbola called reflection hyperbola.

Figure 3.17 - Peaks and Troughs Represent the Greatest Vertical Oscillations Of Ground

(Subjected to Seismic Vibration)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 82 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(Obtained From a Recording With a Central Shot-Point)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 83 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(Termed Reflection Hyperbola

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 84 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

In this paragraph, the basic methods of field data processing and correction, which are

done before defining the CDP Stack and arriving at the production of a seismic section,

are discussed.

The steps in seismic data processing are shown in Figure 3.21

We have already seen how a seismic wave is attenuated while travelling through an

imperfectly elastic medium. Furthermore, the signal is also modified by the recording station

itself. The amplitude of the reflected signal as recorded on magnetic tape is therefore, the

final result of several interacting factors, such as spherical divergence, inelastic attenuation,

etc. The process of recovering the true signal amplitude at the geophone involves the

removal of all these effects. This is obtained by multiplying the seismic trace by a factor

depending on the average velocity V(t) as a function of the recording time t, the

absorption coefficient and the recording station characteristics.

At times, for particularly unfavourable field situations, some of the recorded data cannot be

used or are even harmful if introduced into the processing cycle. Pan of a trace or the whole

trace and, at times, the whole recording of a shot-point can be extremely faint or covered by

abnormal energy events.

Data picking implies the total removal of all undesirable data before processing. This result

is obtained by clearing all traces containing unreliable events.

After eliminating unwanted events from field data, the traces belonging to each common-

depth-point (CDP) family are grouped together. Each trace in a given CDP family is

identified by the number of its shot-point and by that of the receiver.

Static Correction

To obtain a seismic secretion truly representative of the geological structure of the area in

consideration, the times of a seismic trace must always be referred to paths with beginning

and end lying on an adequate reference plane.

The static correction is essentially a time variation, that may be a shortening or a

lengthening, applied to each trace to reduce the observed reflection time to a well-defined

reference plane, normally a selected elevation above sea level, and referred to as a datum

plane (Figure 3.22) . This reference elevation should be set below the heterogeneous

superficial cover, but this is not always possible nor necessary; rather, it is enough that the

datum plane be positioned so that the static corrections are calculated with sufficient

accuracy.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 85 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 86 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 87 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The value of the total static correction, t, depends on the following factors:

Perpendicular distance from source to reference plane.

Surface topography, that is, the perpendicular distance from the receiver to the

reference plane.

Velocity variations within the superficial .layer along the seismic line.

Thickness variation in the superficial layer.

The total static correction, t, is given by the sum of two distinct corrections: the receiver

correction, tr and the source correction, ts. To determine tr and ts, it is necessary to

know the surface elevation with reference to the selected reference plane, the depth of the

source and to have sufficient information on the characteristic of the superficial layer.

Dynamic Correction

After the application of the static correction, the resulting recording effectively lie on the

same reference plane. If a reflected event from a family of CDP traces is now examined, it

can be seen that going from one trace to another, the event describes a hyperbola

expressed by the usual equation:

x2

Tx = t o2 +

v2

setting:

Tx t o = T

we obtain:

Eq. 3.37

X2

T = + t 2o t o

V2

The quantity (T = Tx - to) is usually referred to as normal moveout, NMO or dynamic

correction and is a function of the gradual offset of the receiver from the shot-point, of the

average velocity V, and of the two way vertical time, to.

Eq. 3.37 can also be written in the form:

x Eq. 3.38

V=

2t o T + (T )2

If the offset of the geophone from the shot-point is sufficiently small compared to the depth

of the reflective layer, in other words if the term (x/V to) < 1, T can be determined, with a

certain approximation, by Eq. 3.30, written in the form:

x

T

2t 0 V 2

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 88 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

t must be determined as accurately as possible for the processing of seismic data. Usually

both x and to are known, being quantities that are measured. The accuracy in the

determination of t depends therefore largely on how the average velocity has been

estimated. Errors in the estimation of V consequently cause errors in the valuation of T;

such errors, described as NMO residuals and indicated with the symbol T, are given by:

2

T = Te - T

2

Eq. 3.39

where:

T = Dynamic correction relative to the real velocity, V

Te = Dynamic correction relative to the velocity, Ve, actually utilised in the

calculations

X2 1 1 Eq. 3.40

T=

2

2 2

2t 0 V

e V

This formula shows how positive values of T are obtained, and therefore over-corrections,

2

when: Ve <V, and negative values, and therefore under-corrections, when Ve < V. Figure

3.23. schematically shows how, in various situations, different types of NMO residuals may

appear. In deriving the t expression, the seismic wave path was assumed to be rectilinear;

this assumption implies a constant velocity in the interval considered. Obviously it is a

working hypothesis, correct only for a homogeneous medium, very rarely found in practice.

A better and more realistic likeness between the structural model and the real geological

situation is obtained by introducing the root mean square velocity, VRMS, in place of the

average velocity V in the expression defining t this gives results better depicting the

effective curvilinear course of paths.

Applying adequate dynamic correction. the reflection time is transformed into two way

vertical time. Considering the same CDP, reflected events will fall in a straight line. A perfect

alignment of events, or t = 0, is reached by the appropriate selection of velocity that can

2

shows the effects of static and dynamic corrections on the alignment of reflections from

traces belonging to the same CDP. The dynamic correction is carried out calculating values

of t for each reference path. In this way, a sample, whose recording time before correction

is Tx, after correction will be T2 -t. Since t is a function of the recording time Tx,

different parts of a same path will undergo different time variations; for this reason the

correction is called dynamic (or time dependent) to distinguish it from the static one (or

time independent).

To obtain a perfect dynamic correction, calculations must be based on the determination of

the exact path (e.g., the one requiring the least travel time) of the seismic wave. This

implies a determination of the path by applying Snells law and utilising the effective velocity

distribution in the medium crossed. The apparent velocity that allows a satisfactory

correction (null residual) is called stack velocity.

Since it varies with the physical characteristics of the medium (e.g. layering and dip), the

stack velocity cannot be mathematically defined. However, its value can be directly

deducted from seismic recordings. The methods used, and previously discussed, are all

based on measuring t and on the consequent determination of the stack velocity.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 89 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

When an interval velocity log, obtained from the velocity analysis of a nearby well, is

available, the dynamic correction can be made using this type of data directly; such data

can be processed, as already seen, in average velocity V, or root-mean-square velocity,

VRMS.

According to the laws of reflection. the point of reflection is located underground, half-way

between source and receiver (geophone). With an adequate pattern of geophone spreads,

it is possible to record a certain number of shots so that the centre of reflection is common

to each adopted spread. With an appropriate layout of spreads (e.g., expanding spread

technique), it is possible to obtain a set of reflected signals all coming from a common point

(or depth) of reflection (Refer to Figure 3.25). This point is commonly called the Common

Reflection Point, CRP or Common Depth Point, CDP.

The real travel time naturally varies from recording to recording since the times are recorded

taking into consideration the effective offset. After correcting the travel time of each member

of the set (normally defined as Common Point Family or CDP Gather) according to

topographic irregularities, weathering, and NMO, in other words, after performing static and

dynamic corrections, the reflected events belonging to the same CDP are algebraically

summed (process of stacking) in order to obtain a better and stronger primary reflection.

Good static and dynamic corrections are of fundamental importance for a perfect signal

alignment and, therefore, for a good resolution of the stack, both in terms of useful signal

strengthening and of noise elimination. An example of how the stack velocity determines

the quality of the reply is given in Figure 3.26.

The frequency spectrum of the sum of n signals is equal to the sum of individual spectra;

therefore, frequencies are retained whereas the signal-to-noise ratio is increased; if the

static and dynamic corrections applied to the traces are of good quality, the improvement is

proportional to the square root of the number of traces.

In the processing sequence of seismic data, as shown in Figure 3.21, stacking is indicated

as compulsory, since it gives both the velocity distribution and the geological setting of the

vertical sub-surface section.

Stacking is based on some initial assumptions:

That the reflection point is effectively a common point of traces. This is true for

horizontal reflectors, but it is not for dipping reflectors (Figure 3.27).

That seismic waves paths are rectilinear.

These conditions are not always present and in zones of complex and tectonised geology

stacking can be very difficult and give unreliable results.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 90 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The common aim, shared by techniques for processing seismic data, is to find the best

possible solution. In a typical processing sequence, data reduction and the stacking are the

fundamental steps in obtaining seismic section.

There is, however, other optional processing (we shall refer only to the most important) such

as, for example, deconvolution, filtering, migration, etc, that is carried out in order to obtain

a further strengthening and improvement of the signal and eliminate uncertainties in the

section through analysis of the seismic wave.

Generally speaking, two main groups of processing techniques can be distinguished: the

first concerns data reduction and, therefore, implies manipulation of travel times, the second

is more strictly concerned with Signal resolution and, consequently, with the analysis of the

wave shape. The operations briefly described below belong to this second group.

Deconvolution

This operation can be described essentially as an inverse filtering, done with the purpose of

recovering the original signal sent into the ground or, more exactly, it has the purpose of

rebuilding the reflections as they would appear if we could entirely compensate the

dispersive effects of the medium crossed.

The trace picked up at the geophone is not impulsional, since the energy source that

created the wave is never perfectly impulsive, nor does the geophone exit tension faithfully

repeat the instant velocity of the ground. In addition, there are distortions due to multiple

reflections between various strata. AIl these effects cause undesirable distortions of the

trace; the purpose of deconvolution is to bring back the trace, as far as it is possible, to its

impulsive shape.

Filtering

Great care is dedicated during field operations to signal reception. Reduction of coherent

and incoherent noise is assured, although not totally by adequate planning of the trace

shape, increasing the number of geophones for each trace and equipping seismic stations

with special filtering instrumentation. Notwithstanding all the precautions, it is not possible to

obtain total elimination of the noise by acting only on field data. A further reduction of noise

is obtained by filtering during the processing of seismic data. After defining the recorded

data spectrum, the noise spectrum is also determined and a better suited band-filter is

selected. The further apart the signal and noise spectra are, the more efficient the filter will

be.

Filtering and deconvolution act in opposite way. In filtering some components of the

frequency are subtracted from the recorded data, whereas deconvolution entails their

addition.

Migration

Migration is the processing of the time section, that allows the location in the exact spatial

position, both vertical and horizontal, of pending and in general diffracted events. It has the

purpose of eliminating or reducing all ambiguities that may appear on certain seismic

sections.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 91 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Depth Conversion

The process of transforming time sections into depth sections is of extreme importance to

the geophysicist.

The adoption of improper procedures or wrong parameters (velocity, filters, dynamic

correction residuals) may end up in a totally altered geological picture In order to obtain

valid results, it is necessary to migrate the time section before its conversion into depth

section; this is of particular importance mainly in especially complex geological areas. By

rectifying the shape of horizontal reflectors and by removing diffractions through migration,

the base data are free of erroneous and ambiguous information.

An equally important factor is the definition of the velocity. Contrary to the case of migration,

the depth conversion is very sensitive to velocity variations; thus, the velocity to be used

must be the closest possible to the effective velocity of the medium crossed, as far as it can

be deduced from the interpretation and analysis of available data. When the stack velocity

is applied, the velocity values must be corrected for strata dips and the proper and

homogenous choice must be made.

The time-depth conversion is normally carried out multiplying the interval velocity, Vint.i., of

a certain i-th geological unit by the relative one-way interval time, ttint.i and summing the

depth of each single interval; the total depth, hn, down to the bottom of the n-th layer is

given by:

h = (V t int,i )

n n Eq. 3.41

hn = i int,i

i =1 i =1

If the average velocities Vn-1 and Vn in correspondence of the top and bottom of the n-th

layer are available, the corresponding interval velocity Vini.n is obtained from the relation:

n n 1 Eq. 3.42

Vint,n Vn t n Vn1 t n

n =1 n =1

More generally it can be written:

Vn tn Vn 1t n 1 Eq. 3.43

Vint,i =

t n t n 1

where:

ti, ti-1 = Total time to the i-th and ith-1 interface.

If the root mean square velocities VRMSN and VRMSn-1 are known, the Dixs formula can be

applied:

VRMS

2

,n VRMS,n 1 Tn 1

Eq. 3.44

V 2

n=

int

t n t n 1

or:

1/ 2

VRMS Eq. 3.45

,i t 0 VRMS ,i 1 Tn 1

2 2

V 2

=

int n

t n t n 1

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 92 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Seismic Section

Until the Ninteen Fifties, the only possible presentation of seismic recordings was that

obtained directly in the field as a seismogram (Figure 3.28), containing the trace information

from one spread only, without Normal Move out or static corrections; thus reflections

looked curved and showed irregularities due to the different geophone elevations and to

variations of the near-surface layer. These seismograms were used by tying each

reflection to the corresponding one in the following seismogram, in other words calculating

the time T of the reflection and the relative T (difference in reflection time between the

outermost geophones of the spread). Thereafter, each reflection on the seismogram was

transferred onto a distance-depth graph, using the pair of values T, t and the average

velocity law for the zone, thus obtaining the cross section (Figure 3.29).

With the introduction of magnetic recording, analogic at the beginning and then digital it

became possible not only to correct the seismograms for NMO and statistics, but also to get

several seismograms, on the same photographic sheet, i.e. the seismic section or record

section (Figure 3.30).

Seismic sections have the considerable advantage over cross-sections of offering a large

amount of seismic data, with a much more detailed subsurface picture. In addition, the

recognition of the reflection continuity is immediate, as is also the presence of faults and the

identification of multiples and diffractions.

Seismic sections show distances on horizontal scale. Such distances are expressed as

station numbers and the numeration is referred to depth points and not to surface ones

(traces are reported relative to the middle point shot point-geophone). Time is generally on

the vertical scale with time lines at regular intervals.

lt is possible to illustrate seismic traces in many different ways, thus making it possible to

have various presentations of the same seismic section:

Variable amplitude section or wiggle section (Figure 3.31): it is a presentation in

which each seismic trace is shown as a continuous line whose amplitude, with

reference to the time axis, varies proportionally with the intensity of the seismic

signal;

Variable area section (Figure 3.32): it is a presentation in which the trace is

darkened on one side or the other of the zero line (or, more precisely, of the

zero amplitude line);

Variable density section (Figure 3.33): in this presentation, the trace is a band,

as wide as the interval between traces, in which the colour intensity varies in

shades of grey from black to white, proportional to the signal amplitude;

Composite wiggle and variable area section (Figure 3.34) this case the seismic

trace is simultaneously shown in wiggle and in variable area; the zero line of

variable area can be shifted with reference to the zero of the wiggle to obtain

the variable area only on peaks (Figure 3.35)

Composite wggle and variable density section (Figure 3.36) is a representation

in which the seismic trace is simultaneously presented in wiggle and in variable

density.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 93 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

in Figure 3.34.

Eni-Agip uses the metric system where the vertical scale of 1sec to 10cm and the horizontal

scale of 1km to 8cm (1:25,00). In the Imperial system the vertical scale of 1 sec to 5 is

commonly used.

The principal seismic sections obtainable from seismic data are:

Time section (Figure 3.37): it has the two-way times of verticalised paths on the

vertical axis;

Migrated time section (Figure 3.38): uncertain reflections have been migrated or,

in other words, reset in their correct positions with time remaining on the vertical

axis.

Migrated depth section (Figure 3.39): times have been changed into depth (an

apparent increase of low frequency can be noted, as a consequence of the

irregular lengthening of traces due to increasing velocity with depth).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 94 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 3.23 - Types Of Residual NMO (From Seismic Exploration, H.N. Al-Sadi).

Figure 3.24 Effect of Static and Dynamic Correction Effects of a CDP Trace

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 95 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(Case of a 24 Traces Spread with a Central Shot Point and Constant Offset)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 96 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 3.26 - Stack Response as Function of Stack Velocity (from Seismic Exploration, H.N Al-

Sadi)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 97 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 3.27 - Stack Response as Function Of Stack Velocity (from SEISMIC EXPLORATION,

H.N. AL-SADI)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 98 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 99 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 100 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 101 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 102 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 103 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 104 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

3.5.1. Land Seismic Surveys

Types Of Energy Sources

Traditional energy sources are concentrated explosive charges, detonated at a certain

depth in shot-holes specially drilled into the ground. These shot-holes are commonly 8-

10cm in diameter and 6-30m deep, although in some cases their depth can mach 80m or

more; however, the charges are usually placed below the low velocity superficial aerated

layer.

Apart from explosives, several alternative systems are used as non-conventional energy

sources.

The most commonly used systems are described in the following paragraphs.

1) Concentrate Explosive Charge Systems

The explosives mainly used for this purpose are dynamite and ammonium nitrate.

Dynamite is a mixture of nitro-glycerine and gelatine, which form the explosive component,

and an inert material which binds the mixture.

The detonation velocity, or the propagation velocity of the explosion inside the explosive

material, is very high (6,000-7,000m/sec). Consequently, the seismic pulses generated have

steep wave fronts in comparison to other energy sources. This high-energy concentration is

desirable as far as seismic analysis, but detrimental from the viewpoint of damage caused

to the structures close the shot-point.

Ammonium nitrate is cheaper and less dangerous because of its slower detonation.

Together with nitrocarbonitrite (NCN), it is the most commonly used explosive.

The charge is packaged in 5cm diameter plastic tubes containing 1 to 5kg of explosive. The

tubes are built in such a way that they can be easily connected end to end in order to obtain

different amounts for specific uses. A metal cylinder, containing a resistance wire imbedded

in a mixture of gun powders, is used to start the explosion. By means of two electric wires

issuing from the upper cylinder or cap, a current is passed through the resistor, and the

heat generated thereby starts the explosion that detonates the whole charge. The current,

causing the blasting cap to explode, is derived from a blaster, a charge-discharge device of

a high potential capacitor. Incorporated in the blaster is a device generating an electric

pulse at the instant that the explosion starts: this time break pulse defines the starting time,

I = 0, and is transmitted by radio or a telephone tine to the recording equipment.

There are essentially two basic disadvantages of the explosive sources:

Having to drill shot-holes for the charges (this operation requires massive

equipment and extensive manpower and can be particularly difficult and costly

in many regions, particularly in the desert or in the mountains).

The danger of the explosives and the consequent restriction of their use to

locations which are far from inhabited zones and the risks related to the

transport, storage and handling of the charges.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 105 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

In order to maximise the quantity of energy transmitted to the ground, the holes are usually

filled with water or heavy mud to prevent pressure generated by the explosion form

escaping to the surface. The effect of the mud is to increase the shot efficiency and to

improve the signal quality.

In areas where noticeable background noise exists, the shot-points are often positioned

according to linear or aerial arrays in order to reduce noise.

2) Sources with Distributed Explosive Charges (Multiple Charges)

Primacord

It has just been described above how incidental noise can be reduced by replacing the

single charge with a number of properly spaced, smaller charges. The greater strengthening

of the vertical energy, with respect to the horizontally travelling superficial waves, can be

obtained by means of the progressive explosion of multiple charges which are connected by

a detonating cord called Primacord. The first shot occurs at one end of the line and then

spreads all along the line at a much higher speed (about 7,000m/sec) than that of the

seismic signal in the material surrounding the charges.

The series of charges can be placed vertically along the well or distributed horizontally, like

a long fuse, along a distance of a couple of hundred metres at a constant depth of a few

metres in the subsurface in order to eliminate the incoherent noise and increase the

efficiency of the energy transfer to the ground.

The principal aspects related to the technique of serial explosion of small charges are

charge size, spacing and detonation rate

Detonating Cord-Geoflex

In this method the energy source is again the explosive, the difference being that the

charge is not concentrated in different points, but uniformly distributed along a detonating

cord with a detonating speed of about 7,000m/sec. The cord, coiled in skeins, is stretched

along a furrow 20-50cm deep by means of a special plough pulled by a tractor; the plough

automatically cuts the furrow, stretches and buries the cord.

This system simulates fairly well the effect of a group of superficial shot-holes, with the

advantage that a higher proportion of the generated energy in form of elastic deformation is

transmitted to the ground. In fact the proportion of energy dispersed in form of permanent

deformation is relatively low as compared to a conventional explosive, because of the low

explosive concentration per metre of cord (10 - 20 grams per metre).

Another advantage comes from the great flexibility of usage of the plough-tractor system in

areas of rough morphology, since it is much easier to manoeuvre than the heavy vehicles

needed for drilling. On the other hand, the system has the disadvantage of generating a

strong acoustic wave because of the near-surface depth at which the cord is exploded.

One type of detonating cord is the Geoflex, which is 0.5-lcm in diameter and whose core is

pentaheritrol tetranitrate. The system, which uses the Geoflex, is called Geoseis (GSI:

Geophysical Service Inc).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 106 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Non-Explosive Sources

Weight Dropper

The first non-explosive energy source used in hydrocarbon exploration was a device called

Thumper or Weight Dropper conceived by MC Cullom Geophysical and marketed in 1953.

It is based on a pulse sent into the ground by the free fall of a 3ton steel mass from a height

of about three metres. The weight is installed on a suitable vehicle and is lifted from the

ground by means of a track system soon after the impact, so that it can be released again

in a few seconds. The time interval between the release of the weight and its impact on the

ground is not sufficiently constant to allow the simultaneous use of two sources. Two or

three units in succession are often used, producing alternating drops located close to one

another.

The distance from the source to the closest geophones is considerably greater than in the

case of dynamite; in this way, the reflections are recorded before the arrival of the lower

velocity surface waves which are generated in large quantity by the impact with the ground.

Different linear or grid layouts may be used for the drop-points. The layout choice depends

on the level of the noise to be eliminated and on the ground morphology.

The use of the weight dropping is now restricted to the desert or semi-desert areas where

large vehicles can move about easily.

Dinoseis

In 1962, Sinclair Oil & Gas Company put on the market a new pulse-type superficial seismic

energy source called Dinoseis, based on a gas (propane and oxygen) explosion inside a

closed chamber placed on the ground. The bottom of the chamber on the ground is

moveable: when the explosion takes place, it moves downwards and the impact with the

ground produces a pulse only slightly inferior to that produced by the shot of 250g of

dynamite placed at depth of 1m. In the first models, the detonation chamber was fastened

to the means of transport, and the weight of the vehicle kept the chamber adherent to the

ground; currently, however it is suspended from under the truck.

Following the shot, as a result of the recoil kick, the chamber is immediately lifted from the

ground: in order to prevent it from dropping back and thus producing a second pulse and a

consequent signal distortion, a hydraulic system located on top of the chamber itself,

provides for its arrest. The time interval between the activation and the detonation is

constant, due to the fact that the pulse generator stays on the ground and the signals, that

start the explosion, are sent via radio to the recording system. The simultaneous use of

several units is therefore possible and this makes Dinoseis more advantageous than weight

dropping, in order to obtain a higher energy level and a more favourable signal/noise ratio.

The current practice is to use forty eight geophone groups and to explode the charges in

locations fit for a compositing of the recorded signals. As in the case of the weight dropping,

the minimum distance between the source and the receiver can even be hundreds of

metres in order to prevent interference between the reflected signal and the ground roll

surface waves.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 107 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The most recent innovation made in Dinoseis is the SIE (Single Impulse Gun). It is based on

a slightly different principle from that of the traditional Dinoseis, in that the propane-oxygen

mixture is detonated at atmospheric pressure since the explosion chamber is open. The

pressure that must be applied to the plate, in order to assure contact with the ground, is

produced by restricting the exhaust valve.

Dynaseis

The energy producing principle of Dynaseis is the same as in Dinoseis, but the impact on

the ground is produced by a chamber containing compressed air.

Dynapulse

This represents one of the latest innovations in the field of the surface seismic sources.

Developed by the Globe Exploration Company, Dynapulse employs a diesel generator as

the energy source. This energy is stored in a capacitor battery and released in form of a

discharge into a transducer; it is then transferred to the ground through a rubber diaphragm

and a metal plate.

Terrapak

This is made of a steel plate; 1.5m in diameter, that is lifted to a height of about 30cm and

then violently pushed towards the ground by a sudden release of compressed air.

It is possible to change both energy and frequency by adjusting the piston weight and the

air pressure ratios.

Vibroseis

Vibroseis, set up by Continental Oil Company in the 1950s, was probably the second

surface system, chronologically speaking, to be adopted by the geophysical industry,

following the Weight-Dropping systems.

Its principle is unique; in fact, while in the seismic exploration with explosive sources an

extremely short, high energy impulse is passed into the ground, in the case of Vibroseis an

undulatory low energy stress, lasting several secs (7 to 16), is delivered. The frequency

varies progressively in the course of the entire signal.

The above-mentioned difference, when compared to traditional sources, makes Vibroseis

preferable to an explosive, since it is less dangerous to the stability of buildings and

structures located near the energy source. For this reason, it is also possible to use this

system in inhabited areas. This is of great importance for oil exploration, which can be

extended to densely populated areas where, for various safety and accessibility reasons,

the use of explosives would be impossible.

The recording cycle, beginning at the instant the signal is released, continues for several

seconds .after the end of the ground energisation. The returning signal, recorded in the

field, can not be directly interpreted, as it is generally possible with other sources. The

recorded signal and the released signal must be correlated to each other in order to allow

for the production of a signal having the typical aspect of a seismic signal.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 108 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

In the past, this correlation could only be done in a Data Processing Centre. For some time,

however, it has been possible to do it directly in the field with the recording equipment.

This type of seismic energy source underwent several changes aimed at improving its

contact with the ground, its transmission characteristics and its operation efficiency.

Todays Vibroseis consists of a 2t weight with a hydraulic vibrator controlled by a

continuously varying frequency sinusoidal signal, activated by a starting impulse (beep) sent

by the recording system. Vibroseis operations involve the use of several units, for example

three or four units simultaneously. In the field, the big vehicles move along straight paths,

while in the road, two units operating in tandem are used. The vibrators stop at a pre-

established position to start the sweep, and the intervals between one sweep and the next

can be determined from the total number of sweeps necessary for each shot-point.

Vibroseis, as well as Weight-Dropping and Dinoseis, is used with twenty four, forty eight or

more geophone groups.

Since the signal, sent into the ground, lasts several seconds, the recorded signals reflected

by the various discontinuity surfaces are incoherent and overlap each other. Each reflection

has approximately the same wave shape as the signal sent into the ground, but the wave

train corresponding to each reflector is delayed for the time required to complete the

source-reflector-geophone path. The combination of all the individual reflections is so

diffuse that it cannot produce an interpretable record. The trace correlations assume a

shape that shows the reflections as very high amplitude events, while the rest of the signal

is smooth.

Vibroseis offers the advantage that the energy introduced into the ground can be within the

seismic frequency range, although the signal transmission efficiency is not always constant.

The energy content of a signal from an impulse source cannot be subjected to any control

and, in the case of dynamite, can be influenced by the material in which the explosion

occurs. This does not happen with Vibroseis. Using explosives the best signal/noise ratio is

often maintained only in a limited frequency range, while with Vibroseis the signal to be sent

into the ground can be specifically programmed. A further advantage of Vibroseis is the fact

that the signal, since it lasts several seconds, has a much lower an amplitude close to the

source, when compared to an impulse introducing all the energy into the ground in a few

milliseconds, and therefore Vibroseis has a practically non-existent destruction potential.

The first data acquisition element is the device, called a geophone, which is placed in direct

contact with the ground. It converts the ground vibrations into an electric signal that is sent

to the recording system through a cable.

Various types of geophones exist, but at present the most frequently used are of the

electromagnetic type (Figure 3.40). They consist of a solenoid made of conductive material,

generally copper, surrounded by a permanent magnet: the solenoid is solidly fastened on

the external geophone frame that, being driven into the ground, transmits to it the vertically

oriented disturbances, to which the ground is subjected upon arrival of the returning seismic

signal, whereas the magnet, suspended to the same support by means of two springs, is

inert with respect to the system. The relative motion between the two elements generates

an electromotive force, induced by the magnetic flux variation and proportional to the

motion velocity.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 109 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The sensitivity of an electromagnetic geophone depends on the force of the magnet, on the

number of turns in the solenoid and on the reciprocal arrangement of the field lines and the

coils; the size is very small (a few cm).

Every seismic detector has its particular oscillation period; in the electromagnetic

geophones the natural period T, depends on the mass m, of the suspended element and

on the spring elasticity coefficient K:

m

T = 2

K

1 K

=

2 m

If the geophone damping component is too small, each vibration produces a resonance

effect that heightens the instrument response in correspondence to its own frequency.

Obviously this effect must be eliminated and this is possible by introducing adequate

damping that makes the geophone response approximately constant for the entire range of

seismic frequencies. In fact, in this case only the geophone outlet signal is an accurate

representation of the ground oscillation.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 110 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Geophone Groups

When describing the practical implementation of a seismic survey, the source and the

geophone can be regarded as two single points located at a given distance from each

other; the recorded signal contains information concerning the zone below the middle point

of this distance. In fact, for a long time there was only one geophone for each reception

point in the seismic reflection method.

However, as it has already been seen, the seismic signal due to reflection is mixed with

intense noise caused by various types of surface waves. It is necessary to decrease these

horizontal effects as much as possible, and instead, favour the energy coming from the

deepest layers. For the purpose, the single geophone is now replaced by geophone groups,

connected to each other in series or in parallel and properly laid out on the ground.

The theory of noise attenuation by means of grouping is based on the fundamental principle

that the reflection waves travel along almost vertical paths and then reach the receivers

almost simultaneously, strengthening one another since they are in phase coincidence.

Instead, the horizontal waves hit the single geophones at subsequent times; theoretically, if

the distance between two contiguous geophones is equal to half the noise wave length, the

noise will be completely cancelled, since it is recorded in phase opposition.

The use of geophonc groups is particularly important in zones with considerable surface

noise and n those zones with poor seismic response, caused by poor lithological layer

differentiation.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 111 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

It is well known that a seismic line is made up of an alignment of equidistant points, called

faction points which represent the theoretical centres of geophone groups.

By the term spread we mean the relative location of the short point, which can be in a

station or in an intermediate point, and the centres of geophone groups, used to record the

shot itself. According to the shot point position with respect to the geophones, there are

different types of spread:

Split-dip spread (with the shot occurring in the centre of the spread)

End-on spread (with the shot occurring at one end of the spread).

The number of groups in a spread is normalIy twenty four, forty eight or ninty six, and the

distance between the station points vary from 10 to 50m, therefore the total spread length

may reach several kilometres.

In the case of a horizontal and flat layer, each geophone group receives a reflected wave

from the middle point of the station point - shot point distance; therefore, a spread can give

information on a horizontal length equal to half the spread itself. With this technique the

subsurface is continuously observed, and for this reason it is called continuous survey.

Moreover, this operation carries out a simple coverage or 100% coverage, since each

reflection point is involved in the survey only once.

By the terms multiple coverage survey CDP (Common Depth Point) survey CRP (Common

Reflection Point) survey or Roll Along Survey, it means the reflection seismic survey based

on the sum of various reflected signals from the same depth point, directly carried out in the

recording phase or later in a Data Processing Centre.

The set of traces, relating to different paths which involve the same depth point, is called a

family of traces, while the number of traces indicates the coverage, that is, how many

times the point has been hit by a seismic signal. For example, if the traces are six, it is said

that the survey is in sixth or 600% coverage.

The signals, coming into the geophones, are sent through a multiple conductor cable, to the

recording system mounted on a vehicle called Recorder. In normal recording systems,

each group of geophones is provided with a couple of conductors that carry the analogue

signal to the corresponding analogue amplifier and then to the filters.

Until 1952, these signals were directly recorded on photographic paper. Afterwards,

magnetic analogue recording was introduced; this consists of the magnetisation of a tape

running below a certain number of heads connected to the conductors coming from the

geophone groups.

Digital, or numerical, recording was introduced towards the mid 1960s and it is the only

recording currently used in oil exploration. The numerical signal is taken at predetermined

time intervals (generally every two or four msec), measured and then recorded in numerical

form.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 112 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Digital recording can provide a more accurate representation of the seismic signal than can

the anaIogue recording; furthermore, it allows for numerical data processing without

producing relevant distortions. In the intermediate phase seismic Signal is in digital form,

whereas at the beginning (signal to the geophones) and at the end (final representations on

paper for a final visual data evaluation) it is in an analogic form.

A simplified diagram of a digital recording station is shown in Figure 3.41.

Marine seismic surveys are performed with very different techniques from those used on

Iand surveys. In marine surveys both sources and receivers are immersed in the water and

therefore are in much better conditions than in land surveys.

Some of the subjects discussed previously are still valid for marine surveys; for example,

the use of multiple receivers and the multiple coverage recording technique, to which the

reader is referred.

The sources are many and can be divided into conventional and non-conventional sources.

The former employ traditional explosives (dynamite, gunpowder), while the latter can be

classified in four basic groups: (1) explosive (2) water, air or vapour, (3) continuous signal

and (4) electrical. All these sources generate a high pressure bubble as a result of the

explosion with all the advantages and problems related to this phenomenon.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 113 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Bubble Formaton

An explosion below the sea surface produces a high pressure gas bubble. As long as the

pressure of the gases produced exceeds the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding water,

the net resulting force will accelerate the water outwards away from the shot-point. The net

force decreases as the bubble expands and becomes zero when, as a result of the

expansion, the gas pressure reaches the value of the hydrostatic pressure. However, at this

point the water has reached the maximum outward velocity and so continues to move

outwards, decelerating since the force is now directed inwards. Eventually, the water tends

to stop and the net inward force now causes the bubble to collapse with a consequent rapid

gas pressure increase, the gas pressure being again directed outwards. At this point bubble

expansion starts again and multiple cycle repetitions take place, albeit with continuously

decreasing energy intensity.

This phenomenon is called bubble oscillation and each oscillation coincides with the

omission of pressure pulses exactly similar to the shock wave produced at the shot instant,

but of continuously decreasing amplitude. Nevertheless, the seismic energy emitted is

appreciable, since the duration of the pressure pulses is relatively long.

For all pulse type energy sources (i.e. for conventional 7.5kg dynamite charges), most of

the energy is concentrated in the first pulse, but the bubbles produced by the explosion

generate additional seismic records every 0.2 to 0.4sec. But these records overlap, so that

it is not possible to determine by which oscillation the reflection event is caused and,

therefore, the data cannot be used. The practice generally adopted in the case of

conventional explosives was to explode the charge at a depth of 2m from the surface in

order to let the bubble vent rapidly.

This system produced spectacular gas and water plumes, but most of the bubble was

dispersed in the water column rise, thus resulting inefficient in generating useful seismic

energy.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 114 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Conventional The source used in the earlier marine seismic explorations

Explosive Sources consisted of a single dynamite charge that was exploded at a

shallow depth. The shock wave produced by the shot was

characterised by a very steep (but of short duration) wave front

followed by a depression. Due to the damage to fish produced

by this system it was abandoned although at different times in

various countries. Initially, dynamite was replaced by gunpowder;

this produced less damage to sea fauna but on the other hand,

had very poor penetration and very high costs. However, the use

of very large explosive charges was soon abandoned and other

less destructive and more efficient methods using reduced

amounts of explosives or no explosives at all, were developed.

Non-Conventional The most popular non-conventional seismic energy generating

Sources devices currently produce rather limited pressure pulses;

however, the amount of energy provided is sufficient to give a

usable signal/noise) ratio and a wave front steep enough to

provide an acceptable resolving power. Such devices are

generically called guns> and the energy transmitted as an

impulse to the surrounding water is produced inside explosion,

combustion or compression chambers, depending on the method

employed.

The non-conventional sources can be subdivided into the four

below mentioned groups.

Non-Conventional Maxipulse(Western Geophysical Company) is an explosive type

Explosive Sources source using very small charges about 200gs of

nitrocarbonitrate. The optimal explosion depth is I0-20m below

the water surface, at intervals of about 10 seconds between one

shot and the next, intervals obviously depending on the vessel

speed and on the required coverage.

The explosive is put into a small cylindrical container, which is

placed in a hose; the container, pushed by a powerful jet of

water, quickly slides to the end of the hose which is at the

desired distance from the stern; the charge is then expelled and

the explosion occurs a second later, at a distance of several

metres from the gun (Figure 3.42), producing a bubble with a

seismic pulse of 100msecs.

A hydrophone, able to withstand high pressures, is placed close

to the gun; it makes it possible to determine the time break and

the source signature, that is, the shape of the wave created by

the bubble. The initial pressure curve is very steep: the gas

bubble expands until its internal pressure becomes less than that

of the surrounding water. At this point the bubble contracts, then

expands again in a sequence of small oscillations, whose

features depend on the size of the charge and depth of the

explosion.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 115 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

preparation, so that the period variations of the bubble are only

due to changes in the shot depth.

Maxipulse The Flexotir system (Institute Francais de Petrole) uses 50g of

explosive charges placed inside a perforated steel sphere and

the shots take place up io a depth of 15m, at about 20sec

intervals.

The detonating charge is pushed through a hose trailing the

sphere by pressurised water and is fired, when it reaches the

sphere centre. The sphere is about 70cm in diameter and has

about one hundred holes, 5cm in diameter. Its life is 2,000 shots.

Two guns are generally used for each firing, with a total of 100g

of explosive, and the result can be compared to that obtained

with the conventional method when the explosion takes place

just below the surface. The initial pressure front is not affected by

the sphere surrounding the charge; the bubble pulsations,

however, are greatly dampened, since the work done to force the

water in and out of the sphere through the holes consumes

kinetic energy.

The seismic efficiency of the shot increases by increasing the

shot depth of the charge (thus, less energy is stored inside the

bubble) and by establishing this depth in order to obtain an

intensification of the downward travelling compression pulse.

Aquaseis Aquaseis (Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd.) is a linear energy

source consisting of a detonating cord (Aquaflex Seismic Cord)

of a length ranging from 15 to 75m and weighing about 20g per

metre, exploded at a depth of 12m below the water surface at

intervals of about 18secs. The cord is made of a central

pentaerytrite tetranitrate core, surrounded by interlaced synthetic

fibres, enclosed, in turn, in a plastic sheath. The cord ends in a

connector, which holds the detonator, and in a hook, which

attaches it to the cable trailed by the vessel, through which the

signaI to fire the shot is sent (Figure 3.44)

The progressive detonation of the cord and the elongated shape

of the bubble produced results in a reduced bubble oscillation

and amplitude period, compared to that of a spherical charge of

equal weight.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 116 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 117 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Sleeve Exploder Sleeve Exploder is a source of the gas gun type, trailed by the

(Aquapulse- vessel at a depth of about 10m.

Seisprobe) The gun shot chamber has flexible walls, which are made of a

cylindrical steel pipe core around its circumference and of an elastic

rubber sleeve The cylinder is filled with a measured propane-oxygen

mixture that is detonated by a spark plug. The explosion causes a

sudden expansion of the sleeve (Figure 3.45a), producing a pressure

impulse in the surrounding water. When the sIeeve reaches its

maximum expansion, the internal pressure is substantially Iower than

the external hydrostatic pressure This pressure difference combined

with the elastic force of the rubber sleeve, produces a subsequent

contraction that restores the original sleeve shape (Figure 3.45b).

The combustion gases are expelled at the surface through a valve

that opens at the moment the sleeve contracts, thus significantly

alternating the oscillation pulses. The synchronised interval between

the shots is 8-10 seconds. The energy produced can be increased

both by increasing the filling time and by exploding single, double or

triple units.

The Sleeve Exploder is an ESSO patent.Aquapulse is a registered

trademark of Western Geophysical Co., while Seisprobe is a

registered trademark of Seismograph Service Ltd.

The Sleeve Exploder- is one of the most commonly used systems for

marine surveys.

Minisleeve Minisleeve is a miniature version of the Sleeve Exploder used in high

resolution and limited penetration surveys. It is used with multiple

guns and can give a very short pulse; the guns can be detonated

either in sequence, in order to obtain a high coverage, or

simultaneously, in order to achieve greater penetration. The name

Minisleeve is a registered trademark of ESSO.

Non-Conventional Water, Air and Vapour Sources

Hydrosein The Hydrosein system (Western Geophysical Company) is a

pneumatic-type seismic source; it uses two units weighing four tons

each, usually placed at a depth of 15m, with a shot period of about

10 seconds.

High.pressure air is sent into a chamber and, as a result, a metal

plate is abruptly driven away from a second plate fixed to the upper

end of the chamber; this downward acceleration creates an empty

space between the two plates, about 30cm long. Water fills this cavity

and produces a strong seismic pulse of short duration.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 118 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

implosion effect for the production of seismic signals.

It consists of two or more units trailed along at 15m below the sea

surface by means of elastic cables and control cables, that permit a

shot about every 18secs. The unit is made up of a flexible envelope

surrounding a couple of rigid circular plates, connected to each other

by articulated arms. The space between the plates is widened, up to

the maximum volume, by a pump injecting compressed air at a

pressure slightly higher than hydrostatic pressure; then the pump

ejects the previousIy injected air and lowers the pressure to about

2

1/1,000 of kg/cm . At this point the device, that keeps the plates

separate, is released and the hydrostatic pressure applied to the

envelope walls abruptly reduces the volume to its minimum, thereby

generating an implosive pulse (Figure 3.46). The shot at the end of

the contraction is cushioned by a spring.

Vaporchoc (or This source (Compagnie Generale de Geophysique) uses a vapour

Steam Gun) device (Figure 3.47); the equipment is trailed 7m below sea level and

the shots occur every 8sec.

The steam sent from the ship to the submersed unit through an

insulating pipe, is injected into the water through a valve which is

opened for a certain time, generally 40 msec The bubble grows until

the injection is stopped; at this point the steam begins to condense

and the bubble radius decreases under the force of the hydrostatic

pressure. When the radius becomes very small, all the energy has

been converted into kinetic energy and, as a result of the spherical

convergence, very high pressure develops in the water, close to the

internal walls of the bubble. The implosion irradiates acoustic energy

and since there is no compressed gas to expand the bubble, it

collapses completely and does not pulsate However, the initial bubble

expansion produces a definite forerunner pulse preceding the

principal implosion pulse.

Water Gun The Water-Gun is also an implosive-type source, constructed in

3

different models with air chamber volumes up to 15dm and

2

pressures up to 250kg/cm .

Basically, it is made up of a compressed air gun coupled to a piston-

cylinder unit. The system produces an acoustic pulse by means of

the implosion of an empty space underwater. The operating system is

shown in Figure 3.48a. At the beginning, the piston is held against

the exhaust valve of the gun by the hydrostatic pressure as the

cylinder is filled with water {Figure 3.48a). Then, compressed air is

pushed into the gun, which is electrically controlled by a solenoid.

The air, being at a very high pressure, pushes the piston at a high

speed (100-200m/sec), thereby expelling the water contained in the

cylinder in the form of a jet (Figure 3.48b, c.). While the piston

decelerates rapidly, the water mass in motion moves away from it

and by inertia forms a cavity (Figure 3.48d ).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 119 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

At the end of the run, the piston stops, the valve opens and the air

contained in the upper part of the cylinder is pushed toward the

surface; at this point, the piston returns to its initial position and the

cycle starts again.

The Water-Gun was patented by the French Company Sodera.

Air-Gun (PAR) The Air-Gun is a seismic source which is often used. The almost

explosive release of high pressure air directly into the surrounding

water generates an acoustic wave followed by successive waves.

The operating principle of the Par Air Gun (patented by Bolt

Associates, Inc.) is schematically illustrated in Figure 3.49, in which

the gun is ready for the shot. The upper operation chamber and the

lower discharge chamber are sealed by a double piston on a single

shaft. The air, supplied by a compressor placed on the ship, fills both

chambers (the discharge chamber is fed through a hole in the double

piston shaft). The piston surface, that closes the upper chamber, is

larger than the surface of the Iower chamber, which therefore stays

perfectly closed. A solenoid valve, electronically controlled, can make

air penetrate the base of the upper chamber piston, causing the

discharge chamber piston to open at high speed (the dashed lines in

Figure 3.49); in about 10 milliseconds the air is discharged into the

surrounding water through 4 holes in the lower chamber, causing an

initial pulse of pressure followed by a series of pulses due to the

oscillation of the bubble After that, the chamber closes again.

Reduction of the bubbles secondary pulses is possible for a single

air-gun by making air enter the discharge chamber during the

discharge itself, so as to slow down the bubbles collapse. In this

way, reduction of the secondary pulses can be obtained, but at the

expense of the initial pressure.

3

Air-guns have discharge chamber volumes up to 33dm and

2

operating pressures up to 140kg/cm .

By combining the appropriate volume, pressure, depth, spacing and

moment of shot, it is possible to obtain a definite band of inlet

frequencies or a reduction of the secondary pulses from a battery of

air-guns.

Seismojet This system (patented by Trojan US Powder; distributed by Dresser

2

System) uses the air-gun at high pressure, from 400 to 550 kg/cm .

3.

Discharge chamber volumes can vary from 0.6 to 2 cm The

pulsation of the bubble is eliminated (or at least very much limited) by

an electromagnetic device for controlled air discharge, that starts

functioning after generation of the initial shockwave in such a way

that, at maximum bubble volume, its internal pressure is equal to the

hydrostatic pressure, so that the bubble does not collapse but rather

rises to the surface.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 120 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Vibroseis This system makes use of 4 hydraulic vibrators, towed to a depth of

l0-12m. Every vibrator has a water piston that, through suitable

devices, vibrates in a range of frequencies between 10 and 100Hz.

The diameter of the piston is about 120cm and the weight of the

vibrator is 2,500kg. The sweep, that is the signal, is irradiated for

example for 5sec and the recording continues for another 5 seconds.

Sparkers Sparkers are seismic sources based on the principle of electric

discharge in the sea by a battery of high tension condensers (for

example 3,000-5,000 Volts), through electrodes mounted on a device

trailed at a given depth by the ship. The condensers are charged by a

generator installed on the ship. Only the external part of every

electrode is exposed to the sea water and therefore the discharge

generates an immediate heating and vaporisation of the surrounding

water with formation of a bubble of incandescent vapour (plasma), of

ionised gas and of free electrons. The initial volume of the bubble

depends on the energy supplied and on the hydrostatic pressure;

then the bubble expands with a decrease of the internal pressure

because of cooling. Therefore, there is the contraction and emission

of a second pulse of greater amplitude than the initial pulse of shorter

duration (if the water is compressible and if there is no infinite

amplitude). At every discharge, 5-8 cm of wire is consumed while the

seismically used energy is three or four times greater.

Sparkers are generally used to investigate a limited thickness of

sedimentary layers underneath the sea bottom.

Boomer This source is made of a metallic plate with a built-in copper winding.

Underneath the plate there is an aluminium disc; when the discharge

of a condensers battery, on board ship run through the plate winding,

the parasitic currents, that run through the disc, cause the plate to

suddenly jump away, generating a strong pressure pulse. Therefore,

an empty space is created which the surrounding water pours into,

creating a negative pressure pulse. A spring then pushes the

aluminium disc back into contact with the plate. The energy of

Boomer is concentrated in the high frequencies (up to 200-300 Hz)

and the pulses can be generated at intervals of a few seconds. For

these reasons, the Boomer is used in cases where high resolution

and minimal penetration is required.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 121 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 122 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 123 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Hydrophones

Hydrophones, or pressure geophones, are seismic Signal receivers used in water surveys.

The sensor element in them is a piezo-electric crystal that generates a difference in

electrical potential proportional to the instantaneous water pressure; this, in turn, is

proportional to the displacement velocity of the water particles set into motion by the

seismic signal. The cylinder or the disc of piezo-electric material is hermetically sealed in a

metal container, as in the older marine survey methods and in the more recent ones.

The hydrophone does not require pressure compensation (its output is essentially

2

independent from the hydrostatic pressure up to value of approximately 70kg/cm ), it has a

near fully linear response, it does not produce measurable harmonic distortions and it has a

very high frequency (30,000Hz).

Hydrophones are made of two sensors mounted in opposite direction, with the purpose of

adding the effects of the pressure pulses produced in the water by the seismic energy

source used and, at the same time, of cancelling the transverse accelerations due to the

seismic cable.

Hydrophones are mounted in a cable, called a streamer, which is the type of cable most

commonly used in modern marine seismics, made of more parts: the active sections

(containing, in oil, 20 to 100 Hydrophones per section) and the inactive sections (only filled

with oil). Figure 3.50. diagrams the composition an lay-out of the streamer.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 124 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

3.6.1. Forms of Presentation Of Seismic Data And Their Meaning

The starting data that the drilling engineer has at his disposal, in order to determine the

pressure gradient development, can be:

1) Diagrams, already interpreted by geophysicists, that give the average velocities as a

function of reflection time (Figure 3.51). The average velocities and the times, suitably

handled, are transformed into interval velocities (or interval travel times) and depth.

Note: In order to better clarify the meaning of the curve in Figure 3.51, the

processing method of the data recorded in the field is briefly explained

below. The data relating to each shot-point are recorded on the

appropriate magnetic tapes; each track reports the data relating to a well

determined shot-point, corresponding, for example, to the 24 recording

stations. Later, the data are re-processed in terms of Common Depth

Point; in other words the data relating to the same reflection point, but

belonging to different shot-points, are summed. The total data are now

available in the form of seismic traces, with the distance of the geophone

from the shot-point on the average and the reflection times on the

ordinates. The signal reception times rise with the increase in distance of

the receiver from the shot-point, according to a hyperbolic curve given by

the equation:

x2 Eq. 3.46

t 2o +

Tx2 = 4

Vo2

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 125 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

From an examination of the above-written equation, it is evident that the terms Tx and x are

known as measured, and to is the two-way vertical time corresponding to x = 0. The value

Vo is determined by one of the previously mentioned methods and in particular by the 3-

Readings Method, and is introduced into the preceding equation.

Choosing a certain velocity V, corresponding to increasing values of-Tx and to pre-arranged

values of x, the equation is resolved. The result is a hyperbola, passing across the various

seismic traces; the energy values of each seismic trace crossed by the hyperbola, are

summed up algebraically. The value of the sum indicates what likelihood the given velocity

has of being correct.

To better clarify this concept, refer to Figure 3.52. The reflection times are given on the

ordinates, and the various seismic traces (CDP), as a function of x, are given on the

abscissas. In order to determine the most probable velocity corresponding, for example, to

the time Tx = 1.0:

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 126 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Velocity V1 is chosen as the first velocity under investigation. The hyperbola for

the velocity V1 intersects the various seismic traces at points Y1, Y2, and Y3;

those points have very low energy, and therefore their sum, too, will be

negligible. Velocity V1 is not representative.

Passing from velocity V1 to velocity V2, the hyperbola will now pass through

points Z1, Z2, and Z3, characterised by high energy, and therefore their sum will

also be high. Velocity V2, has a greater probability of being the representative

velocity.

Considering now velocity V3, the hyperbola will pass through points W 1, W 2, and

W 3 at low energy. Total energy will again be low, so there is little likelihood of

velocity V3, being the correct one.

The scanning operation can be automatically repeated for any velocity V and

corresponding to any reflection time.

If the results obtained above are plotted in a two-way time-velocity diagram,

Figure 3.53 is obtained, that is the so-called Automatic Velocity Analysis and it

constitutes the basis for all successive interpretations.

The representative velocities are the ones indicated by peaks, and the more probable are

characterised by high energy values, as indicated in the central column C in Figure 3.53.

2) Dagrams, already interpreted and supplied by geophysicists, that give average

velocities, interval velocities as a function of two-way time and/or of depth (Figure

3.54).

3) Print-outs, that give velocities as a function of two-way times corresponding to each

shotpoint of a given seismic line (Rfer to Table 3.3).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 127 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 128 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 129 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 3.54 - Diagram Showing Average Velocity and Interval Velocity as a Function of Depth

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 130 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

SP 590 575 560 545 530 515

0 1,503 1,503 1,503 1,503 1,503 1,503 1,503 1,503 1,503 1,503 1,503

100 1,433 1,433 1,433 1,433 1,433 1,434 1,433 1,433 1,434 1,448 1,434

200 1,393 1,396 1,394 1,392 1,414 1,405 1,403 1,402 1,404 1,390 1,404

300 1,579 1,593 1,590 1,586 1,494 1,486 1,477 1,479 1,477 1,436 1,480

400 1,785 1,793 1,791 1,795 1,825 1,829 1,829 1,817 1,805 1,850 1,767

500 1,769 1,806 1,822 1,838 1,853 1,840 1,883 1,829 1,861 1,872 1,909

600 1,778 1,787 1,804 1,831 1,835 1,861 1,767 1,861 1,822 1,721 1,725

700 1,965 1,964 1,968 1,930 1,918 1,713 1,704 1,918 1,913 1,956 1,945

800 2,035 2,039 2,093 2,165 2,162 2,248 2,248 2,082 2,151 2,262 2,012

900 2,121 2,148 2,197 2,184 2,214 2,175 2,135 2,105 2,171 2,185 2,061

1,000 2,141 2,259 2,154 2,152 2,077 2,240 2,296 2,199 1,940 1,906 1,938

1,100 1,720 1,847 1,811 1,662 1,590 1,461 1,480 1,533 1,637 1,581 1,762

1,200 1,951 1,881 1,814 1,642 1,563 1,503 1,517 1,535 1,536 1,573 1,696

1,300 1,914 1,946 1,828 1,889 1,619 1,498 1,524 1,535 1,537 1,522 1,543

1,400 1,644 1,599 1,704 1,865 1,658 1,588 1,523 1,525 1,497 1,508 1,567

1,500 1,752 1,705 1,996 1,942 1,704 1,764 1,833 1,847 2,009 1,949 1,833

1,600 1,921 1,857 2,017 1,984 2,400 2,295 2,221 2,342 2,417 2,227 2,167

1,700 2,678 2,716 2,212 2,256 2,333 2,422 2,510 2,645 2,705 2,775 2,784

1,800 2,563 2,144 2,204 2,338 2,476 2,375 2,459 2,561 2,679 2,742 2,664

1,900 2,655 2,604 2,834 2,448 2,420 2,540 2,470 2,656 2,675 2,736 1,763

2,000 2,552 2,676 2,714 2,863 2,428 2,609 2,706 2,642 2,688 2,364 2,105

2,100 2,478 2,674 2,830 2,812 2,719 2,672 3,530 2,665 2,673 2,411 2,057

2,200 3,118 2,738 3,014 2,789 2,894 2,493 2,880 2,624 2,716 2,312 2,711

2,300 2,419 2,714 2,669 2,891 2,679 3,416 2,982 2,955 2,640 3,246 2,931

2,400 2,549 2,772 2,742 2,951 3,049 3,220 3,283 3,063 2,646 3,036 3,083

4) Print-outs that sum up, at significant reflection times and for each shot-point. All of

the initial data (two-way times, average velocities, interval velocities, depth) necessary

for calculating pressure gradients (Refer to Table 3.4).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 131 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

TO VRMS VIM H H VM H Time Time

sec m/sec m/sec m m m/sec ft sec/ft sec/m

1,850 601 165 541

0.650 1850 601 1850 1973

2,035 234 150 491

0.880 1,900 835 1,898 2,740

2,260 147 135 443

1.010 1,950 982 1,945 3,222

2,275 193 134 440

1.180 2,000 1,175 1,992 3,856

2,300 253 133 435

1.400 2,050 1,428 2,041 4,648

2,421 242 126 413

1.600 2,100 1,671 2,088 5,481

2,514 251 121 398

1.800 2,150 1,922 2,136 6,306

2,607 261 117 384

2.000 2,200 2,183 2,183 7,161

2,801 224 109 357

2.160 2,250 2,407 2,228 7,896

2,832 255 108 353

2.340 2,300 2,662 2,275 8,732

2,828 311 108 354

2.560 2,350 2,973 2,322 9,753

2,624 709 116 381

3.100 2,400 3,681 2,375 12,077

2,706 771 113 370

3.670 2,450 4,452 2,426 14,607

3,000 495 102 333

4.000 2,500 4,947 2,474 16,232

3,223 419 95 310

4.260 2,550 5,366 2,519 17,606

Table 3.4 - Summary Data Print-Out

5) Print-outs that give, at definite time intervals (generally every 0.1-0.2sec), average

interval velocities, partial and total depths. Corrected and not corrected (Refer to

Table 3.5). This form of presentation of the data is currently placed at the drilling

engineers disposal. It can certainly be considered the non-valid, since the availability

of velocity readings at well-defined and frequent time intervals (and, consequently,

depth intervals) allows adequate coverage of the whole well profile. This is not always

so with, for example, the type of data presentation indicated in point 4); since velocity

analyses are carried out in relation to significant time intervals, and therefore to

significant depth internals. The spacing between one reading and the next one at

times results excessive (even in the order of 1,000-2,000m) and therefore, insufficient

for a reliable or at least simple interpretation of the obtained curves.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 132 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

DIX Correction

Vel.Med Time Depth Vel.Int Vel.Int H H Vel.Med Time

m/sec sec m m/sec m/sec m m m/sec sec/ft

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

1,815 0.200 181.5 168

1,876 0.300 281.4 1,998 1,992 99.6 281.1 1,874 153

1,936 0.400 387.2 2,116 2,106 105.3 386.4 1,932 145

1,991 0.500 497.7 2,211 2,197 109.9 496.3 1,985 139

2,042 0.600 612.6 2,297 2,280 114.0 610.3 2,034 134

2,095 0.700 733.2 2,413 2,543 2508 125.4 2,085 128

2,151 0.800 860.4 2,543 2,508 125.4 855.3 2,138 122

2,214 0.900 996.3 2,718 2,665 133.2 988.3 2,198 114

2,291 1.000 1,145.5 2,964 2,893 144.7 1,133 2,266 105

2,369 1.100 1,302.9 3,149 3,041 152.0 1,285.1 2,336 100

2,461 1.200 1,476.6 3,473 3,308 165.4 1,450.5 2,417 92

2,585 1.300 1,667.2 3,813 3,585 179.2 1,629.7 2,507 85

2,639 1.400 1,847.3 3,601 3,460 173.0 1,802.7 2,575 68

2,713 1.500 2,034.7 3,479 3,592 179.6 1,928.3 2,643 85

2,794 1.600 2,227.2 3,849 3,688 184.4 2,166.7 2,708 83

2,866 1.700 2,436.1 4,176 3,953 197.7 2,364.4 2,762 77

2,949 1.800 2,654.1 4,360 4,111 205.6 2,570.0 2,656 74

3,023 1.900 2,871.8 4,355 4,134 206.7 2,776.7 2,923 74

3,104 2.000 3,104.0 4,643 4,366 218.3 2,995.0 2,995 70

3,195 2.100 3,354.7 5,015 4,655 232.8 3,227.8 3,074 65

3,298 2.200 3,627.8 5,461 4,992 249.6 3,477.4 3,161 61

3,396 2.300 3,905.4 5,552 5,096 254.8 3,732.1 3,245 60

3,471 2.400 4,165.2 5,196 4,888 244.4 3,976.5 3,314 62

3,551 2.500 4,438.7 5,471 5,108 255.4 4,231.9 3,386 60

3,635 2.600 4,725.5 5,739 5,320 266.0 4,497.9 3,460 57

3,699 2.700 4,993.6 5,363 5,088 254.4 4,752.3 3,520 60

3,762 2.800 5,266.8 5,463 5,181 259.1 5,011.4 3,580 59

3,827 2.900 5,549.1 5,647 5,335 266.7 5,276.1 3,640 57

3,897 3.000 5,845.5 5,927 5,556 277.8 5,555.9 3,704 55

3,960 3.100 6,136.0 5,850 5,526 276.3 5,832.2 3,763 55

4,013 3.200 6,420.8 5,656 5,404 270.2 6,102.4 3,814 56

4,054 3.300 6,689.1 5,366 5,198 259.9 6,362.3 3,856 59

4,089 3.400 6,951.3 5,244 5,111 255.6 6,617.8 3,893 60

4,119 3.500 7,208.2 5,139 5,034 251.7 6,869.5 3,925 61

4,143 3.600 7,457.4 4,963 4,910 245.5 7,115.0 3,953 62

4,167 3.700 7,708.9 5,031 4,954 247.7 7,362.7 3,980 82

4,196 3.800 7,972.4 5,269 5,156 257.8 7,620.5 4,011 59

4,228 3.900 8,244.6 5,444 5,303 285.1 7,885.6 4,044 57

4,262 4.000 8,524.0 5,588 5,424 271.2 8,156.8 4,078 56

Table 3.5 - Difinative Tme Interval Print-Outs

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 133 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Before continuing to the interpretation of the available seismic data, the meaning of the

values shown in Table 3.5 must be evaluated.

The basic data are reported in the first two columns on the left that indicate average velocity

in m/sec and t-way time in sec, respectively. From these pairs of values the following can be

determined:

1) The cummulative depth (column 3) by applying the simple relationship:

V i x ti Eq. 3.47

Hi =

2

Example for the first interval:

Vi = 1,815 m/sec

t1 = 0.2 sec

H1 = (1,815 x 0-2)/2 = 181.5 m

For the second interval:

V2 = 1,876m/sec

t2 = 0.3sec

H2 = (1,876 x 0.3)/2 = 281.4 m

For the last interval:

V 39 = 4262 m/sec

t39 = 4 sec

H39 = (4262 x 4)/2 = 8524 m

2) The interval velocity (column 4), obtained from the relation: :

Eq. 3.48

V i t i V i 1 t i 1

Vint .i =

t i t ii

For example, for the first interval 0 - 181.5m, the corresponding interval velocity will

be:

V1 = 1,815m/sec

t1 = 0.2sec

V0 = 1,600m/sec

to = 0

Vint .1 = = 1815 m / sec

0.2 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 134 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

V2 = 1,876m/sec

t2 = 0.3sec

V1 = 1,815m/sec

t1 = 0.2sec

Vint .3 = = 1815 m / sec

0.2 0

V2 = 1,876m/sec

t2 = 0.3sec

V1 = 1815m/sec

t1 = 0.2sec

Vint.2 = = 1922 m / sec

0.3 0.2

V3 = 1,936m/sec

t3 = 0.4sec

V2 = 1,876m/sec

t2 = 0.3sec

Vint.3 = = 2106 m / sec

0.4 0.3

V 39 = 4,262m/sec

t39 = 4sec

V 38 = 4,228m/sec

t38 = 3.9sec

Vint .2 = = 1998m / sec

0. 3 0. 2

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 135 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

V3 = 1,936m/sec

t3 = 0.4sec

V2 = 1,876m/sec

t2 = 0.3sec

Vint .3 = = 2116m / sec

0 .4 0 . 3

V39 = 4,262m/sec

t 39 = 4sec

V38 = 4,228m/sec

t 38 = 3.9sec

Vint .39 = = 5588m / sec

4 .0 3 .9

The four columns on the right give the interval velocity values, depth and average

velocity recalculated with the DIX correction, that is using the root mean square

velocity (Vrms), according to the following relations:

3) Corrected interval velocity (column 5):

v i2 x t i v 2 x t i 1 Eq. 3.49

v int,i =

t i t i 1

For the first time interval 0 - 0.2 sec

V1 = 1,815m/sec

t1 = 0.2sec

V0 = 1,600m/sec (supposed)

to = 0

Vint .39 = = 5424m / sec

4 3 .9

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 136 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Once the interval velocity for each time interval is determined, the thickness of the

interval characterised by given value of Vint, can be obtained from the relation:

Vint .1 x (t i t i 1 ) Eq. 3.50

Hint .i =

2

So for the first time interval 0.2 - 0 sec:

Vint.i = 1,815m/sec

t1 = 0.2 sec

to = 0

x (0.2 0 ) = 181.5m

1815

Hint .i =

2

Vint,2 = 1,992m/sec

t2 = 0.3sec

t1 = 0.2sec

Hint .2 = = 99.6m

2

Vint,3 = 2,106m/sec

t3 = 0.4sec

t2 = 0.3sec

Hint .3 = = 105.3m

2

And so on, for the following intervals up to the last one relating to the times 4 - 3.9:

Vint,39 = 5,424m/sec

t39 = 4sec

t38 = 3.9sec

5424 x (4 3.9 )

Hint .39 = = 271.2m

2

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 137 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

This can be obtained simply by summing up the contributions of each interval:

n Eq. 3.51

H= H

i =1

i

In this way the depth corresponding to the time 0.2 sec will be:

H = Hint,1 = 181.5m

at the time 0.3 sec:

H2 `= Hint.1 + Hint.2 = 181.5 + 99.6 = 281.1m

And so on far all subsequent times.

Knowing the interval velocities, corrected according to Dix, the average velocities can

be recalculated using this equation:

[V ]

x (t i t i1 ) / t i

n Eq. 3.52

V c .i = int .i

i.1

So the corrected average velocity, relating to the time 0.2 sec at a depth of 181.5 m,

will be:

Vint,1 = 1,815m/sec

t1 = 0.2sec

to = 0

1815 x (0.2 0 )

V c .1 = = 1815m / sec

0 .2

The velocity V c .2 relating to the time 0.3 sec and to a depth of 281.1m, will be:

Vint,2 = 1,992m/sec

t2 = 0.3sec

Vint.3 = 2106m/sec

t3 = 0.4sec

V c .3 = / 0.4 = 1932m / sec

+ 2106 x (0.4 0.3 )

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 138 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Vint,39 = 5424m/sec

t39 = 4sec

V c .39 =

+ 2197 x (0.5 0.4 ) + + 5424 x (4 3.9 ) / 0 .4 =

At this point the interval velocities can be directly plotted as a function of the depth,

but usually it is preferable to use their reciprocal, i.e. interval transit-time in sec/ft,

since they give rise to presentation comparable to that of the Sonic Log, thereby

facilitating both the interpretation and the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the

available data.

The conversion of the interval velocities, in m/sec, to interval transit times, in sec/ft, is

carried out using the following relation:

0.3048 x 10 6 Eq. 3.53

t int .i =

Vint .i

So for the first interval, the interval transit time will be:

Vint,1 = 1,815m/sec

0.3048 x 106

t int .1 = = 168 sec/ ft

1815

Vint,2 = 1992m/sec

0.3048 x 106

t int .2 = = 153 sec/ ft

1992

Vint,39 = 5424m/sec

0.3048 x 106

t int .39 = = 56 sec/ ft

5424

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 139 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The seismic data transformed, in accordance with what has been discussed above, in terms

of depths, interval velocities and/or interval transit times, at this point are ready to be used

for pressure gradient calculation, that is of:

Overburden gradient

Pore pressure gradient

Fracture gradient.

The Eni-Agip method for calculating overburden gradients, and consequently geostatic

pressures, from analyses of the seismic data, was obtained by extending and applying to

seismic surveys the basic concepts developed initially for the Sonic log, which will be

referred to later for a more detailed examination of concepts and of equations.

The calculation sequence can be summarised in the following points:

Depth, interval velocity and interval transit time calculation

Bulk density calculation, through the following experimental equations:

a) in the case of non cemented formations (e.g. sand, clay, mud, etc)

In terms of interval transit-times:

t int t max Eq. 3.54

b = max 2.11

t int + t fl

In terms of interval velocities:

Vint Eq. 3.55

1

Vmax

b = max 2.11

V

1 + int

Vmax

b) In the case of cemented and compacted formations (e.g. sandstone, dolomite,

limestone etc.)

In terms of interval transit times:

t int Eq. 3.56

b = 3.28

89

in terms of interval velocities:

3425 Eq. 3.57

= 3.28

Vint

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 140 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

where:

b = Bulk density of the formation, g/cm

3.

max = 3

Matrix density, g/cm (an average value of 2.75g/cm is usually

3

assumed).

tint = Interval transit-time obtained from analysis of the seismic date, sec/ft

tmax = Interval transit-time of the rock matrix, sec/ft (assumed between 43.5-

47sec/ft).

tfl = Interval transit time of the fluid present in the rock, sec/ft (equal to 200

sec/ft).

Vint = Interval velocity obtained from analysis of the seismic data, m/sec

Vmax = Velocity of sound in the rock matrix, m/sec (assumed between 6,485-

7,000m/sec).

Vmin = Minimum velocity of sound corresponding to the first superficial layer,

m/sec (generally around 1,500m/sec).

From a practical point of view, the geological and stratigraphical information available,

before starting drilling operations, is not always sufficient to allow the distinction between

cemented and non-cemented formations. The problem is overcome using only one of the

group of equations proposed. In fact, it can easily be observed that cemented formations

are characterised by quite high interval velocities, and consequently by low interval transit

times, that usually turn out to be between 45-60sec/ft

If those tint are introduced into the preceding equations, bulk densities that differ little from

each other are obtained. Therefore, the use of equations valid for non-cemented formations

in all situations can be justified (Eq. 3.54 and bis), even if not theoretically correct, since the

small variations in bulk density have relatively little influence on overburden gradient

calculations. An easier and more rapid calculation procedure is obtained, however, in

recompense.

In order to clarify the point above, the hypothesis to calculate the bulk density of a formation

having a very low interval transit time can be made, that is tint = 50sec/ft. If this is applied

to Eq. 3.54, it derives that:

50 47

b = 2.75 2.11 = 2.725g / cm 3

50 + 200

50

b = 3.28 = 2.718g / cm3

89

The difference in bulk density in the two cases turns out be 0.007g/cm3, which is practically

negligible.

The opposite case does not occur since, as already specified, cemented and compacted

formations are characterised by interval transit times rarely greater than 60sec/ft.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 141 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Eq. 3.54 and Eq. 3.54 bis permit a calculation of bulk density for a given formation at a

certain depth, neglecting, however, the effect of the weight of the sediments overlaying the

formation. In other words, bulk density represents the density in situ of the formation and

takes into consideration the Iithological nature of the rock, its porosity and its fluid content

while ignoring, although dependent on them, the surrounding conditions.

Keeping that in mind, once the bulk density has been determined, the effective value of the

geostatic pressure is obtained by summing the pressure contributions of each interval Hi,

characterised by a given Ob,i value, into which the seismic profile can be subdivided. The

following equation is applied:

n n Eq. 3.58

1

Pov = Pov.i =

i 1 10

(H

i 1

i x b, i)

Substituting Eq. 3.54 and Eq. 3.54 bis in Eq. 3.58. the geostatic pressure, Pov, can be

expressed directly:

In terms of interval transit-time:

Vint .1 Eq. 3.59

a

1

Vmax Hi

Pqv = max 2.11 x

i.1 Vint .1 10

1+

Vmin

In terms of interval velocity:

n

t + t max Hi Eq. 3.60

Pov = max 2.11 x int .i. x

i= t t int .i + t fl 10

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 142 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Dividing the geostatic pressure, Pov relating to the depth of interest, by the depth itself, the

over burden gradient value is determined:

10 x Pov Eq. 3.61

G ov =

H

The overburden gradient curve is obtained by plotting the values Gov as a function of the

depth H.

Calculation Example:

In order to clarify the concepts expressed above, the following calculation example is given,

using data from the velocity analyses in Table 3.5. and Eq. 3.54 and Eq. 3.54 bis, valid for

non-cemented formations.

The basic data under consideration are:

Depth (column 7)

Interval velocity (column 5)

Interval transit time (column 9).

1) H1 = 181.5m

Vint.1 = 1,815m/sec

tint,1 = 168 sec/ft.

168 47

b, i = 2.75 2.11 = 2.056g / cm 3

168 + 200

H1 x b, i 181.5 x 2.056

Pov .i = = = 37.32kg / cm 2

10 10

10 x Pov .1 10 x 37.32

G ov .1 = = = 2.056g / cm 3

H1 181.5

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 143 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

2) H2 = 281.1m

H2 = 281.1 - 181.5 = 99.6m

Vint,2 = 1,992 m/sec

tint,2 = 153 sec/ft

153 47

b,2 = 2.75 2.11 = 2.116g / cm 3

153 + 200

n

H1 x b.i 2.116 x 99.6

Pov .2 = = 37.32 + = 58.40kg / cm 2

i =1 10 10

Pov .2 x 10 10 x 58.40

G ov .2 = = =2.078g / cm 3

H2 281.1

3) H3 = 386.4m

H3 = 386.4 - 281.1 105.3m

Vint,3 = 2106m/sec

tint,3 = 145sec/ft

145 47

b,3 = 2.75 2.11 = 2.151g / cm 3

145 + 200

n H1 x b, i 2.151 x 105.3

Pov ,3 = = 58.40 + = 81.5kg / cm 2

n =1 10 10

4) and so on, for all the following intervals up to the final depth.

The complete calculation data are collected in Table 3.6 and plotted in the diagram of

Figure 3.55. The same results will be obtained by applying Eq. 3.59 and Eq. 3.60 directly.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 144 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The interval velocities take on a very important role in the prediction and calculation of pore

pressure gradients before beginning to drill a well, since they are frequently the only basic

data available.

Figure 3.55- Bulk and Overburden Gradient Curves for the Well in Table 3.6

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 145 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Depth, m Time, sec/ft

g/cm3 kg/cm3 g/cm3

181.5 168 2.056 37.32 2.056

281.1 153 2.116 58.40 2.078

386.4 145 2.151 81.05 2.098

496.3 139 2.177 104.98 2.115

610.3 134 2.200 130.06 2.131

125.4 128 2.229 156.67 2.147

855.3 122 2.259 185.00 2.163

988.3 114 2.300 215.64 2.182

1,133 105 2.349 249.63 2.203

1,285.1 100 2.377 285.78 2.224

1,450.5 92 2.425 325.89 2.247

1,629.7 85 2.469 370.13 2.271

1,802.7 68 2.450 412.52 2.288

1,928.3 85 2.469 456.68 2.305

2,166.7 83 2.482 502.63 2.320

2,364.4 77 2.552 552.49 2.337

2,570.0 74 2.542 604.75 2.353

2,776.7 74 2.542 657.30 2.367

2,995.0 70 2.570 713.40 2.382

3,227.8 65 2.607 774.09 2.398

3,477.4 61 2.637 839.91 2.415

3,732.1 60 2.645 907.28 2.431

3,976.5 62 2.629 971.53 2.443

4,231.9 60 2.645 1,039.08 2.455

4,497.9 57 2.668 1,110.05 2.468

4,752.3 60 2.645 1,177.34 2.477

5,011.4 59 2.652 1,246.03 2.468

5,276.1 57 2.668 1,317.19 2.496

5,555.9 55 2.684 1,391.75 2.505

5,832.2 55 2.684 1,465.91 2.513

6,102.4 56 2.676 1,538.22 2.521

6,362.3 59 2.652 1,607.15 2.526

6,617.8 60 2.645 1,674.73 2.531

6,869.5 61 2.637 1,741.10 2.535

7,115.0 62 2.629 1,805.64 2.538

7,362.7 82 2.629 1,870.76 2.541

7,620.5 59 2.652 1,939.13 2.545

7,885.6 57 2.668 2,009.86 2.549

8,156.8 56 2.676 2,082.43 2.553

Table 3.6 - Calculation Example Data

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 146 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

1) Plotting of Interval Velocity versus Depth or, more commonly, Interval Transit Times

versus Depth graphs;

2) Method of Interval Velocity/Theoretical Velocity Ratio, V 1/V2.

Both methods allow for not only qualitative estimations, such as, for example, determination

of the top of the overpressures and their general trend with the depth, but also quantitative

evaluations with consequent calculation of the pore pressure gradient.

These methods, as such as those following, that are based on analysis of the drilling

parameters and electrical logs, are absolutely dependent on and influenced by the criteria

of interpretation of the curves used by the drilling engineer, so that adequate experience

and sensitivity are absolutely necessary.

The most commonly used method consists of plotting interval transit times (or interval

velocities) as a function of depth on a semiIogarithmic diagram. It is preferable to use

interval transit times instead of interval velocities, since the resultant curve correlates

to and compares with the curve later obtained from the analysis and processing of the

Sonic Log.

The criteria for pore pressure gradient calculation are also the same The only

difference is that the Sonic Log, being a continuous log, allows for transit time

readings corresponding to the most suitable points, in other words corresponding to

the clean shale points, while the times obtained from the seismic survey refer to more

or less long intervals, and therefore are often average values related to different

lithological types and not to one well-defined lithology. This creates some problems

both in the interpretative phase (for example, overpressured shales and sandy

formations with high porosity can easily be confused) and in the pore pressure

gradient calculation (the pore pressure gradients from the seismic survey are often

lower than the actual ones).

The method gives the best results in quantitative terms in geological environments

characterised by classic sequences (sands, shales, marls, etc), as long as the seismic

survey is of good quality. In the presence of carbonates and evaporites, the seismic

data can give useful qualitative information, while they are more approximate from a

quantitative point of view.

Sometimes, if the results of the seismic survey are of bad quality and the lithology is

complex, the curves are difficult to interpret and, therefore, offer little help, especially

as concerns pore pressure gradient calculation.

The calculation procedure can be summed up in the following points:

Determination of the interval velocity, Vint,2

Determination of the depth H relative to each interval velocity;

Transformation of the interval velocities into interval transit times, tint,2

Construction of the graph tint versus H on semilog paper.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 147 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Generally, two cycle semilog paper is used, with depth on the ordinate and tint on the

abscissa (logarithmic scale). It is also advisable to plot the depth in such a way as to

have 1cm corresponding to 100-200m; this offers the best visualisation of the data

and an easier interpretation of the curve.

Once interval transit-times as a function of depth have been plotted, it is time to go on

to the interpretation of the curve t this point, the following considerations become

important:

As a rule, if compaction is normal and the lithology is sufficiently uniform and, above

all, characterised by a preponderance of classic formations, the interval transit times,

tint, tend to decrease with depth; consequently, the interval velocities tend to increase

with depth. This is explained by the fact that, with the increase of compaction, the

porosity of the rock and its fluid content decrease, and therefore the time required for

the sound to pass through the considered medium decreases (the propagation

velocity of the wave obviously increases).The points characterised by a progressive

and regular decrease of the values tint, with depth, can be joined by a straight line,

the normal compaction line, representing regular compaction and therefore a

hydrostatic pore pressure gradient. In other words, all the points lying on the normal

2

compaction line will have a normal pore pressure gradient equal to 1.03 kg/cm 10m.

If at a certain depth the interval transit times or the interval velocities do not decrease

or increase at the same rate, it indicates the presence of formations with greater

porosity than is considered normal for that particular depth. Speaking in terms of time,

if at a certain depth the values increase, remain constant or simply continue to

decrease, but at a lower rate than considered normal, it may indicate the presence of

impermeable formations in overpressure (for example, shales at abnormal pressure).

The presence of impermeable formations in overpressure (for example, shales

at abnormal pressure)

The presence of permeable formations at normal gradient and characterised by

high porosity and permeability (for example, thick sand beds).

If a detailed lithological description of the well exists, the two hypotheses can be

advanced and chosen between; if, on the other hand, the lithology is not sufficiently

known, the doubt remains as to what caused the increase in porosity and, therefore,

the observed increase of times. For reasons of caution and convenience, it is better to

adopt the more conservative hypothesis during programming, that is to say the

presence of formations in overpressure. This naturally does not exclude the

possibility, which must be readily accepted, that in the drilling phase formations at a

normal gradient and with high porosity might be met with.

In the absence of an accurate lithological description of the well, typical for

exploitation wells, the increase in interval transit times at a certain depth serves to

indicate with certainty only highly porous formations; whether this high porosity is due

to the presence of overpressure or to lithological variations with presence of sandy

formations, is a fact that can be established only during drilling of the hole It is

necessary, however, always to remember that even notable increases of tint do not

indicate with absolute certainty the presence of formations at abnormal pressure,

even if during planning they are considered as such.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 148 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

represents the more conservative working hypothesis as already noted, the points,

used to prior the normal compaction trend line, are representative of formations that

have undergone a regular compaction and are, therefore, at hydrostatic gradient (Gp

2

= 1.03kg/cm x 10m).

When formations at abnormal pressure are met, the tint values tend to diverge from

the normal compaction trend line The extent of the displacement is strictly correlated

to the value of the overpressure; in fact, the greater the difference of tint from the

normal trend, the higher is the pore pressure gradient.

The depth, at which the abnormal pressures begin, is defined as the top of the

overpressures and the trend of the pore pressure gradient in the zone involved is

represented by the average curve passing through the significant points.

Once the top of the overpressures is fixed, the next phase concerns the pore pressure

gradient calculation as a function of depth. The method generally used is based on

the principle of equivalent depth. This principle establishes that, in conditions of

lithological homogeneity, formations characterised by the same physical quantity - in

the case in question by the same interval velocity or interval transit time - will have the

same porosity. It follows that if two formations have the same porosity, they will also

have been subjected to the same compaction pressure, even if they lie at different

depths.

Determining:

The compaction pressure at the equivalent depth and, in consequence, at the

depth under examination;

The geostatic pressures at the equivalent depth and at the depth under

examination;

The pressure and the pore pressure gradient can easily be obtained through the

usual relations:

PP =POV PC

PP 10 10

GP = = (POV PC )

H H

The calculation sequence is better explained by the following example:

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 149 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Computation Example

1) Initial Data

sec m/sec m/sec m m sec/ft

0.200 1,815 1,815 182 162 168

0.300 1,876 1,992 100 282 153

0.400 1,936 2,106 105 387 145

0.500 1,991 2,197 110 497 139

0.600 2,042 2,280 114 611 134

0.700 2,095 2,388 119 730 128

0.800 2,151 2,508 125 855 122

0.900 2,214 2,665 133 988 114

1.000 2,291 2,893 145 1,133 105

1.100 2,369 3,041 152 1,285 100

1.200 2,461 3,308 165 1,450 92

1.300 2,565 3,585 179 1,629 85

1.400 2,639 3,460 173 1,802 88

1.500 2,689 3,313 166 1,968 92

1.600 2,727 3,243 162 2,130 94

1.700 2,743 2,988 149 2,279 102

1.800 2,752 2,903 145 2,424 105

1.900 2,753 2,771 139 2,563 110

2.000 2,770 3,075 154 2,717 99

2.100 2,780 2,973 149 2,866 103

2.200 2,800 3,191 160 3,026 96

2.300 2,815 3,127 156 3,182 97

2.400 2,850 3,561 178 3,360 86

2.500 2,865 3,024 160 3,520 95

Table 3.7 - Example Initial Data

1) Computation of Overburden Gradient

2) Applying the previously explained criteria, the trend of overburden gradient, as a

function of depth, is calculated (curve A of Figure 3.57).

3) Construction of Diagram tint versus H (Figure 3.56)

4) Interpretation of Diagram tint versus H

Interval travel times regularly decrease with depth down to 1,629m; at this depth,

values begin to increase progressively marking the beginning of the abnormal

pressured zone.

It is therefore possible to establish that:

the pore pressure gradient is normal from surface down to 1,629m and equal to GP =

2

1.03kg/cm x10m.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 150 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

2

From 1,629m to 3,520m the gradient is abnormal and higher than GP = 1.03kg/cm

x10m, tending to increase with depth. To determine how the pore pressure gradient

develops as a function of depth, the equivalent depth principle, described in the next

paragraph, is followed.

It must be pointed out that the normal compaction trend line, passing through points

characterised by diminishing tint was determined by linear regression using the

computer, whereas the curve representing the development of overpressure was

obtained by polynomial regression.

Of course, the interpretation can also be done by hand; differences may exist

between the computerised and the manual interpretations, but generally such

differences do not greatly affect pressure gradient values.

At Point 4 we have seen that formations from 0 to 1,629m have a hydrostatic gradient,

and the deeper ones have an abnormal gradient. The next step is to determine pore

pressure gradient quantitatively.

a) Computation of Gp at 1,800m

The GP at 1,800 m has to be determined (Point H, Figure 3.56).

Tracing a parallel line to the ordinates (depth) starting from point H, the normal

compaction trend line will be intersected at point H1 at 1,330m, in other words, at

the equivalent depth. The two formations, assumed to be homogeneous and

having the same tint will have the same porosity and compaction pressure.

Utilising Curve A of Figure 3.57 the overburden gradients at the two depths are

calculated:

3

at 1,800m GOV,H = 2.290g/cm

3

at 1,430m GOV,H1 = 2.245g/cm

H1

p CH1 = (G OV ,H1 GP,H1 )

10

where:

3

Gov,H1 = 2.245g/cm

2

Gp,H1 = 1.03kg/cm 10m

1430(2.245 1.03 )

Pch1 = = 174Kg / cm2

10

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 151 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 152 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 153 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The geostatic pressure at the depth of interest, that is at 1,800m, will be:

H 2.290 = 1800

Pov .H = G ov .H x = x 412kg / cm 2

10 10

Having established that the compaction pressures at the depth of interest and at

the equivalent depth are the same, i.e.

2

Pch,1 = Pch = 174kg/cm

2

Pph = Pov,h Pch = H1 = 412 - 174 = 238kg/cm

Pp x 10 238 x 10

G p.h = = = 1.32kg / cm 2 10m

H 1800

b) Computation of Gp at 2.000m

H = 2,000m (depth of interest)

H1 = 1,300m (equivalent depth)

Gov,H = 2.301g/cm3

G ov,H1 = 2.227g/cm

Gp,h1 = 1.03kg cm2 10m

Gp,h = 1.32kg/cm2 10m

G ov .h x H G ov .H1 G p,H1 x H1

10

G p.h =

H

10 10

10 2.301 x 2000 2.227 1.03 x 1300

= = 1.52kg / cm 2 10m

2000 10 10

The same calculation sequence is used at all successive points at which

knowledge of pore pressure gradient is required.

When calculating by hand, it is advisable to determine the gradient every 200m;

it will then be easier to draw the overpressure development curve.

Measurements can be made more frequently, for example every 50m, whenever

there are sudden variations in the curve tint versus H and at the beginning of

abnormal pressure zones. In the case discussed, for example, G, must also be

determined at 1,700m (Gp1700 = 2.17 kg/cm2 10m).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 154 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

After the pair of values depth and pore pressure gradient have been

determined at significant depths, they are plotted on a graph next to the

overburden gradient curve and interpolated. The curve obtained will show

variations in the pore pressure gradients with depth:

Ratio R = Vin t/V5

The interpretation of curves tint versus H can, at times, be uncertain and in any

case difficult for this reason AGIP has developed a new method to back up the

previous one, valid for elastic formations, to make the analysis and interpretation

of seismic data easier. This method is called the Interval Velocity, Vint/Sound

Velocity, V5, Ratio method and takes the effect of compaction pressure on the

velocity of sound propagation into consideration.

Figure 3.58. shows how the velocity of sound varies with the compaction

pressure in elastic and carbonatic formations. The curves in question come from

the central part of the Po Valley, where most of the deep exploration was carried

out by AGIP. Since the curves in Figure 3.58. are obtained from the analysis

and processing of experimental data, they relate to, and can be used with good

results, only in the area indicated; for other areas, of different lithostratigraphic

characteristics, adequate experimental curves will have to be drawn.

The following is valid and reliable only in the case of elastic formations; in such

cases, the interval velocity is essentially a function of porosity and it is possible

to establish a correlation between porosity, compaction pressure and velocity. In

carbonate rocks though, the velocity is greatly affected by the presence of micro

and/or macrofractures, and it is not possible to correlate compaction pressure

and sound transmission velocity since the latter may take on casual values.

Referring, therefore, to the elastic formations, the curve is obtained as follows:

Selecting wells with similar lithological sequences;

Determining their geostatic, pore and compaction pressures, restricting

the search only to the intervals with normal gradient;

Considering the interval velocities of these wells inferred directly from

seismics or obtained from processing of well velocity tests or from Sonic

Logs;

Determining compaction pressures at the depths at which values Vint, are

available This is possible because geostatic pressure is directly

computed from seismic data or from logs and pore pressure is taken as

normal;

Velocities of normal gradient zones are plotted. as functions of

0compaction pressure;

The same sequence of calculations is repeated for all wells in the area;

An average curve is drawn through the points obtained representing

variations of sound propagation velocity (now defined as V 5 for the area.,

in clastic formations with normal gradient, as a function of compaction

pressure and, therefore, of depth.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 155 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 3.58 -Sound Velocity and Carbonates as a Function of the Compaction Pressure

(Curves Have Been Obtained From Well Data)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 156 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Vmax x Pc Eq. 3.62

Vs = + Vmin

A x Pc + B

where:

V5 = sound velocity, m/sec

Vmax = matrix velocity, m/sec (taken to be equal to 7,000m/sec for the

Central Po Valley)

Vmin = minimum velocity in the near-surface layer, m/sec (taken to be

equal to 1,500 m/sec for the Central Po Valley)

2

Pc = compaction pressure, kg/cm

A, B = coefficients (equal to: A = 0.85 and B = 650 for the Central Po

Valley).

Both A, B and Vmax, Vmin vary from zone to zone depending on stratigraphy and

lithological composition of the formations;

The interval velocities of the shot-point, nearest to the well concerned,

are used to determine Pov, Pp (taken to be normal) and Pc at the depth

used in determining Vint;

The ratios between Vint and V5, at corresponding compaction pressure,

and therefore at corresponding depths, are determined:

V int

R=

Vs

where:

Vint = interval velocity at the depth being analysed, m/sec

plot the values of R as a function of depth;

interpret the resultant diagram, using the following criteria;

If R = 1, Vint, and V5, are more or less equal, and therefore the formation

may be considered to be at normal compaction and gradient;

If R > 1, the Vint are higher than those the area is characterised by; it will

then be a case of overcompacted formations, therefore having

abnormally high velocities for their depth setting

If R < 1, the Vint are lower than the theoretical ones and high porosity

formations (thick sand bodies) or shales in overpressure will therefore be

the case.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 157 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The overpressure tops will be located at the depths at which the R ratio is less

than one. Obviously, in this case also, reference must be made to the

lithological types present; when it is not possible to distinguish between sands

and shales, reference will be made to the most conservative situation.

the method allows not only the determination of the top of abnormally

pressured formations but also a quantitative evaluation of pore pressure

gradients. This result is obtained with the following procedure:

1) having determined compaction pressures for points with available Vint, values,

these pressures are plotted on the reference curve V5, versus Pc. If

overpressure is present, Vint, will be Iower than the corresponding V.

2) project Vint, parallel to the abscissa, up to intersect the reference curve at point

of compaction pressure Pc.

3) read the Pc, determined from the intercept. This new Pc is the effective

compaction pressure to which the formation is subjected:

4) read the geostatic pressure Pov, depending on the depth of Vint

5) having thus determined Pov, and the effective Pc, it is easy to obtain Pp, and

the pore gradient, Gp that selected depth.

6) repeat the operation for all depths for which the interval velocities Vint, are

available.

1) enter the Vint values into Eq. 3.61, solving for P

B x (V int V min )

Pc =

V max + V min A x V int

Pp = Pov - Pc

Gp = (Pp x 10)/H

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 158 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Example Of Computation

The following example is proposed to better explain the use of the R ratio method.

1) Initial Data Available

The data from three wells (A, B, C), previously drilled in the area, are used. These

wells are characterised by;

Essentially elastic formations

Hydrostatic pore pressure gradients

Known overburden gradient (Figure 3.59,Figure 3.60,Figure 3.61,)

Available seismic data (Vint versus H)

Well A

160 1,660 31 16 15

480 1,780 98 49 49

970 2,200 202 100 102

1,140 2,450 297 144 153

1,600 2,880 344 165 179

1,740 2,800 376 179 197

1,970 2,950 431 203 228

2,260 3,000 502 233 269

2,600 3,250 585 268 317

3,120 3,600 711 321 390

3,600 3,750 832 371 461

3,900 4,050 909 402 507

4,400 4,150 1,038 453 585

Table 3.8 - Example Data Well A

Well B

150 1,500 30 15 15

320 1,649 64 33 31

1,000 2,227 210 103 107

1,290 2,781 275 133 142

1,580 2,831 341 163 178

1,876 3,030 415 193 224

2,835 3,556 646 292 354

5,270 4,530 1,275 543 732

Table 3.9 - Example Data Well B

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 159 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 160 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 161 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 162 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Well C

400 1,780 78 41 37

510 2,000 100 53 47

630 2,080 126 65 61

740 2,200 150 76 74

920 2,410 190 95 95

1,140 2,360 238 117 121

1,300 2,500 274 134 140

1,380 2,580 293 142 151

1,830 2,970 397 188 209

2,050 3,180 449 211 238

2,300 3,140 511 237 274

2,570 3,520 578 265 313

3,100 3,700 710 319 391

4,140 3,870 973 426 547

5,600 4,520 1,350 577 773

Table 3.10 - Example Data Well C

Values of Vint and the corresponding Pc, for the three wells are plotted as in Figure

3.62.

A curve passing through these points is traced, destined in this case by the equation:

7000 Pc

Vs = + 1500

A Pc + B

with

A = 1.16

B = 850

Analysis and processing of seismic data from the well to be drilled permit depths,

interval velocities and geostatic, pore (taken to be normal) and compaction pressures

and gradients to be determined as given in the following table:

at 160m depth:

Vint = 1,730m/sec

7000 X 16

V5 = + 1500 = 1629m / sec

1.16 X 16 + 850

1730

R= = 1.062

1629

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 163 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Vint = 3950m/sec

7000 x 811

Vs = + 1500 = 4670m / sec

1.16 x 811 + 850

3950

R= = 0.846

4670

The values of R, listed in the following Table 3.11, are plotted against depths as

shown in the following Figure 3.63

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 164 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(Using Data OF The Three Wells A,B,C)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 165 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 166 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

m m/sec g/cm3 kg/cm2 kg/cm2 kg/cm2

80 1,630 1.980 8 8

160 1,730 2.000 32 16 16

250 1,770 2.018 80 26 24

400 1,840 2.030 81 41 40

510 1,920 2.044 104 53 51

600 2,000 2.054 123 62 61

700 2,080 2.068 145 72 73

800 2,190 2.080 166 82 84

880 2,220 2.088 184 91 93

950 2,280 2.100 200 98 102

1,000 2,400 2.103 210 103 107

1,160 2,570 2.127 247 119 128

1,250 2,640 2.138 267 129 138

1,320 2,730 2.148 264 136 148

1,390 2,640 2.155 300 143 157

1,500 2,540 2.162 324 155 169

1,590 2,750 2.170 345 164 181

1,640 2,720 2.175 357 169 188

1,730 2,840 2.182 377 178 199

1,800 3,050 2.190 394 185 209

1,920 3,140 2.202 423 198 225

1,990 3,120 2.210 440 205 235

2,360 3,300 2.242 529 243 286

2,450 3,420 2.245 550 252 298

2,520 3,570 2.250 567 260 307

2,680 3,390 2.270 608 276 332

2,750 3,490 2.275 626 283 343

2,880 3,750 2.285 638 283 361

2,980 3,680 2.290 682 307 375

3,070 3,630 2.295 705 316 389

3,300 3,490 2.310 762 340 422

3,500 3,400. 2.318 811 361 450

3,750 3,390 2.328 873 386 487

3,900 3,410 2.332 909 402 507

4,200 3,450 2.340 983 433 550

4,450 3,470 2.346 1,044 458 588

4,800 3,550 2.354 1,130 494 636

5,150 3,630 2.360 1,215 530 685

5,500 3,790 2.370 1,304 567 737

6,000 3,950 2.382 1,429 618 811

Table 3.11 - R Values Plotted Against Depth

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 167 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

5) V5/Vint Ratio

The interval velocities Vint of the sample well, listed at step 4, are compared at the

same depth, and therefore at the same compaction pressure, to the reference

velocity, Vs, characteristic of the zone, according to the ratio:

R = Vint/V5

Values of V5 calculated from Eq. 3.62 at the depths for which the Vint are available for

the well.

The first value of Vint in the well (Point 4) is at the depth of 80m and at Pc = 8kg/cm2

and is equal to 1,630m/sec. The theoretical V5, that should have been obtained is

given by:

7000 8

Vs = + 1500 = 1565m / sec

1.16 8 + 850

The R ratio, at the above depth will be:

Vint 1630

R= = = 1.042

Vs 1565

6) Qualitative Interpretation of R Vs H Diagram

0-3100m: R values are generally near to or greater than 1; this indicates normally

compacted or slightly overcompacted formations. Such overcompaction in the sample

well is due to the formation being in a higher position here than in the reference wells.

under-compacted, and therefore overpressured, formations. The possibility that

decrease in R is caused by the presence of thick sand layers can be excluded

considering that shales are very frequent in the Lower Pliocene.

The quantitative evaluation of pore pressure gradients can be carried out through two

procedures:

Procedure A

The curve R shows a normal gradient (Gp - 1.03kg/cm2-10 m) from surface to 3,100m

and overpressure thereafter up to the final depth.

The pore gradient in the overpressure zone is calculated as follows:

Calculation of geostatic pressure. Pov,(Figure 3.64)

at 3,300m:

3

Gov = 2.30g/cm

2

Pov = 759 g/cm

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 168 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

at 3,500m:

3

Gov = 2.31g/cm

2

Pov, = 809kg/cm

at 6,000m:

3

Gov = 2.37g/cm

2

Pov = 1,422kg/cm

(

B x Vint Vmin )

Pc ,eff =

Vmax + Vmin A x Vint

850 x (3490 1500 )

= = 380kg / cm 2

7000 + 1500 1.16 x 3490

at 3,500m:

Pc .eff = = 354kg / cm 2

7000 + 1500 1.16 x 3400

at 6,000m

850 x (3400 1500 )

Pc ,eff = = 532kg / cm 2

7000 + 1500 1.16 x 3950

at 3,300m:

2

Pp = Pov - Pc = 759 - 380 = 379kg/cm

at 3,500m:

2

Pp = 809 - 354 = 455kg/cm

at 6,000m:

2

Pp = 1422 - 532 = 890kg/cm

at 3,300m:

PP x 10 379 x 10

Gp = = = 1.15kg / cm 2 x 10m

H 3300

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 169 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

at 3,500m:

455 x 10

Gp = = 1.30kg / cm 2 x 10m

3500

at 6,000m

890 x 10

Gp = = 1.48kg / cm 2 x 10m

6000

Procedure B

This is a manual procedure, although less exact is speedier than the previous

procedure A:

On the reference curve Pc versus H the values of Vint, are plotted corresponding to

the available depth and Pc, (Figure 3.65);

2

up to Pc, = 400kg/cm (H = 3070 m), the pore pressure gradient is normal and equal

to:

2

Gp = 1.03 kg/cm x 10 m;

From the above Pc onward, the Vint are lower than the reference curve V5, and

consequently abnormal gradient formations will be present. To calculate the

pore pressure gradient in the overpressure zone, proceed as follows:

From the point, whose Gp has to be determined (point A in Figure 3.64.), draw a

parallel line to the abscissa to intersect point B on the reference curve;

Read, on abscissa, the effective compaction pressure, Pc,eff, to which the point is

subjected to have that calculated interval velocity (in this case, Pc,eff is about

2

355kg/cm );

Knowing the geostatic pressure, Pov of point A and its effective compaction

pressure Pc,eff, the pore pressure, Pp is calculated.

In the example:

2

Pov = 762kg/cm (at point A)

2

Pc.eff = 366kg/cm

2

Pp = 762 - 366 = 396kg/cm

Dividing Pp, by the depth at Point A, i.e. 3,000 m, the pore pressure gradient Gp,

is obtained:

396 x 10

Gp = = 1.20kg / cm 2 / 10m

3300

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 170 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 171 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 172 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ANALYSIS

4.1. INTRODUCTION

Methods of analysis based on seismic data are available before commencing with drilling

operations and are therefore very useful particularly when planning the well.

The quality of the seismic data being processed is of great importance as regards the

reliability and precision of the results obtained. Consequently, it is very useful and

recommended that forecasts made by using other methods be obtained and comparisons

made, so as to be able to appropriately modify the drilling programme in the shortest

possible time and with the least amount of difficulty.

A quite reliable and important group of methods for the determination of overpressure is the

one based on drilling parameters. With these methods, the readings regarding the drilling

operations are obtained in real time, reflect the actual well conditions that are encountered

and are recorded and processed with a minimum of time delay.

Although most of these methods do not give the actual overpressure picture, they do signal

the presence of an abnormal condition due to the presence of an abnormally behaving

zone. Such methods, therefore, give appropriate warnings that more careful and strict

monitoring must be kept on what is happening in the well and that a more accurate and

critical interpretation must be made of the methods used for obtaining a quantitative

evaluation of the pore pressure gradients.

The drilling parameters, the recording and interpretation of which only give a qualitative

evaluation of overpressure (i.e., its possible presence and the location of its top), include

the following :

Drilling rate

Torque

Overpull

Caving and hole tightening

Pump pressure and flow rate

Level in mud pits

Amount of cuttings at shale-shaker

Mud pH and resistivity

Resistivity of shales collected at shale-shaker

Amount of gas present (gas shows)

Mud temperature

Montmorillonite percentage.

Whereas the changing of just one parameter does not justify the assumption of the

presence or absence of an overpressure zone, when many parameters change in such a

way as to lead to this conclusion, the presence of an abnormally behaving zone is

considered highly probable.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 173 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The recording of these parameters and the understanding of the reasons for their changing

is very important to properly interpret the methods, which give quantitative evaluations of

over-pressure, such as:

D-exp and dc-exp (respectively, drilling and corrected-drilling exponent)

Sigmalog

Shale-density measurement at surface.

The reliability of the results obtained with both the qualitative and quantitative methods has

improved considerably, by the use of appropriate sensors mounted on the rig for monitoring

and measuring the more significant and important drilling parameters and the continuous,

automatic computer processing of the obtained data, which represents a remarkable

technological advancement and which has permitted the achievement of what can be

considered satisfactorily reliable results.

With the advent of a wider application of the MWD (Measuring While Drilling) systems,

further benefits and improvements will be obtained. This system not only involves the real-

time measurement and recording of the drilling parameters at the surface, which is the more

general case today, but also the parameters down at the bit. With this system, the desired

information is obtained in its uncontaminated form that is not shielded from the multitude of

continuous interactions that occur between the drillstring and the wellbore.

4.2.1. Drilling (Penetration) Rate

All the factors which come into play when drilling through the various formations, of course,

affect the drilling rate, The most notable of these variable factors are the following:

Physical and chemical characteristics of the formation

Shape and physical characteristics of the bit

Drilling parameters

Hydraulic parameters

Physical and chemical characteristics of the drilling fluid.

prognosis. There are various equations which permit this, but the procedure most commonly

used is the one developed by Jorden and Shirley.

It has been shown that all conditions and parameters being equal and constant, the drilling

rate is inversely proportional to the depth, i.e. it decreases with depth. The decrease is

mainly due to the increasing degree of rock compaction and differential pressure. If the

reverse occurs, the situation is abnormal.

The following analysis of each parameter is made for the sake of better understanding how

the various factors influence the drilling rate.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 174 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

As regards the chemical characteristics, these affect the drilling rate because of the

interaction between the drilling fluid and the formation and will be briefly discussed

later.

The physical properties or characteristics of a formation are directly connected with

the resistance to compressive forces and, thus, the amount of resistance offered to

the bit. The factors contributing to the characteristics of a formation are rock type,

porosity, permeability, geostatic pressure, temperature and the well pressure of

contained fluid.

As normally would bev conclude, the rate with which a bit cuts into a formation

increases with formation porosity, since the bit can more easily break the more porous

formation. The permeability and porosity are directly related to the ease with which

pressure equilibrium can be reached in the portions immediately above and below the

zone being drilled. More will be said about this later on. Both geostatic pressure and

fluid pressure contribute, concomitantly, to the stress conditions in the rock and, thus,

to its behaviour under the bit weight. It has been shown that brittle materials, when

under high hydrostatic pressure compounded by straight compression, undergo

plasticisation when a certain value of shear stress is reached, causing the material to

deform considerably. Temperature also affects the characteristics of the rock.Figure

4.1. shows an example of behaviour change with changes in depth (triaxial

compression state) and temperature (at room temperature and with geothermic

o

gradient of 3 C/100m).

There has been a rapid development, over the recent years, in the design of bits and

the types of materials used. Today, bits can be classified as roller bits, diamond bits

and stratapax type bits, the latter being better known as PDC (Polycrystalline

Diamond Compact) bit. An in-depth discussion of bit design is beyond the scope of

this writing, so we will discuss their main characteristics.

Roller bits are classified as tooth-and-insert type. The main features which determine

their operating characteristics are journal angle and offset, cone geometry, bearing

size and the number and height of the teeth. The drilling rate, of course, is affected by

the amount of wear on the teeth, soft bits wearing more rapidly than hard bits.

Insert-type bits undergo negligible wear and drilling rate is not affected at all, or only

slightly, by any wear that does occur. On the other hand, however, if the cutters

should break or become detached, the drilling rate is very seriously affected.

As the amount of wear increases, the teeth tend to become dull and, in soft

formations, the penetration rate will decrease unless the weight on the bit is

increased. With hard formations, this effect is less marked because the teeth shatter

the rock by compression rather than by cutting into it. With lower tooth height, cuttings

are furthermore removed with difficulty and the result is a lower drilling rate.

Working in a totally different manner than roller bits, diamond bits remove material by

abrasion and are characterised by being cone-shaped (conicity being either double,

internal and external, or simple, on the inside only, or flat). with extended gauge

(shearing surface extending a certain distance along the bit shoulders) and with a

particular fluid-course profile (radial, spiral, with flow collectors). Diamond bits can be

also custom-made to a particular design and size for specific jobs.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 175 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

PDC bits are a sort of hybrid between roller and diamond bits. Instead of the diamonds

being held in a matrix, as with the normal diamond bit, the PDC bit has button-shaped,

tungsten-carbide inserts covered with a thin layer of diamond crystals.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 176 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

c) Drilling Parameters

The two parameters that most significantly affect drilling rate are : 1) the weight on the

bit, and 2):the rotary speed. The amount of weight on the bit depends on the type of

formation being drilled and. thus, the type of bit being used and its diameter.

When the formation is soft, increasing the weight on the bit increases the amount of

penetration accomplished by the cutters and, therefore the amount of rock being

removed. This continues until total penetration is reached, after which bit balling

occurs and performance is consequently reduced. With hard formations, a threshold

value has to be reached and surpassed before formation failure takes place and the

removal of cuttings begins.

Furthermore, assuming perfect cleaning under the bit, the drilling rate increases in

proportion to the rotary speed. In practice, however, increased rotary speed in hard

formations hampers the complete failure of the formation cuttings. In medium-hard

formations cuttings are simply removed while in soft formations, when bits with

adequate scraping action are provided the cuttings are immediately lifted and

removed and the drilling rate tends to remain proportional to the rotary speed.

d) Hydraulic Parameters

Hydraulic parameters contribute considerably to bit performance. Flow rates greatly

affect the removal of the cuttings and cooling of the bit. The hydraulic horsepower

used at the bit is not only a measure of how efficient the cleaning is beneath the bit,

burr, in the case of jet bits, also of the penetration rate of the bit.

There are three following behaviour characteristics:

1) With insufficient hydraulics, cleaning beneath the bit and cuttings removal are

difficult;

2) Increase in hydraulic horsepower improves penetration rate;

3) Further hydraulic horsepower increase only marginally improves performance

and would only be an unjustified expense. More importantly, reduction of bit life,

caused by abrasion due to the power increase, is an additional cost

consideration.

What the optimum hydraulic horsepower at the bit should be depends on the type of

bit, the formation and the hole diameter. It is generally defined in terms of HSI:

Hydraulic Horsepower per Square Inch.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 177 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The characteristics, briefly considered here, concern the following:

Mud density

Apparent viscosity

Spurt loss

Solids content.

The density of the mud determines how much differential pressure exists at the

bottom of the well between the hydrostatic pressure imposed by the column of mud

(even under dynamic conditions, considering friction losses in the annulus between

the drill string and the well-bore walls) and the pressure exerted by the formation fluid.

When the pressure exerted by the mud is greater than that exerted by the formation

fluid (positive imbalance), the result is that, as porosity and permeability decrease, it

becomes more difficult for the pressures above and below the cuttings to become

equalised. The cuttings, therefore remain stuck to the bottom and are reground,

thereby reducing the drilling rate.

When the pressure imbalance is negative (mud pressure lower than formation fluid

pressure), there is an increase in drilling rate which, all other parameters being equal,

depends on the type of rock and, in particular, on its porosity and permeability. A

negative imbalance (or under-balance) is, therefore, theoretically an advantage, with

the imbalance favouring the drilling action of the bit by the explosion occurring in the

rock, immediately under the bit.

The lower the fluid viscosity, the greater the turbulence created and the better the

cuttings are removed, while at the same time. the velocity of the spurt loss of the fluid

in the formation increases The increase of spurt loss velocity precedes normal

filtration and helps the pressures to become equalised. The spurt loss velocity at a

near-zero value is one of the reasons for the drop-off in drilling rate when using oil-

based mud. If the spurt loss volume increases, the pressures are more likely to

equalise. A high solids content decreases the amount of initial filtration and, thus,

reduces the drilling rate.

When drilling is done in formations having elastic behaviour, microfractures are

created. These microfractures tend to close by molecular attraction but various types

of fluids tend to keep them open. The use of surfactants in drilling fluids facilitates the

microfiltration process and thus keeps the microfractures open making the drilling

action easier.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 178 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

One of the first ways attempted to determine the qualitative trend of an overpressure and its

top was by calculating a normalised drilling rate.

As mentioned previously, the drilling rate decreases as the depth increases. With the

normalised conditions, formation being the same and the mud density held constant an

increase in drilling rate implies a probable underbalance and, therefore, a probable increase

in pore pressure gradient. Figure 4.2. shows the behaviour of some formations at various

values of differential pressure. A certain range can be noted within which a linear

relationship exists between percent increase of drilling rate and differential pressure. The

trend of the curve has been demonstrated experimentally but the characteristic values have

not been demonstrated, since the percent change in drilling rate not only depends on the

type of rock (as mentioned previously) but, also, on its porosity and permeability. The

values of differential pressure are plotted on the abscissas in Figure 4.2 and the relative

percent changes in drilling rate on the ordinates. The origin of the graph is the point where

the differential pressure is zero.

Of all the factors previously mentioned and briefly discussed, there are several which only

have a slight influence as compared to others. These can accordingly be considered as

negligible as regards the calculation of overpressure. All those factors that are not easily

definable in mathematical terms because of the complexity of the required expression, are

analysed by the operator and constitute part of the interpretative criteria.

It can thus be inferred that a preliminary, approximate idea regarding formation pressure

can be obtained by analysing the drilling rate values. There are however so many external

factors that come into play that a correct evaluation of formation pressure is only possible

under special conditions (homogeneity of drilled-through formations, small changes in

drilling parameters etc.)

The previously mentioned normalised drilling rate permits the calculation of a reference

drilling rate by the use of functions, which correlate the various parameters and factors that

are responsible for the actual drilling operations. An increase in the normalised drilling rate

indicates improved rock drillability, brought about, possibly, by a change in formation or by a

gradual underbalance condition. A change in type of formation generally causes a sudden

change in drilling rate, where an increase in pore pressures causes a gradual change in

drilling rate.

Shale has unique characteristics and represents the ideal medium for the location of

overpressure zones. All the methods used for identifying overpressures based on drilling

parameters were originally conceived for drilling in elastic formations.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 179 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

A mathematical model developed by GD Combs; adopts the following general formula for

drilling rate:

aw

Q

aq Eq. 4.1

an

W N

R = R

1

0

x x

f (P) f (T)

200

3

3500 D h D hD n

Where:

R10 = Drilling rate with new bit P =0ft/h

Dh = Hole diameter

N = Rotary table revolutions per minute, rpm

Q = Pumping rate, gal/min

Dn = Bit nozzle diameter, 32 ths of an inch

aw = Exponent of weight on bit

an = Exponent of rotary table speed

aq = Exponent of hydraulics

P = Differential pressure psi

T = Bit teeth wear index

R10 represents the drilling rate that would be attained with a new bit, zero differential

pressure, weight on bit W = 3,500lbs/in, rotary table speed N = 200rpm and the hydraulic

term equal to 3gpm/(hole diameter times bit-nozzle diameter, in 32ths of an inch).

The exponents and parameters appearing in this equation have been derived empirically.

Only a few of the previously discussed variables are included because according to the

author, these are the ones which most affect drilling rate. This rather complex equation

requires knowing and calculating certain coefficients, which are not always very easily

determinable. Furthermore, the equation does not provide a quantitative analysis of the

pore pressure gradient, containing a term that is a function of differential pressure. For

practical use in the field and for the inevitable approximations of the system, it is easier and

more convenient not to be concerned with certain parameters for the sake of simplicity and

ease of computation.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 180 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 181 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

In 1965 Bingham proposed the following relationship between the drilling rate, weight on bit,

rotary speed and bit diameter.

d Eq. 4.2

R W

=

N D

Where:

R = Drilling (penetration) rate ft/h

N = Rotary speed, rpm

D = Bit diameter, ft

W = Weight on bit, lbs

a = Matrix constant, dimensionless

d = Drillability exponent, dimensionless

This mathematical relationship was revised and adapted to field requirements by Jorden

and Shirley in l966, solving for d by introducing constants to take into account the units of

measurement commonly used in the petroleum industry and to obtain values that vary

within an acceptable range of limits. The a term was assumed to be unitary, thus making

the determination of d easier despite its dependence on Iithology:

R Eq. 4.3

60 N

d exp = ln

12 W

D 10 6

Where:

R = Drilling or penetration rate. ft/h

N = Rotary speed, rpm

W = Weight on bit, Ibs

D = Bit diameter, ins

d-exp = Drilling exponent. dimensionless

Using metric units and changing from natural to common Logarithms, Eq. 4.3 becomes

3.21 R Eq. 4.4

log

60 N

d exp =

2.64 W

log

100 D

Where:

R = Drilling or penetration rate (m/h)

W = Weight on bit (t)

D = Bit diameter (ins)

N = Rotary speed (rpm)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 182 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Since both numerator and denominator are negative (the logarithm of a number less than

one), the dexp term is positive and increases as the drilling rate decreases. In other words,

all conditions being equal, the dexp becomes gretar as the depth increases. As seen

previously, the drilling rate also depends on the differential pressure which, in turn, depends

on the pore pressure and mud weight. A change in mud weight implies a change in dexp

value. With the introduction of an empirical correction in 1971, the amount of dexp change

was held to within acceptable limits. The final form of the equation, the measured parameter

being indicated as dc-exp (corrected drilling exponent) is as follows:

R Eq. 4.5

In

dc exp = 60N x GpN

12W ECD

In 6

100 D

where:

W = Weight on bit

2

Gpn = Normal pore pressure kg/cm 10m

ECD = Equivalent Circulating Density (mud density plus friction losses) kg/l

or metrically

3.21R Eq. 4.6

log

dc exp = 60N x GpN

2.64 W ECD

In

100D

The most important of the factors not considered in the dc-exp are hydraulics, rock drillability,

bit wear and the effect of high differential pressures, adequate correction of the date is

therefore hindered. Furthermore, the relationships and exponents used in the formula are

not adequate for covering all, the at times, complex situations encountered in practice,

especially when drilling deep wells. This implies making changes in the assumed dc-exp that

are not properly corrected by the above relationship.

Notwithstanding the above stated limitations, the dexp and dc-exp represent a considerable

step forward in the determination of overpressure during drilling. This method was originally

worked out for a particular zone in the United States and gave excellent qualitative and

quantitative results, especially since the interpretative criteria were originally developed for

applying the method to that particular area. When the method was used in other parts of

the world, the above mentioned limitations became more evident. One advantage of this

new method was its having marked the beginning of the use of a new methodology, which

promoted further research on the origin and evaluation of abnormal pressures.

The dc-exp calculation should begin when the drilling operations begin, and be carried out,

as a rule, every 2 to 3m (5ft). Since the calculation and plotting is usually done manually, for

high drilling rates this can be done every 5 to 10m or at even greater intervals. With the dc-

exp graphic analysis, therefore, a combined evaluation of all parameters and causes

contributing to the determination of overpressure cannot be neglected.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 183 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

As it can be clearly seen in Figure 4.3 which shows some examples of d c-exp evaluation, the

final result is a normalised curve which takes into consideration the changes in value that

are due to causes that are external and not attributable to changes occurring in the

differential pressure. The application of this type of interpretative criteria to the dc-exp is

however quite recent and again considers a simplified form of the shift or change in

normal compaction trend line concept which was formally introduced by Eni-Agip for the

Sigmalog. Thus the determination of overpressure tops and how overpressures develop is

reflected by a shift to the left, that is, the dc-exp value decreases as a result of the increase

in the normalised drilling rate.

In order to quantitatively evaluate the pore pressure gradients, it is necessary, at this point,

to perform an interpretation which essentially clears the curve of all the extraneous effects

attributable to external causes and in effect, normalises the curve. For example, if a bit

has teeth that are quite worn and enters a medium-to-soft formation in an overpressure

zone, the curve shift to the left will be partly masked by the decreased efficiency of the bit,

the latter representing a reduction of the drilling rate and hence, a shift of the curve to the

right. As a matter of fact, in this case, the dc-exp' takes on values that are higher than they

would be if the bit were not worn. The wear effect is not usually well-defined on the dc-exp

curve due, among other things, to the low data sampling rate. To overcome the occasional

masking of the overpressure zone, it is advisable to reduce the changes in drilling

parameters as much as possible, especially near the expected top.

As the degree of compaction increases with depth, the dc-exp values also increase,

depending on how the overburden gradient develops. Changes in depth. lithology and

geological age produce changes in the slope of the curve. The following formula gives the

mathematical relationship between pore pressures gradient and dc-exp:

(d c exp)N Eq. 4.7

PO =PN

(d c exp)P

where:

PO = Actual pore pressure at considered depth, psi

PN = Normal pore pressure

(dcexp )O = dc-exp value at considered depth

considered depth

PN Eq. 4.8

(dC exp)P =(dC exp)N

PO

For known values of (dc exp )N and PN at various depths, the known value of PO can be

substituted in the expression to obtain the corresponding (dcexp )O value. By using this

formula and assuming the normalised dc-exp' line as having a constant tendency, lines can

be drawn parallel to the various pore pressure gradient reference lines (Figure 4.4).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 184 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

As previously noted, the slope of the reference line (which is also known as the normal

compaction trend line and is the focus of the normal pore pressure gradient points) is not

constant. Therefore, the choosing of the slope of this reference line and the positioning of it

must be done as carefully and as early as possible. Since the slope of the reference line

can change, any shifting that may be necessary to correct and reliably interpret the curve

largely depends upon the operators sensitivity and experience. For this reason, it would be

advisable and recommended that the operator avail himself of the other methods and

parameters which can help facilitate the estimate of the pore pressure gradients.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 185 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 4.4 - d-exp Lines Drawn Parallel To Various Pore Pressure Gradient Reference Lines

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 186 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Some technicians for example, first obtain a value towards which the dc-exp curve tends in

the near surface formations and then, extrapolate this value for greater depths. Other

technicians interpret the dc-exp value for selected intervals and then modify the position and

slope of the line according to the distribution of the values obtained. Both techniques are

prone to interpretative errors of considerable errors of considerable magnitude with evident

and understandable effects on the reliability of the quantitative pore pressure gradient

forecasts. It has also been said that the dc-exp values should approximately fall on the same

straight line. This however only holds for small intervals of depth. As a matter of fact, a

mathematical error is introduced by doing this, once the dc-exp function is assumed

exponential with respect to depth, while, in fact, it close to being a logarithmic function. If

the dc-exp values however are plotted on semilogarithmic graph paper, the resulting curve

gradually approaches the vertical as depth increases. This behaviour has been widely noted

in zones having normal compaction and normal pore pressure gradients. Consequently, as

depth increases, the slope of the reference line has to be changed in accordance with the

actual distribution of the values. From these observations, it is evident that not only it is

wrong to perform an extrapolation on the basis of the noted tendency of the d c-exp curve for

the near surface formations, but also that the evaluation of the gradient values is too

subjective to give reliable results in all situations.

As it has already been seen, the difference between the dexp and the dc-exp consists

essentially in the latter being corrected for mud density,. In the broad sense, the purpose

of the correction is to take the effect of differential pressure on drilling rate into

consideration, thereby eliminating the masking of the abnormal pressure zones which

occurs when plotting only the dexp values. However, a closer look at the dc-exp equation will

show that, from a mathematical point of view, the dc-exp' value decreases as the mud density

increases and is not a function of the imbalance between the pore pressure gradient and

the mud density.

In actual practice, it is a good rule to plot both the dexp and dc-exp curves. The values to be

plotted as a function of depth should be taken from clean shale levels (although in some

cases, dirty shale or even marl could be taken into consideration) and at intervals that are

strictly dependent on the drilling rate. If a drilling control unit, complete with sensors, and a

computer is available on the site, the values can be recorded at every metre of depth, for

example. Subsequently the shale points, the points through which the reference line must

pass, will be taken into account only when the curve is to be interpreted.

As previously underlined, with formations having a normal gradient, the dexp and dc-exp do

not reach the same absolute values but increase with depth because of the increasing

compaction pressure and especially because of the differential pressure. As the zone of

transition is entered and the mud density is kept constant, the dc-exp values will gradually

decrease, thus indicting the decrease in differential pressure. In reality, however keeping

the mud density constant, while entering the overpressure zone, is such a remote possibility

that it may be disregarded. Consequently the dc-exp values corrected for mud density will

decrease with depth in the abnormal gradient/zone, whereas the d-exp values will tend to

increase or at least not diminish in the same way, according to the actual differential

pressure. The greater the shift of the actual points from the reference line, the greater the

pore pressure gradient.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 187 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

As a normal calculation procedure, it is still recommended to plot both the dc-exp and dexp

curves simultaneously. It is the comparison of these two curves in fact, which makes it

possible to show the following aspects of well conditions:

If the shale points on the dexp curve reveal a shift from the normal compaction

line, notwithstanding the increase in mud density, the indication is that there is a

condition of persistent imbalance and the mud density has to be increased

further until the new dexp values fall on the normal compaction line.

Notwithstanding the previously described limitation, the dc-exp curve will always

indicate the actual pore pressure gradient development and permit the gradients

to be calculated.

In conclusion it can be said that the dexp and dc-exp curves can be a valuable help in

identifying and calculating pore pressure gradients, especially where data have to be

gathered and processed manually because none of the up-to-date sophisticated equipment,

such as a drilling control unit is available.

To better understand the calculation and logic connected with the dc-exp it would be

advisable to study an actual example. As previously mentioned, the dexp curve alone does

not permit easy calculation of trends in pore pressure gradient. Therefore we need to at

least have the lithologic column of the formations, the bit runs and the mud density used.

We should also have if possible, recordings of the weight and the rotary speeds applied to

the bit. The list of data shown in the example in Figure 3.5 includes the IADC code

description of the bits, their runs and a lithologic column.

4.2.4. Sigmalog

The concept underlying the Sigmalog is the same as that underlying the dc-exp: the

obtainment of a normalised drilling rate by means of empirical drilling parameter

relationships. The term normalised refers to the maintenance of a constant relationship

value, for a particular formation, when one or more of the considered parameters (weight on

bit, rpm, drilling rate, well diameter) is changed.

It became evident that the dc-exp method was not completely satisfactory when deep drilling

was undertaken in the Po valley, where carbonatic formations involving considerable

overpressures, were encountered. The logic of Sigmalog computation and interpretation is

still evolving and attempts are still being made to find solutions for the inaccuracies and

uncertainties encountered with previous methods. The real and most important innovation is

the interpretative criterion introduced by this method which while being more difficult to

come by, at least initially, is much more versatile and dependable. The calculation can be

subdivided into two parts. One part concerns rock drillability and the other concerns the

condition of imbalance existing between the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluids and

the pressures of the formation fluid. The logic of the method is not strictly analytical since it

derives from empirical considerations and laws. mathematical consistency in the various

steps therefore, is not possible. The validity of the system is based on in-depth extensive

experimentation and on practical application confirmed by results obtained.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 188 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 189 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

As regards the d-exp. the Sigmalog begins with the determination of the drillability index,

called t :

t = 0.25

D h x RPM

Where:

WOB = Weight on bit, (t)

ROP = Rate of penetration (m/min)

Dh = Hole or bit diameter (in)

RPM = Rotary speed (rpm)

The existing experimental and theoretical correlations concerning the various parameters,

when the bit and formation remain unchanged, should compensate for the variations in

these parameters. In practice, however. the considered experimental equations are not

generally valid. For big changes in drilling parameters (weight, rotary speed or hole

diameter), compensation is incomplete and an important change in the t value is,

sometimes, noted. In other words t , is equivalent to dexp.

It has been shown experimentally that the values of t , are extremely affected by

changes in the drilling conditions, especially at minor depth, which results in a wide range of

values. To reduce or attenuate this range of values, a correction value has been introduced,

which is tied-in with depth and which gives the following:

H Eq. 4.10

1t = t + 0.028 7

1000

At this point, this value needs to be correlate with the differential pressure existing at bottom

hole:

(

P = MW G p ) 10H Eq. 4.11

Where:

2

MW = Drilling fluid pressure gradient (or, more simply, mud weight), kg/cm .

10m (kg/l)

2

GP. = Formation fluid or pore pressure gradient (kg/cm . 10m)

H = Depth (m)

As previously noted, the drilling rate and differential pressure relationship is not a linear

one. It is affected by other factors. This has been taken into account by introducing an

experimental n coefficient and by relating it to the differential pressure in accordance with

the following law:

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 190 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

1 1 + n 2 P 2 Eq. 4.12

F* = 1 +

nP

where:

3. 2 Eq. 4.13

n= if 1t 1

640 1t

or:

1 0. 75

Eq. 4.14

n= 4 if 1t > 1

640 1t

In fact, when calculating P, it is not the actual but unknown pore pressure gradient that is

2x

considered, but the one taken as normal (GP = 1.03kg/cm 10m). This approximation leads

to a fictitious evaluation, but permits the interpretation to be less time-consuming and more

reliable. In fact. when the actual P value is used, the changes are much more limited and

thus could make the overpressure zone difficult to recognise. The term used for the

interpretation is:

0 = F* 1t Eq. 4.15

The general interpretation criterion is the same as for the dc-exp. A shift of the 2 , value

curve indicates greater drillability and therefore overpressure. The Sigmalog interpretation is

based on the comparison of the 2 values with the previous ones, and stems from the

hypothesis that overpressure develops gradually and never suddenly, apart from rare

exceptions. A gradient increase as may be found in a porous formation, necessitates the

presence of a transition zone with low porosity and permeability where the pressure

gradient increases gradually. The thickness of the transition zone is a function of the

gradient increment, the rock porosity and permeability, and the geological time during which

the phenomenon evolved. A shift to the left, therefore, does not necessarily mean a

gradient increment.

In normal pressure situations, the reference line r will, therefore, intersect values

of 2 , (Fig 6a). In the case of overpressure, on the other hand, the reference line will

pass to the right of the 0 values (Fig. 6c). The reference line should have a changing

slope in accordance with the Gov trend (compaction trend). Since the affected intervals are

usually short and the slope can reasonably be considered constant below a certain depth,

the slope of the reference line is maintained constant at 0.088. This approximation

obviously introduces an error, but this error has been proved to be within the tolerable error

margin and is hence acceptable. This fact provides the considerable advantage of not

having to adjust the slope of the reference line according to the operators sensitivity.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 191 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

While drilling is taking place, the 2 have to be checked against the stratigraphy and

lithology of the well (as deduced from analysis of the cutting), so as to be able to recognise

any possible gradual shift to the left caused by gradual increase in drillability nor, ascribable

to overpressure. such as those caused by thin sandy intercalations in shales (dirty shales).

As a rule, a transition in the formation causes a sudden shift in the 2 values. These are

easily seen because the mechanical characteristics of rocks do not change gradually. To

compensate for these changes, the reference line becomes a broken line (Figure 4.6a) and

joins the higher 2 values, in the case of a normal gradient. and runs to the right in the

case of overpressures.

The shift can also be caused by significant changes in drilling parameters, well geometry,

bit type, etc. These can be categorised as formational, mechanical or external shifts. While

determining the causes of shifts may not be of prime importance, identifying significant

shifts is of extreme importance (Figure 4.6a).

For normal gradients the broken reference line goes through the main 2 values and is

thus known by definition. This is not the case, however, when overpressure conditions exist.

In practice the shifting of the line tends to normalise the 2 curve by eliminating the

discontinuities (Figure 4.6b) When gradients are higher than normal, the amount of shift

must be enough to restore the 2 , curve continuity.

The relationship which defines Gp is also derived both logically and empirically W is used

in the place of 0 ,

Although this is not strictly correct. It does, however, make for a simpler calculation. The

various segments of the broken line r will then have the following value:

H Eq. 4.16

r = 0. 088 +b

1000

where b is the intercept on the ordinate. The following then obtained:

20 (1 F) Eq. 4.17

Gp = MW

nHF (2 F)

where:

r

F=

1t (not to be confused F with F*)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 192 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

this now give the following (Figure 4.6c).

o2 Eq. 4.18

r 2 = r1 x

o1

Since b (the reference line intercept value on the ordinate) is usually entered into the

computer programme, it follows that:

H Eq. 4.19

b2 = r 2 0. 088

1000

and, with a small approximation, the following can also be considered (Fig 6d):

02 Eq. 4.20

b 2 = b1 x

01

There is only a negligible difference in the values obtained by the two) methods.

The above calculations are repeated for all subsequent shifts (Figure 4.6e).

If the drilling rate is increased with the other parameters remaining unchanged (only a

change in ROP is assumed for the sake of simplicity and so that its effect on W and R

will be clearer), we would have a decrease in W . If the mud weight remained unchanged

P would also remain constant and R , would decrease as a consequence. If such

changes were to take place gradually, with the lithologic conditions remaining unchanged,

this would probably indicate an overpressure condition. If we increase the mud density, we

have an increase in P and a consequent reduction in the drilling rate in accordance with

the concepts mentioned previously. Following this, we have an increase in 1t .

Consequently, both n and F* decrease in an attempt to compensate for the effect of the

P change on drilling rates.

Let us consider the following example:

H = 2,520m

WOB = 12 t

RPM = 100

Dh = 12.25ins

ROP = 9m/h

P = 45s kg/cm

2

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 193 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

W = 0.52

W = 0.65

3

n = 7.8125 x 10

F* = 0.83

Let us assume an increase in mud weight, such as to obtain a P = 150kg/cm with a

2,

consequent decrease in drilling rate to ROP = 5m/h. Performing the calculations, we obtain:

W = 0.60

W = 0.73

3

n = 6.9563 x 10

F* = 0.57

If the relativity of the system is exceeded, that is, the drilling rate does not vary noticeably

with the differential pressure changes, a positive P change (overbalance) corresponds to a

decrease in F * without an opposing change in W . In this case, the Sigmalog will give

erroneous data because the Sigmalog will react to a condition of overbalance by showing a

marked shift to the left and, therefore, a theoretically greater formation drillability (Figure

4.6f).

In the equations considered so far, some parameters that can greatly affect drilling

efficiency, namely hydraulics and bit wear, do not appear. As far as hydraulics are

concerned, we can say that change in the hydraulics will affect the drilling rate in a more or

less marked manner and cause the 0 curve to shift. Then, with the hydraulic conditions

remaining unvaried, the curve will only be further affected by changes in the other

parameters mentioned previously. The same can be said as regards the changes in bit

type. Compensation can be made for this deficiency by making a shift (Figure 4.6g).

The amount of bit wear considerably affects drilling performance when the bit is designed

for soft formations. In this case, the 0 , curve shifts suddenly to the right. If the same

type of bit is used again after having tripped out the former one and the formation type

remains the same, the 0 curve will continue on with values that are congruent to those

recorded with the first bit, just before it was tripped out (Figure 4.6h).. In fact, with frequent

trips in and out (short hole intervals drilled with each bit), a considerable amount of

confusion can occur in the interpretation of the curve, especially if overpressure is present

and the operator does not have much experience. A study on bit wear is currently being

carried out. As mentioned earlier, diamond and roller bits work in quite different ways, which

makes the relationships for obtaining normalised drilling rates, when using diamond bits,

considerably different from those required for roller bits. For example, diamond bits can be

used with turbines with rotary speeds over 800rpm with very little weight on the bit (2-3t). In

this case, therefore, it can easily be seen that the Sigmalog exponential relationships are

not optimal.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 194 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

In practice, the use of a diamond bit in an overpressured formation causes a masking effect

(the curve shift to the left is less than when using a roller bit). This behaviour is defined by

the abnormal rpm value, when using the turbine, or by the uncorrected exponential indexes,

when the rotary drilling is used. In this case compensation depends on the operators

experience.

It should be noted, furthermore, that this system has been used effectively and with

excellent results both for making geological correlation logs and porosity logs. This

therefore has made it possible the calculation of the overburden gradient and,

consequently, of the fracture gradient, since pore pressure gradients are directly evaluated

during drilling. A final consideration must be made as regards the logic of shifts before

going into the analysis of a practical sample. That is the amount of shift has to be

determined, in order to compensate for sudden 0 changes and in order to obtain a curve

which is free of any discontinuities.

After making a preliminary interpretation by calculating the various b intercept values, it is a

good idea to check the continuity of the R curve. If any serious discontinuities result, the

b intercept values involved in the discontinuities have to be modified, so as to obtain a

series of R values having a logical distribution. To facilitate this operation, a computer

programme has been purposely designed to make a normalised curve obtainable (Figure

4.6i)

All that has been mentioned thus far refers to classic formations. In carbonatic formations,

porosity conditions do not directly correlate to actual pressure conditions. In fact, the

contrary occurs because, when there is an abnormal increase in porosity, the permeability

generally increases and the pressure status, therefore tends to remain the same. When the

carbonatic formation is compact and impermeable an overpressure condition results in a

perceptible increase in drilling rate because of the pressure imbalance between the drilling

fluid and the formation fluid. In classic formations the increase in drillability can also be

attributed to greater shale porosity. Although these are not ideal Sigmalog conditions, it is

still possible to obtain reliable results by making an accurate interpretation. A method is

currently being studied to distinguish between zones of primary porosity and secondary

porosity (induced by fracturing). The Sigmalog has a wide range of application and, as

mentioned earlier, its computational and interpretative logic is still in evolution.

For the sake of simplifying the interpretation, we have chosen an example of a well drilled in

classic rocks (Figure 4.7.). In addition to R , 3 , shift normalised R , Gp, and MW,

lithologic log, casing setting depths, bit runs, IADC code bit types, as well as the main

overpressure indications are shown on the graph, all done completely by means of a

computer programme that can also be used in the field.

The data are collected with the aid of an off-line system (manual data input to computer),

beginning at a depth of 763 m and ending at a depth of 3975m. The upper part of the well

consists almost exclusively of sandy formations.

2

The gradient is normal (Gp = 1.03 kg/cm x 10 m) down to the depth of 800-850m, where a

small shift of R , occurs to the left. This corresponds to the first level of shale. This

tendency, confirmed by the small kick occurring at 1,050m and caused by the intrusion of

salt water from a sandy formation layer continues down to about 1,200m where a closure is

seen. A second overpressure zone begins at about 1,500m.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 195 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 196 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 197 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

This slight over pressure increase is confirmed at the first porous interval (1,600-1,700m)

where drilling breaks occur, together with slight pipe connection gas (3% max). The breaks

again occur from 1,900-1,950m with the same features. A very small re-entry of values is

noted between 2,000 and 2,100m. Equilibrium conditions are confirmed at each porous

level, with small amounts of pipe correction gas being present. Negative imbalance

conditions may occur while drilling through the porous and permeable zones but without the

intrusion any formation fluid. This probably happens because the formation fluid friction

losses through the rock are greater than the existing differential pressure. This slightly

positive, or slightly negative pressure, imbalance can be verified by carrying out a short trip

(raising the bit a few tens of metres from the bottom) so as to partially relieve the hydrostatic

pressure at bottom hole of the amount due to the friction losses and; also to have the drill

string in a safer position. By doing this, the intrusion of any small cushions of formation fluid

is facilitated. These cushions can then be circulated to the surface and the imbalance

conditions judged according to their size.

The presence of the most significant overpressure zone is at about 2,300m. This presence

persists all the way down to the bottom without any indication of it disappearing. Sudden

value shifts to the left can be observed in correspondence of sandy levels, such as at the

intervals 1,500-1,600m, 1,900-1,970m, 2,250-2,280m and 2,790-2,840m. Shifts also occur

because of change of bit type, such as at about 2,450m, where a type 1.2.4 bit was

replaced by a type 1.3.4 bit. Another shift occurs at the next run at 2,490m when the bit is

replaced by a type 5.2.7 insert bit. Shifts due solely to the change in bit diameter are not

visible on the curve. An example of bit wear can be seen between 1,500-1,560m, at the end

of a type 1.3.1 bit run. The course of the curve here, while not actually being due to a

closure, could be interpreted as such. Another point to be verified is in the 2,500-2,555m

interval. The inexperienced interpreter could identify this as a gradient reversal, but this is

not the case. This type of interval can be sub-divided into three different shifts, the first at

2,520m, the second; 2,540m the last at 2,555m. Each of these small intervals clearly shows

a gradient increase tendency: the contrary to what could be concluded from a hurried

estimation.

An example of how shifts can be calculated in this 2,500-2,555m interval is shown below:

at 2,500m:

r1 = 0. 51 01 = 0. 415 02 = 0. 44

then:

0.44

r2 = x 0.51 = 0.54

0.145

2500

b 2 = 0.54 0.088 = 0.32

1000

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 198 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

at 2,520m:

20

r1 = 0.54 + 0.088 = 0.54 01 = 0. 44 02 = 0. 47

1000

then:

0.47

r2 = x 0.54 = 0.58

0.44

at 2,540m

20

r1 = 0. 58 + 0. 088 = 0. 58 01 = 0. 475 02 = 0. 51

1000

then:

0.51

r2 = x 0.58 = 0.62

0.475

2540

b 2 = 0. 62 0. 088 = 0. 40

1000

4.2.5. Torque

The amount of torque required during drilling can be an indication of the presence of an

abnormal pressure formation.

In undercompacted shales where the mud hydrostatic pressure is lower than the formation

fluid pressure (an underbalanced condition), the plastic behaviour of the rock will cause

hole tightening to occur. If the torque value for a given rotary speed and bit weight have

been plotted before encountering an overpressure formation, the underbalance condition is

recognisable by an increase in torque. The torque increase will be significant, if the string

stabilisers and bit are of the same size.

It must be remembered that the amount of required torque depends on the resistance met

by the bit, which is a function of the weight on the bit, the coefficient of friction of the

formation and the amount of restoring torque, the latter being dependent on the amount of

frictional force developed against the wellbore walls. Any change in the torque value can,

therefore, be due to a change in weight, a change in the type of formation or balling of the

bit. A correct evaluation of the effect of these parameters will permit a correct interpretation

of the abnormality.

If the torque values increase considerably during drilling. we have a critical situation. This

can, however, be confirmed by measuring the other drilling parameters, such as overpull,

mud flow rate, etc.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 199 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

4.2.6. Overpulls

When tripping out a string, the amount of hook load is approximately proportional to the

depth reached. For various causes not always imputable to the presence of an abnormal

pressure, the predicted value may be exceeded, thus causing an overpull condition. The

main causes of hook load increase can be due to the following:

a) Bit balling

b) Stuck drill string

c) Unusual swabbing effects

d) Dog-legs

e) Hole tightening.

If these above stated causes can be ruled out, the overpull may be attributed to

underbalance conditions and then to the possible presence of an overpressured zone with

consequent hole tightening.

Being the density of the fluids flowing into a well usually less than the density of the mud

used while drilling, it derives a decrease in the hydrostatic pressure, which is not anymore

sufficient to counterbalance the formation pressure. The flow of the formation fluid (and its

expansion, if gaseous reduces the pressure of the mud in the well annulus, thereby

reducing the pressure of the mud in the drill pipe due to the drill pipe/annulus imbalance.

This holds true when the fluid influx is slow and a steady flow condition is maintained. When

the pressure is differential between the formation fluid and the mud is high and the

permeability of the formation is also high, instead of a pressure decrease a sudden increase

may occur. This is due to the sudden pressure increase at bottom hole and to the inertia of

the system. The values will tend, however, to drop depending on the flow conditions and

annulus imbalance.

The volume of mud required to carry out operations is recorded by the pit level sensor,

which provides a constant check on the amount of mud being used. Any volume of

formation fluids flowing into the well bore will cause a corresponding volume change in the

pits, the level sensor indicating the volume increase. Pit levels are monitored to be able to

correctly evaluate the pressure and type of formation fluids.

The measurement of the amount of mud pumped into the well can give an indication of any

influx of formation fluid, even before any appreciable indication of mud level increase can

be observed in the pits. The measurement, to be a valid indication of fluid influx, must

however be done very accurately, even before a minimal increase in the mud pit level is

reliably recorded.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 200 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

After tripping out the drill string, if there is any difference in the amount of mud required to

fill up the well bore, this can be an indication of pressure imbalance between the hydrostatic

mud column and the formation.

If there are no pressure balance problems, the volume of mud required to fill the well bore

will be equal to the volume of the extracted string. In porous and permeable formations, the

negative pressure difference between the formation fluids and the mud will cause the influx

of formation fluid and so the amount of mud needed to fill the well bore may diminish

considerably.

Drilling rate increases considerably when a shale formation is undercompacted and

underbalance conditions prevail. The number of shale cuttings brought to the surface in this

case, will be greater than when conditions overbalance exist. Any cavings will also increase

the number, the cuttings being of a particular shape which is not the result of the action of

the bit.

An increase in the number of cuttings depends on the three following factors:

Length of interval drilled under underbalance conditions

Pressure differential between formation and mud

Drilling rate.

A systematic evaluation of the quantity of cuttings present at the shale shaker makes it

possible to recognise the occurrence of new well conditions.

A valid method for determining underbalance conditions is measuring the chloride content in

the mud, providing that a fresh-water base mud is being used.

Salt water, contained in the formation drilled can enter the well bore and cause an increase

of chlorides in the mud. If conditions warrant, a periodic measurement of the chloride

content of the mud will signal any abnormal conditions by showing an increase in the mud

chloride content.

Montmorillonitic clays are the most porous and the least permeable of all clays. Any

increase in the percentage of montmorillonite present indicates a decrease in overburden

density. This can lead to the conclusion that abnormal pressures exist.

Montmorillonitic clays are often associated with marine environment clay in which sand is

totally absent. Owing to this lack of sand, drainage is impeded and the marine clays will be

overpressured. These considerations have led many authors to conclude that the presence

of these clays is synonymous with abnormal conditions and, therefore, any increase in

abnormality is considered a prediction of the presence of marine clay formations affected by

overpressures.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 201 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

This method consists of plotting one or more of the mud characteristics, such as resistivity,

salinity and pH, as a function of depth.

The method is based on the fact that when drilling begins in an overpressure zone having

impermeable layers, the mud hydrostatic pressure can no longer balance the formation

pressure. The result is that, as soon as the formation gradient exceeds the mud density,

formation fluid flows into the well. The amount entering the well can be small at the start,

but can increase in a very short time and cause the level in the mud pits to rise. If salt water

enters the well, this can reliably determined by measuring the resistivity of the mud which,

along with the pH, gradually diminished as the salinity of the mud gradually increases

(Figure 4.8

The same results can be obtained, when permeable layers are absent, by making very

accurate measurements. Since shales at normal pressure are undercompacted and,

therefore, more porous, part of the salt water is given up to the mud during drilling thus

causing the above-mentioned changes in resistivity and pH.

(Caused by Water Inflow into the Well Due to Overpressure)

This method is based on the principle that the resistivity of a rock is equal to the sum of the

resistivities of the rock matrix and fluid contained in the pores of the rock. Therefore,

overpressured shales in salt water have less resistance than shales at normal pressure,

since the latter are more porous. With this method, resistivity measurements are carefully

carried out on cuttings that have been properly prepared. The cuttings must be from the

bottom of the well, must consist only of shale and must be carefully washed free of any

mud. by means of fresh water, without being dried.

The resistivity values, that are shown in Figure 4.9 are plotted as a function of depth, and

we see that shale resistivity increases with depth in accordance with its increased

compactness and consequent decrease of porosity, when the pressure is normal. On the

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 202 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

other hand, in the overpressure conditions, the opposite occurs with the resistivity gradually

decreasing with depth.

During drilling operations, the use of a gas log and appropriate detectors provide a

continuous check on the presence of gas in the mud. The proper interpretation of the

recorded values can also reveal the presence of overpressures. Reliable indications can be

obtained more from the evaluation of the increase background gas and appearance of pipe-

connection gas than from the gas shows related to the hydrocarbon-bearing level. In this

regards, it must be remembered that background gas is the percentage of the total amount

of gas recorded while drilling dry or impermeable layers. This is generally a very low value

and is taken as the base reference level for the measurement of the shows.

If the background gas value (base reference level) increases upon drilling through

hydrocarbon-bearing strata, an overpressure situation is considered to exist which is caused

by gas flowing from the porous Iayers into the mud, when the hydrostatic pressure of the

mud no longer balances the formation pressure. Every time the mud circulation is

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 203 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

interrupted and cushions of gas coming from hydrocarbon bearing strata can quickly form in

the well, there is likely to be overpressure.

The gas log can be used to identifying overpressure when:

a) Recirculation of CLS in the well is avoided. which would otherwise give rise to a

gradual increase in the background gas value and which could erroneously be

interpreted as a gas cushion entering the well during a pipe connection. The

continuous use of a degaser is ,therefore,. necessary for eliminating all gas from

the previous show s from the mud.

b) No swabbing of any importance takes place during pipe and bit changes.

Swabbing would cause the formation of gas cushions not usually formed under

normal conditions, in correspondence to the mineralised level or at bottom hole.

This is a method that was frequently used in the past but is now neglected. The method is

based on the measurement of shale density and states that in overpressured shales the

porosity is higher and the density is lower than with shales under normal compaction.

The term density refers to the overall density; that is, the density of the matrix plus the

density of the fluid filling the pores. Consequently, the samples (cutting and core fragments)

used for the density determination must be clean shale which has been dried but not

desiccated, so as to avoid dehydration.

Under normal conditions of compaction, which means the pressure is normal, density

values can be plotted against depth (Figure 4.10). The graph shows the density increasing

gradually with depth. When an overpressure condition exists, we obtain the graph shown in

Figure 4.11. The density starts to decrease gradually, beginning at 1,230m. which is an

indication that undercompacted (and, thus, overpressured)e shales are present.

This methods is no longer used because cuttings that are not contaminated with grains of

silt, sand, mica or heavy minerals (which alter the density of the otherwise clean shale

cuttings) are not readily available. Furthermore, it is often difficult to identify cuttings that

have precipitated from overlying layers and these, if used, would alter the normal

compaction trend and thus erroneously indicate an overpressure zone.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 204 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

A 350cc glass cylinder, graduated from 0 to 350, is commonly used for routine

measurements. Two solutions having different but comparable densities are poured into the

cylinder, so as to create a linear density gradient. Small disks of known density are put into

the cylinder. The Levels at which they float in the liquid will be difficult, of course. The level

values are read on the cylinder and then plotted on a graph. The line joining the points is

the calibration line and is used to determine the density of the shale cuttings, following the

above described procedure. The level The level in millimetres at which the clay sample

floats inside the cylinder is plotted and the density value is read on the ordinate, as shown

in Figure 4.12

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 205 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 206 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

This method is occasionally used, because the results are not always reliable, and consists

of identifying overpressure tops by measuring the temperature of the mud at the surface.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 207 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The method is principally valid for sandy-shaly formations and is based on the principle that

fluids are poor heat conductors. It is known that overpressured shales contain a

considerable amount of water because of their being less compact and, as a consequence,

more porous. In practice, they constitute a thermal barrier which prevents the heat coming

from below from spreading upwards uniformly (Figure 4.13.) From the surface downwards,

there is a constant geothermal gradient that suddenly increases in correspondence to the

overpressure top. It has also been noted that this gradient or temperature increase already

makes itself felt at about 100m above the overpressure top. Consequently an early

prediction of the starting point of an overpressured zone is thus obtained.

In practice, mud temperatures out are plotted against depth. The resulting curve is

somewhat unusual and requires some explanation. Analysing Figure 4.14, it can be seen

that each bit trip out corresponds to a series of increasing temperature values which can be

interpolated from the curve a. At the beginning of a bit run, the circulation is restarted and

the mud, that was heated at the bottom of the well during the stop for changing the bit,

comes to the surface at a rather low temperature, having lost much of its heat to the

surrounding formations that become colder at the shallower depths. While drilling is going

on, the heat exchange decreases because the layers have taken on sufficient heat. The

mud temperature at the surface, therefore, gradually increases (curve a). Under ideal

conditions, the shape of curve a is a function of the geothermal gradient. If the gradient

remains unchanged for each bit run, curve a retains the same shape. Of course, it is also

necessary to consider the rise in temperature at the beginning of the run, since the

formation temperature increases with depth. When the geothermal gradient is constant,

curve a is a straight line and its slope is constant, too. Furthermore, if the bit run is long

enough as happens when diamond bits are used, the temperature increase becomes

minimal from a certain point onward, due to the circulating mud having reached thermal

equilibrium with the surrounding formations. In practice, we observe the drop indicated by

curve a in Figure 4.14.

If the temperature suddenly increases, as in the case of an overpressure zone, the shape of

the curve becomes as shown in Figure 4.15. The interpolated curve a, which is constant

for all sections having a normal geothermal gradient, undergoes a change and the new

trend is the one shown by curve a. This indicates that the mud out tends to reach thermal

equilibrium in a shorter span of time and reaches higher values. The trend represented by

line b in Figure 4.15 will then be valid for the normal geothermal gradient and line b will be

valid for the abnormal gradient.

This is quite a simple method, but the following conditions have to be observed during

drilling in order to obtain reliable results:

No new mud must be added to the mud in circulation.

No mud correction must be made.

The pumping must remain constant.

The circulation must not be interrupted during bit run.

The external mud course (well head-pits-well head) must be held constant.

The external temperature must not undergo sudden changes.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 208 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

All the above stated conditions have the express purpose of maintaining thermal equilibrium

of the mud at all times, but it is not difficult to see why actually fulfilling all of them during

drilling operations is not very likely.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 209 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

As already seen, the overburden pressure at a given depth, H, equals the cumulative

weight of the rocks above that depth:

n n

(H d )

1

POV = POVi = i hi

i =1 10 i =1

where:

3

dhi = Formation bulk density as a function of depth H, (g/cm )

Hi = Interval of depth considered, m

Dividing the overburden pressure, Pov, by the depth, H. the corresponding overburden

gradient, Gov can be calculated:

POV

G OV = 10 x

Hi

In order to draw the overburden gradient curve, the formation bulk densities must first be

determined. Bulk densities are usually derived from density logs (specifically, from the FDC

log) and from other density measurement made during drilling. The FDC log. however, is

only generally available for limited intervals of a well. The cutting density measurement is

time-consuming and is affected by several limitations, such as sample preparation.

To permit the accurate calculation of overburden gradients and, consequently, valid pore-

pressure and fracture gradients, AGIP has developed methods based, as already seen, on

the processing of seismic data. on Sonic Log readings (Refer to section 5) and on the

evaluation of drilling parameters by Sigmalog analysis.

The method, which is discussed in detail later on, follows this sequence:

1) Starting from Sigmalog computations, drilling porosities in sands and shales are

estimated using appropriate formulas:

2) These porosities are then transformed into bulk densities;

3) The bulk densities are converted into overburden gradients:

4) The pore pressure and overburden gradients make the calculation of fracture

gradients possible during drilling.

formations while the possibility of obtaining these values in carbonatic and evaporitic rocks

is under study.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 210 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The determination of drilling porosities from which overburden gradients are subsequently

derived mainly depends on the correct positioning of the reference trend lines, r for the

overpressure evaluation, and for the porosity calculation.

To indicate overpressure, the standard Sigmalog curve is plotted versus depth. An initial

2

Gp= 1.03kg/cm x 10m is assumed. This is a valid assumption if the drilling takes place in

normal pressure zones, while the Sigmalog deviates to the left when overpressured zones

are entered. Therefore, the obtaining of drilling porosities in overpressures requires

correcting the standard Sigmalog curve both for the shifts and for the differential pressure

effect. In other words, a standard Sigmalog curve (Figure 4.16a) is transformed first, into a

Sigmalog curve normalised for shifts (Figure 4.16b) and then to take care of the possibility

of overpressure, into a Sigmalog curve normalised for both shifts and P (Figure 4.16c).

The new values are indicated with the symbol 0 and, once the appropriate shift

correction has been made for the curve and, for formations that are abnormally pressured,

the actual P acting on the formation has been considered, the values can be traced.

Obviously, for formations under normal pressure, only the shift correction is required.

In normal pressure formations, the reference trend lines, r and on the normalised

Sigmalog curve are coincident. At this point there are two alternatives possible:

1) The formations are shales and show values of normalised Sigmalog which are 0

r = .

In this case, the points lying on the reference trend line, or those having higher

values, are considered shakes and their drilling porosities are calculated by means of

the following equation:

sh [

= 1 / 1 .4 + 9 +K

r = ] Eq. 4.21

where:

sh = Drilling porosity in shales, percentage fraction

2) The formations are sands and show normalised R values departing to the left of

the reference trend lines; that is, R < U = . The drilling porosity of these

points is given by:

[

sa = 1/ 1.4 + 9 o + K ] Eq. 4.22

where:

sa = Drilling porosity in sands, percentage fraction

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 211 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

In overpressured intervals, the standard Sigmalog curve has to be corrected for both

shifts and P. in order to obtain a normalised Sigmalog. The porosity reference line

(indicated as ) does not coincide with r and, also in this case. two

alternatives are possible:

The normalised o , points lying on the porosity reference line , or those

having higher values, are considered shales. Their drilling porosities are simply

calculated by entering the values in Eq. 4.21. The curve is computed,

using a polynomial regression and traced, after having selected the significant points

on the normalised Sigmalog curve corresponding to the shale points.

The points showing o values which are lower than are considered sands

and their porosities are calculated using Eq. 4.22.

(Obtained From Normalised Sigmalog Curves

(By Directly Entering the o * And 0 * Values into Eq. 4.20/Eq. 4.21)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 212 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Once the drilling porosities are defined for each point as a function of depth, the

corresponding bulk densities and overburden gradients are easily obtained (Figure 4.17).

Bearing in mind the relationships found between the transit times and the porosities, the

equations relating porosity to bulk density are as follows:

for shales:

t sh t max Eq. 4.23

sh = 1.568

t sh t ft

where:

sh = Drilling porosity in shales from Sigmalog, percentage fraction

t max = Matrix transit time (sec/ft) assumed equal to 47 sec/ft for shakes

t sh =

1.568 sh

The tsh, transit times are then transformed into bulk densities as follows:

t sh 47 Eq. 4.25

db, sh = 2.75 2.11

t sh 200

For sands:

t sa t max Eq. 4.26

sa = 1.228

t sa t ft

where:

sa = Drilling porosity in sands from Sigmalog, percentage fraction

tsa = Transit time in sands, sec/ft

max = Matrix transit time, /sec ft (assumed equal to 50sec/ft for sands)

tn = Fluid transit time, sec/ft (assumed equal to 200sec/ft

Defining Eq. 4.26 in terms of tsa, we obtain:

200sa + 61.4 Eq. 4.27

t sa =

1.228 sa

The tsa transit times are transformed into bulk densities by means of the following

equation:

t sa 50 Eq. 4.28

dbsa = 2.75 2.11

t sa + 200

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 213 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(Corrected from s.Shifts and P (B) allows the calculation of Drilling Porosities and Bulk

Densities in Overpressured Intervals. Drilling Porosities are compared with porosities (+)

obtained from SL analysis (Adriatic Offshore Well))

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 214 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Once bulk densitiesof the formations have been determined and the depth intervals

defined, the bulk denties are summarized and trasformed into Overburden Pressures and

gradients using the following well-known equations:

POV =

H i x dbi

and G OV = 10

POV

10 Hi

To obtain correct values for the overburden gradients in the case of offshore wells. it is

necessary to consider the effect of water depth, Hm and the air-gap between the rotary table

3

and the sea level, Hag. Assuming the density of sea water as 0 = 1.03g/cm , the sea-bed

pressure is:

1.03 x Hm Eq. 4.29

Pseabed =

10

while the overburden gradient at the sea-bed is:

Pseabed x 10 Eq. 4.30

G ov =

H m + Hag

where:

Hm = Sea depth (m)

Hag = Air gap between rotary table and sea level (m)

The main problem with this method lies in the determination of the term K, which

represents the first reference trend line to which all the other reference trend lines obtained

from shifts refer. Generally, the recording and processing of drilling parameters begins at a

certain depth and usually after the surface casing string has been set. No data being

available for the interval between the surface and the surface-casing shoe consequently

introduces uncertainty as to the positioning of the first reference trend line. Extrapolation of

the first available r , to the surface is not recommended, since, in this interval, some

shifts could be present which could affect the subsequent r values.

This limitation is easily overcome, however, by deducing the first reference line by means of

one of the following methods:

Analysis of seismic data. Interval velocities, or the corresponding interval travel

times are transformed into bulk densities.

Sonic Log of reference wells. The transit times are also converted into bulk

densities.

Test measurements of soil densities.

Where there is a complete absence of data, an initial bulk density ranging

3

between 1.95-2.00g/cm can be assumed in most cases.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 215 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

A computer at the rig site is used to process the drilling data and present them on a plotter

and printer, to obtain the automatic computation of overburden gradient during drilling, the

conventional Sigmalog programme has to be modified. A computer code enables the

processing and plotting of the normalised Sigmalog according to the various, successive

shifts of the reference trend line which are stored in the memory of the computer. The

results are plotted as a function of depth on a 1/10,000 scale, reporting any of the following:

Standard Sigmalog

Normalised Sigmalog

Standard and normalised reference trend lines

Drilling porosity

Bulk density

Overburden gradient

Pore pressure gradient

Fracture gradient.

Starting with the pore pressure and overburden gradients calculated from recorded drilling

parameters, the corresponding fracture gradients can be easily obtained by means of the

usual well-known formulae. in accordance with the particular lithology involved.

Figure 4.18. and Figure 4.19. show some examples of pore pressure, overburden and

fracture gradient curves obtained from drilling parameter processing for formations having

normal and abnormal pressure conditions.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 216 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 4.18 - Example of Pore Pressure, Overburden and Fracture Gradient Curve

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 217 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 4.19 - Example Pore Pressure, Overburden and Fracture Gradient Curve

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 218 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

5.1.1. Spontaneous Potential (SP)

The Spontaneous Potential (SP) curve is a record of the differences in spontaneous

potential which develop between a surface electrode and one immersed into the conductive

mud column when the latter electrode is positioned at the levels of different formations. The

electrodes are made of relatively stable materials (such as lead) and any difference in

constant potential between the surface electrode and the one in the well can be offset by a

voltage-, which can be regulated by a potentiometer. Due to the fixed position of the surface

electrode its potential remains constant, so that the SP log is a record of the variation of

potential in the electrode, being lowered into the well. Figure 5.1 shows a simple circuit for

measuring spontaneous potential; the potentiometer is not shown.

On the SP curve, the differences in potential, read from left to right, are positive. It is usually

possible, on the SP curve, to distinguish a well-defined base line corresponding to the shale

zone, positioned on the recorded film on the right-hand side of the SP column. Any shift in

the SP curve to the left of this base line (i.e. in the negative direction) usually indicates the

presence of permeable beds such as sands (Figure 5.2). but there is no direct relationship

between the magnitude of the SP shift and the permeability or porosity of the bed.

Later in this chapter it will be seen that SP curve characteristics are largely dependent on

the drilling mud and on the type of formations encountered.

In general, except when dealing with oil- or fresh-water-based mud, a certain salt

concentration produces a good SP curve by which it is possible:

To locate the permeable beds;

To establish their boundaries (except in cases were the formations are too

resistive)

To correlate these beds;

To obtain good Rw, values, where Rw, is the formation water resistivity.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 219 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 220 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Since the surface electrode potential remains constant, all variations of difference in

potential which are recorded on the SP log, are due to differences in potential in the

electrode run in the well. These variations in potential in the well are the result of resistive

differences in potential in the mud column caused by currents moving around the contact

zones between permeable beds, adjacent shales and the mud column. Currents flowing

through closed circuits are mainly due to electromotive forces ( EMF ) of an electrochemical

nature, which develop at contact points between the drilling mud (or its filtrate) and the

formation water within the pores of the permeable beds, and through the adjacent shales.

Another phenomenon, which may cause an EMF to occur in the mud cake at the level of a

permeable bed, is Electro-filtration. In passing through the cake, the mud filtrate produces a

positive EMF in the direction of the flow, which adds to the electrochemical EMF Extensive

practical experience has shown this additional effect to be relatively small and in most

cases negligible. Recent experience has, in fact, shown that, although the EMF passing

through the mud cake can be quite large; it is largely offset by the Electro-filtration EMF

generated through the adjacent shales. Hence, from here on the Electro-filtration effect will

not be considered, and only the electrochemical effect will be discussed.

To clarify the concept, the case of clean sands is analysed here. Figure 5.3. shows a

borehole filled with conductive mud, intersecting a clean sand formation interbedded with

two shale beds. In the lower part of the figure, the SP currents are shown schematically;

they flow in the direction: mud -----> mud fiItrate ----- > formation water --- > shale ---- > mud.

For the mud ---- >mud filtrate circuit, the EMF appears to be practically nil due to the fact

that, though mud and mud-filtrate resistivities may differ, their electrochemical activities are

usually the same.

For a more accurate examination, the chain just described may be divided into two parts.

The portion formation-water ---- > shale ----> mud makes up one part of the circuit and

gives rise to the membrane potential, EM. The second part is made up, instead of the mud-

filtrate ----- > formation-water circuit and determines the liquid-junction potential, E.

For the chain as a whole, the total EMF is obtained from the algebraic sum:

E c = Em + EJ Eq. 5.1

where:

Ec = Total SP current generating EMF

Membrane Potential

Figure 5.4. indicates Em to be the EMF between two different electrolytes (formation water

and mud) separated by shale. The formation water may also be considered to be a salt

solution with a concentration always higher than that of the mud. It can also be assumed, as

it happens in most cases that both electrolytes are made up essentially of rhodium chloride

solutions.

Shales, as we have seen, are made up of Iayers of aluminium, silicon and oxygen atoms.

Other elements may be present as well, but the important thing is that the structure of the

shale is such that the edges of the layers hold negatively charged oxygen atoms. This

makes for a negative charged structure which will, therefore, attract and allow the flow of

positive ions (such as sodium), while repelling and preventing the flow of negative ions

(such as chloride).

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 221 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Shales behave as ion screens by letting sodium ions through while keeping out chloride

ones.

When a shale bed separates two sodium chloride solutions of different concentrations, the

sodium ions of both solutions may migrate through the shale, but the number of these ions

passing from one solution to the other will depend on, the number of sodium ions present in

each of the two solutions. The flow will be greater from the more highly concentrated

solution C1than it will be from the one at a lower concentration C2. As a result the contact

area between the shale and the weaker solution will become positively charged, whereas

the more concentrated solution will acquire a predominantly negative charge. A difference

in potential, or em.f. will thus exist through the shale bed, and this will be the membrane

potential, EM.

In the case considered above, only a few minutes are required for a condition of equilibrium

to be reached so that, upon opening the circuit, there will be a more consistent flow of ions.

If the circuit is closed, ion migration will resume and, with very small quantities of solution,

the concentration tends to equalise and EM will become zero only after a considerable lapse

of time. In fact, at depth, the circuit is always closed through the mud column and the

adjacent formations. However, solution volumes are quite large and the current due to ion

migration is very small (on the order of milli-amps), so it is as if no ion migration were taking

place between the two solutions and there is practically no variation in the value of EM. The

same is true for liquid-junction potential, which will be dealt with in the next paragraph.

Liquid-Junction Potential.

This potential, within permeable beds, appears at the contact between mud filtrate and

formation water. Its origin is more complicated than that of EM, but it can be briefly explained

the following way. Suppose again that formation water and mud filtrate are sodium chloride

solutions with concentrations C1 and C2 respectively, where C1 > C2. The two solutions

being now in direct contact, both sodium and chlorine ions are free to move from one

solution to the other since there is nothing separating them.

Since C1 > C2, a definite migration of both sodium and chloride ions will take place from the

more concentrated solution into the more diluted one. The sodium ion, however, is larger in

size and has more affinity for water, whereas the chlorine atom is smaller and with less

affinity for water: hence the chloride ions move faster than the sodium ions. As a result the

weaker solution becomes negatively charged whereas the other becomes positively

charged: the resultant potential different is the so-called liquid-junction potential, EJ.

This liquid-junction potential reaches a lower value than it would in the case of the

membrane potential for the same solution, because, in the former case, both sodium and

chorine atoms can migrate. EJ is only due to the excess of chloride over sodium ions and, in

practice, its value for sodium chloride solutions is found to be about one fifth that of Em

Figure 5.4. is a schematic drawing showing the upper portion of a clean sand bed, overlaid

by shale, with the borehole to the left and a small-invaded area present in the sand. EM and

EJ are shown in the form of tiny cells with polarities as said previously (CW > Cmf or RW <

Rmf). These EMFs; are responsible for the SP current i flowing into the sand through the

clay, into the bore hole and back into the sand. The resistive potential drop due to the flow

of current throughout the circuit, is equal to EC. At point P, within the mud column, at the

level of the shale bed, the potential will be positive as compared to the potential at point N,

at the level of the sand layer.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 222 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Because deviations in SP are read in reference to the shale base line, they will have

negative values in the presence of permeable beds (sand).

It can be shown thermodynamically that for ideal solutions or even relatively diluted sodium

chloride solutions, EM and EJ are related to their respective concentrations by the following

equations:

Where:

Cw = Formation water concentration

Cmf = Mud filtrate concentration

K1, K2 = Coefficients (which are a function of the absolute temperature, among

other factors).

For real solutions, in place of the concentrations Cw and Cmf, one should use the chemical

activities of the solutions, aw and amf. A reference temperature, i.e. 75F (24C), could also

be assumed in order to fix the values of K1 and K2. So, in real sodium chloride solutions at

75F at any concentration, we have:

where:

aw = formation water chemical activity (at 75F)

amf = mud filtrate chemical activity (at 75F)

Eq. 5.6 is generally applicable, as long as both formation water and mud filtrate are

essentially - sodium chloride solutions, at any concentration and at 75F.

The chemical solutions activities are closely related to resistivities.

Within a wide range of values the activities of sodium chloride solutions are inversely

proportional to their resistivities so that, for practical purposes, the ratio aw/amf may be

substituted by the resistivity ratio Rmf/Rw. This provides the basis for calculating formation

water resistivity from the SP curve.

The lower part of Figure 5.3. is a sketch showing the SP currents flowing around the contact

areas between the mud, the invaded zone, the water bearing sand, the shale and again

mud; Figure 5.4. shows all this in even more detail. Each line indicates a flow of current;

each current must pass through the three bordering zones, A, B, and C. In normal cases,

when the formation water has a higher salt concentration than the mud, Ec is positive and

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 223 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The potential different between any point within the mud column in front of sands, and

another point in front of shales, has a negative value when referred to Figure 5.4.

The SP current has to pass through a series of resistances along its path, in both the

ground and the mud; along a closed path the total resistive potential drop must be equal to

the algebraic sum of the EMFs along the path.

Furthermore, since the value of the current flow remains constant throughout, the potential

drop varies with the resistance of the section through which the current is flowing. This

means that the total potential drop (which is equal to the sum of the EMFs) is divided

between the mud and the various formations in a manner proportional to the resistances

met by the current in each medium. It follows that the potential drop within the drilling mud is

only a part of the total EMF. Though, in general, this represents a large portion of this total,

the mud resistance being much larger than the resistance due to the formations.

For reasons of convenience an ideal case is considered for which it is assumed that

insulating zones, arranged as shown in the upper part of Figure 5.3. prevent the SP

currents from flowing.

Under such conditions the potential of the zones just mentioned will remain constant within

each medium. In any case the potential itself will vary form one medium to another and the

potential difference in the various media will be equal to the EMF in the various contact

areas.

If one could record the potential for this ideal case, a log would be obtained like the one

shown by the dashed line on the left side of Figure 5.3. Such a diagram, when traced with

no current flowing, i.e. under static conditions, is called a Static SP Diagram. The

difference in the potentials within the mud, between the two insulating zones and outside of

them, is called Static SP, SSP in the bed and is equal to Ec.

However, from Eq. 5.6, Ec is equal to K log10 aw/amf (where K = 71 at 75F); hence, for

NaCl solutions, we have:

The total EMF which accounts for the SP current, and the SSP may vary with different

boreholes, due to differences in salinity in the mud and/or in the formations. In a given well,

however, there is a definite tendency for the EMFs to reach the same value for all beds for

the same type of formation and for depths of the same order of magnitude. Fresh water

sands and those with high salinity will produce low and high amplitude peaks respectively.

The peak polarity may also reverse when the salinity of the water in the sand is lower than

that of the mud.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 224 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Permeable beds, having different porosities or different grain sizes, all other factors being

equal give rise to equal EMFs. The EMFs. Are also independent of permeability even when

it reaches values on the order of fractions of a millidarcy.

Figure 5.3 - Potential and Current Distribution in and Around a Permeable Bed

(Schlumberger: Log Interpretation Principles)

Figure 5.4 - SP Currents Due to Membrane Potential (Em) and Liquid Contact Potential (Ej)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 225 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Due to its prevailing negative charge, the presence of shale within a permeable bed cuts

down the negatively charged chloride ions flow and favours the flow of the positively

charged sodium ions. This causes a reduction in the liquid-junction potential and, as the

percentage of shale within the bed increases, EJ may fall to zero, in which case Ec = Em

As the clay content of the sand increases still further, EJ increases: in a direction opposite to

EM In this way, the effect of interstitial clay is a reduction of the total EMF value Ec. in the

extreme case of 100% clay content, Ej = EM and Ec becomes zero; i.e., the sand is now

made up entirely of clay and is not distinguishable from the surrounding shales.

If it is further assumed that the SP currents are blocked by the insulating zones placed at

the level of the bed faces, the potential different between the mud, within these zones and

the mud outside of them, is called Pseudostatic SP, PSP.

For equal values of mud and formation water activities, the Pseudostatic SP for shaly sand

is lower than the Static SP for clean sand. The PSP/SSP ratio is called the reduction

factor and is represented by CXD. The reduction factor is dependent on the quantity and

nature of the interstitial clay.

The presence of oil within a shaly sand tends to enhance the effect of the clay since the oil

has a tendency to force sodium and chloride ions to migrate along paths closer to the

negatively charged clay surfaces. Hence the diffusion through a clay network within the

sand becomes relatively more important than in the case of water-bearing sand.

For these same reasons, if two sands, both 100% saturated with water, contain the same

quantity of the same type of clay per unit volume, and assuming equal chemical activities

for mud and formation water, the less porous sand will also have a lower PSP. For low-

porosity formations, a small amount of clay is enough to produce a rather large reduction in

the SP deflections.

In addition, the PSP far highly porous water-saturated sands is practically equal to the SSP

as long as the clay content remains rather low (a few percentage points).

This same effect may be described by considering that the PSP is a function of the

resistivity of the formation. Within a given formation, with all other parameters remaining

unchanged, a higher resistivity corresponds to a lower PSP.

Figure 5.5. Shows, in a theoretical way, the effect of the thickness of the beds and of

formation resistivities. For the sake of comparison, the Static SP has been assumed to be

the same for all permeable beds and equal to - 100mV. In addition, to make calculations

easier, the invasion depth in the permeable beds has been assumed to be so weak as to be

negligible.

Figure 5.5. Also shows that the SP anomaly goes well beyond the boundaries of the bed,

when Rt,/Rm is large; this effect becomes more noticeable the larger, the value of Rt.

It seems evident that mud salinity has a predominating effect on the SP curve. Due to the

unusually high salinity of formation water, when the mud has a high salt content, the

electrochemical potentials are also low. Furthermore, the lower the mud resistivity as

compared to that of the formation the wider the excursion above and below the permeable

beds. It can also be noted that the SP log shows very small excursions and appears almost

fiat when the well contains mud with high conductivity. With water relatively free of salts,

conductive mud may show inverted peaks (excursions toward the positive side), when its

resistivity is low enough.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 226 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The curves in Figure 5.5. refer to a sequence of beds with equal or very close resistivity

values. This does not always occur in actual practice, and the resistivity of subsequent beds

can be quite different, as it is the case with shales interbedded with oil-bearing sands. In

this case the SP curve appears more rounded for the formation with higher resistivity. The

position of the points of inflection will change depending on the peaks, but they will continue

to indicate the boundaries of the beds.

An increase in hole diameter has approximately the same effect as an increase in the RJR,

ratio. This means that it tends to round off the excursions on the SP log and to lower the

peak amplitudes at the level of the beds.

In general, the permeable beds are invaded by mud filtrate. As shown in Figure 5.3. a

fraction of the SP current lines moves directly from the shale to the invaded zone without

entering the mud column. As a result, the presence of the invaded zone has an effect on

the SP curve similar to that due to an increase in the diameter of the hole. Hence the peaks

are wider than in case of no invasion.

Figure 5.5 - Comparison of SP Curves for Different Values of the Rt/Rm Ratio

(Schlumberger Log Interpretation Principle)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 227 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Hard Formations

These formations usually have a high resistivity with the exception of the two following

types of conductive zones:

Permeable beds, both oil and water-bearing, which are conductive because of

capillary water (usually having high salinity) present within their pores;

Shales which are impermeable.

The permeable beds are not usually adjacent to the shale beds, but are separated from

them by compacted formations.Figure 5.6. shows a sequence of permeable and compacted

beds and shales. It shows very schematically the circulation of SP currents.

The SP currents, generated by the various EMFs, flow into the permeable zones. In order to

cross the hard adjacent formations, which have a high resistivity, these currents are forced

to penetrate deeply into the permeable bed in order to have a wide transversal section of

rock available. From here it is easier for the currents to continue their flow into the hard

formations through the large transversal section, rather than converging rapidly toward the

hole. They continue to do so until they encounter the conductive beds of impermeable shale

through which they can return to the mud in the well and, through the mud, to the

permeable bed, thereby; completing the circuit. They cannot return to the mud through

adjacent permeable beds because of the EMF that obstruct their path. If they happen to

encounter a productive permeable bed first, they will simply cross it until the shale beds are

reached: This is the case with currents entering bed P3. Those currents flowing upwards

must cross the P2 permeable bed in order to reach the shale Sh1; those flowing downwards

return to the well in part through the shale Sh6. This seems to be the reason why the

peaks, corresponding to the level of the permeable zones, broaden above and below these

zones, in such an apparently abnormal way

So as to make it impossible to accurately establish the boundaries of the permeable zones

by means of the SP log.

All along the well, at levels where hard formations are present, SP currents remain

practically unchanged. This implies that the potential drop as well is constant per unit well

length, thus generating a constant slope in the SP log as shows by the straight lines on the

log in Figure 5.6

A portion of the SP current enters or leaves the mud column, at the level of each conductive

bed thus changing the slope of the log. As an example, the curve of the SP log changes at

the level of bed P2, since a part of the current leaves the well and flows into the bed.

As a general rule for hard formations, permeable beds are characterised by changing

slopes or curvatures with the convexity facing the negative side of the log. Shales are

characterised by curvatures with the convexity toward the positive side of the log. High

resistivity formations correspond to those parts of the SP log, which are practically straight.

What said in the preceding paragraph regarding the salinity effects of the mud, it is equally

applicable in the case of hard formations.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 228 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(Schlumberger Log Interpretation Principle)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 229 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

In general, the base line from which all SP deflections are measured is easily determined on

the log. For some wells this line undergoes some shifting or skidding. This occurs mainly

when formation waters with different levels of salinity are separated by a shale layer which

does not constitute a perfectly cationic membrane.

Figure 5.7. Shows a simplified example of a real case. The well enters a series of porous-

permeable layers (B, D, F, H) separated by thin shale or shaly sandstone layers (C, E, G).

The SSP within. interval B is indicated by a deviation equivalent to -42mV with respect to

clay base line A. With C shale we do not have a perfectly cationic membrane behaviour

and the SP curve does not return to the conditions in A. The SP deflection within the

interval D is positive in comparison to both C and EM this indicates basically fresh

formation water, rather than the presence of mud filtrate. At E one notices a deviation

equivalent to +44 mV with respect to D and this value indicates a good cationic membrane

behaviour in the concerned shale.

Analysis of the other cases in the example, which shows another anomalous situation for

the shale in the interval CL may be done similarly. The situation just described will further

deteriorate in the case of absence of shale beds, which separate porous-permeable beds of

different salinities.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 230 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

5.1.7. Factors Affecting the Shape And The Amplitude Of The SP Peaks

As shown in Figure 5.3. Currents move through the mud now just in front of the permeable

formation but also at a short distance from its boundaries.

As a result, although in the Static SP Diagram the boundaries of the permeable bed are

indicated by a sudden jump. The SP log indicates a gradual change in potential extending

along the well beyond the boundaries of the bed.

By observing the circulation of the current, it is seen that the bed boundaries are located at

the points of inflection of the SP curve. This makes it possible to determine the bed

thickness from the SP curve.

The SP log records only that portion of the drop in potential which takes place in the mud;

therefore the amplitude of the peak on the SP log approaches the Static SP amplitude (or

that of the PSP for shaly formations) only when resistance to the current flow by the bed

under examination and by the adjacent formations is negligible as compared to resistance

by the mud in the well. This result is reached when the bed is sufficiently thick.

At the level of a given bed, the amplitude of the peak recorded on the log naturally depends

on the SSP values in clean formations and on the PSP values in shaly formations. In

addition, the shape and amplitude of the peaks can be influenced by the following factors:

Bed thickness

Resistivity of the bed, of the surrounding formations and of the mud

Borehole diameter

Diameter of the zone contaminated by mud filtrate.

The SP log may also be influenced by a lack of mud homogeneity: a change in mud salinity,

at a certain level, shows up as a jump in the clay base line at that level. In actual practice

however, such changes in salinity have been found to be quite rare.

The way in which the above mentioned factors affect the SP will be explained first for

permeable formations interbedded with shales, as shown in Figure 5.3. In this case, the

resistivity of permeable beds is usually slightly higher than, or about equal to, that of

shakes. This is typical of the so-called soft formations, such as series of sands and shales.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 231 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Soft Formations

a) Theoretical calculations and field experience have shown that the amplitude of

the SP excursions is practically equal to that of the static Sp (for clean sand) or

to that of the Pseudostatic SP (for shaly sand) when the permeable beds are

thick and when formation resistivities are not much higher than those of the

mud. In addition, in this case, the SP curve defines the boundaries of the bed

with a high degree of accuracy. The amplitude of the elongation is smaller than

for the Static SP or for the Pseudostatic SP in the case of thin beds, and the

thinner the bed, the smaller the excursion.

b) On the other hand, when formation resistivity R, is considerably greater than

mud resistivity R1 the SP curves are rounded, the boundaries are less

accurately defined, and other conditions being equal, the peak amplitude is

lower, magnetic field which induces a so-called 'signaI' EMF into the receiving

coil. The intensity of the current induced into the formation is proportional to its

conductivity. As a consequence, also the signal induced into the receiving coil is

proportional to the conductivity of the formation, or inversely proportional to its

resistivity. The signals are amplified, transformed into direct current and then

sent to the recording apparatus at surface.

Each coupling between transmitting and receiving coils is balanced. Within a zero

conductivity medium, as in the case of a sonde suspended in air and away from conductive

materials, the tool will give a zero reading.

In addition to the two main windings (transmitting and receiving), the apparatus is equipped

with several other coils. Main and secondary winding characteristics, their setting and

relative positions are such as to minimise the effects on the measurements of the mud

column and the formations above and below the device. Such sondes are called focusing

sondes.

Probe 6FF40 is the tool normally used. The abbreviation stands for a total of 6 windings and

a spacing of 40 between the main windings. This device also allows the simultaneous

recording of the SP curve and of the 16 normal. The device now used or the induction Log

provides an accurate and detailed recording of the formations across a wide range of

conductivitys. The accuracy is very high for conductivity values above 20mmho/m

(resistivities below 50ohm-m) and it is acceptable for lower conductivity values (down to

5mmho/m). Outside of this range the Induction Log continues to register any variations

within the formation, but the accuracy falls off.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 232 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Since conductivity is the reciprocal of resistivity and the ohm-m is the unit for measuring

the resistivity of electric logs, the obvious unit for measuring log conductivitys is 1/ohm/m

or mho/m. If the mho/m unit is used, however, all resistivity values higher than 1/ohm/m

would have to be expressed in decimal fractions. To avoid this, one-thousandth of a mho is

used as a unit and al! Induction Log readings are recorded as millimho/meter (mmho/m),

so that formations with resistivity values of 10, 100, or 1,000ohm/m will have conductivity

values of 100, 10 and 1 respectively.

Induction Logs make use of a linear scale for measuring conductivity. The zero value

(representing infinite resistivity) is placed on a line on the right side of the film; as the

conductivity increases (and the resistivity drops) the curve shifts to the left. The resistivity

scale, which runs from right to left, is hyperbolic. The lower values of resistivity are

emphasised and the high ones de-emphasised.

The resistivity curve is a reciprocal curve, recorded at the same time as the conductivity

curve. It records the same data but on a linear resistivity scale thus simplifying any

comparisons between the Induction Log, the Short Normal Log and other conventional

resistivity logs.

Keeping with the terminology in current use, resistivity rather than conductivity will

frequently be used in the following discussions.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 233 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Many permeable formations often show anomalies, which may lead to erroneous

evaluations of the SP curve unless properly interpreted.

For example, if a permeable formation containing high-salinity formation water is invaded by

'fresh' mud, the filtrate, being lighter than the formation water, will tend to flow towards the

highest part of the bed and the invasion will be relevant, whereas it will be hardly noticeable

in the lower part of the bed (Figure 5.8). The SP will be affected in the following manner:

In upper part, the: SP curve becomes rounded off on account of !he in-depth

invasion by the filtrate

Corresponding to the level of the thin layer of impermeable shale, the SP curve

has a typical saw-tooth shape as shown in the lower part of Figure 5.8; just

below the thin shale bed, the SP deflection is lower than for the SSP while

above the bed it is larger. This anomaly is due to different filtration above and

below the shaly bed

At times the invasion may completely disappear at the lower part of a highly permeable bed

with a profile such as the one shown in Figure 5.9. With no invasion, a small deflection in

the SP may be noticed; at this point filtrate and formation water are not directly in contact

with each other, but are separated by the mud cake which acts as a cationic membrane

even though its effect is smaller than it is in the case of a pure shake. It follows that there is

no liquid-junction potential, EJ, hence the total EMF is given by the shale membrane

potential, EM, and the mud cake membrane potential, EMP opposite to that of EM; hence the

reduced SP deviation.

The Induction Log is a method for measuring the conductivity (the reciprocal of resistivity) of

formations through the induction of an alternating current. Since it is an induction method,

the current is supplied to the formation by means of insulated coils rather than electrodes

and the well may contain any type of fluid: water and oil-base mud, gas or air (empty well),

as long as it is not cased. The Induction Log was introduced in 1946 for logging wells drilled

with oil-base mud and it soon became a standard method far such operations. Later on

(1952) its use was extended to wells drilled with water-base mud, when its advantages over

the conventional Electric log in most cases became evident.

The advantage of the Induction Log lies in the improved possibility it offers for study of thin

beds because of its focusing characteristics and its wider range. The combination of the

Induction Log (the 16ins Normal device) and the SP curve, commonly known as the

Induction-Electric Log is the most common electric logging method used with fresh muds.

Figure 5.10. presents a sketch of a simple inductive log apparatus with a transmitting and a

receiving coil wound coaxially over an insulated cylindrical support. The distance between

the two windings is called spacing. The point of measurement is halfway between the two

coils. An alternating current of constant amplitude and frequency is sent from an oscillator

to the transmitting coil. The magnetic field created by this current induces current circuits

(and more properly Foucaults currents, also called parasitic currents) into the formation

surrounding the sonde.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 234 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Geometric Factor

Through use of the Induction Log, the data supplied by the instruments can be

automatically calculated, assuming the media being measured to be separated by

horizontal planes and cylindrical surfaces coaxial with the sonde centred along the

borehole. This model actually offers a very effective representation of The subsurface

distribution of shallow dipping formations. Calculations are relatively easy when mutual

electric circuit inductions within the ground (i.e. the skin effect) are negligible.

These calculations show that each medium falling within the induction Log measurement

range contributes a portion of the Signal proportional to the product of its conductivity

multiplied by a geometric factor G which depends upon the geometry of the medium.

These G factors are fractional and their total over the entire space is equal to 1.

Figure 5.11 is a sketch of a permeable bed, of resistivity Rt with an invaded zone, of

resistivity Rs, and intersected by a borehole filled with mud of resistivity Rm. Each of these

media will have its own geometric factor (a function of its geometry), Gt,Gs, Gm

respectively.

The apparent conductivity Ca, as indicated by the induction Log when the probe is placed

at the level of a permeable bed, will be:

G m + Gi + Gs + Gt = 1 Eq. 5.9

Using resistivities:

1 G G G G Eq. 5.10

= m + i + s + t

Rm Rm Ri Rs R t

In actual practice Ri may be taken to be equal to the resistivity of the displaced zone. Rx0

The apparent conductivity Ca, when the sonde is placed at the level of an impermeable bed

will be:

Ca = Cm Gm + Cs Gs + Ct Gt Eq. 5.11

In this case the term Ci Gi is missing because of the absence of an invaded zone.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 235 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 5.9 - SP Reduction Due to Mud Cake Effect (Schlumberger Log Interpretation Principle)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 236 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 5.10 - Schematic Induction Log System (Schlumberger Log Interpretation Principle)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 237 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The radial characteristics may be defined as being representative of the geometric factor

of the medium held within a cylinder.

Figure 5.12. shows the diagram of this geometric factor as a function of cylinder diameter

when using sonde 6FF40. It also shows the geometric factor for a 40: diameter cylinder to

be extremely small; so that the portion of the signal coming from the mud column is always

relatively small unless the mud is very salty or the formations highly resistive.

In the case of these radial characteristics, the cylinder is assumed to be infinitely long, i.e.

the beds to be infinitely thick and hence with no adjacent beds. So that by neglecting the

effect of mud and adjacent bed Eq. (Eq. 4.11.) reduces to:

1 G G Eq. 5.12

= i + t

Ra Ri R t

Where now:

G i + Gt = 1

It is obvious that the contribution due to the uncontaminated zone is higher for sonde 6FF40

than it is for sonde 6FF28. This means that the first has a larger radius of investigation, i.e.

It records values for Rt closer to reality than those recorded by the second sonde. The skin

effect does not alter sensibly the radial characteristics upon recording when compared

against those obtained by considering the geometric factor. The skin effect may also be

neglected when the following conditions are met:

Rt larger than 1 ohm/m, for a moderate invasion (Rt not to exceed 5d);

Rt larger than 2-3 ohm/m, for a rather deep invasion.

The vertical characteristics represent the geometric factor of a horizontal bed when the

sonde is centred within the bed and the bed thickness increases from zero to infinity. When

the skin effect is taken into consideration, the Induction Log data, for beds of finite

thickness, may be noticeably different from those obtained with the geometric factor. In

such a case the adjacent formation resistivity Rs constitutes the important parameter. When

Rs is less than about 15ohm-m the effective contribution due to adjacent formations, as

calculated with the inclusion of the skin effect, is much lower than the value obtained when

this effect is neglected. This can be expressed by saying that the effect improves the

focusing features of the Induction Log apparatus.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 238 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(Schlumberger Log Interpretation Charts)

The conductivity signal due to the mud column increases for increasing hole dimension and

for decreasing mud resistivity. In other words the Gm/Rm factor of Eq. 5.10 increases as Gm

increases or as Rm gets smaller.

In addition, that portion of the total signal which is due to the column of mud increases as

the formation resistivity becomes larger.

If it is assumed, far simplicity, that the formation is not invaded and that it is enough to

minimise the effect of the adjacent formations, then Eq. 5.10, which gives the values of the

apparent resistivity, may be written as:

1 G G Eq. 5.13

= m + t

Ra Rm R t

It seems evident from this equation that, under equal conditions of resistivity and hole

dimensions, the higher Rt, the lower the ratio Gt/Rt, and the higher the effect due to the mud

column.

In practice however, when using sonde 6FF40 and for normal borehole diameters (10" or

less) and with common mud (Rm < 5ohm-m), the effect of the hole may be neglected where:

the sonde is centred within the well. It is to be mentioned, at this point, that the more recent

sondes are provided with a centring device. For those logs that are recorded without a

centring device, the sonde lies along the wall and the signal, due to the borehole, becomes

relatively important when the formation resistivity is in the range of 20ohm-m. This effect,

however, can be corrected with the use of appropriate charts.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 239 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

With salty mud the signal due to the hole becomes quite large especially with an off-centre

sonde. The use of Induction Logs is not recommended with mud resistivities lower than 0.2

ohm/m at bottom hole temperature except when the resistivities of the formation to be

probed are very low.

In wells with oil-base mud the corrections to be applied for eliminating the effect due to the

column of mud are usually negligible, except for the very unusual case of very huge

cavings.

In general case, Induction Log measurement in correspondence of a given bed are much

less affected by the presence of adjacent formations than those carried out with

conventional resistivity tools. The exception is the case of the Short Normal with moderate

to low formation resistivities. In such a case the vertical resolution of the Short Normal is

comparable to the one obtained with the Induction Log.

The effect of adjacent formations on the apparent conductivity signal given by the Induction

Log, when the sonde is at level with the bed being tested, is largely dependent upon their

resistivity value Rs This is so because the ground-induced currents will preferably flow

through media having lower resistances. If Rs is larger than Rt the effect due to adjacent

formations is relatively small. Calculations and experiments have shown that in such a case

and for layer thickness above 4ft sonde 6FF40 measurements are practically free from

outside interference. Minor and simple corrections are made with thinner beds.

When the adjacent formations have resistivities lower than the Layer being tested, the

induced currents will run through them and their effect on Rs will become more noticeable.

Even so, for Rs, only slightly lower than Rt the influence exerted by the adjacent formations

is not too important; it may be neglected when using 6FF40 type sondes, when the Ra/Rs,

ratio does not exceed a value of about 10 and with beds thicker than 6ft however, when Rs

is much lower than Rt the adjacent formations may have noticeable effect which can be

corrected by the use of appropriate charts.

IES Equipment and Graphical Representation

The instruments used for IES are:

The electrode for measuring the SP;

A conventional instrument for measuring the resistivity such as the 16 Normal.

which is less subject to interference by adjacent formations. This instrument

measures the short range resistivity within an area close to the hole.

An instrument such as the 6FF4O with a long range measurement for an in-

depth examination.

In the presence of shales the conventional and the induction apparatuses should give the

same value because of the absence of a mud-filtrate invaded zone.

Figure 5.13. Shows a typical example of IES (Induction-Electrical Survey). The SP is

recorded on track 1; track 2 is the recording of resistivities as measured with the 16ins

Normal (Short Normal, SN, and Amplified Short Normal) and with the 6FF40; while on track

3 is the recording of conductivity as measured by the 6FF40.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 240 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 241 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The Sonic Log is essentially the recording of the time required for a compression sound

wave to cross a given formation thickness.

These travel transit times are recorded as a function of depth while the sonic sonde is being

lifted within the well; these times are inversely proportional to the velocity of sound through

the various formations.

The velocity of sound within the formations below surface level is dependent on the elastic

properties of the rock, formation porosity, contained fluids and pressure.

Below the aerated zone, characterised by low velocity and which may extend to 10-30m,

sound velocity may vary from a value of 2,000m/sec, as it is the case with shallow shales, to

8,000m/sec in the case of dolomites. This very wide spread of values, about fourfold

between maximum values, is certainly well below the extreme resistivity values that may be

encountered, that may be 1,000 and even 10,000 times as large.

Even so, the Sonic Log offers a high degree of resolution with such a faithful reproduction

of lithologic variations as to be perhaps the log best suited for correlating purposes.

With hard or moderately compacted formations and with low-porosity shales, the Sonic Log

is much affected by the amount of formation fluid so that it offers a dependable indication of

their porosities. It is however necessary that the fluid be the same at any depth to avoid the

porosity values to be affected.

On the part of the Drilling Engineer, the Sonic Log is mainly used for calculating overburden

and pore pressure gradients.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 242 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 5.14. Is a sketch showing three types of sondes used for Sonic Log recording. To the

left (Figure 5.14a) is the simplest type comprising a sound generator and a receiver below

it, set at a predetermined distance. The body of the sonde, between receiver and generator,

must be made of slow-speed material so as to delay the detection of the energy through the

sonde itself up to the time when the round pulse passing through the formation has been

received. Once the sound pulse has been generated, the energy crosses the mud and the

cake within the formation and propagates throughout the space.

That part of this energy pulse, which excites the receiver, moves through the formations

close to the walls of the hole following the path of shortest time. Some ten or one hundred

microseconds later the energy, which has crossed the mud and the body of the sonde,

reaches the receiver which has been de-sensitised in the meantime by an appropriate

circuit: this energy pulse is not recorded.

The actual path covered by the sound is marked, very schematically, to the very right of the

sonde. The total time T1, between sound generation and its detection obviously includes

twice the time for crossing the mud and the cake. Though its numerical value is low, this

interval of time is appreciable and it must be accounted for. Any deviation in the diameter of

the borehole will also bear on the travel time by quantities which are more or less known.

Figure 5.14b, to the right, shows the two-receiver sonde as used by Schlumberger. Each of

the two spacings must be chosen (with the receivers one or two ft apart), on the basis of the

amount of details desired. In actual practice, the two receivers record the time difference

between detection and pulse generation. This system offers some immediate advantages

over the one-receiver sonde.

A careful check of the energy path (to the right of the sonde), reveals that the travel time

through the mud and the cake are left out, as long as the hole diameter does not change

within the zone between the receiving units or as long as the sonde is kept in a position

parallel to the hole; this can be obtained because of the use of centring devices.

The travel time recorded, t, is the time required for the energy to cross one foot of

formation, so that it is the reciprocal of the velocity of sound through that same foot of

formation.

Furthermore, the signal is only affected by that portion of the formation between the

receivers, so that, for layers thicker than one foot, the effect due to the adjacent layer is

removed.

All told, the one-receiver sonde reduces the effect of travel time through mud and cake as

the distance between generator and receiver is increased, it provides a very detailed log,

but it is more sensitive to variations in hole diameter and to the effect of bed thickness and

requires a larger energy output from the generator. None of these disadvantages affects

the two-receiver sonde.

Figure 5.15. Shows the more recent BHC-SL sonde developed by Schlumberger. It

essentially consists of two pulse generators, S1 and S2, and four receivers; R1-R2-R3,-R4; the

distance R1-R3, and R2-R4 is two ft. The speed is calculated by measuring the transit time

difference for a pulse moving from S1 to R2 and R1 and, similarly, for a pulse from S2 to R1,

and R3, the two differences are then averaged.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 243 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Of more recent application is the Long Spacing, Sonic Log with further improvements meant

to eliminate the influence of the borehole. A further improvement should be obtained by the

introduction of the DD-BHC (Depth Derived Borehole Compensated) Sonic Log, having

construction features likely to achieve more accurate t measurements.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 244 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Delta t being the reciprocal of speed, it has a value somewhere between the lower limit of

43.5ft/sec for porositys next to zero and the upper limit of 190-200ft/sec for water.

The values for t (Interval Transit Time) is recorded on log tracks 2 and 3 while track 1 is

commonly, though seldom, used far SP or Gamma Ray recording (Figure 5.16). On track 2

the integrated Travel Time (ITT) is also recorded and it shows as a series of dents called

pips. It is a Sonic-Log recording after automatic integration over a well-defined interval and

represents the average time required for the wave to cross a given formation interval.

Each small pip represents a 1msec increment of the total time while a larger pip represents

a 10msec increment. The ITT is used, as shown later on, for a quick calculation of the

apparent density value for a given formation interval.

Alongside its use for SP or Gamma Ray, track 1 may be used for the Calliper by means of

which the diameter of the borehole may be obtained and hence, far establishing whether it

is representative or not of the formation being investigated.

FDC Basic Principle

The FDC measures the densities of formations as they are being drilled SO that it accounts

for matrix density as well as the densities of the impregnating fluids.

It is also used to identify zones with abnormal pressure. It is known in fact that the

overpressured formations have lower densities than normal ones because of the higher

water content.

The measuring instrument consists of a radioactive source, applied the walls of the hole

within a shielded skid which sends off gamma rays into the surrounding formations. These

gamma rays may be considered as high-speed particles (photons) colliding with the

electrons of the atoms of the formation being tested. For each collision, the gamma ray

gives up part of its energy to the electrons of the atoms while the photon continues on along

its path with decreased energy. Such an interaction is known as Compton scattering and

Figure 5.17. Shows this phenomenon.

The gamma rays, ensuing from the collisions and reaching the detectors located at a pre-

determinate distance from the source, are the data with which the formation density is

calculated. The number of Compton scattering collisions bears a direct relation to the

number of electrons within the formation. As a result, the instrument response is essentially

a function of the formation electron density (number of electrons per cm3) directly related to

the formation density, which in turn depends on matrix density, formation porosity and fluid

densities.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 245 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 246 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

FDC Apparatus

For a satisfactory measurement of the density of the formations, the instrument being used

must be in direct contact with the rock to be tested and, therefore, it must be capable of

overcoming the mud cake between the well and the formation. This is the reason why the

skid, on which source and receiver are mounted, is plough-shaped and provided with an

eccentric arm which allows the application of a force such as to favour the opening of a

crack on the wall of the hole, thus allowing a more accurate measurement. In the normal

case, it is easier to cut through the soft cakes usually encountered at shallow and medium

depths, while at higher depths the harder cake offers a higher resistance. In the latter case

the cake, or the mud left between the instrument and the formation, is considered to be part

of the formation and an erroneous density value is the result.

When the contact between skid and formation is not perfect a correction is needed and,

when a single gamma ray detector is used, it is not easy to determine the error because it

depends on the thickness, the weight and even the composition of the mud cake.

For this reason the FDC instrument is equipped with two detectors, one for short and one

for long-range measurements (Figure 5.18.).

Using the diagram in Figure 5.19 uses short and long-range measurements for obtaining

the correct value for the formation density. In the normal case the instrument automatically

provides the correction; in fact the correction curve is also normally present alongside the

apparent density curve. The distance between the face of the skid contacting the formation

and the eccentric arm provides a Calliper Log and, hence, a continuos measurement of

borehole diameter.

Figure 5.20. and Figure 5.21. Show the corrections needed when hole diameters are larger

than 15ins in the presence of gas and filled with mud. These corrections are negligible for

holes smaller than 10ins.

The log is as shown in Figure 5.22. The FDC curve is recorded on tracks 2 and 3 with

density values given in g/cm; the correction curve (showing the compensation for the cake

and the irregularities of the hole) is recorded on track 3.

The Calliper instead, is recorded on track 1 (sometimes simultaneously with the Gamma

Ray curve) and it turns out to be very important to establish those points where density

readings are not correct.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 247 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 248 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 249 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 250 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The electrical logs described above, allow for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of

pressure gradients:

The Overburden Gradient is calculated from the SL and FDC logs;

The Pore Pressure Gradient is calculated from the IES, SL and FDC logs;

The Fracture Gradient, although it does not use any log, is a direct consequence

of their application.

Overburden Gradient Calculations using the Sonic Log

The present chapter describes the currently used method for calculating overburden

gradients using FDC and SL. While the FDC method is simple and direct, the one based on

the SL is more complicated since it involves converting transit times into bulk densities and

then into overburden gradients (also defined as the integrated sediment density).

The set-up of this method has been considered necessary since pore pressure and fracture

gradients, which are essential during planning and drilling of a well, can be calculated from

the overburden gradients.

While the FDC is only available for a few wells and is limited to short intervals, the Sonic

Log is recorded for all wells and covers almost the whole drilled section; for this reason a

relationship between transit times and density has been sought.

Due to the fact that bulk and transit times are closely related and dependent on porosity,

type of fluids within the rock, minerals making up the solid frame, pressure and elastic

property of the medium, the porosity/transit times relationship has been checked by using

the cp. = t values obtained in the laboratory. The transit time-apparent (or bulk) density

relationship has also been checked, and the density values obtained in both cases have

been matched against those read directly from the FDC.

The analysis, covered in detail in the following paragraphs, has confirmed the general

validity of the relationships found and the reliability of the density values obtained from

reading the Sonic Log, both in the case of elastic and Carbonate formations.

This method was developed and refined by Eni-Agip.

The time required for a sound wave to pass through a given formation is a function of the

transit time through the solid frame, of the porosity and of the transit time through the pore

fluid.

Wyllie, after much testing, carne to the conclusion that for sands compacted and cemented

according to a well-defined porosity distribution, the following relationship between t and .

holds:

t = tmax (1-) + tn Eq. 5.14

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 251 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Where:

t = Transit time of sound through the formation (sec/ft)

tmax = Transit time of sound through the solid frame (sec/ft)

tn = Transit time of sound the pore fluid (sec/ft)

Eq. 5.14 may be expressed in terms of porosity:

t t max

=

t n t max

Where:

tn = Is assumed to have a value of 200sec/ft (a conservative value for pore

pressure gradient calculations)

tmax = Values are assumed to be those in Table 5.1.

tmax

Solid Frame

(sec/ft)

Dolomite 43.5

Limestone 43.5 47.5

Anhydrite 50.0

Gypsum 66.7

Various Grain Types 47.6 55.6

Shale 47.0 (ass.)

Table 5.1 - Transit Times Through Solid Frame

Wyllies equation also equals zero in the case of compacted limestones and dolomites,

where no secondary porosity is present.

In the case of uncemented or under-compacted formations, the preceding relationship no

longer holds when determining the primary porosity of the formation. In fact, the values are

higher than those obtained in the subsurface. .

Eni-Agip, after a series of laboratory tests on rock cores determined the following

relationships to be valid:

t t max Eq. 5.15

= 1.228 for sands

t + 200

t t max Eq. 5.16

= 1.268 for shales

t + 200

The above relationships have been confirmed during actual drilling. In fact, density values

deter-mined by the FDC and total density values calculated from the relationship shown

above have been found to correspond very closely.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 252 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The relationship between porosity and density of a rock may be obtained using the effective

tension principle.

For each subsurface rock volume within a defined depth interval, the following equation

exists:

This represents the pressure change between the two surfaces at different depths.

In the above-mentioned interval a constant value far density can be assumed, and a certain

volume for the rock formation can be defined.

Eq. 5.17 may therefore be written in the following way:

Where

b = Total density

max = Density of the solid frame

fl = Density of the pore fluid

Vb = Total volume

Vmax = Volume of the solid frame

Vfl = Volume occupied by the pore fluid

When Eq. 5.18 is solved for b the result is:

Vmax V Eq. 5.19

b = max + n n

Vb Vb

The volume Vb is connected to Vmax and Vfl by the following relationship:

and by defining:

Vfl

= if SW = 100%

Vb

Vb Vfl V Eq. 5.21

b = max + fl fl

Vb Vb

so that:

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 253 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

By combining the relationships ( - t), ( - b) the relationships (b - t) are obtained

For cemented and compacted formations:

t Eq. 5.23

= 3.28

88.95

For uncemented formations

t t max Eq. 5.24

b = 2.75 2.11

t + 200

When expressed in terms of velocity, these same relationships become:

For cemented and compacted formations

3428.89 Eq. 5.23

b = 3.28

V Bis

V Eq. 5.24

1

6489.36 Bis

b 2.75 2.11

V

1+

1525

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 254 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

It should be noted that 2.75 (g/cm ) is the value assumed for max and 1.03(g/cm ) for fl.

3 3

Eq. 5.23 and Eq. 5.24 give approximately equal values for low transit times (t between 40

and 60sec/ft) and therefore for high velocities (Figure 5.23. -Figure 5.24.); for high t

values, instead, they are quite different.

In order to check these relationships, density values obtained through Eq. 5.23 and Eq.

5.24 were compared with those values obtained from the FDC, which gives bulk density

values as a function of depth.

In the cases examined, referring to different areas around the World and different

formations, it was noted that the values given by Eq. 5.23, which were assumed to hold for

uncemented formations, are actually close to FDC density values under all conditions.

Figure 5.25 - Figure 5.32show the FDC density values (dashed line) and those obtained by

Eq. 5.24 (dotted line) as a function of depth.

In particular for Figure 5.29 and Figure 5.30., both the values obtained from Eq. 5.23 (dots)

and those obtained from Eq. 5.24 (dashes) were reported. In the first case the two

relationships give results which are quite similar, because of the presence of Limestones

(low t values). In the second case, with altering sands and shales, the values are

noticeably dissimilar and it can be noted that the values from Eq. 5.24 match quite faithfully

the average density values from the FDC.

In conclusion it can be said that for calculation ease, Eq. 5.24 may be applied to all types of

formations in order to avoid distinguishing between cemented and uncemented formations,

which is sometimes difficult.

Table 5.2 gives a list of the most common values for max:

(g/cm3)

Quartz 2.654

Limestone 2.710

Dolomite 2.87

Anhydrite 2.96

Shale 2.70

Table 5.2 - Density Values of Solid Frames

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 255 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(For some Rock Types)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 256 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(For some Rock Types)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 257 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 5.25 - Comparison Between Bulk Densities from FDC and Sl (Central PO Valley)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 258 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(Give the same Bulk Density and are in good accordance with FDC values)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 259 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(Buld Density derived from Eq. 5.23 are in better accordance with FDC values than those

obtained from Eq. 5.22)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 260 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 5.28 - Comparison Between Bulk Densities from FDC and SL (Indonesia Offshore)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 261 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 5.29 - Comparison Between Bulk Densities from FDC and SL (Mauritania Onshore)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 262 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 5.30 - Comparison Between Bulk Density from FDC and Sl (Nile Delta-Egypt)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 263 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 5.31 - Comparison Between Bulk Densities from FDC and SL (Adriatic Offshore)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 264 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 5.32 - Comparison Between Bulk Densities from FDC and SL (Adriatic Offshore)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 265 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The SL gives the transit time value, t, as a function of depth.

Eq. 5.24 changes the t values into the corresponding density values (bulk density).

For each AH interval there is a corresponding density value.

Therefore, the geostatic pressure increment, Pov far that interval can be calculated. The

equation used for calculating the increment is:

Hi bi Eq. 5.25

POVi =

10

The pressure exerted by the sediments at a depth Hi = Hi is obtained from the sum of the

pressures exerted by each formation interval, having a height of H that is:

1

POV =

10

(H i bi ) = POVi Eq. 5.26

From this relationship, the overburden gradient can be obtained by distributing the resulting

pressure value over the whole interval H, so that:

G OV =

P OVi

=

POV

x 10

Eq. 5.27

H i H

For a correct evaluation of the At corresponding to a given Hi, the following procedure is

suggested:

1) The number of milliseconds elapsed for the sound wave to cross the formation interval

having thickness AH is read (this is done by counting the ITT pips on the SL to the

left.

2) This value is multiplied by 1,000 to change milliseconds into microseconds, and is

divided by the value of AH; in order to obtain the values of At, measured in sec/ft, H

must be changed from meters to ft by dividing by 3.28.

3) The final expression takes the form:

K x 1000 Eq. 5.28

t =

3.28 x H

where:

K = Milliseconds required far passing through a section of formation of

height H.

This value for t represents the average transit time in the interval H.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 266 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Sample Calculation

The following example refers to a well in which the SL recording started at 279m and ended

at 1,500m.

1) In the interval 279-307m; the readings are:

K = 7

H = 28m

so that by applying Eq. 5.28, the following value is obtained:

7 x 1,000

t = = 76.2 sec/ ft

3.28 x 28

SL recordings (and even more so, FDC recordings) almost always start at a given depth.

For this reason it is necessary to extrapolate the values up to the surface. The procedure is

as follows:

2

for on-shore wells the surface Gov value may vary between 1.9 and 1.95 g/cm

10m (depending on the area being investigated)

for off-shore wells, given that the depths read from the logs refer to the Rotary

Table level, the air gap (height of rotary table-sea level) and sea depth have to

be taken into account.

3

If a density value of 1.03 g/cm is assumed for sea water, the pressure on the sea

floor is calculated:

P =

1.03 x Hm

10

(

kg / cm 2 ) Eq. 5.29

Where:

Hm = Water depth, m

So that the Gov value on the sea floor is given by:

10P Eq. 5.30

GOV =

Hm + H1

Where:

H1 = Ar gap, m

2) in the interval 307-327m:

K = 4

H = 20m

4 x 1000

t = = 61 sec/ ft

3.28 x 20

3) and so on, as given below:

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 267 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

H(m) t(sec/ft)

279-307 76.2

307-327 61

327-344 53.8

344-354 61

354-375 58

375-397 55.4

397-420 52

420-461 52.7

461-487 59

487-510 53

510-636 51

636-710 62

710-777 54.6

777-815 56.2

815-925 56.6

925-1,275 52.3

1,275-1,500 53

Table 5.3 - Example Calculation

The transit times are then changed to b, Pov and Gov, as shown in Table 5.4 and in Figure

5.33.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 268 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 5.33- Comparison Between Gov from SL and FDC (In Carbonates PO Valley Basin)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 269 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

H t b Pov Gov

400.0 465.0 52.0 2.71 112.90 2.43

465.0 485.0 60.0 2.65 118.21 2.44

485.0 640.0 52.0 2.71 160.34 2.51

640.0 690.0 61.0 2.65 173.59 2.52

690.0 710.0 66.0 2.61 178.81 2.52

710.0 775.0 55.0 2.69 196.33 2.53

775.0 805.0 57.0 2.67 204.37 2.54

805.0 900.0 53.0 2.71 230.11 2.56

900.0 975.0 52.0 2.71 250.50 2.57

975.0 1,050.0 54.0 2.70 270.77 2.58

1,050.0 1,200.0 51.0 2.72 311.66 2.60

1,200.0 1,300.0 52.0 2.71 338.84 2.61

1,300.0 1,400.0 54.0 2.70 365.86 2.61

1,400.0 1,500.0 53.0 2.71 392.92 2.62

1,500.0 1,550.0 52.0 2.71 406.55 2.62

1,550.0 1,600.0 53.0 2.71 420.10 2.63

1,600.0 1,700.0 52.0 2.71 447.28 2.63

1,700.0 1,850.0 53.0 2.71 487.94 2.64

1,850.0 1,925.0 52.0 2.71 508.32 2.64

1,925.0 2,015.0 51.0 2.72 532.85 2.64

2,015.0 2,150.0 46.0 2.76 570.20 2.65

2,150.0 2,225.0 47.0 2.75 590.89 2.66

2,225.0 2,250.0 50.0 2.73 597.72 2.66

2,250.0 2,410.0 54.0 2.70 640.96 2.66

2,410.0 2,450.0 47.0 2.75 651.99 2.66

2,450.0 2,495.0 52.0 2.71 664.22 2.66

2,530.0 2,537.0 52.0 2.71 675.81 2.66

2,537.0 2,590.0 50.0 2.73 690.30 2.67

2,590.0 2,750.0 54.0 2.70 733.54 2.67

2,750.0 2,800.0 47.0 2.75 747.53 2.67

2,800.0 2,900.0 52.0 2.71 774.53 2.67

2,900.0 3,150.0 60.0 2.65 840.93 2.67

3,150.0 3,400.0 44.0 2.78 910.50 2.68

3,400.0 3,550.0 44.0 2.78 952.25 2.68

Table 5.4 - Gov Calculations from Sonic Log

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 270 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The FDC Log gives the bulk density of the sediments as a function of depth. In order to

arrive at the value of the overburden gradient, it is necessary to calculate the pressure at a

given depth as the sum of the load exerted by the individual layers, each one having a

density value obtained from the Log reading:

POV POVi = (Hi bi ) / 10 Eq. 5.31

Once the Pov value has been calculated using Eq. 5.31, it is necessary only to divide it by

H=Hi in order to obtain Gov.

POV 10

(Hi bi )/ 10

10

G OV = 10

H

=

H

Povi =

H

Eq. 5.32

where:

b = Sediment bulk density (g/cm3) as read from the FDC

Hi = Depth interval for the formation having the same b value

2

Gov = Overburden gradient, kg/cm *10m

H = (Hi) Depth for which Gov is calculated, m

The procedure for calculating Gov is as follows:

1) Plot the density readings as a function of depth onto graph paper. The density value

obtained for each depth interval is an average density value for that interval.

The choice has to be made with a degree of accuracy as to minimise the effect of the

corrections made.

When reading the total density particular attention must be paid to the Calliper which

is recorded on track 1 of the log. This makes it possible to determine the reliability of

the density value; in fact, a variation in the bore diameter from its nominal value could

increase the effect of the mud on the value of Qb, thus introducing false values into

the calculation of the overburden gradient.

A line is thus obtained through which a continuous curve can be drawn.

2) Integration is then carried out as follows: in the equation, which gives the integrated

sediment density, the summation is replaced with the integral and Simpsons rule is

applied.

3) Choose an interval Hi - Hi-1 , = H; and divide it into an equal number of parts ( n = 4).

4) Calculate the value of GOV, over the first interval with the equation:

10 H

(H) dH = ( b1 + b 2 + b 3 + b 4 + b5 )

10 Hi Eq.

G OV1 =

H H0

H1 4 x 3 x 10

5.33

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 271 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Where:

b,1 = (H0) Is the density as read at a depth H = H0

H

b 2 = H0 +

4

2 H

b 3 = H0 +

4

3H

b 4 = H0 + up to b5 = (H1)

4

5) Once the pressure value Pov1 and the integrated density Gov1 for depth H1, have been

calculated, the pressure increase Pov2 for the next interval H2 H1 = H2 is

calculated, so that for depth H2:

POV 2 = POV1 + POV 2

G OV 2 =

10 POV 2 (P + POV 2 )

= 10 OV1

H2 H2

and so on.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 272 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Sample calculation

Let us assume the following FDC log readings to be available:

H(m) b(g/cm3)

279-300 2.62

300-307 2.47

307-325 2.57

325-350 2.63

350-395 2.62

395-405 2.60

405-475 2.63

475-628 2.65

628-710 2.55

710-725 2.62

725-835 2.65

835-860 2.62

860-1,000 2.65

1,000-1,050 2.63

1,050-1,175 2.62

1,175-1,200 2.63

1,200-1,250 2.64

1,250-1,300 2.63

1,300-1,350 2.65

1,350-1,375 2.66

1,375-1,400 2.64

1,400-1,450 2.63

1,450-1,500 2.64

Table 5.5 - Example FDC Data

These values have been plotted in Figure 5.34 and a broken line has thus been obtained

through which a continuos curve has been grown.

H

By choosing H = 200 and n = 4, a value of = 50m is thus set for each individual

4

interval.

In this way the density values on the continuous curve have been read every 50m.

Integration was then carried out according to the procedure just explained and the results

are shown in Table 5.6:

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 273 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 5.34 - Bulk Density and Overburden Gradient Calculation (from FDC)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 274 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

b(g/cm2)

H(m) Kg/cm2 Kg/cm2 10m

0 1.95

50 2.15

150 2.27

200 2.35 44.85 2.24

250 2.42

300 2.47

350 2.53

400 2.57 95.23 2.38

450 2.59

500 2.60

550 2.61

600 2.62 147.43 2.46

650 2.63

700 2.64

750 2.64

800 2.64 200.22 2.50

850 2.64

900 2.64

950 2.65

1,000 2.65 253.11 2.53

1,050 2.65

1,100 2.65

1,150 2.65

1,200 2.65 306.19 2.55

1,250 2.65

1,300 2.65

1,350 2.65

1,400 2.66 359.29 2.57

1,450 2.66

1,500 2.67

1,550 2.68

1,600 2.69 412.74 2.58

Table 5.6 - Sample Calculation for Gov from FDC

The density values could have also been read at the selected depths (every 50m) on the

broken line rather than the curve.

This procedure would not have changed the resulting Gov values substantially.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 275 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Shale Formation Factor Method Fsh

Rock Resistivity and/or Conductivity

The resistivity of a given material is defined as the resistance of a unit volume to the

passage of electric current. This is expressed as:

VS Eq. 5.34

R=

IL

Where:

V = Potential differenceI = current

I = Current

S = Cross section

L = Length

In dimensional terms, it is a resistance per unit of length. The unit commonly used is the

ohm m.

a) Resistivity of Minerals

Minerals, like all substances, may be classified as metallic conductors, semi-

conductors and insulators depending on their conductivity.

In metal conductors, electricity is conducted by means of valence electrons that are

free to move from one atom to another. This conductivity is limited only by the

presence of impurities and lattice defects and by thermal agitation. Resistivity values

are in the range of 10 10

-3 -6

Semiconductors include those metals in which conduction still occurs through the flow

of electrons but in which the conductivity value is lower than in the case of pure

metals.

The majority of the most common minerals within the lithosphere belongs to the

insulator group with resistivities on the order of 10 10

-6 -14

ohm. m at room

temperature. The flow of current takes place by means of ions, mostly metallic cations

which, because of the smaller ionic radius, move more easily within the crystal lattice.

a) Resistivity of Subsurface Fluids

In additions to the minerals, there are also fluids present in porous rocks.

In most cases, these fluids are made up of water with some salt content; in some

cases, liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons are present.

While hydrocarbons, gases and air have very high resistivity values, highly saline

water may be very conductive thereby affecting the resistivity of the rocks in which it is

present. It is the presence of ions that makes water a conductor and its conductivity is

a function of their concentration and mobility. Furthermore, it is also a function of

temperature. Chlorides (NaCl being extremely common), carbonates and sulphates

are most common salts in subsurface waters.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 276 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The resistivity of rock depends on the resistivity of the minerals present and their

texture but, most of all on the presence (or absence) of water within pores or

fractures.

Consider the case or porous or fractured rocks with water present and let us

differentiate between rocks with quite wide pore sizes and clays, with such small pore

sizes that the movement of the water present in hindered.

The first group includes the water-saturated porous-permeable rocks.

As a rule, except for some sealed voids which are typical of some rocks, the various

rock pores make up a continuous system filled with material which is definitely more

conductive than the rock-forming materials. These materials, therefore, do not

contribute anything towards the flow of electricity which is in fact due essentially to the

water.

It has been proved experimentally that when a sample of rock is filled with a sequence

of waters having different resistivity values R,, the resistivity of the rock will vary in

such a way that the ratio of its resistivity to that of the water remains constant:

R Eq. 5.35

F=

Rw

The constant F called the Formation Factor, is a unique characteristic of each type of

rock; it makes it possible to calculate the rock resistivity once the resistivity of the

absorbed water is known. It has been proved that the F factor is inversely

proportional to porosity. On the basis of experimental tests, it was been observed that

this relationship can be expressed by an equation such as Archies Law:

F=a x

m Eq. 5.36

Where:

= Porosity

a = Constant

m = Cementation factor, related to the intricate nature of the channels and

to the variations in their cross-section.

Let us now examine a rock made up of clay minerals. Even though these rock are

very porous, because of the very fine grain of the minerals, they have a very low

permeability and very high surface activity.

Experiments carried out on shale samples have given results which do not concur with

Archies Law. The disagreement in the resistivity values is due to the likelihood of

interchange between the cations present in the absorbed water and those absorbed

on the surface of the clay minerals.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 277 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Therefore, when shale is impregnated with water at low salinity, a portion of the

absorbed cations will migrate into the water which as a result becomes more

conductive. On the contrary, when water is highly saline, part of the cations will be

adsorbed by the shale and, because of the lower mobility of the adsorbed ions, the

shale shows a higher resistance than would be expected when Eq. 5.35 is applied.

If the actual value of Rw could be measured, this would make Eq. 5.35 applicable and

would make subsequent evaluation of porosity possible.

When the Fsh method is introduced later on, the procedure for calculating the actual

Rw will be looked at.

How Fsh is Defined

As we have seen in the paragraph covering rock resistivity, a Formation Factor for shales

may also be defined and expressed as follows:

R sh 1 Eq. 5.37

Fsh = ; Fsh = x 1000

RW C shR W

where:

Rsh = Shale resistivity

Csh = Shale conductivity

Rw = Resistivity of the water contained

(Rm)e = Mud filtrate equivalent resistivity

(Rw)e = Water equivalent resistivity

For the case of muds essentially containing sodium chloride, (Rmf)e, is obtained as follows:

If Rmf at 75F is higher than 0.1ohm m, correct Rmf for the formation temperature

using the Gen-9 diagram and use the following relationship: (Rmf)e = 0.85 Rmf

If Rmf at 75F is lower than 0.1ohm/m. use the SP-2 A-12 diagram in order to

obtain (Rmf)e, at formation temperature. (Rw)e is calculated from (Rw)e =

(Rmf)e/(Rmf)e/(Rw)e

* Schlumberger SP-2 A-12 diagram which makes the evaluation of Rw possible once (Rw)e

is known (Figure 5.35)

In the case of salt-water mud or mud containing gypsum, the diagram makes the evaluation

of Rw (possible beginning with (R), at formation temperature.

Before describing the procedure for calculating the R, curve, the quantities (Rmf)e and (Rw)e

presented above need to be made clear. As we have seen in the chapter on logs, the SSP

far a clean sand formation is related to the activity of the filtrate and that of the formation

water by the following expression:

aw R Eq. 5.38

PSS = K log = K log mf

a mf Rw

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 278 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

In NaCI solutions, which are not too highly concentrated, the activity is, in fact, inversely

proportional to the resistivity of the solution.

For higher NaCI concentrations or other kinds of solutions, the linear relationship between

resistivity and activity for the solution does no longer hold ; in order to maintain the linearity,

the quantities (Rmf)e and (Rw)e are introduced; the SSP is then given by:

(Rmf )e Eq. 5.39

PSS = K Log

(R w )e

By following the procedure just described, the sampling of formation water which is

necessary to measure resistivity is by-passed and under favourable conditions. The K,

curve obtained is quite reliable.

The SSP value is measured against the shale base line (reference line) which may be

traced by joining the peaks on the positive side of the curve. Usually the shale is a straight

vertical line. Figure 5.36. Shows a typical shale fine along a section of a shaly-sandy

formation.

It is also a good idea to trace a similar line along the negative side of the curve,

corresponding to the permeable layers. This is the sand line which, for appreciable

stretches of the log, runs parallel to the shale line.

It is highly probable that for all layers where the SP peaks reach the sand line the following

conditions will be encountered:

Water formation resistance will be practically the same.

The layers will be practically free from shaly materials.

The amplitudes of the excursions will be equal to the SSP.

For the other layers, the excursion amplitudes as measured from the shale base line are

usually less than the difference between the readings at the sand base line and those taken

at the shale line, i.e. of the SSP. This may be due to the effect of geometrical distribution of

the media along the path of the SP current, i.e. effects of layer thickness, of the well, of the

invasion, etc.

The reduced excursion amplitude may also result from the presence of appreciable

amounts of interstitial shale in the sands.

Laboratory experiments, using a resistive network, have been made, in order to establish

the effect of geometric distribution and resistivity of the media on the SP and also with the

objective of evaluating the corrections due to such factors. As an example, Figure 5.37

shows some data for a formation with a thickness of e = 10 d (i.e., ten times the diameter of

the well), with invasion diameter Di = 2.05 d, and Rs = Rm.

It seems necessary that all these factors be known in order to arrive at the correct value for

the ratio between SP and the SSP.

It can be expected, at least in the most favourable instances, that these factors will be

determined through the application of resistivity measurement methods. In the meantime

approximated corrections can be made by using simplified empirical charts.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 279 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 280 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 281 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 282 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Figure 5.37 - SP Curves Departure and Relevant Parameters (for a 10d thickness layer)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 283 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

For each SP reading, the formation temperature is also calculated using the curve drawn

with the temperatures obtained at the Iog headings.

The value of Rmf as given on the Schlumberger log headings, is corrected by means of the

Gen-9 diagram for the formation temperature.

Figure 5.39 Gives a sample calculation for Rmf at a given temperature.

Point A gives the value of Rmf (Rmf = 1.2ohm/m) at the temperature at which the

measurement was taken, i.e., at 75F. The value of Rmf at the temperatures expected for

the various formations, is obtained by following the trend of the slanted lines (constant

salinity). in the case being considered, at a temperature of 106F, the value of Rmf is 0.56

ohm/m. This same procedure is to be followed for all points being considered.

After temperature correction, the Rmf values are changed into the corresponding (Rmf)e

values (Figure 5.40). The change is performed as follows:

For NaCl solutions

1) if Rmf at 75F is higher than 0.1 ohm/m, then (Rmf)e = 0.85-Rmf

2) if Rmf at 75F is lower than 0.1 ohm/ m, (Rmf)e is obtained by using the

SP-2 A-12 diagram.

For other types of solutions:

For gypsum-based muds the same diagram as before is used, while, for muds

containing Mg and Ca, there are special calculation procedures.

In any case, however, calcium-rich muds usually contain negligible

++

percentages of Ca in solution so that they may be treated like normal muds.

Evaluation of (Rw)e,

Knowing the ratios (Rmf)e,/(Rw)e may be calculated for each point being considered.

Evaluation of RW

Once (Rw)e has been found Rw is obtained at the various formation temperatures by using

the SP-2 A-12 diagram.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 284 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

On semi-log paper, plot the Rw values obtained as a function of depth and draw a

regression curve through those points. This curve is called the Rw curve for the well. Each

point on the Rw curve represents the most probable Rw value at that particular depth, under

the assumption that the formation is 100% saturated with water (SW = 100%).

It is necessary to point out that the larger the number of points taken into consideration the

closer the curve will be to reality. It is obvious that if only a few measurements are taken a

precise reproduction of the actual subsurface situation cannot be made. In such a case the

difficulty can be overcome by using the. Average Rw Curve for the zone being investigated

when it is available from previous work. It is calculated by utilising all of the RW values

obtained from nearby wells drilled in that area, though at times RW values at the various

depths may differ from one well to another; a scarcely reliable value is thus introduced into

the calculation for Fsh and, as a consequence, the evaluation of pore pressure gradients is

also affected.

To determine the most pertinent value for Rsh the procedure below is followed.

On track 2 of the IES log, short range and long range resistivity measurements are

recorded. The points where the two curves overlap, or where they come very close

together, are considered to be clean shale points; the conductivity Csh corresponding to

these points is read on track 3. It is obvious that those points where such overlapping

occurs have SP values that coincide with the shale base line.

Once the Rw curve for the well concerned and the Csh values at the clean shale points

have been obtained, one proceeds as follows.

The Rw values are read on the Rw vs. Depth Curve for the same depths at which the C

readings have been taken on the IES. The value obtained is the actual Rw, which then

makes it possible to apply Archies Law to the shales.

Evaluation of Fsh

Now that the Rw and Csh values are available, the value of Fsh can be calculated as defined

in Eq. 5.37.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 285 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The Fsh values are now plotted as a function of depth on semi-log paper with Fsh on the X-

axis (log scale) and depth on the Y-axis. It is suggested that a depth scale of 1/2,000 (or

1/10,000) be used, so that 200m (or 100m) of well depth will correspond to 1cm on the

graph for easy reading and for a better evaluation of the curves.

This method provides far qualitative evaluations, such as overpressure tops and their trends

as a function of depth, as well as for the quantitative evaluation of pore pressure gradient

when elastic formations are present especially with frequent sand-shale interbeddings. The

reliability of the results obtained during the predictive stage is highly dependent upon the

evaluation criteria used by the Drilling Engineers thus requiring experience and awareness

on their part.

The analytical method is based on plotting the Fsh values on a semi-log graph with depth on

the Y axis and the Fsh values on the x axis. Once the points read on the logs have been

plotted, interpretation follows and at this stage the same considerations are made as when

the seismic data were analysed which means the use of the equivalent depth principle.

The analytical procedure can be summarised as follows:

1) For elastic formations, characterised by sand and shale interbeddings under normal

sedimentation and compaction conditions, the points in the graph feature a regular

and progressive increase in values which approaches a straight line called the normal

compaction line. In this case the pore pressure gradient is hydrostatic.

2) If Fsh values decrease at a certain depth. This indicates the possible presence of

formations, which have porosity greater than what is considered normal at that

particular depth, The point at which the downtrend begins is defined as the

overpressure top. Once the top has been established the next step concerns the

calculation of pore pressure gradients at various depths. The procedure used for this

calculation, as noted above, is the equivalent depth principle.

According to this principle, under homogeneous lithological conditions, formations which are

characterised by the same Fsh value will have the same porosity and, therefore, will be

subject to the same compaction pressure, even if they are located at different depths.

Therefore, once the geostatic pressure has been calculated at a given depth, the formation

pressure, and hence the pore pressure gradient, can be determined by a simple

subtraction.

In order to clarify what has been described above, sample calculation is presented in the

following paragraph.

Fsh as defined above when pores are saturated, is a function of shale porosity and thus of

the compaction pressure of the formation at a fixed depth. Its measurement makes it

possible to distinguish between the normally compacted subsurface zones, i.e. with

hydrostatic gradient, and those which are undercompacted and thus to recognise those

formations with abnormal pore pressures and gradients

In fact, rock resistivity varies with salt content; in normally compacted formations, salinity in-

creases with depth, as does the resistivity of the shale with a consequent decrease in shale

porosity.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 286 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The opposite occurs in the case of undercompacted zones where resistivity increases with

a consequent increase in porosity.

The procedure for calculating Fsh is very tedious and complex because of the practical

impossibility of extracting shale samples for measuring R, from depth; the application of this

method is, therefore, limited to those particular lithologies made up of sand and shale

interbeddings for which an Rw vs depth curve can be drawn

The procedure for calculating Fsh (Shale Formation Factor) may be divided like this:

a) Calculation of the Rw vs depth curve and its evaluation as it corresponds to the

shale points;

b) Calculation of Rsh (shale resistivity) from the IES Log and/or calculation of Csh

(shale conductivity) at the shale points;

c) Calculation of Fsh

In order to calculate Rw values, the following must be available:

A spontaneous potential log in order to determine the static spontaneous

potential (SSP);

The mud filtrate resistivity Rmf and the temperature at which the measurement

has been taken (Figure 5.38). The value is given at the top of the IES Log. This

value is very important in - finding the formation water resistivity Rw since, as we

have already seen, the mud filtrate invades part of the formation volume

surrounding the hole. The value in that area is altered.

The sampling of the mud from which the filtrate is obtained must be carefully

checked in order to achieve a valid value for Rmf. It must always be a circulation

mud sample and not drawn from the reserve pits;

Temperature gradient curve for the well being tested. It is obtained by using the

bottom hole temperatures as read on the logs.

A plot is made of temperature Vs depth and a straight line or regression curve is

drawn with the points on the graph and from here a temperature gradient-depth

diagram is then plotted;

Schlumberger Chart Gen 9 A-6 diagram for calculating Rmf at various depth and

temperatures (Figure 5.39);

Schlumberger SP-1 A-10 diagram (Figure 5.40) for calculating the ratio (Rmf)/

(Rw)e

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 287 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(Schlumberger Log Interpretation Charts)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 288 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(Schlumberger Log Interpretation Charts)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 289 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

(Schlumberger Log Interpretation Charts)

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 290 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

The IES log provides the values listed in columns 1, 2, 3 and 4 of Table 5.5.

Using the Gen-9 diagram, the values for Rmf as listed in column 5, are

determined.

Column 6 is obtained by multiplying the Rmf values by 0.85, since Rmf at 75F is

greater than 0.1 ohm .m.

Diagram SP-1 is used in calculating the ratio (Rmf),/(Rw)e, show in column 7.

(Rw)e in column 8, is obtained by dividing the values in column 6 by chose in

column 7.

Diagram SP-2 is used in calculating Rw values, which are listed in column 9.

The values from Table 5.5 are plotted in Figure 5.41 on a semilogarithmic scale as a

function of depth.

Table 5.6. Shows the values of Fsh as calculated on the basis of Rw obtained from Figure

5.41, and Csh (shale conductivity) read directly from the log.

The Fsh values obtained are then plotted as shown in Figure 5.42. This figure also gives the

calculation of pore pressure gradients at two significant depths, 4,700m and 5,000m. An

examination of the curve reveals increasing Fsh values down to a depth of 4,100m, where

the overpressure top may be located; this indicates that formations down to 4,100m are

normally compacted and, therefore, also normally pressurised. From this point, the gradient

increases rapidly (rapidly decreasing Fsh values) so that at 4,700m Gp has already reached

2

a value of 1.63kg/cm 10m; below 4,700m, Fsh values increase again, but still show

overpressure conditions even though the gradient is decreasing (in fact at 5,000m, Gp =

2

1.53kg/cm 10 m). The same calculation procedure can be applied to any other point on the

curve. It is usually suggested, unless a computer is available to take readings every 100m

and, eventually, to increase the number of readings along the most important intervals of

the curve.

Definition of tsh

As it has been seen when dealing with the calculation of the overburden gradients from the

Sonic Log, interval transit time as measured by the instrument is the time it cakes for a

longitudinal sound wave to cross a certain interval of the formation under investigation. The

result depends on porosity, type of fluid and rock matrix.

When the analysis is limited to clean shales, the transit time, defined as tsh in this case, is

an excellent tool for determining the extent of their compaction or under-compaction when

the fluids contained are of the same type. In fact, a compacted shale will certainly have a

rather low tsh value, whereas for an undercompacted shale the tsh value will be rather

high.

The preceding discussion is valid especially when clean shales are present; in the case of

silty-sandy shales, or those containing other fluids, tsh will be more or less affected

depending on the percentage in which these materials are present. They can be

responsible for the quantitative inaccuracy of this method. It is up to the person responsible

for the interpretation to undertake a careful analysis of all available data in order to make an

objective judgement about their importance.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 291 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

For clean shales under conditions of normal compaction, i.e. with a hydrostatic pore

gradient, transit times tsh should decrease with depth as a consequence of the lower shale

porosity; in conditions of undercompaction however, transit times will increase with depth.

In conclusion, the tsh method permits a precise measurement of the conditions of the

formations crossed, which will be much more accurate if the assumptions made above are

verified.

Depth Temp Temp SSP Rmf At (Rmf)e (Rmt)e/ (Rw)e Rw

m. C F Temp. F (Rw)e

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1,100 33 90 44 0.41 0.35 4.2 0.083 0.1

1,150 35 95 43 0.39 0.33 3.9 0.084 0.097

1,295 38 100 43 0.37 0.32 3.85 0.083 0.096

1,420 40 104 43 0.36 0.31 3.8 0.0815 0.095

1,600 42 107 46 0.35 0.3 4.1 0.073 0.086

1,735 44 110 49 0.34 0.29 4.5 0.064 0.076

1,845 45 113 56 0.33 0.28 5.6 0.05 0.064

1,980 48 118 55 0.32 0.27 5.3 0.051 0.065

2,160 51 123 51 0.30 0.26 4.5 0.058 0.07

2,300 53 127 58 0.295 0.25 5.6 0.045 0.058

2,360 54 130 57 0.29 0.25 5.4 0.046 0.059

2,535 56 132 59 0.285 0.24 5.8 0.041 0.055

2,610 58 135 62 0.28 0.24 6 0.04 0.052

2,650 59 138 62 0.275 0.23 6 0.038 0.051

2,725 60 140 59 0.27 0.23 5.7 0.04 0.052

2,810 62 143 58 0.265 0.22 5.6 0.039 0.051

3,085 65 148 55 0.25 0.21 5.8 0.036 0.048

3,250 67 152 60 0.245 0.21 5.5 0.038 0.049

3,310 68 155 65 0.24 0.20 6.3 0.032 0.042

3,650 71 159 79 0.235 0.20 8.7 0.23 0.036

3,705 74 166 70 0.22 0.19 7 0.27 0.038

4,350 86 188 40 0.098 0.083 2.9 0.287 0.046

4,650 88 192 34 0.14 0.119 2.5 0.048 0.052

4,885 93 200 30 0.135 0.115 2.2 0.052 0.054

5,100 101 214 20 0.11 0.0935 1.65 0.067 0.068

N.B.: up to 2,270m has been used Rmf = 0.528 at 20C from IES

up to 3,190m has been used Rmf = 0.500 at 16C from IES

up to 3,770m has been used Rmf = 0.520 at 18C from IES

up to 4,500m has been used Rmf = 0.290 at 15C from IES

up to 4,915m has been used Rmf = 0.382 at 19C from IES

Table 5.7 - IES Log Data

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 292 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 293 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 294 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Depth Csh (Rw) Csh. Rw Fsh Depth Csh (Rw) Csh. Rw Fsh

m. Calc Csh Rw m. Calc Csh Rw

1,015 580 0.12 69.6 0.014 3,760 290 0.040 11.6 0.086

1,167 550 0.1 55 0.018 3,800 240 0.040 9.6 0.104

1,227 500 0.097 53.4 0.019 3,820 250 0.040 10.0 0.100

1,260 550 0.096 52.8 0.019 3,840 320 0.040 11.2 0.089

1,430 670 0.087 58.3 0.017 3,920 220 0.0405 8.9 0.112

1,513 490 0.083 40.7 0.025 3,970 210 0.041 8.6 0.116

1,532 600 0.082 49.2 0.02 3,990 200 0.041 8.2 0.122

1,558 400 0.081 32.4 0.031 4,030 210 0.041 8.6 0.116

1,635 500 0.078 39.0 0.026 4,070 210 0.041 8.6 0.116

1,700 480 0.076 36.5 0.027 4140 220 0.0415 9.1 0.110

1,793 515 0.072 37.1 0.027 4,120 250 0.0415 10.4 0.096

1,872 560 0.069 38.6 0.026 4,140 250 0.042 10.5 0.095

1,944 530 0.067 35.5 0.028 4,160 290 0.042 12.2 0.082

2,036 525 0.064 33.6 0.030 4,175 180 0.042 7.6 0.132

2,135 530 0.061 32.3 0.031 4,200 210 0.042 8.8 0.114

2,175 540 0.060 32.4 0.031 4,240 210 0.043 9.0 0.111

2,215 410 0.059 24.2 0.041 4,270 180 0.043 7.7 0.130

2,320 580 0.057 23.1 0.030 4,280 200 0.043 8.6 0.116

2,380 430 0.056 24.1 0.041 4,340 230 0.044 10.1 0.099

2,460 420 0.054 22.7 0.044 4,390 210 0.044 9.2 0.101

2,520 490 0.053 26.0 0.038 4,440 220 0.045 9.9 0.101

2,570 410 0.051 20.9 0.048 4,480 330 0.046 15.2 0.066

2,680 380 0.0495 18.8 0.053 4,560 330 0.047 15.5 0.065

2,760 390 0.0485 18.9 0.053 4,660 300 0.049 14.7 0.068

2,835 410 0.0475 19.5 0.051 4,700 320 0.0495 15.8 0.063

2,860 380 0.047 17.9 0.056 4,720 320 0.050 16.0 0.063

2,930 500 0.046 23.0 0.043 4,770 260 0.051 13.3 0.075

3,160 300 0.044 13.2 0.076 4,790 280 0.052 14.6 0.068

3,175 350 0.043 15.1 0.066 4,805 310 0.052 16.1 0.062

3,180 420 0.043 18.1 0.055 4,830 360 0.0525 18.9 0.053

3,210 300 0.043 12.9 0.078 4,870 270 0.054 14.6 0.068

3,230 380 0.043 16.3 0.061 4,890 280 0.054 15.1 0.066

3,330 300 0.042 12.6 0.079 4,950 220 0.055 12.2 0.083

3,370 240 0.042 10.1 0.099 5,025 180 0.057 10.3 0.097

3,390 290 0.042 12.2 0.082 5,100 190 0.060 11.4 0.088

3,435 260 0.041 10.7 0.093 5,200 120 0.062 7.4 0.135

3,520 290 0.041 11.9 0.084 5,275 110 0.0664 7.3 0.137

3,620 220 0.0405 8.9 0.112 5,300 90 0.0665 8.0 0.167

3,690 260 0.040 10.4 0.096

Table 5.8 - Sample Calculation of Fsh

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 295 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

In comparison to the procedure for calculating Fsh the values for tsh are obtained more

simply and more rapidly. Their determination is immediate, since the cumbersome

calculation of the Rw curve is avoided.

In order to determine the tsh values, the following logs must be available:

An induction log (IES), by means of which the purest shale beds can be

identified.

A Sonic Log, with a Calliper log when possible, for reading tsh.

In order to obtain the most significant tsh values, and thus a more reliable value for the

pore pressure gradient, the following procedure is used:

Each shale bed is located by using the IES; as already explained, the points

where the shale is cleaner will be identified by the overlapping of the SP curve

with the shale base line and the overlapping of the short radius and long

radius resistivity curves.

Once the depth of the significant shale points is established on the IES, the

value for tsh, is read, at that same depth, on the Sonic Log.

The Calliper is also carefully checked so as to determine any influence of the

borehole diameter on tsh.

The tsh values are plotted as a function of depth on semilog paper with depth

on the Y axis and - tsh on the X axis. In this cast also the use of 1/20,000 or

1/10,000 is suggested.

The method, seen for the Fsh, can be applied in full to the tsh. The only difference is that

the resulting curve is symmetrical to the Fsh .Under conditions of normal compaction, the

tsh values decrease with depth, whereas in overpressure zones the value of tsh increase,

as well as when calculating the pore pressure gradient, the equivalent depth principle is

applied.

Obviously it is necessary to know the overburden gradient for the well, and this value can

be determined directly from the Sonic Log or from other sources. Past experience suggests

that the Fsh method provides reliable pore pressure gradient values, even though it tends to

give values far which are lower than the actual values in the well, particularly when not very

clean shales are present. However, this method is preferred over the Fsh method because

calculations can be done much more quickly. When dealing with difficult or doubtful cases,

both methods are used

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 296 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

Sample Calculation

These values are then plotted as shown in Figure 5.43. The values of tsh decrease

regularly with depth until about 3,800m, thereby indicating normal compaction and pore

pressure gradient conditions. At 3,800m (overpressure top) values have a tendency to

increase, thus indicating the presence of abnormal pressure zones. The pore pressure

gradient value remains in the range G = 1.40-1.50kg/cm. 10m up to about 5,400m here a

further pore pressure increase can be noted.

sh Definition

As already seen in the paragraph dealing with overburden gradient calculation, the bulk

density of the formation is dependent on its matrix, on the type of fluids present and on its

porosity.

Limiting the analysis to the case of clean shales, b , now defined as sh can be an excellent

tool for determining their degree of compaction and their porosity. In fact, under conditions

of normal compaction and hydrostatic pore pressure gradient, the shale density constantly

increases with depth; in the case of undercompacted shales, with a porosity higher than

normal far that depth, the density will decrease with depth, or increase irregularly.

As in the case of tsh the calculation procedure is quite simple and rapid. Its reliability is

dependent on the purity of the formations.

In order to carry out the calculation, the following logs must be available:

An IES log for locating the shale beds;

An FDC log for calculating the density values, and possibly a Calliper Log.

The clean shale points are established by, using the same procedure as in the

case of tsh

At these points, the density value is read on the FDC;

The sh values are plotted as a function of depth.

When calculating the pore pressure gradient. the usual equivalent depth principle is

applied once the overburden gradient, that can be obtained directly from the FDC or from

other sources, has been determined.

This method is not used very much since the FDC is generally recorded only at those

intervals which are possibly oil bearing, and therefore it is not available for the entire profile

of the well.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 297 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 298 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

5.2.3. Limitations Of The Use Of Methods Based On The Processing Of Electrical Logs

Fsh Limitations

For a reliable quantitative evaluation of pore pressure gradients from Fsh, the following

points must be kept in mind:

The method is not applicable when dealing with carbonate formations; it can be

used only in the case of elastic formations.

When elastic formation are present, the method may be applied to frequently

interbedded sands and shales only; in fact the Rw curve cannot be determined in

zones where only shale is present.

If the shale formations under investigation contain fresh water the resistivity

value is higher, and, therefore, the calculated Fsh value is changed. The

compaction trend or the overpressure curve may undergo shifts that change the

value of the pore pressure gradient; shale formations are not normally pure

because they contain silt and sand; in consequence the resistivity (or

conductivity) value increases.

The SP value can be modified because of poor membrane behaviour of the

shales.

The SP value is difficult to choose the SP curve does not always perfectly

overlap the shale base line.

When evaporitic formations are located nearby, the salt content of the formation

water can be altered.

Borehole cavings or tightenings alter shale resistivity.

The presence of fluids other than water, such as gas or oil, can alter shale

conductivity.

Differences in the geological ages of the formations, as well as transgressive or

regressive phenomena, can change the electric properties of the rock medium.

tsh the following points must be considered:

The method is not applicable when dealing with Carbonate formations; it can be

used with elastic formations only;

With elastic formations the method is best applied in the presence of fairly clean

shales. The amount of sand present can change the transit time of the sound

wave;

The presence of other fluids, such as gas or oil, can change the value of tsh

Changes in geological age, as well as unconformity, can change the value of

tsh

Borehole cavings or tightenings can affect the value of tsh

The tsh readings on the Iog can present some difficulties: In fact, after having

established the depths of the shale points on the IES log, it is difficult to choose

a value for tsh that is representative of the shale because of the irregular at

times, trend of the curve. The choice of a proper value for tsh is left up to the

person responsible for the interpretation who, on the basis of his experience and

sound judgement, will adopt the criterion which is best suited to this case:

Cycle skipping, if they are not located, can give erroneous t, values.

ARPO IDENTIFICATION CODE PAGE 299 OF 299

ENI S.p.A.

Agip Division REVISION

STAP-P-1-M-6130 0

sh Limitation

For a correct application of the sh method the following points must be considered:

The method may be used with elastic formations only

Application is limited since the FDC log is usually available only far short

sections of the borehole.

Depth m. t Depth m. tsh

1,015 170 4,030 74

1,167 138 4,070 73

1,227 127 4,110 73

1,260 125 4,120 73

1,330 130 4,140 75

1,513 120 4,160 75

1,532 120 4,175 73

1,558 100 4,200 75

1,635 118 4,240 74

1,700 110 4,270 70

1,793 105 4,280 72

1,872 110 4,340 75

1,944 110 4,390 70

2,036 109 4,440 69

2,135 99 4,480 75

2,175 99 4,560 76

2,215 96 4,660 74

2,320 94 4,700 75

2,460 90 4,720 72

2,520 90 4,770 71

2,570 90 4,790 70

2,680 88 4,805 72

2,760 90 4,830 73

2,835 88 4,870 70

2,860 84 4,890 69

3,210 80 4,950 70

3,230 80 5,025 69

3,330 75 5,100 69

3,370 74 5,200 66

3,435 75 5,275 68

3,620 70 5,375 68

3,690 78 5,390 62

3,760 72 5,420 63

3,800 75 5,465 67

3,820 76 5,475 68

3,840 77 5,490 69

3,920 73 5,520 73

3,870 73 5,540 83

3,990 73 5,580 76

Table 5.9 - Example tsh Calculation

- YEAR 3 PPHYЗагружено:Sarkodie Kwame
- The Use of Pore Pressure Coefficients in Practice_summaryЗагружено:Karam Jaradat
- Well log based analysis of reservoir and geomechanical properties - presented for ARMA 2017Загружено:alan713
- Pore pressure estimation from singleЗагружено:salah_h22
- 2014-SPE 169394-Pore Pressure Analysis in Chicontepec Basin-Presidente Aleman FieldЗагружено:Perla Zumaya
- LandStreamersv3.pdfЗагружено:PoPanda
- Electrical Resistivity MethodsЗагружено:Othman Kangsar
- Autogenous Shrinkage of High-strength Concrete Containing Silica Fume Under Drying at Early AgesЗагружено:Tonni Kurniawan
- Challenge 2 (Form. Eval.)Загружено:abdounou
- 8 DurabilityЗагружено:Steven Kua
- Benny IGJ October 2014Загружено:John R Kjamanca
- Squeeze CementingЗагружено:MohammadFidiAbganisHermawan
- 1-s2.0-S0008884614001914-main copyЗагружено:Augustine Elinwa
- Obtención de Cerámicos a Base de Caolín Mediante El Proceso de Freeze Casting _ Gil-Durán _ Revista Ingeniería y CompetitividadЗагружено:JäViizzMares
- MecЗагружено:Arcabuqueño Embejucado
- Catalogo-Stream.pdfЗагружено:Javier
- Geothermal Iceland UniversityЗагружено:Amani Christopher
- Fluidization - Expansion Equations for Fluidized Solid Liquid Systems (Akgiray and Soyer, 2006)Загружено:Moisés Machado
- Get FileЗагружено:takhtjamshid
- Applied GeologyЗагружено:HujiLoko
- Porous Metal Filter Elements and Systems for LiquidsЗагружено:David Chou
- t3Загружено:Bamrung Sungnoen
- Chapter2 Mechanisms Causing Abnormal PressuresЗагружено:mag_ia
- 306Загружено:Ahmed S. Sharif
- The Birth-Time of the WorldЗагружено:Diana Nareswari
- 253942619-Petrofacies-Analysis-A-Petrophysical-Tool-for-Geologic-Engineering-Reservoir-Characterization.pdfЗагружено:Jody Van Rensburg
- Bazinul Dacic.pdfЗагружено:Iatan Eugen Mihai
- 10.1.1.842.1269.pdfЗагружено:Love Strike
- Entrance Test Question Paper Jan 2010Загружено:Sachin Chakradhar
- IPA07 G 116 MahakamЗагружено:RyanuarBachtiar

- Queen's University _ Mining Engineering- ListЗагружено:Nitinkiet103
- Mbc LyricsЗагружено:John Paul Guites
- biblio.pdfЗагружено:vampakk
- * Marcel and the White Star (Stephen Rabley)Загружено:Paulo Fernando
- Gillette Personal Care DivisionЗагружено:Veer Korra
- postmodern approach to student affairs practiceЗагружено:api-445769810
- EN_ACS880_07_hw_rev_D_scrres.pdfЗагружено:nalasekaran
- 1. Zaldivia vs Reyes Rule 110Загружено:Carmel Louise
- p124_125.pdfЗагружено:Mohammad Keyhani
- Coherence in WritingЗагружено:khawajaumar
- Experiment 11Загружено:sam
- CE 315 Syllabus Spring 10 - Dr. AlhassanЗагружено:draqbhatti
- Investor Self Service ApplicationЗагружено:Suravi Dutta
- Ancient IndiaЗагружено:Cristi Andrei
- kph625b2463916.pdfЗагружено:Aurelio Sartori
- D. E. Eakins and N. N. Thadhani- Shock compression of reactive powder mixturesЗагружено:Ghoree23456
- basit2002Загружено:FerOrtiz
- comic table of contentsЗагружено:api-337172652
- 2015 Fall Retreat Registration FormЗагружено:Beth Gaskins Gootee
- Oracle Academy Section 5 Quiz AnswerЗагружено:Ardo Sarofa Putra
- Decision TreeЗагружено:ratnams
- Importance of CommunicationЗагружено:Jimmy Teng
- Revisiting the Image of the City-Exploring the Importance of City SkylineЗагружено:Jawed Amir
- classroom expectation sheetЗагружено:api-278940330
- LithosphereЗагружено:rishi
- DecentralizationЗагружено:Aditya Prasad Padhy
- Luhmann - Art as a Social SystemЗагружено:ma
- Soal Short Message & Advertisement Kls 9Загружено:Bibit Suprayogi
- 16 Fischer10e SM Ch13 FinalЗагружено:Anton Vitali
- The Value and Benefits of Fieldtrips in Tourism and Hospitality EducationЗагружено:Camille Aquino Mata

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.