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The Principle of Laser

:
E-mail: yslin@mail.isu.edu.tw

Contents
Energy Level( )
Level()
Spontaneous Emission( )
Emission()
Stimulated Emission( )
Emission()
Population Inversion( )
Inversion()
Active Medium( )
Medium()
Pumping
Optical Resonator( )
Resonator()
)
Waveguides (()

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The Principle of Laser

(energy level)

(energy level)

*
(ground
state)
*
(excited
state)

2
Radiation

Electrons in atoms can occupy many different energy


levels. The further away an energy level is from the
nucleus, the higher its energy. So an electron
occupying energy level E4 in this picture, would have a
higher energy than an electron occupying any of the
other three energy levels.

Bohr model of the atom

According
According toto this
this model,
model, every
every atom
atom is
is composed
composed of
of
a
a very
very massive
massive nucleus
nucleus with
with a
a positive
positive electric
electric
charge
charge (Ze),
(Ze), around
around it
it electrons
electrons are
are moving
moving in in
specific
specific paths.
paths.
Z
Z== Number
Number of of protons
protons inin the
the nucleus,
nucleus,
e
e== Elementary
Elementary charge
charge ofof the
the electrons:
electrons:
e
e== 1.6*10-19
1.6*10-19 [Coulomb]
[Coulomb]

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(Energy Levels Diagram)

(photon)

(Ephoton = h
h h =
6.6252 10-27
)
(E1)
(E2)
Ephoton = E2 - E1

(absorption line)


(E2)
(E1)

( Ephoton = E2 - E1 )
(emission
line)

4
Light Absorption and Emission

When a photon, or packet of light energy, is absorbed by an atom, the atom gains
the energy of the photon, and one of the atom's electrons may jump to a higher
energy level. The atom is then said to be excited. When an electron of an excited
atom falls to a lower energy level, the atom may emit the electron's excess energy
in the form of a photon. The energy levels, or orbitals, of the atoms shown here
have been greatly simplified to illustrate these absorption and emission processes.

Visible Portion of the


Electromagnetic Spectrum

Photon "color": Wavelength: Energy:


(nm) (eV)
Blue 430 2.9
Yellow 530 2.3
Red 650 1.9

The
Tech

5
-(indirect)

Si"2"-"3".
Si"2"-"3".
(),
(),

Spontaneous Emission( )
Emission()

E 2,
E 2,
E 1,E
E 1,E 2
2 -E
-E 1
1

,
,

,,
,,

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Spontaneous Emission()

Stimulated Emission()
Emission()



(stimulated
(stimulated emission)
emission) (induced radiation)
(induced radiation)

7
Stimulated Emission()






(spontaneous emission)
(spontaneous emission)

(stimulated emission)
(stimulated emission)

8
stimulated
emission !!

Population Inversion()
Inversion()

10

(population)



(Population \
Reversion)



Population Inversion

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Active Medium()
Medium()

()

(sealing)

12
"(pumping source)

"(pumping
"(pumping source)

13

"(pumping
"(pumping source)

















Optical Resonator()
Resonator()

14
( Optical resonator )

(l)
(l) (( Stable
Stable resonator
resonator ))







(( Output
Output ))
(( Steady
Steady State
State ))


(2)
(2) (( Unstable
Unstable resonator
resonator ))





(Scraper)
(Scraper)


(( Mode Mode discrimination
discrimination
ratio
ratio ) ( aberration ))
) ( aberration

Stable and Unstable


Resonator

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Various Resonators

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)
Waveguides (()

101

17
--

(DWDM)
(DWDM)

DWDM
DWDM

Fabrication of Two-
Two-Dimensional Arrays of CdSe Pillars
Two-Dimensional
Using E-
E -Beam Lithography and Electrochemical
E-Beam
Deposition

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