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STEEL CONSTRUCTION

JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE


VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RESIDENTIAL


STEEL FRAMING INDUSTRY IN AUSTRALIA

ISSN 0049-2205
Print Post Approved
pp 255003/01614
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2 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007


STEEL CONSTRUCTION - EDITORIAL
Editor: Tony Pollard, National Manager Engineering & Construction
The development of the Residential Steel Framning Industry in Australia
This paper provides information on the use of steel framing in residential
construction in Australia and the development of an industry that uses
Numerical Control (NC) in many instances for efficiency of production.
This development was accompanied by Australias introduction of G550
steel in the late 1980s and structurally more efficient section shapes.
The National Association of Steel Housing (NASH) Australia has
been instrumental in applying these sections to residential framing
and developmenting its own standard: Residential and Low-rise Steel
Framing Part 1 Design Criteria which is now referenced in the Building
Code of Australia (BCA). NASH acknowledges that further work is
required in the area of design guidance for the use of steel framing in
residential construction and this is work it is currently undertaking. The
intended outcome would be a Part 2 standard with span tables for simple
design cases. This would provide parity with the design approach used
for residential timber framing.

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STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007 3


THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RESIDENTIAL STEEL FRAMING INDUSTRY IN AUSTRALIA

Ken Watson BE(Civil) MEngSc FIEAust CPEng


National Association of Steel-Framed Housing (NASH)
Australia

INTRODUCTION and more expensive. In some regions however, the


Light gauge steel framing has established itself as a roofs are still constructed on site from either softwood
viable solution for the structural framing of Australian or hardwood timber.
dwellings, with over one in eight new houses being Roofs are typically clad with either terracotta or cement
constructed using steel framing. Steel framing is also tiles or steel roof sheeting. Steel cladding represents
increasingly being used in other low-rise buildings about 50% of all new roofs and is being strongly
such as hospitals and schools. The industry is well promoted by major suppliers.
established with a range of frame supply companies
Houses are predominantly built on concrete slabs on
able to service and grow the market across Australia.
the ground, however framed sub-floors are still being
Australia has an urbanised population of 20.7 million used in housing, particularly on sloping sites. The
of which over 60% live in major cities, with 40% typical Australian traditional framing method with a
concentrated in Sydney and Melbourne alone. The framed floor is illustrated in Figure 1.
underlying demand for dwellings is approximately
HISTORY OF STEEL FRAMING IN AUSTRALIA
160,000 per annum [1]. While allotment size is
decreasing, the average house size is increasing. Kit homes with cast iron frames were imported from
For example in Victoria, the average house size has Britain into Australia in the 1850s [3]. Examples of these
grown from 170 square metres in 1996 to 240 square homes survive today and have been classified by the
metres in 2005 [2]. Urban consolidation is also National Trust for their historical importance. The next
driving continuing demand for multi-level apartments example of steel framing occurred after World War II
in major centres. where about 200 homes were constructed in Canberra
using bitumen coated steel.
FORMS OF HOUSE CONSTRUCTION
The modern development of steel frames commenced
Traditionally Australian houses were constructed from
in the 1960s and led to the development of the
either solid brick with a hardwood timber roof frame or
welded frame which is still the basis for many frames
timber weatherboard cladding on hardwood timber wall
constructed today. The system was based on grade
framing with a timber roof structure. After World War II,
300 galvanised steel with a typical thickness of 1.2mm.
brick construction practice generally moved from solid
The studs were typically 75x35x1.2mm plain channels.
brick to brick veneer as it proved a faster and more
Manuals were developed for the design, fabrication
economical form of construction. It also provided the
and erection of steel frames and trusses. At this time
builder with more flexibility in programming the work
standard sections were rolled by the large roll formers
as progress on the house was not determined by the
and fabricated by small fabricators.
brick layer, and fewer wet trades were involved. Today
however in Perth, Western Australia, the walls are
The next round of development commenced in the early
virtually all solid brick. Similarly in North Queensland
1980s. At this time a number of technological advances
the walls are constructed using concrete blocks.
occurred that strongly influenced the development of
In both locations the masonry manufacturers have
steel framing up to this day.
run very effective marketing campaigns convincing
consumers of the merits of their products over framed The introduction of Numerical Controllers
construction. (NC) led to development of roll formers that could be
programmed to roll a profile, cut to specified lengths
Prefabricated softwood timber roof trusses were
and punch service and other holes, etc.
introduced in the 1970s as hardwood became scarcer

4 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007


Figure 1 Typical Australian traditional framing

The arrival of personal computers and (eg. clinching, rivets, screws). The thinner gauges also
workstations facilitated the development of software assisted the following trades; ie. plasterers, electricians,
that could control these machines. carpenters, plumbers, etc. in their ease of use of steel
frames on site.
These advances led to the development of systems
where the house design was entered into the During this phase of development, Aluminium /Zinc
computer system and the cutting information was fed alloy coating (ZINCALUNE/TRUECORE) replaced
electronically to the programmable roll former. This galvanising as the preferred method of providing better
saved significant costs in manufacture due to error corrosion protection due to its superior performance,
minimisation, material waste and work in progress. with a life of two to four times that of the galvanised
product [4].
In the late 1980s, Australia led the world with the use of
G550 steel in house framing. With the development of Today the steel framing industry in Australia is highly
more complex and structurally more efficient shapes, innovative with many different systems. This creative
the advantage of the higher strength steel could be and competitive environment has led to steel frames
utilised and consequently the steel mass in a house becoming a mainstream option for framing of houses
was reduced. The thinner gauge members resulted in and similar structures. All systems must comply with
lighter frames and trusses which assisted with speed the requirements of the Building Code of Australia
of manufacture and installation. The thinner gauges (BCA) [5] which now references the NASH Standard
of steel encouraged the use of alternative methods of Residential and Low-rise Steel Framing Part 1 Design
connection in the shop assembly of frames and trusses Criteria [6]. The reference to old standard AS3623-

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007 5


1993 Domestic metal framing [7] has been withdrawn Timber framing has traditionally relied on barriers
from the 2007 edition of the BCA and hence the NASH or deflectors that work on the principle that the
Standard should now be adopted. characteristic signs of termite activity will be picked up
in an inspection and the termites exterminated before
BUILDING WITH STEEL FRAMING
they do too much damage. Jearys study demonstrated
Modern steel framing now offers significant benefits to
that the barrier systems are not providing effective
the builder, trade contractor and home owner.
termite protection to timber-framed housing. The timber
industry is now promoting chemically surface treated
Durability
timber that provides a 25 year warranty against termite
Steel frames have proven themselves in Australia
attack. This product now represents almost 20% of the
since the 1960s to be a durable system, provided good
market and is predicted to be used for as much as 50%
building practice is adopted. This includes the use of
of timber frames in three years from now [10].
fasteners with a similar life expectancy to that of the
steel frame and with that of concrete slab construction, The only protection system for timber frames against
provided the perimeter of the slab is detailed to stop borer attack is the use of borer resistant or treated
ingress of moisture (see Figure 2). timber.

BlueScope Steel provides a 50 year warranty on Quality of Construction


TRUECORE Steel framing providing good building
Steel frames are cut and assembled to tight tolerances
practice is followed [8].
[6] and this permits the installation of the frame to
similar tolerances. Steel has the distinct advantage
One of the major advantages of steel framing in the
that it does not warp or creep with time. Steel framing
Australian context is that it is not subject to damage
meets the requirements for the highest quality substrate
by termites or borers such as the European house
specified in the plasterboard installation standard [11].
borer and the lyctid borer. It has been estimated that
the annual cost of termite damage in Australia is in
As the coefficients of thermal expansion for steel
excess of $100 million. Jeary [9] carried out a survey of
and plasterboard are very similar it is very unusual
houses in suburban Sydney where both steel-framed
to experience cracking of the plasterboard in a steel-
and timber-framed houses were constructed in similar
framed house.
numbers. The houses were generally less than 20
years old and one in eight timber-framed houses had Flexibility of design
suffered a termite attack. None of the steel-framed
The strength and stiffness of steel framing allows for
houses had suffered any termite damage.
long span trusses that offer freedom to design large
open rooms and the potential to relocate non-load

Figure 2 Slab edge detail

6 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007


bearing walls as the needs of the household change. The advantages for steel framing in environmental
Light weight non-load bearing steel framed walls can terms include:
be easily, quickly and cleanly changed to suit the
With large open spaces provided by the steel solution,
reconfiguration of the internal planning of the house.
the building can be reconfigured to suit changing needs
and offers enhanced flexibility for internal planning
Speed of Construction
Due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, steel provides Steel framing can be reused when the building is
lighter structural members that speed up construction. demolished
For an average 250 square metre house, a crew of two Steel is 100% recyclable and able to be reused under
to three will typically erect the steel framing in three to certain circumstances
four days.
Wastage levels for steel in a fabrication plant with its
For some building designs, the strength and rigidity own roll formers are typically less than 1%
of steel allows the steel trusses to be assembled on
Cost
the slab, the steel roof sheeting to be attached to the
roof and the whole roof assembly can then be lifted When comparing the costs of construction, it is
on to the steel walls. This method of construction is necessary to include all relevant cost components
both faster and safer with many assembly operations to obtain a true picture. The costs that need to be
performed at slab level. However it does not suit all considered include:
designs and space is needed to place the roof whilst Frame supply and erection
sufficient walls are erected to take the roof load.
Termite treatment
Veneer construction allows great flexibility in planning Plasterboard installation
and does not rely on the speed of bricklayers for
Electrical and plumbing services
progress. This takes bricklaying off the critical path in the
construction of the house. Service holes are provided Builders call backs due to defects
in the stud walls which allow for fast installation of
plumbing and electrical services. Fixing of plasterboard Whilst the steel frame offers benefits such as flatter
is significantly faster than hard plastering and avoids walls, no problems with nail popping and the provision
another wet trade. These benefits are achieved whilst of service holes, it has been difficult in the past to get
maintaining the same outward appearance as a the benefits recognised and valued. This has been
masonry clad house. compounded by the lack of skilled tradespeople and
resulted in trades being able to charge a premium to
Environment work on steel frames.
Environmental issues are receiving more attention
Consumers are generally willing to pay a small premium
particularly by designers in response to the green house
for the superior quality offered by a steel-framed home
debate. However there is much misinformation in the
with its inherent termite resistance. Depending on the
market place about different environmental benefits of
design and local market conditions, steel frames can
different products. It is critical that any characteristics
cost from slightly less to up to 15% more than timber. As
between different building products are compared
the cost of the house frame represents only a portion of
on the same basis and the assumptions made in the
the cost of a residence and any increases are usually
analysis are clearly stated. NASH advocates that the
small in the overall project budget considering the
best current method to compare products is to use full
advantages of steel, the benefits outweigh the costs.
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of the building. This includes
the energy required to manufacture the materials, to Quantity surveyor Rawlinsons [12] publish annually
construct the building, to operate the building and indicative pricing for various forms of construction. The
finally to demolish the building. This analysis should data presented in this publication give indicative prices
take into account the fact that all steel can be recycled. but do not necessarily reflect the discounts builders
The operational energy in housing has been found to obtain or that these could vary with different material
dominate the LCA analysis and the embodied energy suppliers.
within the materials to have very little influence on the
total outcome. Table 1 provides costs per square metre in each of the
mainland capital cities for different types of external

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007 7


wall construction. This demonstrates that cavity or ROOF FRAMING SYSTEMS
double brick wall is significantly more expensive than Two distinct types of roof framing systems are
brick veneer, even in Perth where brick construction is constructed:
the standard form of construction. This, together with
the longer construction time, lack of skilled bricklayers, Roof Framing - Panel system
poor thermal insulation properties of brickwork and the This form of construction is shown in Figure 3 and
move to more thermally efficient construction, has led is modelled on traditional timber framing with rafters
to builders in Perth trialling veneer construction. Brick supported on strutting beams and ceiling joists
veneer with steel stud framing is 3 - 5% cheaper than supported on hanging beams. The roof rafters and
timber-framed construction. ceiling joists are assembled into panels in the fabricators
facilities and then erected on site. The light weights
of the steel panels allow the frames to be manually
handled both in the factory and on site. The rafter and
joists are typically spaced at 600mm centres. One of
the main advantages of this system is that it provides
large open areas within the roof that allow good access
for maintaining services and the provision of storage
Notes:
space provided this is included in the design. Blind
1. The cavity wall consists of two leaves of 110mm wide clay bricks
rivets are used to connect the components together
with 50mm cavity and hard plaster to the inside face. The outer face
consists of face bricks and pointed finish. The cost of insulation to form the panels and self drilling screws are used to
required in Melbourne and western Sydney has not been included. connect the panels and beams together on site.

2. Brick veneer costs consist of external face brick, studwork,


insulation and 10mm plasterboard internally.

Table 1 Comparative external wall costs (A$ per square


metre of wall) [12]

Table 2 provides the cost comparison for the roof with


different types of cladding. In all capital cities, with
the exception of Brisbane, steel roof framing is 20 -
25% more expensive than timber framing. In Brisbane
however, steel has a cost advantage of 8%. Steel
trusses become increasingly more competitive for
spans over ten metres.

Figure 3 Panel system - hanging and strutting


beams/trusses supporting roof rafters and ceiling
joists

Roof Framing - Truss system


The truss system is the most common roof system in
Australia. The truss spacing is determined by the type
of roof cladding (ie. tile or steel sheeting), the strength
and rigidity of the battens and safety guidelines for
safe installation of cladding. Truss spacing varies
regionally from 1500mm centres in Western Australia
Note: The costs for roofs cover the framed roof up to 10 metres to typically 600mm centres for tile roof and 900mm
overall span comprising trusses, rafters, battens and insulation and for steel sheeting and everywhere in between. As
the indicated cladding.
steel trusses are strong and rigid, it is generally more
economical to space them further apart. However this
Table 2 Comparative roof costs (A$ per square metre
of roof) [12] has been limited in some jurisdictions by construction
safety guidelines that limit the spacing of trusses

8 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007


[13]. It is possible to increase this spacing if a work to allow for unless the steel framer has been chosen at
method statement is developed to show it is safe to the design stage.
install battens and cladding on trusses spaced further
apart. Some builders are reluctant to move outside the The wall stud sections (Figure 5) can be:
guidelines set by the relevant safety authorities. Plain channel

Truss chords typically use one of following sections: Lipped channel

C channel - vertical or horizontal Box stud

U section
The webs of the studs often have stiffeners rolled into
Z section them to increase their effectiveness, particularly with
the thinner high strength G550 steels.

Lintels over windows are either trussed or an angle


lintel to provide transfer of the load.

Figure 5 Typical stud cross sections

FLOOR FRAMING
Figure 4 Truncated trusses with webs fixed to the A wide range of floor systems has been developed
external face of chord and supported on girder
for both the sub-floor and first floor. Typically the steel
truss
members are combined with a timber floor (eg. particle
Webs of trusses are usually channels. The webs can board, plywood or tongue and groove hardwood.) The
either be in the same plane as the chords or attached timber is glued to the steel and then mechanically
to the external face of the chord. This latter solution fastened using screws or nails. To avoid squeaks in
introduces issues of eccentricity in the design and is the floor, the nails or screws should not touch the sides
more difficult to stack efficiently, which usually involves of the floor members or webs of the trusses.
a greater stacked volume and therefore fewer products
The floor system consists of floor joists at typically
per transport load.
450mm centres that are supported on bearers. These
Webs of trusses should be attached to the top and bearers can be either in the same plane as the joist
bottom chord so that any relative movement between or under the joists. The joists and bearers can be
the web and chords does not cause any noise or constructed from the following sections:
the relative movement is stopped through providing C purlins
sufficient connectors.
Trusses
At hip ends of roofs, the roof can either be framed by Hollow sections
a series of truncated trusses or by using hip and jack
Top hats
trusses.
BRACING
WALL FRAMING
The bracing is designed to take the lateral loads from
Initially a 75mm stud depth was used for steel framing
the roof down to the foundations. The plasterboard
in Australia. Later 90mm and 70mm wall studs were
ceiling and the timber floors are assumed to act
introduced to match timber framing. The ability to
as a rigid diaphragm. Tests have shown that the
match the local timber sizes reduces problems on
plasterboard walls are the most rigid part of the vertical
site with the builder ordering the wrong width door
bracing system and hence the plasterboard takes the
jambs or window reveals to suit the stud width. These
horizontal loads whether it is designed to or not. Lateral
differences can cause problems when designing a
bracing must be provided until the plasterboard is fixed
house as the designer does not know what width wall
and this normally represents 50 - 60% of the ultimate

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007 9


wind load. Steel lateral bracing can consist of: the BCA it is reliant on being specified in the contract
documents to have legal standing. Standards for
Steel tension cross bracing
BCA reference can now be developed by Standards
K Bracing Australia or other industry bodies provided they follow
Panel bracing using steel, fibre cement or plywood the protocols set by the ABCB. Consequently NASH
sheets was able to quickly develop its own NASH Standard
Residential and Low-rise Steel Framing Part 1 Design
Portal frame
Criteria and have it referenced in the BCA.
It is important when mixing different types of bracing
The NASH Standard sets out the design criteria to
that there is enough ductility to ensure that all the
comply with the performance criteria of the BCA for
bracing will be brought into play before failure.
steel framing of low-rise buildings including houses and
low-rise commercial buildings. The NASH Standard
CONNECTORS
allows the design to be carried out by:
A wide range of connection types can be used with
steel framing including: Calculation to relevant standards [14][15]

Welding Testing

Brazing Combination of calculation and testing

Screws When developing new systems, testing forms a large


Rivets component of the design process as the cold-formed
design standard is very conservative in places and it is
Clinching (see Figure 6)
not possible to model every item accurately.
Bolts
As the ABCB Protocol for Standards limits the amount
of informative advice that can be given, NASH is
currently preparing a manual which gives guidance
to designers on critical aspects of the design. This
will assist designers to develop economical and safe
designs without constraining innovation.

The timber industry has developed standards [16]


that allow the design of structures without the need
for structural calculations. These standards are used
by building designers, architects and builders as well
as engineers for the quick design of timber-framed
Figure 6 Clinched connection of stud to bottom houses. The steel industry has not developed such
plate a document and has been disadvantaged because
design professionals have no suitable reference
CODES AND STANDARDS document to allow for simple design and specification.
The setting of building regulations is the province of As a consequence an engineering certificate is usually
State Governments. State representatives combine required for each house which adds to the cost of steel
with the Federal Government to form the Australian framing. Additionally, as most engineers are not set up
Building Codes Board (ABCB), which is responsible to undertake cold-formed design which can be quite
for the ongoing development of the Building Code complex, they may more readily specify another product
of Australia (BCA). This document is then called up which is quicker and easier to design. Consequently
under State legislation or regulation to confer legal NASH is working on Part 2 of its standard which will
standing. Unfortunately the States still have their include span tables to allow easy, safe design. It is
own amendments, although they have been steadily intended that this standard will be referenced in the
reduced since the introduction of the BCA in 1996. BCA and this will place steel in a similar position to
timber framing.
The BCA references standards that confers them
their legal standing. If a standard is not referenced in EDUCATION AND TRAINING

10 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007


Education and training at both the professional and Building Surveyors and Inspectors
trade levels are important elements in building the
Architects
infrastructure necessary to facilitate the growth and
prosperity of the steel framing industry. Building Designers

Carpenters have traditionally been responsible for the The release of Part 1 of the NASH Standard provided
construction of the timber frame and as the skills for an opportunity to hold seminars on the use of steel
erecting steel and timber framing are very similar, it is framing. These seminars have been very well attended
a logical extension that they also erect steel frames. and received, and the program will be increased as
Some state licensing systems require that licensed further parts of the Standard are published.
carpenters are responsible for the erection of steel
MARKETING
framing[17].
Steel framing initially found a ready market amongst
Trades people are trained through an apprenticeship owner-builders, who were reasonably well informed
scheme where they receive their practical training from about product performance and prepared to accept
their employer and receive their theoretical and skills slightly higher costs for the framing and trade services.
training from a Registered Training Organisation (RTO). As the industry grew, progressive builders were
The RTO can be either a government Technical and targeted to use steel framing in all or part of the houses
Further Education (TAFE) Institute or a private training they were constructing. Some of these builders now
provider. The typical apprenticeship lasts for four years make their own steel frames.
and involves the apprentice attending their RTO for
one week, eight times a year. The balance of their time Today steel framing is often targeted at second and
is spent working for their employer. In response to the third home owners who are prepared to pay a small
current industry skills shortage, there is pressure from premium for a quality product. The direct promotion
sections of industry to compress this time or run more of product benefits to these home owners has been
specialised courses in a shorter time. effective in stimulating demand and helping to persuade
builders to offer a steel framing option.
Current carpentry apprentice courses include steel
framing in the wall competency unit which is a core NASH
unit and steel framing is also included in some elective The National Association of Steel-Framed Housing
units. NASH is seeking to have steel framing included (NASH) was formed in 1982 to foster the development
as a core unit in walls, floors, roofs and fitting out of the steel framing industry. It represents the interests
competency units. of steel frame fabricators, their suppliers and their
customers. It has currently about 100 members spread
In addition to actual frame erection, theoretical and across Australia.
practical steel framing skills need to be taught more
widely and effectively in the following trades: NASHs key objectives are:

Plastering Support the long term growth and sustainability of the


Steel Frame industry
Electrical
Maximise the profile of Light Gauge Steel Framing
Plumbing
within the building industry
Bricklaying
Maximise the value of belonging to NASH, for all
At some RTOs this is already occurring and NASH is membership categories
working to influence more RTOs to follow this lead. Support the awareness and promote the advantages
of steel framing in the market place
Although steel framing has been used in Australia for
over two generations, professional education is not NASH is currently focusing its activities on the following
yet well established. The following professions could projects:
benefit from further education in and familiarity with Develop and implement a national training approach
steel framing: to steel frame fabrication and erection capability
Structural Engineers Develop, monitor and maintain the NASH website

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007 11


Develop and implement a specific plan to deal with market share growing at a steady pace despite more
the current Working at Heights issues aggressive competition from the timber industry. Low
rise non-housing applications will continue to grow
Develop an improved Member Value Proposition for
as steel framing is becoming increasingly popular for
all membership categories
retirement villages, schools and hospitals.
Promote the NASH Standard for steel framing and
One of the challenges for the industry is to increase
develop the accompanying manuals.
its share of the apartment market as policy makers
encourage city consolidation to make better use of
THE FUTURE
existing infrastructure and to minimise the growth of
Steel framing is at an exciting time in Australia. The
the urban spread. Steel framing is starting to replace
industry has increased its market share of housing from
masonry construction in the apartment market for non-
7% in the 2002 financial year to 12% in 2005 with some
load bearing walls. In North America load bearing steel
regional areas gaining market share of over 30%. The
framing is regularly used on apartment buildings [18].
industry is financially stable and in a position to expand
to grow the market in steel framing. NASH predicts the

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

A special thanks to Michael Kelly and Lex Somerville for their contributions and feedback on this paper.

REFERENCES
1. ANZ Research, ANZ Property Outlook July 2006 www.anz.com
2. Victorian Building Commission, Pulse Building Intelligence 2005 www.buildingintelligence.com.au
3. Ogg, A., Architecture in Steel The Australian Context, The Royal Australian Institute of Architects, 1987
4. BlueScope Steel, Corrosion Technical Bulletin CTB-6 Aluminium Zinc Coating on Steel 2003
www.bluescopesteel.com.au
5. Australian Building Codes Board, Building Code of Australia 2006
6. NASH Standard Residential and Low-Rise Steel Framing Part 1 Design Criteria 2005 www.abcb.gov.au
7. Standards Australia, AS3623-1993 Domestic Metal Framing
8. BlueScope Steel, Sample Steel House Framing Warranty www.bluescopesteel.com.au
9. Jeary, A.P. Study of the Attack Rates by Termites and Costs of Associated Damage on Domestic Housing in
New South Wales 2003 www.nash.asn.au
10. Ezard, Ezards Connection - The fight against termites. Building Connection September 2006
11. Standards Australia, AS/NZS 2589.1:1997: Gypsum linings in residential and light commercial construction
- Application and finishing - Gypsum plasterboard
12. Rawlinsons, Australian Cost Handbook Edition 24 , 2006
13. Worksafe Victoria, Code of Practice - Prevention of falls in housing construction. 2004
14. Standards Australia, AS 4100-1998 : Steel structures
15. Standards Australia, AS/NZS 4600:2005 : Cold-formed steel structures
16. Standards Australia, AS1684 Series : Residential timber-framed construction
17. Australia Government. Mutual Recognition Act 1992 Ministerial Declaration (9/02/2007) Legislative Instrument
F2007/L0043 Schedule 1
18. Light Steel Framing Customize To Optimize. Steel

12 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007


ASI STEEL FABRICATOR MEMBERS
ACT Fyshwick Metalwork Sebastian Engineering Pty Ltd
9 Lorn Road 21-25 Kialba Rd
Baxter Engineering Pty Ltd Queanbeyan NSW 2620 02 6299 0294 Campbelltown NSW 2560 02 4626 6066
PO Box 643
Fyshwick ACT 2609 02 6280 5688 H & M Engineering & Construction P/L Southern Cross Rigging & Constructions Pty Ltd
36 Gardiner Street 65-67 Mandarin Street
Mass Steel Rutherford NSW 2320 02 4932 6088 Villawood NSW 2163 02 9783 5600
11 Cheney Place
Mitchell ACT 2911 02 6241 3391 ILB Steel Buildings Spartan Steel
PO Box 1142 21 Birmingham Ave
NEW SOUTH WALES Orange NSW 2800 02 6362 3100 Villawood NSW 2163 02 9724 6208
Ace High Engineering Pty Ltd J.D.Hall & Son Pty Ltd TDA Snow Engineering Pty Ltd
67 Melbourne Rd PO Box 55 28 Jura Street
Riverstone NSW 2765 02 9627 2500 Arncliffe NSW 2205 02 9567 8146 Heatherbrae NSW 2324 02 4987 1477
Align Constructions & Engineering Pty Ltd Jeskah Steel Products Tenze Engineering
PO Box 747 23 Arizona Road PO Box 426
Moss Vale NSW 2577 02 4869 1594 Charmhaven NSW 2263 02 4392 7022 Greenacre NSW 2190 02 9758 2677
Allmen Engineering K H P Steel Fabrications Transylvania Engineering Pty Ltd
25-27 Bent Street 5//81 Stephens Road 4 Vivian Street
St Marys NSW 2760 02 9673 0051 Botany NSW 2019 02 9316 9713 Bexley NSW 2210
Australian Wrought Iron Design Pty Ltd Kermac Welding & Engineering Universal Steel Construction (Australia) Pty Ltd
PO Box 6285 PO Box 6138 P O Box 6946
Silverwater NSW 2128 02 9748 6730 Wetherill Park NSW 2164 02 4821 3877 Wetherill Park NSW 2164 02 9756 2555
B & G Welding Pty Ltd Leewood Welding W G E Pty Ltd
12 Bessemer Street PO Box 1767 29 Glastonbury Ave
Blacktown NSW 2148 02 9621 3187 Orange NSW 2800 02 6362 8797 Unanderra NSW 2526 02 4272 2200
Beltor Engineering Pty Ltd Lifese Engineering Pty Ltd Walpett Engineering Pty Ltd
PO Box 4187 5 Junction Street 52 Hincksman Street
Edgeworth NSW 2285 02 4953 2444 Auburn NSW 2144 02 9748 0444 Queanbeyan NSW 2620 02 6297 1277
Bosmac Pty Ltd Mass Steel Weldcraft Engineering (ACT) Pty Ltd
64-68 Station Street 4 Warren Place 79 Thuralilly Street
Parkes NSW 2870 02 6862 3699 Silverdale NSW 2752 02 4774 0011 Queanbeyan NSW 2620 02 6297 1453
Boweld Constructions Pty Ltd Mecha Design & Fabrication Pty Ltd Wheatley Enterprises Pty Ltd
PO Box 52 PO Box 477 7A Pennant Street
Bomaderry NSW 2541 02 4421 6781 Wyong NSW 2259 02 4351 1877 Cardiff NSW 2285 02 4956 7175
C & V Engineering Services Pty Ltd Morson Engineering Pty Ltd -Z Steel Fabrications Pty Ltd
23-25 Church Avenue PO Box 244 PO Box 7274
Mascot NSW 2020 02 9667 3933 Wyong NSW 2259 02 4352 2188 Lismore Heights NSW 2480 02 6625 1717
Charles Heath Industries MPF Engineering NORTHERN TERRITORY
18 Britton Street 64 Peel Street
Smithfield NSW 2164 02 9609 6000 Junee NSW 2663 02 6924 2501 M & J Welding And Engineering
GPO Box 2638
Colpro Engineering (Australia) Pty Ltd National Engineering Pty Ltd Darwin NT 801 08 8932 2641
156 Bungaree Road PO Box 437
Pendle Hill NSW 2145 02 9896 0422 Young NSW 2594 02 6382 9360 Transcon
Trans Aust Constructions P/L
Combell Steelfab Pty Ltd Nepean Engineering PO Box 39472
PO Box 5038 PO Box 56 Winnellie NT 821 08 8984 4511
Prestons NSW 2170 02 9607 3822 Narellan NSW 2567 02 4646 1511
Universal Engineering
Coolamon Steelworks Piper & Harvey Steel Fabrications (Wagga) Pty Ltd PO Box 39532
PO Box 102 PO Box 821 Winnellie NT 821 08 8922 9800
Coolamon NSW 2701 02 6927 3296 Wagga Wagga NSW 2650 02 6922 7527
Cooma Steel Co. Pty Ltd QUEENSLAND
Precision Oxycut
PO Box 124 PO Box 755 AG Rigging & Steel Pty Ltd
Cooma NSW 2630 02 6452 1934 Matraville NSW 2036 02 9319 2633 PO Box 9154 Wilsonton
Cosme-Australia Stainless Steel Fab Pty Ltd Toowoomba QLD 4350 07 4633 0244
Profab Industries Pty Ltd
19 Lasscock Road 8 Childs Road Alltype Welding
Griffith NSW 2680 02 6964 1155 Chipping Norton NSW 2170 02 9755 2600 PO Box 1418
Cullen Steel Fabrications Beenleigh QLD 4207 07 3807 1820
Rambler Welding Industries Pty Ltd
26 Williamson Road PO Box 8350 Apex Fabrication & Construction
Ingleburn NSW 2565 02 9605 4888 Wagga Wagga NSW 2650 02 6921 3062 164-168 Cobalt Street
D.A.M. Structural Steel Carole Park QLD 4300 07 3271 4467
Riton Engineering Pty Ltd
PO Box 217 P.O. Box 242 Austin Engineering Limited
Camden NSW 2570 02 4647 7481 Wyong NSW 2259 02 4353 1688 173 Cobalt Street
Davebilt Industries Carole Park QLD 4300 07 3271 2622
Rivtec Engineering
116 Showground Road PO Box 432 Beenleigh Steel Fabrications P/L
North Gosford NSW 2250 02 4325 7381 Hay NSW 2711 02 6993 1200 41 Magnesium Drive
Designed Building Systems Crestmead QLD 4132 07 3803 6033
Romac Engineering
144 Sackville Street PO Box 670 Belconnen Steel Pty Ltd
Fairfield NSW 2165 02 9727 0566 Armidale NSW 2350 02 6772 3407 PO Box 5718
Edcon Steel Pty Ltd Brendale QLD 4500 07 3881 3090
S & L Steel (NSW) Pty Ltd
PO Box 542 59 Glendenning Road Brisbane Steel Fabrication
Brookvale NSW 2100 02 9905 6622 Rooty Hill NSW 2766 02 9832 3488 PO Box 7087
Flame-Cut Pty Ltd Hemmant QLD 4174 07 3893 4233
Saunders International Pty Ltd
PO Box 6367 PO Box 281
Wetherill Park NSW 2164 02 9609 3677 Condell Park NSW 2200 02 9792 2444
13 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007
Cairns Steel Fabricators P/L SOUTH AUSTRALIA GVP Fabrications Pty Ltd
PO Box 207b 25-35 Japaddy Street
Bungalow QLD 4870 07 4035 1506 Advanced Steel Fabrications Mordialloc VIC 3195 03 9587 2172
61-63 Kapara Rd
Casa Engineering (Brisbane) Pty Ltd Gillman SA 5013 08 8447 7100 Metalform Structures Pty Ltd
1-7 Argon Street 2 Zilla Court
Carole Park QLD 4300 07 3271 2300 Ahrens Group Dandenong VIC 3175 03 9792 466
PO Box 2
Central Engineering Pty Ltd Sheaoak Log SA 5371 08 8524 9045 Minos Structural Engineering Pty Ltd
PO Box 78 12-14 Ivanhoe Court
Currumbin QLD 4223 07 5534 3155 Bowhill Engineering Thomastown VIC 3074 03 9465 8665
Lot 100, Weber Road
EPIC STEEL Pty Ltd (Formally, D A. Manufacturing Company P/L) Bowhill SA 5238 08 8570 4208 Monks-Harper Fabrications P/L
70 Darlington Drive 25 Tatterson Road
Yatala QLD 4207 07 3441 5100 Macweld Industries Dandenong South VIC 3164 03 9794 0888
1 Creswell Road
DWW Engineering Pty Ltd Largs Bay SA 5016 08 8242 8100 Preston Structural Steel Pty Ltd
PO Box 47 140-146 Barry Road
Richlands QLD 4077 07 3375 5841 Manuele Engineers Pty Ltd Campbellfield VIC 3061 03 9357 0011
16 Drury Terrace
Factory Fabricators Pty Ltd Clovelly Park SA 5042 08 8374 1680 Riband Steel (Wangaratta) Pty Ltd
39 McRoyle Street 69-81 Garden Road
Wacol QLD 4076 07 3879 4711 MWS Engineering Clayton VIC 3168 03 9547 9144
27-29 Maxwell Road
Fritz Steel (QLD) Pty Limited Pooraka SA 5095 08 8349 4933 Skrobar Engineering Pty Ltd
PO Box 12 PO Box 1578
Richlands QLD 4077 07 3375 6366 RC & ML Johnson Pty Ltd Moorabbin VIC 3189 03 9555 4556
671 Magill Road
Gay Constructions Pty Ltd Magill SA 5072 08 8333 0188 Stilcon Holdings Pty Ltd
PO Box 452 PO Box 263
Morningside QLD 4170 07 3890 9655 S J Cheesman Altona North VIC 3025 03 9314 1611
21 George Street
Interpole Pty Ltd Port Pirie SA 5540 08 8632 1044 Structural Challenge Pty Ltd
PO Box 1122 PO Box 437
Eagle Farm QLD 4009 07 3260 2511 SA Structural Pty Ltd Hampton Park VIC 3976 03 8795 7111
9-11 Playford Cresent
John Holland SMP Salisbury North SA 5108 08 8285 5111 Thornton Engineering Australia Pty Ltd
GPO Box 2238 PO Box 245
Brisbane QLD 4001 07 3334 8600 Samaras Structural Engineers Corio VIC 3214 03 5274 3180
PO Box 31
Milfab Rosewater East SA 5013 08 8447 7088 Trojan Specialised Structures (Aust)
PO Box 3056 PO Box 4121
Clontarf MDC QLD 4019 07 3203 3311 Steriline Racing Pty Ltd Dandenong South VIC 3164 03 9792 2933
PO Box 590
Morton Steel Pty Ltd Mt Barker SA 5251 08 8398 3133 Wolter Steel Co. Pty Ltd
47 Barku Court PO Box 2737
Hemmant QLD 4174 07 3396 5322 Williams Metal Fabrication Pty Ltd Seaford VIC 3198 03 9788 5444
181 Philip Highway
Noosa Engineering & Crane Hire Elizabeth SA 5112 08 8287 6489 WESTERN AUSTRALIA
PO Box 356
Tewantin QLD 4565 07 5449 7477 TASMANIA Ausclad Group of Companies Limited
15 Beach Street
Pacific Coast Engineering Pty Ltd Amax Engineering (Tas) Pty Ltd Kwinana WA 6156 08 9439 1934
PO Box 7284 69 Lilydale Road
Garbutt QLD 4814 07 4774 8477 Launceston TAS 7250 03 6326 9682 Bossong Engineering Pty Ltd
189 Planet Street
Pierce Engineering Pty Ltd DPM Engineering Tas Welshpool WA 6106 08 9212 2345
48 Quinn St PO Box 16
North Rockhampton QLD 4701 07 4927 5422 Latrobe TAS 7307 03 6426 2988 C Bellotti & Co
PO Box 1284
Rimco Building Systems Pty Ltd Haywards Steel Fabrication & Construction Bibra Lake WA 6965 08 9434 1442
3 Supply Court PO Box 47
Arundel QLD 4214 07 5594 7322 Kings Meadows TAS 7249 03 6391 8508 Cays Engineering
17 Thornborough Road
Seacove Steel Greenfields WA 6210 08 9582 6611
PO Box 1377 VICTORIA
Noosaville QLD 4566 07 5474 4466 ADM Engineering Services Pty Ltd Fremantle Steel Fabrication Co.
PO Box 45 PO Box 3005
Stewart & Sons Steel Jandakot WA 6964 08 9417 9111
11 Production Street Bannockburn VIC 3331 03 5281 2365
Bundaberg QLD 4670 07 4152 6311 Alfasi Steel Constructions Highline Limited
73-79 Waterview Close Locked Bag 25
Sun Engineering Pty Ltd Welshpool WA 6986 08 6454 4000
113 Cobalt Street Dandenong South VIC 3175 03 8795 2999
Carole Park QLD 4300 07 3271 2988 Apex Welding & Steel Fabrication Holtfreters Pty Ltd
PO Box 1333 71 Mitchell Ave
Taringa Steel P/L Northam WA 6401 08 9442 3333
17 Jijaws Street Bundoora LPO VIC 3083 03 9466 4125
Sumner Park QLD 4074 07 3279 4233 Australian Rollforming Manufacturers Pty Ltd Hvar Steel Services Pty Ltd
35-45 Frankston - Dandenong Road 56 Cooper Road
Thomas Steel Fabrication Jandakot WA 6164 08 9414 9422
PO Box 147 Dandenong VIC 3175 03 9793 4881
Hyde Park QLD 4812 07 4775 1266 Bahcon Steel Pty Ltd Inter-Steel Pty Ltd
PO Box 950 PO Box 1190
Totalfab Pty Ltd Canning Vale DC WA 6970 08 9256 3311
PO Box 680 Morwell VIC 3840 03 5134 2877
Thuringowa Central QLD 4817 07 4789 3777 Barra Steel (Vic) Pty Ltd Italsteel W.A.
55 Rushdale Street PO Box 206
W D T Engineers Pty Ltd Bentley WA 6102 08 9356 1566
PO Box 115 Knoxfield VIC 3180 03 9753 3011
Acacia Ridge QLD 4110 07 3345 4000 Geelong Fabrications Pty Ltd JV Engineering (WA) Pty Ltd
PO Box 55 100 Dowd Street
Walz Construction Company Pty Ltd Welshpool WA 6106 08 9351 9199
PO Box 1713 North Shore
Gladstone QLD 4680 07 4976 7999 Geelong VIC 3215 03 5275 7255 Metro Lintels
GFC Industries Pty Ltd 2 Kalmia Rd
42 Glenbarry Road Bibra Lake WA 6163 08 9434 1160
Campbellfield VIC 3061 03 9357 9900
14 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007
Pacific Industrial Company Supa Steel WA Pty Ltd United Industries WA Pty Ltd
PO Box 263 P O Box 1278 PO Box 4122
Kwinana WA 6966 08 9410 2566 Bibra Lake WA 6965 08 9494 1702 Myaree Business Centre WA 6154
08 9330 2833
Park Engineers Pty Ltd SWG Operations Pty Ltd
PO Box 130 P O Box 2233 Uniweld Structural Co Pty Ltd
Bentley WA 6982 08 9451 7255 Bunbury WA 6231 08 9780 0600 10 Malcolm Road
Maddington WA 6109 08 9493 4411
Scenna Constructions United Group Resources
PO Box 3165 PO Box 219
Jandakot WA 6964 08 9417 4447 Kwinana WA 6167 08 9499 0499

ASI STEEL MANUFACTURER AND DISTRIBUTOR MEMBERS


Apex Building Products Pty Ltd Horan Steel Pty Ltd Smorgon Steel Group Ltd
4 Cojo Place, Dandenong South VIC 3164 165 Newton Road, Wetherill Park NSW 2164 Ground Floor, 650 Lorimer Street
PO Box 4231, Dandenong South VIC 3164 PO Box 6427 Wetherill Park NSW 2164 Port Melborne VIC 3207
www.apexsteel.com.au www.horan.com.au www.smorgonsteel.com.au
Bisalloy Steels Industrial Galvanizers Corporation Pty Ltd Smorgon Steel Reinforcing & Steel Products Division
Resolution Drive, Unanderra NSW 2526 11B/ 96 Wilkie Street, Yeerongpilly QLD 4105 Level 1, 668 Lorimer Street
P O Box 1246 Unanderra NSW 2526 PO Box 503, Moorooka QLD 4105 Port Melborne VIC 3207
www.bisalloy.com.au www.indgal.com.au
Southern Steel Group
BlueScope Steel Limited Korvest Galvanisers 319 Horsley Road, Milperra NSW 2214
Level 11, 120 Collins Street, Melbourne VIC 3000 580 Prospect Road, Kilburn SA 5084 PO Box 342 Panania NSW 2213
GPO Box 18207 Melbourne VIC 8003 PO Box 306, Enfield Plaza SA 5085 www.southernsteel.com
www.bluescope.com www.korvest.com.au
Steel & Tube Holdings Ltd
BlueScope Lysaght Midalia Steel Pty Ltd Private Bag 30-543 Lower Hutt
Suite 116, 26-32 Pirrama Road, Pyrmont NSW 2009 49 Pilbara Street, Welshpool WA 6986 New Zealand
GPO Box 2695 Sydney NSW 2001 PO Box 228 Welshpool WA 6986
Steelpipe Australia
Coil Steels OneSteel Limited Suite 27, 18 Stirling Highway, Nedlands WA 6009
16 Harbord Street, Granville NSW 2142 Level 40, 259 George Street, Sydney NSW 2000 www.steelpipe.com.au
PO Box 166 Granville NSW 2142 GPO Box 536 Sydney NSW 2001
www.coilsteels.com.au www.onesteel.com Stramit Building Products P/L
Level 5, Tower A, Zenith Centre, 821 Pacific Hwy,
Fielders Steel Roofing OneSteel Market Mills Chatswood NSW 2067
15 Railway Terrace, Mile End SA 5031 Ingall Street, Mayfield NSW 2304 Locked Bag 7013 Chatswood DC NSW 2067
PO Box 281 Marleston SA 5033 PO Box 245C Newcastle NSW 2300 www.stramit.com.au
www.fielders.com.au OneSteel Martin Bright Supaloc
Fletcher Building Ltd PO Box 39 MDC Somerton VIC 3062 Lot 13-15 Old Punt Road, Tomago NSW 2322
Private Bag 92114 Orrcon Pty Ltd PO Box 986, Raymond Terrace NSW 2324
Auckland 121 Evans Road, Salisbury QLD 4107 www.supaloc.com.au
New Zealand P O Box 295 Salisbury QLD 4107 Vulcan Steel Ltd
G.A.M. Steel Pty Ltd www.orrcon.com.au PO Box 58-009, Greenmount , Auckland
557 Mount Derrimut Road, Derrimut VIC 3030 Rondo Building Services Pty Ltd New Zealand
PO Box 171 Deer Park VIC 3023 3-33 Glossop Street, St Marys NSW 2760
www.gamsteel.com.au Webforge Australia Pty Ltd
P O Box 324, St Marys NSW 1790 142-146 Fairbank Road, Clayton South VIC 3169
Graham Group www.rondo.com.au Private Bag 155 Clayton South VIC 3169
117-153 Rookwood Road, Yagoona NSW 2199 Smorgon Steel Tube Mills www.webforge.com.au
PO Box 57 Yagoona NSW 2199 146 Ingram Road, Acacia Ridge QLD 4110
www.grahamgroup.com Weldlok Industries Pty Ltd
P O Box 246 Sunnybank QLD 4109 117-153 Rookwood Road, Yagoona NSW 2199
H J Asmuss & Co www.smorgonsteel.com.au/tubemills PO Box 57 Yagoona NSW 2199
PO Box 14-441 Panmure, Auckland 1006
New Zealand

15 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 41 NUMBER 1 - JUNE 2007


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