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SUMMER TRAINING

REPORT
ON

NTPC ANTA

SUBMITTED TO-
SUBMITTED BY-P.VASHISTHA
CHETAN YOGI
(training incharge) (final
year EE)
NTPC ANTA R.N.
MODI ENGG. COLLEGE
ABSTRACT
According to the rules of Rajasthan Technical University, I have
undergone my 45days Practical Inplant Training at NTPC, Anta
which is incorporated in the syllabus for 4 year B.Tech. Course.
The training report hereby submitted outlines the course of work
during my training in an oriented manner over a period of
3045days for Electronic Instrumentation and Control branch.

The whole capacity of plant is 419.33 MW with 4 generating


units. The report consists of generation of electricity in its 4 units
& constructional features of main parts of plant. Adequate
diagrams and layouts have been provided for a more descriptive
outlook and clarity of understanding.

In all, I have tried my best to present this report in a very


precise and profitable manner. Engineering students gain
theoretical knowledge only through books, which in not sufficient
for absolute mastery in our field.

Thus, I made a sincere attempt to bring about the details


which I experienced during my training at NATIONAL THERMAL
POWER CORPORATION (ANTA) from 30APRIL2016 through this
report. I have tried my best to reproduce the facts & findings of
the training site.

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CHAPTER -1

INTRODUCTION

1. BRIEF NTPC-AN INTEGRATED POWER MAJOR

A journey towards excellence established in 7 Nov. 1975, NTPC limited, a


premier sector enterprise, is Indias largest power utility with an installed capacity
of 27,904MW through 26 power station including station operated under joint
exploration, power distribution trading and also plans to enter into nuclear power
development. NTPC plans to become a 50,000MW Company by 2012 and
75,000MW plus company by 2017.

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.

Figure 1.1

1.1 COMBINED CYCLE TECHNOLOGY:-

The year was 1985, government of India decided to effectively use the
sweetened natural gas, which was to be made available by GAIL through
cross-country HBJ gas pipe line NTPC was entrusted with a responsibility to set
up gas based power project in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Utter Pradesh, NTPC
submitted the feasibility reports for 3 gas based projects at Anta(Rajasthan),
Auraiya (U.P) and Kawas (Gujarat).

The feasibility report of anta was approved by government of India in October,


1986. The land was simultaneously acquired,bhoomipoojan of the land to start the
work performed on 16.01.1987 by the then CMD shri M.L. shishoo, and the
charging of construction power was inaugurated.

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1.2 MILE STONE:-

Govt. approval of feasibility report - 20.10.86

Bhoomipoojan - 16.01.87

Award of main plant turnkey contract - 24.08.87

Synchronization of GT-1 - 20.01.89

Synchronization of GT-2 - 04.03.89

Synchronization of GT-3 - 04.05.89

Synchronization of ST - 09.03.90

Location : anta in Baran district of Rajasthan

Total land : 390.75 acres.

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Fuel : natural gas naphtha

Water source : KOTA RIGHT MAIN CANAL

Net plant output : 419.33 MW

1.3 SALIENT FEATURES OF ANTA

1. GAS TURBIN :89, TYPE 13D-2, ABB MAKE, 5TH


STAGE REACTION TURBINE
2. GT COMPRESSR : 18TH ST; AGE AXU\IAL FLOW,
REACTION BLADING
3. COMBUSTION CHAMBER :SINGLE SILO TYPE, DUAL FUEL
FIREBURNER
4. AIR INTAKE FILTER :SELF CLEANIN, SYNTHETIC PAPER,
TOTAL 945 FILTERS IN THREE TIRES
5. BYPASS STACK :VERTICAL 25M. HIGH
6. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY :DUAL PRESSURE, DOUBLEDRUM,
UNFIRED, FORCED CIRCULLATION
BOILER PRESSURE FLOW TEMP

HP 62.70 BAR 163 T/HR 485

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LP 5.5 BAR 39.1 T/HR 207
7. STEAM TURBINE :153.20MW, TANDEM COMPOUNDED ,
DOUBLEEXHAUTST, CONDENSING
TYPE, SINGLE FLOW HORIZONTAL
25 STAGE HP TURBINES.
8. CONDENSOR :DOUBLE PASS SURFACE
CONDENSOR WITH STAINLESS
STEEL TUBES, COOLING 13988M3.

9. GENERATOR :3 PHASE, TWO POLE, IR COOLED


OUTPUT VOLTAGE SPEED
GTG.135MVA 10.5KV 3000RPM
STG. 191MVA 15.75KV 3000RPM
10.BLACK START FACILITY : 2.4MW DIESEL GENERATOR SET, V-
6.6KV
11.COOLING SYSTEM FOR :3*50% COOLING WATER PP AND
CONDENSER 2*50%COOLING TOWER
PP, CAPACITY 15000M3 EACH, 11 NOS
ARIFLOCCUATORS, CAP. 110M3/HR
12.PT. PLANT :2 NOS AIRSLOCCULATORES,
CAP.110M3/HR
13.DM. WATER PLANT :TWO STEAM OF 35M3/HR EACH
14.NET PLANT OUT :419.33MW
15.FUEL :NATURAL GAS (MAIN FUEL),
THROUGH HBJPIPE LINE, NAPTHA,
(ALTERNATER) FUEL BY ROAD
TANKER

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16.WATER SOURCE :KOTA RIGHT MAIN CANAL
17.RESERVIOUR :10 MILLION M3, FOR 1 MONTH
18.TOTAL LAND :390.75 ACRES
19.PLANT OUTPUT :419.33MW

CHAPTER -2

GERNAL DESCRIPTION OF COMBINED CYCLE

The 419.33MW anta combined cycle power plant consist of three gas turbines
generator sets of 89.20MW each and one steam turbine generator set of 153.20
MW. The gas turbines are equipped with a dual fuel burner for gaseous fuel
(natural) and liquid fuel (naphtha). The station can be operated in the open cycle
mode via their exhaust gas bypass stacks or as modules together with their waste
heat recovery boilers and STG in the combined cycle mode.

The WHRBS is designed as dual pressure boilers with high pressure (HP) and
low pressure (LP) sections and condensate preheating at the tail end. The
condensate pumped from the condenser hot well is degasified in the deairator at
constant pressure and stored in the feed water tank. From feed water tank, the
boiler feed water is extracted by mean of separate boiler feed water pumps for the
HP and LP system serving the 3 WHRBS in common HP and LP main steam
lines the turbojet is composed of single flow HP turbine and one double flow LP
turbine. The generator is directly coupled to the shaft of LP cylinder. The exhaust

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steam of the STG is condensed in a surface condenser cooled by fresh water of
the right main Kota canal in the once through cycle. During the shutdown of
canal, the condenser is cooled via a wet cooling tower in the closed cycle
alternatively.

For start-up and shutdown as well as trip of STG one common HP and LP steam
bypass station for all 3 modules are provided leading the steam directly into the
condenser.

1. PRINCIPAL OF COMBINED CYCLE:-

The function of a gas turbine in a combined cycle power plant is to drive a


generator, which produces electricity, and to provide input heat for the steam
cycle. Power for driving the compressor is also drive from gas turbine.

Combined cycle power plant integrated two power conversion cycles namely,
Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and rankine cycle (conventional steam power plant)
with the principle objective of increasing overall plant efficiency.

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Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2

2. BRAYTON CYCLE
The Brayton cycle, named after the American engineer George Brayton (that built
a two-stroke reciprocating engine in 1876 and advanced combustion chambers at
constant pressure ), is a good model for this operation of a gas-turbine engine
(first successfully tested by F.Whittle in 1937, and first applied by the Heinkel
Aircraft Company in 1939) ,nowadays used by practically all aircraft except
smallest ones, by many fast boats and increasingly been used for stationary power
generation, particularly when both power and heat are of interest.

In the ideal air-standard Brayton cycle, the working fluid is just air, which is
assumed to Follow four processes is entropic compression, constant-pressure heat
input from the hot source, isentropic expansion, and constant pressure heat
rejection to the environment. Contrary to reciprocating engines, the gas turbine is
a rotating device working at a nominal steady state (it can hardly work at partial
loads) spark ignition is used to start up, since air compressor output temperature
is not high enough to inflame the fuel.

THEIDEAL BRAYTON CYCLE IN THE T-S AND P-V DIAGRAM, AND


THE REGENERATIVE BRAYTON CYCLE

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Figure 2.3

3. RANKINE CYCLE:
The conversion heat energy to mechanical (or electrical) energy with the energy
of steam is carried out by this cycle. In its simplest form the cycle works as
follows. The initial state of working fluid is water which, at the certain
temperature is compressed by a pump and feed to the boiler. In the boiler the
compressed water is heated at a constant pressure. Modern steam power plants
have steam temperature in the range of 500-5500C at the inlet of turbine.

Figure 2.4

4. ADVANTAGE OF COMBINED CYCLE PLANTS:

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In addition to higher energy efficiencies, the advantages of combine-cycle units
over more conventional power generation sources include the following
advantages:-

1. Lower construction and maintenance costs


2. Low gestation period
3. Better reliability

CHAPTER -3

GAS TURBINE

GENERAL DESCRIPTION-

A gas turbine plant in its most simple form consist of the following main part

1. Air intake system

2. Compressor

3. Combustion chamber

4. Turbine

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5. Generator

1. AIR INTAKE SYSTEM:-

The air flow radial inward through the filter elements then upward to clean air
duct. The air inlet connection has horizontal air inlet and situated axially in front
of the compressor. three are three horizontal floors in t filter house each floor
carry 315 filters. (Total filters are made of synthetic and cellulose fibers, using
resign impregnated).

2. COMPRESSOR:-

It is 18 stages with additional inlet guide blade, axial flow, reaction compressor.
The blade of the 18 rotor and 19 fixed rows are made of high tensile ferric
chrome steel.

The compressor casing is horizontally split at axis, and is made of spherical


graphite cast iron. This material possesses high tensile strength and good
expansion quality. upper and lower halves of the compressor casing are provided
with robust flanges and are held together by expansion studs with socket head.
The compressor casing has three circular ducts at 4th, 7th, 10th row of fixed
blades. These ducts are closed to the outside by four bleed halves. Bleed halves
are kept open unto 2700rpm,so that certain amount of compressor air can be blow
off. These bleed valves reduces the external power input required running
compressor during start up.

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3. COMBUSTION CHAMBER:-

In combustion chamber, the air compressed and supplied by compressor is


brought to the required process temp. by combustion of liquid/gas fuel. The single
combustion chamber is fitted with only one duel fired burner and mounted
vertically on the compressor/turbine assembly.

The combustion chamber is all welded steel plate fabricated. The main parts are
jacket with cover, lower upper combustion chamber bodies, finned segment body,
burner and inner casing.

Combustion chamber jacket, which houses the components, is made of heat


resistant, low alloy ferrite steel. Finned segment body encloses the hottest zon e
of the combustion chamber.

The air from the compressor enter the combustion chamber from below and flow
upward through the annular space between combustion chamber jacket and inner
section of the lower combustion chamber body. Approximately 30% air flow
enter the combustion chamber through eight mixing nozzles provided at the lower
body as secondary and approximately 30% air flow enter the combustion chamber
through upper body via fined segment row (there are 5row, the remaining
40%flow as primary air for combustion, into the swirl insert and enter the
combustion space with turbulence. After the fuel has ignited these gases are
thoroughly mixed with secondary air form mixing nozzles and brought to the
permissible turbine inlet temp.

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The inner casing guides the hot gases coming from combustion chamber to the
turbine halding.it is thin welled construction made of heat resistant chrome-nickel
austenitic alloy.

4. TURBINE:-

Turbine is five stage reaction turbines. Due to high temp.of incoming gases, the
first and second row of rotor and fixed blading are air cooled with air from
compressor discharge. The cooling air is fed to the first and second row of fixed
blades through holes drilled in the blade carrier and to the first & second row of
rotor blades through hole drilled in shaft. Cooling air passes along several holes
made in blades and finally blowing out through numbers of slits in the
trailing/leading edge of the blade. This method of cooling ensures that blades are
thoroughly cooled, thereby avoiding cracks induced by thermal stresses. These
cooled blades are fixed rotor blades of other rows are made of cast in nickel based
alloy. The fourth and fifth row of rotor blades fifth row of fixed blades are drop
forged. turbine outer casing is split into two halves like compressor casing are
bolted together at radial flange with expansion bolts, turbine casing is made of
heat resisting ferrite steel in order to with stand thermal stresses. The blade carrier
for turbine fixed blades is made of ferrite steel alloy casting and axially like
turbine/compressor.

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Figure 3.1

4.1 FEATURES OF ABB 13D2 TYPE GAS TURBINE-

1. A single shaft of welded construction.

2. Axial compressor of 18 stages with bleed valves after 3rd,6th ,9th stages for
protection against surging and also reduced power required for startup.

3. A single combustion chamber with a single burner. The combustion chamber is


mounted vertically on the turbine outer casing. The large size of the combustion
chamber provides easy access to inspection of its internals as well as approach to
the turbine inner casing and first stage blades of turbine.

4. The burner is of dual fuel design and either gas, naphtha (or any liquid fuel) or
both can be fixed.

5. Five stage axial turbine with axial exhaust for easy connection to a waste heat
boiler. First two stages of turbine blades are coated.

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6. First five stages of compressor blades are coated to protect against corrosion
due to humidity.

7. First 2 stages of turbine blades are coated against high temperature corrosion.

4.2 OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF GAS TURBINE-

1. The gas flow ducts must offer minimum hydraulic resistance.

2. The axial flow at exit from last stage of a gas turbine constitutes 150-200 mm/s
and the kinetic energy of the gases attain 10%of the total useful energy. To
minimize losses an exhaust diffuser is provided.

3. If the ratio of mid diameter of stage to blade height is less than or equal to 12 to
14 twisted blades are decided.

4. There is no extraction like in steam turbines hence the flow path is simpler.

5. Liquid fuel usually contains impurities like VA, NA, S, etc. These substances
destroy corrosion protective film on heat resistant steels.

6. Along with use of high temp and heat resistant metals, various design
techniques are employed to reduce temperature levels and remove heat from the
hottest elements in gas turbines. As much as 15% of compressor discharge air is
used for cooling of blades, rotors and blade carrier etc.

7. First rows of blades are made hollow or have longitudinal bore holes for
cooling. Non solid and often have a thinned portion at the tip to minimize risk of
damage on contact with the turbine casing.

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8. Gas turbine rotors are usually disc type with intense cooling arrangement.

9. Turbine blade carrier is horizontal split and is of strong and stiff designs in
order minimize radial blade clearances. Hence casing is made of symmetrical
cross section and with uniform wall thickness in order that temperature
deformations due to frequent and sharp changes in turbine operation could not
distort the cylindrical shape from inside. To lower casing wall temperature heat
shields and cooling is provided.

10. there is no governing stage in gas turbine.Partial admission is not permissible


and load control is only control through of TIT.

4.3 GAS TURBINE PLANT OPERATION:-

The compressor sucks in air from the atmosphere through the filters called air
intake filters. The compresses air at approx. 9 to 11 bar passes into the
combustion chamber where it is used as primary air for combustion and
secondary air for cooling of very hot parts.

The gas turbine generates the necessary power to drive the axial-flow compressor
and the generator. The turbine and compressor are in common casing.

Start-up of the GT is drives with the help of starting equipment which runs the
generator as a motor with speed increasing from 0 to 600 rpm. At this speed a
pilot is ignited in the combustion chamber, fuel (gas/naphtha) enters and
combustion takes place.

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The speed increases further both with the help of generator motoring and the
combustion of fuel up to about 2000 rpm. At this speed starting equipment is
switched off and only the generator is made ready for synchronization with the
grid. After synchronizations, the turbine load increases up to the base load with
more and more fuel entering the combustion chamber.

The hot gases after combustion enter the gas turbine at about 1000 (at base
load). The higher pressure and temperature gas pass through the turbine rotating it
and generator, this produces the electrical power.

The exhaust gas coming out of the GT is at about 500 . This can be utilized
to produce steam in WHRB.

Figure 3.2

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4.4 ADVANTAGES OF GAS TURBINE OVER STEAM TURBINE

1.Gas turbine is more compact. There is no boiler or condenser. Auxiliaries are


very few.

2. They can be started and loaded very quickly(within 20 minutes form cold start
to full load)

3. Gas turbines are simpler in maintenance and designs.

4. Gas turbine plants involve less metal and material.

5. They are lower in cost for installation capacity.

6. Gas turbines dont require enormous quantities of cooling water as in steam


turbines.

4.5 DISADVANTAGE

1. Gas turbines have lower specific power.


2. They have lower efficiency.
3. Gas turbines have shorter service life.
4. They are very sensitive to fuel quality.

5.GENERATOR

Generator is three phases, two pole air cooled machine. The generator and turbine
are placed on common and plane concrete foundation, with same centre line level
for turbine and generator rotor.

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The mechanical energy generated by turbine is converted to electrical energy by
the generator and appear in the stator winding in the form of current and voltage.
That balances the torque of the gas turbine.

It leads the magnetic flux, and carries the field winding, the generator id self
excited. The power required for the excitation is % taken from the generator term
finals and fed to the field winding through the excitation transformer and the
thruster- controlled rectifier units.

5.1 GAS TURBINE GENERATOR (Mka):-

1. Generator Type : wy18 L-095ll


2. No. of phases : 3
3. No. of poles : 2
4. Stator winding : star
5. Insulation class : f
6. Nominal apparent power : 135MVA
7. Nominal voltage : 10.5kv
8. Nominal current : 7423a
9. Reactance
A. Direct axis synchronous reactance ad : 191%
B. Direct axis transient reactance xd : 14.4%
C. Direct axis sub transient reactance : 10.2%
D. Negative sequence reactance x2 : 12.8%
E. Zero sequence reactance x0 : 5.8%
F. Short circuit ratio kc : 0.58%
10.Full load efficiency : 98.38%

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11.Stator winding resistance at 200c : 0.000607 ohm
12.Rotor winding resistance at 200c : 0.2177 ohm
13.Stator winding capacitance ph. to core : 0.52 micro F
14.Weight, generator assembled : 162 MT
15.Rotor weight : 31 MT

CHAPTER -4

FUEL SYSTEM

1. GAS:-

Gas comes from GPRS bars at around 18 bars; manual isolation valve is to be
opened by operator. Motorized stop relief valve is depressurized. When valve
opens, the relief port is closed.

In the gas control block there is an emergency stop valve(ESV). This opens with
the help of power oil pressure against spring force. Whenever, turbine trip the oil
is drained (depressurized) and spray force closes the valve cutting off gas supply
to combustion chamber.

2. NAPHTHA:-

Naphtha comes from naphtha solution via the forwarding pumps at around 15bar.
Manual isolation valve outside GT hall is to be opened by the operator manual

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isolation valves before main fuel pump and also to be opened. Motorized valve
will be opened by GT program and when FG liquid fuel is selected. NAPHTHA
then passes through duplex filter to the main fuel oil pump, which raises the press
to approx. 80 bar. There is release valve which opens when firing speed is
reached (600 rpm)

There is an emergency stop valve similar toone in the gas scheme. Finally there is
the control valve directly coupled with the NAPHTHA nozzle. A minimum
opening of the nozzle is already pre-set. once stable flames formed, the nozzle
opening increases with the control valve opening.

3. LUBRICATING OIL/POWER:-

The turbo generator set has four bearing which are continuously supplied with
lubricating oil form MOT which is located between the compressor and generator.
There are two bearings on either side of generator and one bearing at turbine end
bearing at compressor end.

AN auxiliary lube pump (AC motor drive) supplies lube oil during the start up
and during rotor turning operation in case of AC supply failure DC lube oil pump
will start automatically. there are two high pressure AC motor driven jacking oil
pumps there function is lift the turbine/generator slightly, during start up, so that
starting force is reduced.

A vent fan mounted on the MOT keeps it under vacuum and removes the
fumes/vapours to atmosphere.

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Barring gear pump-AC motor driven pump rotates the shaft in term intently
during rotor-turning operation to prevent sagging of rotor .in case of an auxiliary
power oil pump (AC pump) driven provides hydraulic oil for operation of
hydraulically operated valves. A motor driven circulation pump keeps oil in
circulation through power oil system when the GT is under shut-down,to avoid
ingress of air.

During normal operation all the above pumps remain off. the lube and power oil
are provided by a shaft driven main oil pumps located inside the Gear box on the
top of the MOT.

Lube oil is cooled in coolers outside GT hall. These are air cooled radiator type
coolers. Lube oil passes through tubes and air passes over these tubes induced by
3 fans.

After cooler, the oil is passed through duplex type filters and goes to bearings.

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CHAPTER -5

BOILER

The boiler installed in national thermal power corporation is manufactured by


Austrya. The boiler is used to generate high pressure, super heater steam which
is ultimately used to drive the turbine coupled to the generator hence producing
electrical power.

Boiler unit comprise to following units:-

1. Boiler
2. Super heater
3. Economizer

The steam generator is of radiant reheat, natural, circulation, single drum, dry
bottom an semi out door type unit, designed for firing gas as principle fule.

The super heater steam has mainly three sections. The low temperature super
heater, the radiant temperature super heater (arranged at the out section of
furnace) and the final super heater (arranged after re-heater).

Two super heater, de-heater are provided in between the list section and platen
super heater for controlling super heater steam temperature over wide load range.
The complete back pass of the boiler (up to economizer) has been covered with

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steam cooled super heater wall section the complete re-heater has been arranged
as one section and located in the horizontal pass of the boiler in between the
radiant platen super heater and final super heater. Two re-heater de-super heater
are provided in the cooled re-heated inlet, hot re-heater outlet, economizer inlet
heaters are provided with required guides to take care of forces and moments
from external, piping connections.

The complete part system is suspended from the boiler structure steel roof
section and arranged for expansion downward.

1. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION OF WHRB:-

Wagner-biro supplied boilers for anta combined cycle power plant known as
waste heat recovery boilers (WHRB),which are of non fired ,dual pressure, forced
circulation type. The boiler has two different water/steam cycles known as high
pressure system and low pressure system. Each system has its own boiler drum
and circulating pumps, and are feed by HP&LP feed water pumps from a
common feed water tank. The pressure and temperature the HP&LP steam from
the three boilers from four common headers HP live steam line, HP bypass line,
LP live steam line, LP bypass line, the bypass line dump steam in condenser
through the HP and LP bypass system.

The HP steam drives the HP steam turbine through stop valves and control valves

. The LP steam after passing through stop valves and control valves mixes with
the HP turbine exhaust and drives the gas turbine. This dual system of operating
utilizes the waste heavy from the gas turbine with maximum efficiency. From LP
turbine steam enters the condenser where it get condensed to water with the help
of cooling water. Condenser is shell and tube, water flow through the tubes and
steam flow outside. The condensate get collected in hot well, from hot well it

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enters the feed water tank through condensate extraction pump (3*50%) via the
help of (2*50%) vacuum pump.

Each of WHRB is feed with waste heat flue gas from the respective gas turbine
(GT). The gas turbines are fired either with gas or naphtha. The flu gas
temperature at boiler inlet is about 500c depending on GT load and outside
temperature conditions. The flue gas temperature at boiler outlet is about 110c-
140c to avoid cold end corrosion.

During WHRB operation the flue gas is led through a horizontal duct with
integrated silencer to diverter flap of the WHRB. There two positions of diverter
flap, one open to the boiler and another is open to bypass stack.

The energy from waste heat flue gas is transferred to water/steam by means of
heating surface of super heaters, evaporators, economizers and condensate
preheater.

The heating surface of each boiler is about 96000sq.m. The heating surfaces in
staggered arrangement are manufactured as finned tubes arranged horizontally
and installed in vertical duct supported by tube plates.

The steam water system consist of a high (HP) and low (LP) pressure system and
in addition there is a condenser preheated in order to obtain a higher efficiency.

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Figure 5.1

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Figure 5.2

2. COMPONENTS OF WHRB
2.1 LP-BOILER PART:-

2.1.1 ECONOMIZER:-

The LP feed water, which flows from the (3*50%) LP feed water pumps through
the common feed water line to the 3 WHRBs in parallel, enters a WHRB at
economizer gate valve. The gate valve is equipped with a parallel bypass valve,
which is used for first filling of WHRB and pressure equalization.

In economizer the feed water is heated up by the flue gas. After the economizer
the feed water enters the LP boiler drum through feed regulating station (FRS),

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where the feed water control valve ensures the correct supply of feed water to the
boiler.

Another part of feed water after economizer is branched to the feed water tank,
where it used for de-airating purposes.

2.1.2 LP-BOILER DRUM-EVAPORATOR:-

The feed water in LP boiler drum is pumped through evaporator by means of


(2*100%) LP circulation pumps. In evaporator the water is partially by the flue
gas passing at the outside of the evaporator tubes. The steam and water mixture
again enters the drum, where steam is separated and this steam flows to the LP
super heaters and water is circulated again. Low level and high level protections
are provided for the protection of one vent valve is mounted on the drum which
opens automatically during start and closes when the pressure in drum rises above
1bar.2 nos. of safety valve with silencers are also mounted against the over
pressure protection. The circulation pumps ensure the correct water flow through
the evaporator for which the differential pressure between discharge and suction
side of pump is supervised by means of pressure differential switch. When the
pressure drops the stand by pump will starts immediately.

2.1.3 LP- SUPER HEATER:-

The steam leaving at the top of the LP drum flows through the flue gas heated
Super Heater, where it reaches the end temperature of about 206c.

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The outlet header is equipped with motorised drain valve which is automatically
operated during start-up and this valve closes automatically after pressurization.
At outlet pipe a safety valve protects the super heater against over pressure.

2.2 HP-BOILER PART:-

The principal design of the HP-boiler part is the same as for the LP-part.The basic
difference is of operating pressure.

2.2.1 ECONOMIZER:-

The HP fed water, which flows from the (3*50%) HP feed water pumps through
the common feed water line to the HP part of 3 WHRB in parallel, enters a
WHRB at the gate valve of economizer. This gate valve is equipped with a
parallel bypass valve as in LP-economizer. The HP economizer coils are in two
parts, one part is just below the LP economizer and the other is below the LP
super heater and both the coils are connected in series. After the economizer the
feed water enters the HP boiler drum through high pressure feed regulating station
(FRS) , where the feed water control valve ensures the correct supply of feed
water to the boiler..

The HP/LP economizers are provided with safety valves against the protection of
over pressure.

2.2.2 HP- BOILER DRUM, EVAPORATOR:-

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The feed water in the HP- boiler drum is pumped through the evaporator by
means of 2x100% HP circulation pumps in the evaporator water is partially
steamed as in LP part, this partially steamed water enters in HP drum where steam
is separated, and water is circulated again. These steam is super heated in HP
super heater.

The HP circulation pumps ensure the correct water flow through evaporator for
which differential pressure switches are provided.

One vent valve and two nos. of safety valves with silencers are also mounted on
the HP drum just like the LP drum.

2.2.3 HP-SUPER HEATER:-

The HP super heater consists of two parts with a spray attemperator between
them. This configuration allows the temp. controlof the super-heatedsteam. the
spray water which is cooling medium is branched from the feed water line at the
HP economizer inlet via a control valve to the attemperator if the temp. of super-
heater increases beyond the predetermined temp.

Then spray water control valves opens automatically and keeps down the super
heater tank at about 4980c. The outlet is equipped with mortised drain valves. A
safety valve is also given against the over protection.

2.3 CONDENSATE PREHEATER:-

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The main condensate is pumped by 3x50% condensate extraction pumps (CEP) to
the feed water tank. Before entering the feed water tank the condensate is passed
through the condensate preheaters which are situated at the tail end of the WHRB
and heated by the flue gas to achieve the highest cycle efficiency.

By means of the 3-way control valve the preheaters can be partially or totally
bypassed.

At certain load conditions and also depending on ambient temperatures, it is


necessary to increase the condensate temperature before entering the preheater.
This is to avoid drop of the flue gas temperature below the sulphuric dew point,
which would cause corrosion at the preheaters. For this purpose 2x100%
condensate circulation pumps are installed. These pumps take automatic start
when the condensate temperature falls below a certain limit.

2.4 BLOW DOWN TANK:-

One blow down tank is provided for each WHRB to collect drains e.g. CBD, IBD
and drum over flow water from HP and LP system of WHRB. The water level in
this tank is maintained through an over flow pipe, which leads the water to hot
drain collecting system. The steam flows via a silencer to the atmosphere.

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CHAPTER -6

STEAM TURBINE

GENERAL DESCRIPTION:-

The steam turbine consists of two turbine sections, a single flow high pressure
turbine and double flow low pressure turbine arranged in same center line. The
shaft turning gear is engaged and disengaged automatically when turbine is
started and shutdown.

HP live steam is taken from the boiler HP system through the main steam pipe to
the combined main stop and control valves. From there it flow through four
opening in the outer casing into the interior of the HP turbine and enters the
reaction blading through exhaust connection at the top of the HP casing. The
cross over the pipe between HP and LP turbines brings the steam to the reaction
blading in the LP turbine, where it expends down to condense pressure.

The LP steam is taken from LP boiler system through the LP steam main line to
the combined stop and control valves. From there LP steam enters the cross over
piping, where it mixes with the HP exhaust before entering the reaction blading of
the LP turbine. In LP turbine expansion take place and finally steam get
condensed in the condenser.

The turbo generator set has four bearing which are continuously supplied with
lubricating oil from MOT like gas turbine. There are two bearings on either side
of generator and one bearing at HP turbine end one bearing in between HP.

34
CHAPTER -7

POWER PLANT CHEMISTRY

Figure 7.1

1. SHORT TERM PLANNING:

Under short term planning work elements are established as follows:

Work receipt and control, i.e. work order system


Planning and scheduling
Preventive maintenance work programs

35
Integration of PM schedule with corrective maintenance to minimize
downtime
Condition monitoring
Plant and work history recording
Work management analysis and management reporting

2. CONDITION MONITORING:-

The condition monitoring mainly covers the vibration measurement of rotating


equipments, to analyse any abnormality or high vibration, to measure the sound
level and analysis of lubricating oil.

3. LONG TERM PLANNING:-

The major functions of the long term planning are as follows:

Compilation of the station five year rolling plan


To prepare and ensure all necessary arrangements for the following
years overhaul work programs.
Produce, distribute and monitor major overhaul and control
programmed
Custody of all licenses of equipment covered under Indian boiler
regulation act, Indian electricity act, Indian explosive act and other
safety rules and to take action for renewal of these licenses.

4. STATUARY REQUIREMENT:-
36
The long term planning engineer is also responsible for the safe custody of all
licenses and takes advance action for the renewal of such licenses. At anta the
following licenses are being taken as the statuary equipment:

a) Factory licenses
b) Licenses for storing naphtha fuel
c) Licenses for storing diesel
d) Licenses for HP boiler drum(3nos)
e) Licenses for LP boiler drum(3nos)

5. PERMIT TO WORK SYSTEM (PTW SYSTEM):-

Permit to work is a written permission to carry out the work on any equipment/
system. This system is required because the electrical and mechanical items of
plant and apparatus are interconnected to from electromechanical systems and
contain inherent dangers. Hence, while working on any equipment/ system, it is
to be ensured that it is safe to work on.

The permit to work system followed at anta is computerized one. The permit to
work is always issued by the operation department and taken by the respective
maintenance department. The procedure which is followed is issue any permit to
work is follows:

a. Whenever any work is to be done on any apparatus/ equipment in the plant


area respective maintenance person applies for a permit to work. Permit to
work is must for any work to be done in the plant area which may affect the
normal operation of the plant.
b. After receiving the permit to work request, operation engineer carry out the
isolations as required. The isolation which is required is jointly finalized by

37
operation and maintenance engineers. Maintenance engineer specifies his
equipment keeping in mind the safely and operation engineer take care of
the process requirement.
c. A danger tag is attached to the electrical supply or at the control station
mentioning the PTW number and name of the equipment etc. After
carrying out the isolation.
d. When it is ensured that the equipment/ system are isolation and safe to
work on, permit to work is issued after signature of the operation and
maintenance engineer.

After issuance of permit to work, the required work is being carried out by the
maintenance department. Every permit to work has duty. Time and date and
permit to work should be returned by in case the work could not be completed till
that time may be extended by operation engineer on the request of maintenance
engineer the procedure for cancellation of permit to work is follows:

a. After completion of work and clearance from the permit to work holder
(maintenance engineer) certifying that all men and material removed and
equipment is ready to be put in service, the isolations done are removed
by the operation engineer.
b. The trial run of the equipment is taken jointly, wherever required. After
satisfactory trial run, the permit to work may be closed.
c. The details of the work done are entered in the computer and permit to
work is closed by operation engineer.

6. POWER EVACUATION:-

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There are total 220 kava transmission lines for evacuation of power generated at
anta. There are two lines for Bhilwara, two lines for Jaipur and one line for Kota.
One lines for Rawatbhata power plant

CHAPTER -8

39
WATER TREATMENT PLANT

The principle problem in high pressure boiler is to control corrosion and steam
quality. Internal corrosion costs crores of rupees in repair. Without strict control,
impurities in steam also form deposit over turbine blades and nozzles. The
impurities present in water are as follows:-

Un-dissolved and suspended solid materials.

Dissolved slats and minerals.

Dissolved gases.

Other minerals (oil, acid etc.).

Turbidity & Sediment.

Silica.

Micro Biological.

Sodium & Potassium Salt.

Dissolved Sales Minerals.

O2gas.

CO2 gas.

Thus to make water pure for feeding in B.F.P. and to have protection against
corrosion and other above mentioned problems de-mineralisation is needed. The
procedure is explained as-

1 D.M. PLANT

40
In this plant process, impure water is fed. This plant consists of two streams, each
stream passes through activated carbon filter, weak acid, cation exchanger and
mixed bed exchanger. The impure water is fed to DM plant through 250 dia.
header from it is taken to softening plant. Two filtered water booster pumps are
provided on filtered water line for meeting the pressure requirement in DM Plant.

Sodium Sulphate solution of required strength is dosed into different filtered


water streams by means of dosing pump to neutralize chlorine prior to activated
carbon filter. Water passes through an activated carbon filter to remove residual
chlorine from water. Water then goes to weak base anion exchanger unit & enters
de-gasified unit where free CO2 is scrubbed out of water by upward counter flow
of low pressure air flow. This de-gasified water is pumped to strong base

41
exchanger (anion exchanger).

Figure 8.1

2 C.W. PLANT

Circulating water pump house has pumps for condensing the steam for condenser.
After condensing the water is discharged back into the river. Each of the 5 pumps
for 1st and 2nd unit has capacity of 8275 M3/Hr, and develop pressure about 1.94
kg. /Cm2. 3 seal water pumps are used for sealing circulating water pump shaft at
pr. 4.5 kg./cm2. One pump is taken standby at a time.

42
From main line water passes through filter bed to filter the water. Clarified
water is pumped to 42 m elevation where water is stored in tank and used for
cooling the oil coolers and returns back to river.

3 B.C.W. PUMP HOUSE


Filtered water after demineralization is used for Bearing Cooling from BCW
pump house. Water enters at 30-32oC and leave exchanger at 38oC. The raw
water used in ash handling plant and remaining quantity is stored in BCW Pump
House. From here the water is pumped to CW pumps. BCW here stand for water
used for cooling oil used for cooling the bearing. In CW pump house water is
discharged from nozzle and impinged for travelling water screens for cleaning it.

43
CHAPTER -9

MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT

The maintenance management system consist mainly the following areas

Preventive maintenance/ lubrication schedule.


Break-down maintenance.
Capital overhauls/ scheduled inspections.
Condition monitoring.
Spare parts management.
Statuary requirements.
Short term planning engineer.
Long term planning engineer.
Spare parts management and spare parts development.

The short term planning covers the preventive maintenance, lubrication schedule,
break-down maintenance and condition monitoring.

44
The spare parts management and spare part development is the third area looked
separately by one engineer. The anta gas power project being completely
imported plant supplied by M/S ABB, Germany on the turn-key basis, the spare
part indigenization has been given due importance.

ANGPP has four discipline of the maintenance section as follows:

Mechanical maintenance section


Electrical maintenance section
C&I maintenance section
Civil maintenance section

Each of section is headed either by manager or senior manager (E5/E6) and the
area engineers are as follows:

Mechanical maintenance section 5nos.

Electrical maintenance section 4nos.

C&I maintenance sections 6nos.

Civil maintenance section 2nos.

45
CHAPTER -10

CONCLUSION

Electricity has a prominent role to play in life. It is a vital to all segments of the
economy. It is a precursor to the progress and prosperity of the nation.
Government of India has a target of per capita availability of electricity to be
increased to over 1000 units and minimum lifeline consumption of 1unit/house
hold/day as a merit good by year 2012. In electricity the more you supply the
greater is demand as supply of power causes economic development and
increased standard living which enhances the demand. The digital economy
enterprises data warehouses, call centres, software technology parks and other
computer control mission critical businesses are the fastest growing segments of
power consumers.

These enterprises require nearly 100% up time to guarantee integrity of their


products and services. The power sector has made rapid strides in absolute term
on. III the spheres viz. generation, transmission network and energy mix. Despite
these achievements the power sector has been plagued by serious shortages of
electricity, as it has not been able to keep pace with rapid growth in demand.

46
However the power sector has reached a point, from where it is possible to
consolidate the growth made till now and sustain and enhance that growth to keep
pace with economic development.

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