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Articulation and Body Movements

Articulation and Body Movements By: Roong, Pangpun, Golf, & Milly

By: Roong, Pangpun, Golf, & Milly

Articulation and Body Movements By: Roong, Pangpun, Golf, & Milly
Types of Joint

Types of Joint

Structural Classes of Joint

Fibrous Joints (fixed)

Cartilaginous Joints (slightly movable)

Synovial Joints (incl. freely moveable)

Functional Classes of Joints

Immovable joint

Slightly moveable joint

Moveable Joint, or "Freely moveable joint"

Type of joints structure

Fibrous Joints (no move, no space, connected by fibrous tissue) sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses ex. Distal end of tibia and fibula

Cartilaginous Joints (connected by cartilages) synchondroses and symphyses ex. Sternocostal joint

Synovial Joints ( space between adjoining bone, greatest movement) ex. Saddle (between carpal and metacarpal) condylar(between radius and carpal / between metacarpals and phalanges)

FIBROUS JOINTS

connected by dense connective tissue consisting mainly of collagen

no joint cavity

also called fixed or immovable joints because they do not move

There are 3 types of Fibrous Joints; sutures, syndesmosis, and gomphoses

Sutures Syndesmosis Gomphoses
Sutures
Syndesmosis
Gomphoses

Sutures

“A suture is a type of fibrous joint (synarthrosis) bound together by matrix of connective tissues called Sharpey's fibers that only occurs in the skull (cranium)”

Protect the brain

Form the face by uniting adjacent skull bones

Visible from the side (norma lateralis): frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, and zygomatic bones

Visible from the front (norma frontalis) and above (norma verticalis)

Visible from below (norma basalis) : frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones

Synarthrosis (immovable joints)

● Visible from below (norma basalis) : frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones ● Synarthrosis (immovable joints)

Syndesmosis

A syndesmosis, a subcategory of fibrous joints , is a slightly movable (amphiarthrodial) articulation where the contiguous bony surfaces are united by an interosseous ligament, such as the tibiofibular articulation.

where the contiguous bony surfaces are united by an interosseous ligament, such as the tibiofibular articulation.

Gomphosis (sing)/ Gomphoses (plural)/ Peg and socket joint

- In the shape of socket

- Only joint that doesn’t join bones together because teeth are not bone

- One disorder that can happen to gomphosis is scurvy (disease happen to connective tissue)

Ex. Gomphoses which attach human’s roots of the teeth to upper - lower jaw

(disease happen to connective tissue) Ex. Gomphoses which attach human’s roots of the teeth to upper

Cartilaginous Joints

There are two types of cartilaginous joints

1. Synchondroses

unable to move

joined to articulating surface by hyaline cartilage.

2. Symphyses

Can move

Articulating surface covered by hyaline cartilage

Disc of fibrocartilage join the bones

Synovial Joints

It is also known as a diarthrosis. It has the greatest ability to move comparing to other joints in mammals. Articular cartilage covers the surface of the bone

has the greatest ability to move comparing to other joints in mammals. Articular cartilage covers the

Type of Joint Function

Synarthrosis (no movement) - Skull Sutures, articulations of bony sockets and teeth in facial skeleton

Amphiarthrosis (little Movement) - distal joint between the tibia and the fibula and the pubic

symphysis

Diarthrosis (full movement) - Elbow, shoulder, ankle

joint between the tibia and the fibula and the pubic symphysis Diarthrosis (full movement) - Elbow,

Synarthrosis (no movement)

The bones are bounded together by fibrous tissue which fix the bones together and makes the bones unable to move or allow just a little movement.

1.

Suture - (Fixed) found between the flat, plate-like bones of the skull.

2.

Gomphoses - (fixed) found in the sockets of the teeth.

3.

Synostoses the joint which bounded the separate bones that fuse together to be one bone as we grow up

4.

Synchondroses are cartilaginous joint connected by hyaline cartilage, as seen in the epiphyseal plate.

Amphiarthrosis (little Movement)

In this joint, the bones are connected by fibrocartilage and Hyaline cartilage. This joint has a high ability to absorb the shock. There are 2 main types of Amphiarthrosis.

1.Synchondroses or primary cartilaginous joints - has only Hyaline cartilage. This joint can be Synarthroses or Amphiartheoses

2. Symphyses or secondary cartilaginous joint - it can involve fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage. These joints are slightly

movable eg. pubic symphysis.

- it can involve fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage. These joints are slightly movable eg. pubic symphysis

Diarthrosis (full movement)

This kind of joint allows full movement of the bones as the bones are connected by ligaments and filled in the spaces between joints by ‘joint capsule’ which has lubricating synovial fluid.

Diarthrosis contains 6 main groups of joint in our body classified by their movement.

has lubricating synovial fluid. Diarthrosis contains 6 main groups of joint in our body classified by

Types of Synovial

joints

Plane joints

Movement that does not occur on axis

Slide past each other

Non-axial joint

 
joints ● Movement that does not occur on axis ● Slide past each other ● Non-axial

Hinge joints

Formed between two or more bones where the

bones can only move along one axis to

or extend

flex
flex

Examples: ankle joints, elbow joints, and knee joints

can only move along one axis to or extend flex ● Examples: ankle joints, elbow joints,

uniaxial

move along one axis to or extend flex ● Examples: ankle joints, elbow joints, and knee

Pivot joints

Rotary joint or trochoid joint

 

Freely movable

joint (diarthrosis) that

allows only

rotary movement

around a

single axis

 

Examples:

Uniaxial

 
allows only rotary movement around a single axis   ● Examples: ● Uniaxial  

Condyloid joints (or ellipsoidal joints)

● Also known as condylar, ellipsoidal, or bicondylar ● Ovoid articular surface ● Allows flexion
Also known as condylar, ellipsoidal, or
bicondylar
Ovoid
articular surface
Allows
flexion
,
extension
,
adduction
,
abduction
, and
circumduction
Examples: Wrist joint,
metacarpophalangeal joints, &
metatarsophalangeal joints
Biaxial

Saddle joints

Saddle joints ● One of bones forming the joint is shaped like a saddle and the

One of bones forming the joint is shaped like a saddle and the other bone is resting on it

More flexible than hinge or gliding joint

Can

move in oval shape

alike to condyloid

joint

 

Examples: carpo-metacarpal joint ( in the thumb)

Biaxial

 

Ball and socket joints

Made up of bone with spherical head and bone with a cup-like socket

Highest freedom

do motion in body due to

unique structure

Examples: Hip joints & shoulder joints

Multiaxial

 
in body due to unique structure ● Examples: Hip joints & shoulder joints ● Multiaxial  

Gliding Joints

Also known as plane joint or planar joint

formed between bones that meet at

flat or nearly flat

articular surfaces

Allow bones to

slide
slide

past each other in any direction of the

plane ( up and down, left and right, diagonally)

Examples: wrists, ankles, and spines

of the plane ( up and down, left and right, diagonally) ● Examples: wrists, ankles, and

Multi-axial

of the plane ( up and down, left and right, diagonally) ● Examples: wrists, ankles, and

Synovial Joints

Name

Example

Description

Gliding joints (or plane joints)

CARPAL OF WRIST

Allow sliding movements, multi-axial

Hinge joints

Elbow

Door hinge - allowing flexion and extension, one plane

Pivot joints

Proximal radioulnar joint

One bone rotates about another

Condyloid joints (or ellipsoidal joints)

Wrist joint (radiocarpal joint)

Two bones fit together forming odd shape, one bone concave and the other convex

Saddle joints

Sternoclavicular joint

Same movement as condyloid joint, but allow more movement

Ball and socket joints

Shoulder (glenohumeral) and hip joints

Allow all movement except sliding

Origin and Insertion of Muscles

-attachment site thatdoes move when the muscle contracts Insertion -proximal (closer to body) -attachment site that -distal

does move

when the muscle

contracts

Insertion

-proximal (closer to body)

-attachment site that

-distal (further from the body)

when the muscleInsertion -proximal (closer to body) -attachment site that -distal (further from the body) contracts Biceps contracts

contracts

Biceps contracts

Biceps relaxes

Demonstrate/ describe various body movements

Body movement

the action of the muscle on the skeleton which starts from the anatomical position

Flexion and Extension

Occurs in: Sagittal Plane

Flexion: The movement which decrease the angle of the bones or body parts

- Anterior body motion of upper limbs

Extension: The movement which increase the angle of bones or body parts.

Abduction and Adduction

Occurs in : Coronal plane

Abduction : The movement away from the midline

Adduction : The movement toward the midline

Occurs in : Coronal plane Abduction : The movement away from the midline Adduction : The

Medial and Lateral Rotation

Occurs in: Vertebral column in Ball and Socket joint. Medial: Rotational movement toward the midline.
Occurs in: Vertebral column in Ball and Socket joint.
Medial: Rotational movement toward the midline.
Lateral: Rotational movement out from the midline.

Abduction and

Adduction are

moving in straight line

Abduction and Adduction are moving in straight line Lateral and Medial Rotation are Rotational motion

Lateral and Medial Rotation are

Rotational motion

Pronation and Supination

Supination: Flip a part of the body from its original position and bring inside part to the front.

Pronation : Stay the outside part at the same position

For example: When you’re standing still and turn your palms up = bring inside to the front = Supination

When you’re standing still and flip your palms down = stay the same = outside part at the front = Pronation

Dorsiflexion and Plantarflexion

Occurs in: Foot and hands (rare)

Dorsiflexion: when the foot point up to superior direction.

For hands: we can say Dorsiflexion of the wrist or extension

Plantarflexion: when the foot point down to inferior direction

For hands: we can call Palmarflexion

wrist or extension Plantarflexion: when the foot point down to inferior direction For hands: we can

Opposition and Reposition

Occurs in: Thumbs and little finger

Opposition: Bringing Thumbs and little fingers to get near each other.

Reposition: Move Thumbs and little finger far away from each other (Reverse the opposition)

to get near each other. Reposition: Move Thumbs and little finger far away from each other

Circumduction

The movement of limbs which one end stays still and another end moves in circular motion

Circumduction The movement of limbs which one end stays still and another end moves in circular

Compare and contrast the structure and function of the shoulder and hip joints

Structure : Compare & contrast

Shoulder

Hip joints

Shoulder

Hip joints

Synovial joint

Synovial joint

Unstable

Stable

Covered by

Covered by

Fibrocartilage around socket (glenoid)

Fibrocartilage around socket (acetabulum)

articular

articular

cartilage

cartilage

Compare and contrast the structure and function of the shoulder and hip joints

function : Compare & contrast

Shoulder

Hip joints

Movement depends on tendon, muscle, ligament

Movement do not depends on any

Shoulder

Move well

Hip joints

Move well

Structure of Knee

Structure of Knee There are 4 main categories: Bones Articular Cartilage Ligaments Tendons

There are 4 main categories:

Bones Articular Cartilage Ligaments Tendons

Structure of Knee

Bones

3 mains one that meetup to form knee joints

- thighbone (femur)

- shinbone (tibia)

- kneecap (patella)

Structure of Knee

Articular Cartilage

-

Slippery substance

-

Helps your knee bones move smoothly across each other as you bend or straighten your legs

-

Cover the ends of your femur and tibia

-

Cover the back of your patella

Structure of Knee

Ligaments

There are two main categories which are divided into four subcategories:

- Collateral ligaments: found on sides of your knee, control sideway motion and brace against movement

* Medial collateral ligament: inside of your knee

* Lateral collateral ligament: outside of your knee

- Cruciate ligaments: found inside your knee joint, cross each other to form an “X” control back and forth motion of knee

* anterior cruciate ligament: At the front

* posterior cruciate ligament: At the back

Structure of Knee

Tendons

- Muscles connected to bones

- Quadriceps tendon: connects muscles in front of your thigh to your patella

- Patellar tendon: stretch from your patella to tibia

Structure of Knee

Meniscus

- Two wedge-shaped (triangular) of meniscal cartilage

- Shock absorbers between femur and tibia

- Tough and rubbery to help cushion and stabilize the joint

FUnctions of Knee

acts as a hinge that allows lower leg and foot to swing easily forward or back

makes almost 150° movement

● acts as a hinge that allows lower leg and foot to swing easily forward or

Structure of temporomandibular joint

What is temporomandibular joint?

- Articulation (where two bones meet) of the mandible (bone located near your chin) and the temporal bone of the cranium (bone located near your head, on the upper part)

It is divided into two categories which are:

Articulating surfaces Ligaments

near your head, on the upper part) It is divided into two categories which are: Articulating

Structure of temporomandibular joint

Articulating surfaces

Consists of articulation between three surfaces

Mandibular fossa

Articular tubercle (from the squamous part of temporal bone)

Head of the mandible

● Mandibular fossa ● Articular tubercle (from the squamous part of temporal bone) ● Head of

Structure of temporomandibular joint

Articulating surfaces

Has unique mechanism

Articular disks

- separates articular cartilage of the bone so that they will never come together

- Splits the joint into two synovial joint cavities, lined by a synovial membrane

Covered by fibrocartilage, not hyaline cartilage

Structure of temporomandibular joint

Ligaments

Lateral ligament

- Runs from beginning of articular tubule to mandibular neck

- Thickening of joint capsule

- Acts to prevent posterior dislocation of joint

Sphenomandibular ligament

- Originates from sphenoid spine

- Attaches to mandible

Stylomandibular ligament

- Thickening of fascia of the parotid gland

- Along with facial muscles

- Support weight of jaw

Function of temporomandibular joint

Function of temporomandibular joint ● Protrusion and retraction - Anterior and posterior moments of jaw -

Protrusion and retraction

- Anterior and posterior moments of jaw

- Protrusion- lateral pterygoid muscle is responsible

- Geniohyoid- digastric muscles is responsible

Elevation and depression

- Permits elevation and depression of the mandible

- Caused by gravity with digastric, geniohyoid, and mylohyoid muscles assisting

- Contract of temporalis, masseter, and medial pterygoid muscles

Non Axial Joint ● Bone movement that is not around on an axis ● allows

Non Axial Joint

● Bone movement that is not around on an axis

● allows for no movement in any plane

● Plane joint bones slide past each other

that is not around on an axis ● allows for no movement in any plane ●
that is not around on an axis ● allows for no movement in any plane ●

References

Fibrous joints (n.d.) Retrived from

https://www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/joints-8/fibrous-joints-1372/fibrous-joints-509-5583/

Joints (2010) Retrived from https://imueos.wordpress.com/2010/10/05/joints/

Types of Joints (between bones in the human body) (n.d.) Retrived from http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBody/Skeletal/Joints/Types-of-Joints.php

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synovial_joint

http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00325

http://www.innerbody.com/image_skel07/skel32.html

http://www.innerbody.com/image_skel07/skel31.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibrous_joint#Gomphosis

References

http://www.gustrength.com/glossary:diarthroses-or-synovial-joints

http://study.com/academy/lesson/muscle-origin-and-insertion-definition-and-actions.html

http://teachmeanatomy.info/head/joints/temporomandibular/

https://www.sharecare.com/health/functions-joints/what-is-function-of-knee

https://www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/joints-8/fibrous-joints-1372/sutures-510-8650/