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8.

THE DISTORTING REGIME


(The Non-sinusoidal Permanently Periodic Regime)

8.1 Fourier Analysis

8.1.1. The Dirichlet Conditions and the Fourier Series


A function:
f t f t nT , n 1,2,.. (8.1)
is periodic if it repeats itself exactly every T seconds for t . Here, T is known as the
period of f t and this can be related to the frequency f by:
1
f (8.2)
T
which is measured in hertz (Hz) and which is related to the fundamental angular frequency of the
radian frequency by:
2
0 2f rad / s (8.3)
T
The Dirichlet conditions are defined as it follows:
(1) The function f t is single-valued
(2) The function f t has, at most, a finite number of discontinuities in one period
(3) The function f t has, at most, a finite number of maxima and minima in one period
(4) The integral over one period is finite:
t 0 T

f t dt
t0

Any periodic function that satisfies these Dirichlet conditions can be written in the form
of a Fourier series:
a
f t 0 a1 cos 0 t a 2 cos 2 0 t .. a k cos k 0 t ..
2 (8.4)
b1 sin 0 t b2 sin 2 0 t .. bk sin k 0 t ..
a
In equation (8.4) the 0 term is the average value of f t over one period, and the sin
2
and the cos terms, which contain multiples of the fundamental angular frequency 0 are called
the harmonics. The coefficients of the sin and cos terms are called the Fourier coefficients.
If a sufficient number of harmonics are used, the Fourier series for the periodic function
closely approximates the actual function.

1
8.1.2 The Determination of the Fourier Coefficients
To determine the Fourier coefficients (the 's and 's in equation (8.4)), one makes use of
the orthogonality of the sin and cos and that for integer values of k,
t 0 T

cos k tdt 0
t0
0 (8.5)
t 0 T

sin k tdt 0
t0
0 (8.6)

Then, from the three trigonometric identities:


1
sin A cos B sin A B sin A B (8.7)
2
1
cos A cos B cos A B cos A B (8.8)
2
1
sin A sin B cos A B cos A B (8.9)
2
with A k 0 t and B m 0 t , where k and m are integers, it can be shown that:
t 0 T

cos k t sin m tdt 0


t0
0 0 (8.10)

t 0 T 0, k m

t0
sin k 0 t sin m 0 tdt T
2 , k m 0
(8.11)

t 0 T 0, k m

t0
cos k 0 t cos m 0 tdt T
2 , k m 0
(8.12)

The coefficients ak are obtained by multiplying both sides of equation (8.4) by


cos m 0 tdt and then integrating over one period. The result just before integration is:
t0 T t 0 T
a0
f t cos m 0 tdt cos m 0 tdt
t0 t0
2
t 0 T t 0 T

ak cos k0 t cos m 0tdt bk sin k 0 t sin m 0 tdt
k 1 t0 t0
(8.13)
Equations (8.5), (8.10) and (8.12) show that the coefficients ak will be:
t T
2 0
f t cos k 0 tdt
T t0
ak (8.14)

2
or with 0 ,
T

2
t 0 T
2 2 k
ak
T f t cos T tdt
t0
(8.15)

If k=0,
t0 T
2
a0
T f t dt
t0
(8.16)

a0
and it is obvious that use of in equation (8.4) permits the use of a uniform relationship for
2
finding all of the ak including a0. Moreover, equation (8.16) represents just twice the average
value of f t over one period.
The bk coefficients are obtained in a similar fashion, but this time equation (8.4) is
multiplied by sin m 0 tdt . The form just prior performing the integration is:
t 0 T t 0 T
a0
f t sin m tdt
t0
0
t0
2
sin m 0 tdt

t 0 T t 0 T

ak cos k0 t sin m 0 tdt bk sin k0 t sin m 0 tdt
k 1 t0 t0
(8.17)
Use of equations (8.6), (8.10) and (8.11) show that the coefficients bk will be:
t T
2 0
f t sin k 0 tdt
T t0
bk (8.18)

2
or, if 0 ,
T
t0 T
2 2k
bk
T f t sin T tdt
t0
(8.19)

8.1.3 Symmetry considerations


Evaluation of the Fourier coefficients becomes a great deal simpler when certain types of
symmetry are recognized.

Even-Function Symmetry.
An even function is defined by:
f t f t
and it is seen that cos t -waveforms shown in fig.8.1 satisfy this definition:

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Fig. 8.1

For even functions the following conditions hold:


(1) The ak coefficients may be obtained from integrating over a half period, with a doubling of
the result.
(2) The bk coefficients vanish.

Odd-Function Symmetry.

4
An odd function is defined by:
f t f t
The function sin t and many other functions such as those represented by the
waveforms shown in fig.8.2 satisfy this definition:

Fig. 8.1
Thus, for odd functions, the following conditions hold:
(1) The bk coefficients may be obtained from an integration over a half period, with a doubling of
the result.
(2) The ak coefficients vanish.

8.1.4 The Amplitude-Phase Angle Forms


Consider the Fourier series:

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a0
f t a k cos k 0 t bk sin k 0 t .
2 k 1
Assume that a k2 bk2 0 and multiply and divide the parenthetical term by a k2 bk2 :
a0 ak bk
f t ak2 bk2 cos k0t sin k0t
2 k 1 ak2 bk2 ak2 bk2

If ak and bk are, respectively, the base and the height of a right triangle, then the
hypotenuse will be:
c k a k2 bk2 (8.20)
The cos and sin of the angle k will be:
a1 b1
cos k ; sin k .
a b2
1 1
2
a b12
2
1

This, of course, makes:


b
k arctan k
ak
(8.21)
The Fourier series may therefore be written with c0=a0 as:

a a
f t 0 ck cos k cos k0t sin k sin k0t 0 ck cos k0t k (8.22)
2 k 1 2 k 1
The coefficient ck is called the amplitude, and the angle k is called the argument or
phase angle.
A similar development will yield the sin phase angle form:

a
f t 0 c k sin k 0 t k , (8.23)
2 k 1

where k k .
2

8.1.5 Complex Form


sin 0 t
1
2j

e j 0 t e j 0 t
cos 0t
2
e
1 j0t
e j0t

a0 ak jk0t

a jbk jk0t ak jbk jk0t

b a
y t e e jk0t k e jk0t e jk0t 0 k e e
2 k 1 2 2j 2 k 1 2 k 1 2
ck c k

(8.24)

y t c k e jk0t (8.25)

6
t0 T
1
y t . e
jk0t
ck dt (8.26)
T t0

8.1.6. The frequency of periodical quantity

The graph of amplitudes


2Yn of the harmonics of a periodical function y(t)
developed under the form (8.17) is called "frequency spectrum" figure 8.3.a (is a discrete
spectrum). To deduce the development (8.17) of y(t) we should add to the frequency spectrum
the frequency spectrum of the initial phase, thus the Fourier being univoquely determined figure
8.3.b.

Figure 8.3. frequency spectrum of a non linear periodical waveform


a) of amplitudes b) of initial phases

8.2. Properties of periodical quantities

Generally the quantities y(t) can be voltages or currents, so that we assume that for
beginning we study a non-sinusoidal periodical voltage u(t) of the form :

u t V0 2Vn sin nt n (8.27)
n 1

and a periodical non-sinusoidal current i(t) which also can be decomposed in Fourier series

i t I 0 2 I n sin nt n (8.28)
n 1

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8.2.1. Mean value of the product of 2 harmonics of different orders of
voltage, respectively of current
We assume the m-th order harmonic of the voltage:
um t 2U m sin mt m (8.29)
from the decomposition (8.27) of u(t) and the n-th harmonic of the current:
in t 2 I n sin nt n (8.30)
form the decomposition (8.28) of i(t).
The mean value over a period T (the mean value of the product of the voltage u(t) and the
current i(t)) of the 2 harmonics is:
~
u m in
1 T
T 0
T 1 T
u m t in t dt
T 0

2U m sin mt m 2 I n sin nt n dt

2 1 T
U m I n cos m n t m n cos m n t m n dt
T 2 0 (8.31)
U I cos n n , if m n
n n
0, if m n

8.2.2. The RMS value of a nonsinusoidal periodical quantity


We assume that the nonsinusoidal periodical quantity y(t) is decomposed with (8.17). We
define the RMS value of this quantity with the nonsinusoidal variation with the relation
1
y 2 t dt
T
Y
T 0
(8.32)
Then:
1 1


y 2 t dt 0 m 0 yn t dt

T T
Y2
T 0 T
0

Y
1
y t

Y
1
1


Y0 2Ym sin mt m Y0 2Yn sin nt n dt
T

T
0
1 1
1 T


Y02 Y0 [ 2Ym sin mt m 2Yn sin nt n ] (8.33)
T 0
1 1



2Ym sin mt m 2Yn sin nt n dt
1 1

Y02 2Y0 ~
ymT ~
ym ynT
1 1 1

But

~y 0( a ), ~
ym ynT ~
ym2 Yn2
T T
m
1 1 1 1 1

(8.34)
Substituting (8.34) in (8.33) and then in (8.32) we find:

Y Y02 Y12 Y22 Y32 .. Y02 Yk2 Y02 Y12 Yd2 (8.35)
k 1

where Yd is called the distorting residue of the quantity y(t) and it is equal to the RMS value of
the high harmonics:

8

Yd Y22 Y32 .. Y
n2
n
2
(8.36)
Then the RMS value of the voltage u(t) given by (8.27) is:
U U 02 U 12 U 22 U 32 .. U 02 U 12 U d2 (8.37)
with the distorting residue of voltage:

Ud U
n2
2
n (8.38)
The RMS value of the current i(t) decomposed with (8.28) is:
I I 02 I12 I 22 I 32 .. I 02 I12 I d2 (8.39)
with the distorting residue of current:

Id I
n2
2
n (8.40)

8.2.3 Factors Characterising the Nonsinusoidal Periodic Waveform


We consider a nonsinusoidal periodic waveform developed under the form (8.17).

8.2.3.1 The Peak (Amplitude) Factor kv


The peak factor (or amplitude factor) is defined as a ratio between the maximum value of
the periodical quantity y (Ymax) and the RMS value Y:
y Ymax
kv (8.41)
Y Y02 Y12 Yd2
At the sinusoidal periodical quantities:
kv 2 1.41 (8.42)
We say that a periodical waveform is flat if k v 2 and that is keen if k v 2 .

8.2.3.2 The Factor of Form kf


The factor of form kf of a periodical function y(t) is defined as a ratio between the RMS
value and the mean value Y of the periodical function along a half of period:
Y
kf T
t0
2 2 (8.43)
y t dt
T t0
Here t0 is the moment of zero-crossing of y(t) towards ascendant values.
At a sinusoidal periodic waveform:

kf 1.11
2 2

8.2.3.3 The Distorting Coefficient kd

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The distorting coefficient for a periodic function y(t) is usually defined as a ratio between the
distorting residue Yd and the RMS value of the alternative component of the function y(t):
Yd Y22 Y32 ..
kd (8.44)
Y 2 Y02 Y12 Y22 Y32 ..
The distorting coefficient kd is positive and <1, and if k d 0.05 the voltages and the
currents may be approximated only by their first harmonics (the fundamental harmonics).
In electro-energetics, for big systems, considered with infinite power, the continuous
component is considered too when defining kd:
Y02 Y22 Y32 ..
kd (8.45)
Y02 Y12 Y22 Y32 ..
In networks with localised (limited) power, the distorting coefficient is determined by the
relation:
Y 2 Y12 Y 2 Y22 Y32 ..
kd 0 (8.46)
Y1 Y1
At the sinusoidal regime, obviously kd>0.

8.3 Powers in Non-sinusoidal Periodic Regime

If we should consider a dipole found under a nonsinusoidal voltage between terminals


u(t), decomposed in the form (8.27), pierced by the nonsinusoidal periodical current i(t) of the
form (8.28), we should be able to define many categories of powers for dipole.

8.3.1 Instantaneous power


The instantaneous power is defined using the product of the instantaneous values of
voltage and current:



p t u t i t U 0 2U n sin nt n I 0 2 I n sin nt n (8.47)
n 1 n 1

8.3.2 Active power


The active power, P defined as the medium value over the common period T (of voltage
and current) of the instantaneous power:
T
1
p t u t i t dt U 0 I 0 U n I n cos n n
P~ (8.48)
T 0 n 1

U 0 I 0 U n I n cos n (8.49)
n 1

where n n n is the phase difference between the homologous harmonics voltage and
current. Then in nonsinusoidal periodical regime, the active power is equal to the sum of the
active power of the component of d.c. (U0 . I0 ) and the sum of the harmonics active power.
The active power is measured in watts:

10
P SI 1 W

8.3.3 Reactive power


The reactive power is defined as the sum of the harmonics reactive powers:

Q U n I n sin n (8.50)
n 1

Q SI 1 VAr

8.3.4 Apparent Power


The apparent power S is defined as the product of the RMS values of voltage and current:
S U . I U 02 U 12 U 22 .. I 02 I12 I 22 .. (8.51)
S SI 1 VA

8.3.5. Distorting power


In nonsinusoidal regime we see that:
S 2 P2 Q2
(8.52)
Therefore in nonsinusoidal periodical regime we shall define a new power, which we
shall call distorting power and we shall denote by D:
D S 2 P2 Q2 (8.53)
By analogy the unit of measure of the others powers, the Romanian academician
Constantin Budeanu proposed for the distorting power as measure - unit the distorting volt-
ampere being also accepted by the International Electrotechnical Commitee.
The distorting power actually characterises the exceeding power which appears in
nonsinusoidal regime with respect to the sinusoidal regime, due to the vectorial character of the
powers.
Taking into account (8.48), (8.50), (8.51) and (8.53) we find:

2

2

D 2 S 2 P2 Q 2 U m2 I n2 U n I n cos n U n I n sin n
m 0 n 0 n 0 n1

U m2 I m2 U m2 I n2 U n2I m2 U n2 I n2 cos2 n 2 U mU n I m I n cosm cosn U n2 I n2 sin2 n
m0 mn mn n 1 1 n 1
mn

2 U mU nI m I n sinm sinn
1
m n





U m2 I n2 U n2 I m2 2U mU nI m I n cosm n U m I n U n I m 4U mU nI m I n sin 2 m n
2

1 1 2
mn m n

Hence:


D Um In UnIm 4UmUnIm In sin2 m n
2

1 2 (8.54)
mn

As we see from (8.51) the distorting power cancels if:


UmIn UnIm 0 U1 U 2 U
.. n ..
sin 2 m n 0 or I1 I 2 In
2 1 2 .. n ..
(8.55)
meaning that the distorting power is zero if the homologues harmonics of the voltage and current
are proportional and in phase.

8.3.6 Complementary power

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Having in view that in nonsinusoidal regime the relations (8.53) is valid, actually means
that the deviation from the sinusoidal currents and in phase with the supplying voltage is due to
both reactive power and to distorting power. Therefore we define vectorial a global power
corresponding to them, which we should call complementary power:
Qc Qa Q 2 D 2 (8.56)

8.4. The Power Factor in Distorting Regime

To define the power factor at a dipole in PPNR we proposed few definitions, each of
them trying to reveal some characteristics of this regime:
a. A first definition is based upon the analogy with the sinusoidal regime and it has the
expression:
P P P
kp (8.57)
S P Q D
2 2 2
P Qc2
2

where:
P is the active power given by (8.49);
S is the apparent power given by (8.51).
In this acceptation, it is evident that kp is under the unit ( k p 1 ) and can also be under
the unit if the reactive power is zero. Then, generally, the cancelling of the reactive power does
not necessarily improve the power factor at the value 1 - like in the sinusoidal regime. It is quite
possible, if reducing the reactive power, to obtain even more the distorting power and
accordingly to decrease kp. Therefore in nonsinusoidal regime the introduction of capacitors may
decrease kp (this time only the capacitive effect will be the diminishing of the reactive power).
To improve the power factor it is necessary to reduce the complementary power Q c
(which changes into reactive power in sinusoidal regime).
b. A second definition is based upon the possibility of identifying the receivers producing
distorting regime with respect to those which do not produce such a regime. In this situation we
must report the apparent power to the fundamental harmonic:
S1 U 1 I1 (8.58)
(which should correspond to the maximum active power absorbed by a pure resistive linear
receiver, supplied by a sinusoidal voltage).
Accordingly, a power factor, expressing how much of the active power received by the
receiver from a generator is used, is:

12

U 1 I1 cos 1 U k I k cos k
P P Pd
kp 1 k 2

S1 S1 U 1 I1 (8.59)

cos 1 kU k I cos k cos 1 k S cos k
k 2 k 2

where:
(a) P1 U 1 I1 cos 1 (8.60)
is the active power supplied by the fundamental harmonic;

(b) Pd U k I k cos k (8.61)


k 2

is the distorting residue of the power (corresponding to the superior harmonics);


Uk I
(c) kU ; kI k (8.62)
U1 I1
represent the weights of the kth harmonics of the voltage, respectively of the current, with
respect to the fundamental harmonic of the voltage, respectively of the current.
Then the power factor in this hypothesis can also be written:

k p kS cos k k 1p k pd (8.63)
k 1

where:
(c') k 1p cos 1 (8.64)
is the fundamental power factor;

Pd
(c'') k pd k S cos k (8.65)
k 2 S1
is the distorting power factor.
In this case too, the optimal value is also 1 for k p, as in sinusoidal regime, but this thing
must be done in two generally independent ways:
- the cancelling of the active power distorting residue (Pd=0);
- the full compensation of the reactive power on the fundamental harmonic (
k 1p cos 1 1 );

This second definition makes the power factor defined by (8.59) to be not only a
characteristic of the distorting receiver, but to be considered as a factor expressing the interaction
between receiver and network under given operating conditions. It means that if the supplying
network is changed, the power factor changes too, even though the fundamental frequency and
the fundamental nominal voltage remain unchanged.
Under this new acceptation let us also specify that the power factor may also be greater
than 1, this depending on the circulation sense of the distorting residue of the active power:
(a) For distorting receivers (generally non-linear) the distorting residue of the active power is
from the receiver towards the network to which it is connected (fig.8.6.)

13
Figure 8.6
In this case:

k pa k 1p k pd cos 1 kS cos k cos 1 (8.66)
k 2

(b) For linear receivers which receive active power both on fundamental harmonic and on the
superior harmonics, the distorting residue of the active power will be from the network towards
the receiver (fig.8.7.)

Figure 8.7

k bp k 1p k pd cos 1 k S cos k cos 1 (8.67)
k 2
d
In this case, obviously, k p may also be greater that the unit:
k bp 1 (8.68)
In some cases, a power factor greater than 1 can be useful (for example at bulbs), but in
most of the cases it is harmful (polluting both the network and the linear receivers with superior
harmonic active powers).

8.5. Linear Circuits in Permanently Periodical Non-sinusoidal


Regime

8.5.1. Kirchhoff's Theorems at Linear Circuits Found in PPNR

Considering that Kirchhoff's theorems in instantaneous values were deduced for a quasi-
stationary operating regime of an electric circuit, it means that they keep their validity in PPNR
too. Let us also specify that a function which meets Dirichlet's conditions and allows a Fourier

14
series development is identically zero if both its continuous component and its harmonics are
zero.

8.5.1.1. Kirchhoff's First Theorem


Evidently, we assume a linear network and that the only sources of non-sinusoidal
periodical regime are exactly the network sources. In this case, in order to write the equation
without difficulties, the used index will symbolize the side order and the exponent will symbolize
the harmonic order.
Thus, for every circuit node, at an isolated network having a periodical variation of the
electrical quantities, Kirchhoff's first theorem is written in the general case (in instantaneous
values):
ik t 0, na 1, n
kna

(8.69)
ik(t) from (8.69) represents the current through the side k and it is developed in Fourier
series under the form:


ik t I k 0 ik t I k 0 2 I k sin t (8.70)
1 1

Substituting (8.70) in (8.69), we find:


0
I k 2 I k sin t I k
0
ik t
k n a k n 1
a k n a
(8.71)

2 I k sin t I k 0 2 I k sin t 0
k n 1 a kn 1 k n
a a
whence, using the previous observation:


I 0 k
0

kna
, 1,2,.. (8.72)
2 I k sin t 0
kna

or


I 0 k
0

kna
, 1,2,.. (8.73)


i t 0
kna
k

As one may notice from (8.72) or (8.73), Kirchhoff's first theorem is separately valid for
each harmonic and can be enunciated as follows:

15
"The algebraic sum of the currents of the harmonic for a circuit node is always zero, if
the network is linear and the electrical quantities present periodical variations".

8.5.1.2. Kirchhoff's Second Theorem


In this case the Kirchhoff's Second theorem remains valid too for a circuit loop:
ub t 0, o p 1,2,.., o
ko p
k (8.74)

If the voltage at the kth side terminals presents a periodic variation, having the
development in Fourier series:


ubk t U b k0 2 U bk sin t (8.75)
1

then, substituting (8.75) in (8.74), we get:



2U bk sin t


U
ko p
0
bk
1

2U bk sin t 0



U

0
bk


ko p 1 ko p
coming that:




U 0
ko p
0
bk

, 1,2,..


2 U bk sin t 0 (8.76)


ko p

or


U 0
k o p
0
bk

, 1,2,.. (8.77)


u
(t )
0
bk
k o p

Kirchhoff's second theorem for networks with periodic variations of the electrical
quantities is enunciated as it follows:
"The algebraic sum of the th order harmonic voltages along a circuit loop at a linear
electric network is always zero".

8.5.2. The Algorithm for Solving the Analysis Problem of the Linear
Electrical Circuits Found in PPNR

We assume that the network is linear so the only sources of PPNR are the network
sources, the electromotive voltages supplied by them allowing developments in Fourier series.
Knowing the values of the passive elements of the circuit (resistors, inductances and capacitors)

16
and the values of sources which generally are non-sinusoidal periodic, due to the linear character
of the network or of the circuit, to solve the analysis problem we can apply the superposition
theorem as follows:
(a) We make the th harmonic components of the sources of electromotive voltages and of
current to act one by one; they will determine harmonic currents of order through the sides of
the network;
(b) For the th harmonic of the current, the calculus can be performed in the complex domain
(as at the sinusoidal regime), but this time we must have in view the values of the inductance and
capacitive impedances. Thus:
(b1) For inductance impedances:
Z L j L j L j L Z L 1 (8.78)
(then for the th harmonic the inductance impedance is increasing by times).
The same thing can be mentioned about the impedance of the mutual coupling.
(b2) For capacitive impedances:
1 1 1 1 1
Z C Z C 1 (8.79)
j C j C jC
(then for the th harmonic the capacitive impedance is decreasing by times).
(b3) For pure resistive impedances:
1
ZR R ZR

(8.80)
(they remain unchanged, irrespective of frequency).
Finally we find the th harmonic currents for every side at this step.
(c) To find the total current of a side we shall add the instantaneous values of the th harmonic
currents. For example, for a side k, ik(t) is given by (8.70), where ik t was found using the

complex calculus at step (b).

8.6 The Behavior of the Idle linear Elements in PPNR


(Distorting) regime

We analyze in this paragraph the mode of variation of the current through the ideal linear
elements of the circuit (resistor, coil and capacitor) at their supplying with periodical permanent
non-sinusoidal voltage, using a decomposition in Fourier series of the form:


u t U 0 2U k sin kt k (8.83)
k 1

Each of these elements will absorb a distorting periodically current, with a variation of the form:

17


i t I 0 2 I k sin kt k (8.84)
k 1

each harmonic of order k of the current depending only on the kth harmonic of the voltage.

8.6.1. The Behavior of an Idle Resistor at the Supplying with a Non-


sinusoidal Periodic Voltage

Figure 8.9

The supplying voltage of a linear resistor is periodic non-sinusoidal, having the


development in Fourier series of the form (8.83). In this case the relation between voltage and
current is:
u t Ri t (8.85)
then:
1
i t u t (8.86)
R
The current will result under the form (8.84) from (8.86):
U 0 U k
sin kt k

i t 2 (8.87)
R k 1 R
where:

18
U 0
I 0 (8.88a)
R
k
U
I k (8.88b)
R
k
k
(8.88c)
Then:
k k k =0 (8.89)
at resistor, this meaning that the current harmonics are proportional (relations (8.88(a,b)) and "in-
phase" with the homologous harmonics of the supplying voltage.
Expressing the distorting factors with the relation (8.44) for the two waveforms, we get:
a) for voltage:
U 2 U 3 ..
2 2

k dU UTHD (8.90)
U 0 U 1 U 2 ..
2 2 2

b) for current:
U 2 U 3
2 2

2 ..
I 2 I 3 ..
2 2

kd I R2 R ITHD (8.91)
I 0 I 1 I 2 .. U 0 U 1 U 2
2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 ..
R2 R R
Comparing the distorting factors (coefficients) from (8.90) and (8.91) we can see that the
resistor does not amplify and also does not diminish the PPNS regime, this meaning that the
global shape of the current waveform is alike that if the supplying voltage (fig.8.10).

Figure 8.10

The powers absorbed by the resistor are:


1. the active power:

19


P U 0 I 0 U k I k cos k k U 0 I 0 U k I k
k 1 k 1
(8.52)
U 0 U k


1 1
U 0 U k U k
2
U 2 RI 2
R k 1 R R k 0 R
where:
a) U is the RMS value of the supplying voltage:
U U 0 U 1 U 2 ..
2 2 2

b) I is the RMS value of the absorbed current:


I I 0 I 1 I 2 ..
2 2 2

2. the reactive power:




Q U k I k sin k k 0 (8.95)
k 1

0

3. the apparent power:


U2
S UI RI 2 P (8.96)
R
4. the distorting power:
Because
U 0 U 1 U 2
0 1 2 .. R
I I I (8.97)
1 2 .. 0
then the conditions (8.55) are meet, the distorting power is zero. This thing can be also
performed if we should have calculated it starting from its definition:
D S 2 P2 Q2 (8.98)
(from (8.92), (8.95) and (8.96)).
Also from the expression of the distorting power we can see that its null value results in
no influence of the resistor over the non-sinusoidal permanent periodic current with respect to
the variation mode of the supplying voltage.
The power factor in this case is:
1-using the definition (8.57):
P
kp 1 (8.99)
S
2-using the definition (8.69):
P 1 P
k p 1 1d cos 1 kU kI cos k 1 kU kI (8.100)
U I k 2 k 2

where:
U k
k (8.101a)
U
U 1

20
I k
kI 1 (8.101b)
I
From (8.100), because in practice:
0 k 1 U
(8.102a)
0 kI 1 (8.102b)
(that is the high harmonics generally have an amplitude which is smaller than the fundamental
one, at both voltage and current), it means that the power factor may also be greater than 1.
Then, practically the linear resistor absorbs active power both on the fundamental
harmonic at a unitary power factor ( cos 1 1 ), and on the superior harmonics. This effect can
be useful when such a resistor is used for heating purposes, but harmful in the other practical
situations.

8.6.2. Behavior of an Idle Coil at the Supplying with Non-sinusoidal


Periodic Voltage

Figure 8.11
In this case, because:
di
u t u L t L (8.103)
dt
and u(t) has the form (8.83), the current absorbed by it is:

21
k


1 k U
i t 2U sin kt k dt 2 cos kt k
L k 1 kL
i t 1 k1 k (8.104)
L U
2 sin kt k
k 1 kL 2
then, comparing (8.104) with (8.84) we get:
U k
I k (8.105a)
kL

k k (8.105b)
2

k (8.105c)
2
From (8.105b) we see that the harmonics of the current are delayed with a phase /2 after the
homologous harmonics of voltage, and from (8.105a), when k
U k I k 0
I k 0 or, lim (8.106)
kL k

this resulting in the condition that, once the harmonic order increases, the amplitude (or the
weight) of the current harmonics decreases.
The conclusion is that the coil "makes softer" or improves the PPNS regime (it practically
reduces the current distortion with respect to that of the voltage because it has an impedance
proportional to the harmonics order). This thing can also be deduced if we compare the distorting
factors of voltage and current:
2 2

U k
U k
I 2 I 3 ..
2 2
k 2 kL

k 2 kL

ITHD k d I k d u UTHD
I 1 I 2 I 3 ..
2
U 2
2 2 2

U k 1 2
U k

k 1 kL

L 2

k 2 kL

(8.107)
The waveforms for a known supplying voltage are as in fig.8.12.

22
Figure 8.12
The powers absorbed in this case are:
10. the active power:


P U k I k cos k k U k I k cos k 0 (8.108)
k 1 k 1

Observation: If the supplying voltage has also a continuous component, obviously P U 0 I 0


(8.109), but the variation of u(t) will no longer be around the horizontal axis, but around the
horizontal line U U 0 (8.110). Analogous for the current.
20. the reactive power:
U k 1 U k
2 2



Q U k k k
U k k
k I k
2
I sin I L (8.111)
k 1 k 1 k 1 k L L k 1 k k 1

30. the apparent power:



S UI U
k 1
k 2
I k 1
k 2
(8.112)

40. the distorting power (also non-zero this time):


k m
U k
I m U m I k 4U k U m I k I m sin 2
2
D
k m 2
2 2
(8.113)
U m U k U k U m
2
1 1
U k
mL
U m
kL

L

k m k m m k
Then the distorting power shows us that in this case the distortion degree of the voltage and
current is different.
The power factor is:
1-using the definition (8.57):
P
kp 0 (8.114)
S

23
2-using the definition (8.69):

k p cos 1 kU k I cos k 0 (8.115)
k 2

From both definitions of the power factor one can notice that the linear coil supplied by
an PPNS voltage does not absorb active power neither on the fundamental harmonic nor on
superior harmonics. In exchange from (8.111) and (8.113) we can see that it absorbs both
reactive power (Q>0) and distorting power (D>0), meaning that besides the reactivity that an idle
coil has in the case of a sinusoidal regime, in non-sinusoidal regime the idle coil also influences
the degree of distortion of the current with respect to the supplying voltage - thing also found at
the expression of the distorting factor of voltage and current.

8.6.3. Behavior of Idle Capacitor at Supplying with Non-sinusoidal


Periodic Voltage

Figure 8.13
When supplying a capacitor with a periodic non-sinusoidal voltage u(t), given by (8.83),
the current variation through the capacitor is obtained from the relationship between voltage and
current:
du
iC t C C (8.116)
dt
hence:

d k


iC t C 2 U k
sin k t C 2U k k cos kt k
dt
k 1

k 1
(8.117)


2 kC U sin kt
k k
k 1 2
Comparing (8.117) with (8.84) we find:
I k kC U k (8.118a)

k k (8.118b)
2

k k k (8.118c)
2
When k, we find that:

24
lim I k , (8.119)
k

then the linear capacitor supplied with a non-sinusoidal periodic voltage distorts even more the
current waveform (simultaneously with the increasing of the harmonic order, the RMS of the
current corresponding to the respective harmonic increases, too). This thing can also be seen if
we compare the distorting factors of the two waveforms:

ITHD k d I
I 2 I 3 ..
2 2


2CU 3CU ..
2 2 3 2


I 1 I 2 I 3 ..
2 2 2
CU 2CU 3CU
1 2 2 2 3 2
..
(8.120)
2 2 U 2 32 U 3 ..
2 2

k dU UTHD
U 1 2 2 U 2 32 U 3 ..
2 2 2

The waveform of the periodic current i(t) at the supplying with a PPNS voltage u(t) is
given in fig.8.14.

Figure 8.14
The powers absorbed in this case are:
10. the active power:

P U k I k cos k 0 (8.121)
k 1

20. the reactive power:




Q U k I k sin k U k I k sin U k I k
k 1 k 1 2 k 1
(8.122)
1 I k
2

kC U k 2
C kU k 2

k 1 k 1 C k 1 k

25
Q<0 means that, actually, the capacitor gives reactive power, both on the fundamental harmonic
and on superior harmonics.
30. the apparent power:

S UI U
k 1
k 2
I
k 1
k 2
(8.123)

40. the distorting power:


U k
I m U m I k 2
D S 2 P2 Q2 S 2 Q2
k m
(8.124)
U mC U m
U m kC U k U k
U m C k m
2 2 2
k

k m k m

The distorting power presence in this case too shows us a different distorting degree at
voltage and respectively at current.
The power factor is in this case:
1-with the definition (8.57):
P
kp 0 (8.125)
S
2-using the definition (8.67):

k p cos 1 kU k I cos k 0 (8.126)
k 2

Like in the case of the idle coil, using both modalities for the definition of the power
factor, we see that also the idle capacitor supplied by a non-sinusoidal periodic voltage does not
absorb active power neither on the fundamental harmonic nor on the superior harmonics. In
exchange from (8.122) we see that an idle capacitor delivers in network reactive power both on
the fundamental harmonic and on superior harmonics (Q<0), as a consequence of receiving
apparent power. Except that a part of this power turns into distorting power, distorting even more
the current with respect to the supplying voltage as we saw from (8.120) (with respect to the
distorting factor for the current relative to that of the voltage).

8.6.4 Behavior of Simple Circuits at Supplying with PPN Voltage

8.6.4.1. Behavior of a RLC Series Circuit Supplied by a Non-sinusoidal Permanent Periodic


Voltage (NPPV)

8.6.4.1.1. Analysis of a RLC Series Circuit Supplied by a NPPV

26
Figure 8.15
We consider the RLC series circuit supplied by a NPPV of the form (8.83). To find i(t) we
use the superposition theorem in this case, considering the circuit equation:
u R t u L t uC t u t (8.152)
or:
di 1
idt u t
dt C
Ri L (8.153)

Under the action of the supplying voltage of the kth harmonic, the circuit equation is:
di k 1 k
Ri k L i dt u k t (8.154)
dt C
or in complex:
1
j kL I
k k k k
RI I U (8.155)
j kC
where:
k k
U U k e j (8.156)
From (8.155) and (8.156) we find I(k):
k k
k U U
I k
1 Z (8.157)
R j kL
kC
Here:
k 1
Z R j kL (8.158)
k C
is the impedance of the RLC series circuit corresponding to the kth harmonic. Obviously:
1
2 kL
kC
k 1 j arctan k
Z R 2 kL e R
Z k e j (8.159)
kC
With (8.159) and (8.156) in (8.157) we find:

27
k k
U k e j U k
I k k j k k e j
U k k k
(8.160)
Z Z e Z
Then the instantaneous value of the kth harmonic current is:
1
k kL
U kC
i k t 2 sin kt k arctan (8.161)
1
2
R
R 2 k L
kC

The total current through circuit, based upon the superposition theorem, is:
1
kL

U k kC
i t i t 2
k k
sin kt arctan (8.162)
k 1 k 1 1
2
R
R kL
2

kC

10. The active power:
1
2 R
P U k I k cos k R 2 kL I I
k k

k C 2
k 1 k 1
1
R 2 kL
kC (8.163)

RI k
2

k 1

20. The reactive power:


1
kL
1 k k
2
kC
Q U k I k sin k R 2 kL I I
kC 2
k 1 k 1
1
R kL
2

kC

1 k 2 1 k 2
kL kL I k
2
I I QL QC
k 1 kC k 1 k 1 kC

(8.164a)
where:

QL kL I k
2

(8.164b)
k 1

1
QC I k
2

(8.164c)
k 1 kC

30. The apparent power:



S UI U
k 1
k 2
I k 1
k 2
(8.165)

40. The distorting power:

28
k m
U k
I m U m I k 4U k U m I k I m sin 2
2
D
k m 2
2 2
1 1

k m
R 2 kL
kC
k m
I I R mL
2

mC
I I
m k


1 1 (8.166)
kL mL
2 ? ?I k 2 m2 R R kC mC ...
I 1
? ? ? ?

2
1 1 1 k 2 m2
k m L I I
k m k m C
The power factor is:
1-using the definition (8.57):

P RI k 2

kP k 1
(8.167)
S

U
k 1
k 2
I
k 1
k 2

2-using definition (8.):


RI k RI k 2
2

P k 1 k2I
kP k 1

S1 U 1 I 1 1 1
2
k 1 1
2
(8.168)
R 2 L I L
C C
1
R2
Concluding about the RLC series circuit supplied by a NPPV, we can say that:
(a) - is always absorbing active power both on fundamental harmonic and on the superior
harmonics (relation (8.163));
(b) - the reactive power may be absorbed on certain harmonics, ki, for which:
2
1
kiL 0 (8.169)
k iC
but may be released on other harmonics, kl, for which:
2
1
kiL 0 (8.170)
k iC
Generally speaking the total reactive power Q may be absorbed (when Q>0 or QL>|QC|)
or released (when Q<0 or QL<|QC|).
(c) - the appearance of a nonzero distorting power clearly emphasizes a distorting degree of the
current absorbed by this circuit different from its supplying voltage;

29
(d) - the power factor, irrespective of the definition used for its definition, is always signalising
an active power absorbed by the RLC series circuit both on fundamental harmonic and on
superior harmonics.

8.6.4.1.2. Resonance of the RLC Series Circuit Supplied by a NPPV. Filter of Harmonics
As we saw from (8.158), the complex impedance corresponding to the kth harmonic is:
Z
k
R j kL
1
kC

k

k
R j X L X C R jX
k
(8.171)

where:
X L k kL (8.172)
is the inductance reactance corresponding to the kth harmonic, and:
1
X C k (8.173)
kC
is the capacitive reactance corresponding to the kth harmonic.
As we can see from (8.172) and (8.173), the two reactances are differently modifying
with respect to frequency: the inductive reactance grows directly proportional with the frequency
whereas the capacitive reactance decreases in inverse proportion with the frequency.
On the whole the total reactance X(k) of the RLC series circuit increases when the
frequency increases. In this situation, if on the fundamental harmonic:
1
X 1 X L 1 X C 1 L 0 (8.174)
C
it is possible to exist a certain frequency k0 for which X(k) should cancel:
1
X k0 k 0L 0 (8.175)
k 0C
where:
1
k0 (8.176)
LC
1
Obviously, the reactance cancels on the k0 harmonic only if is a natural number.
LC
For values of k>k0, the reactance X(k) becomes positive, growing together with k. If there
is a k0 satisfying (8.175), then for the k 02 th harmonic the positive reactance has the same
absolute value as the negative reactance of the fundamental harmonic:
X k0 k 02L 2
1 1 1 1
L X 1
2
2 L
k 0 C LC 1
C C
(8.177)
LC
2

Concluding, we can say that for a RLC series circuit supplied by a NPPV, even though no
resonance phenomenon should occur on the fundamental harmonic, it may be possible for it to
occurs on a superior harmonic, k0, if the condition (8.177) is met. The appearance of the

30
voltages' resonance phenomenon on a superior harmonic in the RLC series circuit may result in
the designing of some passive filters L-C for the absorption of the superior harmonics when
these appear in the electrical networks. In such situations we can say that a compensation of the
distorting regime on a superior harmonic takes place, through the local absorption of the reactive
power corresponding to that harmonic k:
1 k2
Q k QL k QC k kLI k
2
I (8.178)
kC
and of the distorting power, which practically represents the connection between the kth
harmonic and the other harmonics (including the fundamental one):
2

1 1 1 2 2
D k k mL I k I m
m1 k m C (8.179)
m k

This thing becomes possible because on the kth harmonic the impedance corresponding
to this harmonic, Z(k), has a zero imaginary part:
1
Z k R j kL R (8.180)
kC
and in the absence of a resistance:
Z k 0 (8.181)
meaning that through such an impedance the current may be considered as much as possible
(theoretically infinite).
Usually the harmonic passive filters (the LC circuits) are assembled in parallel with the
network in which harmonic components of voltage and current occur, in order to face the local
absorption of the reactive and distorting powers given by (8.180) and (8.181). the variation of a
filter impedance with respect to frequency for a LC filter corresponding to the 5 th harmonic is
given in fig.8.16.

Figure 8.16

31
If for the frequency of the proper harmonic (k=5 or f=5x50=250 Hz) the total impedance
of the filter is zero, for frequencies smaller than 250 Hz, Z(k) has a capacitive character (X(k)<0),
and for frequencies greater than 250 Hz, Z(k) has an inductive character (X(k)>0). Such a filter
behaves differently for neighbouring harmonics: it behaves like a filter for harmonics different
from k=5 too, but in a distinct manner (for example it filters the 11 th harmonic better than the
13th harmonic, s.o.).
Let us also specify that in practice for high frequencies combined filters are usually used,
due to the lower weight of the higher harmonics at the increasing frequency and because the
impedance for the harmonics to be combined is resulting small enough to produce an efficient
filtering.

32