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Calculation of genus for the Seifert surfaces

December 4, 2016

Abstract
The computation as I discussed.
Naming the vertices of the one skeleton, we get from the 3-punctured disc, (as discussed earlier),
1, 2 and 3 respectively as 1, we see that
the vertices
permute as we move down the braid and the
0 0 1
permutation matrix thus obtained is 1 0 0
0 1 0
So, in order to see which branched coverings give us how many boundary components of the knots
or links thus formed, it is enough to check which powers of the matrix give us the identity matrix,
because in that case we will get links with three boundary components or otherwise we will have
a knot with a single boundary component.
3
0 0 1 1 0 0
So, it is easy to check that 1 0 0 = 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 0 1
Thus branched coverings of degrees which are multiple of 3 gives us links with three boundary
components, otherwise we get a knot in all the other cases.

1 Case 1
If the branched covering is of degree n = 3k, where k is a non-zero integer.
We consider the following diagram obtained by taking the braid closure and taking n-degree
branched covering, that is taking n-copies of it and then obtaining the respective link. From 2 it
is clear to understand. The arrow marks a sector.
So, with respect to 2, applying seiferts algorithm to describe the seiferts surface, we see that
we get three discs with the adjacent layers connected by n number of twisted bands. So, we have
3 discs and 2n bands. So the Euler charectetistic will be:

(Sn ) = #F aces #Edges = 3 2n (1)

(where Sn is the seiferts surface of the knot/link obtained by taking the n-degree branche covering. )

Figure 1: .

1
Figure 2: .

Now, since n = 3k, as assumed above, we will have 3 boundary components in the resulting
link. So, a simple calculation gives us the genus of the resulting surfaces, as

(Sn ) = 2 2g #boundary components (2)

So, plugging values in equation 2, we have,

(Sn ) = 3 2n = 2 2g 3 g = n 2 (3)

thus in this case we have the genus to be n 2

2 Case 2
If the branched covering is of degree n, where n is not a multiple of 3.

We see from the initial discussion that the number of boundary components in this case will
be 1.
So, a similar calculation gives us that,

(Sn ) = 3 2n = 2 2g 1 g = n 1 (4)

3 Conclusion
From the above calculation it is clear, that the cases where we have a resulting knot/link with
Seifert surface of genus 1, are the cases when n = 2 and n = 3, that is the case of the Figure-Eight
Knot and Borromean Rings.