Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 36

FCE3400 Educational


Lecture 1: Defining Educational Technology

by Mas Nida Md. Khambari
Learning outcome:

1. Define Educational Technology

2. Discuss the roles of Educational Technology
3. Explain the principles of Educational Technology
What is technology?
What is educational technology?
//Buzz groups
Watch these videos. Discuss with your group and come
with your own definition of technology
Write them on your sticky notes.
Write your answer on the board.
What is technology?

? ?

Latin Word TEXERE

build, weave,
create, construct
Work Together

Knowledge Behavior and work

and skills
and patience
Time Create/Construct
Talent and art
in doing
Systematic process

Technology is not a tool it is an art or science of

how to use a tool for a purpose.

Teknologi bukan suatu alat ia adalah satu seni

atau sains menggunakan alat untuk sesuatu

(Evans & Nation, 2000)


The systematic application of scientific or other

organized knowledge to practical task

Aplikasi sistematik bagi pengetahuan saintifik atau tugas-

tugas praktikal yang tersusun

(Galbraith, 1967)

Complex combination between ideas, men, machine,

ways and methods, handling, and management.

Penyatuan yang kompleks di antara idea, manusia,

mesin, cara dan kaedah, pengendalian, dan pengurusan
Two ways of looking at technology

Product /

Finn (1960), Heinich, Molenda & Russell (1989), & Romizowski

Process / Proses
Technology as a process: The use of science knowledge and
other disciplines to create practical learning tasks. A process towards
solutions to problems by using techniques, methods, designs, or
effective and tested tools.

Teknologi sebagai proses: Penggunaan pengetahuan sains dan

lain-lain cabang ilmu untuk menghasilkan tugasan-tugasan
pembelajaran yang praktikal. Suatu proses ke arah penyelesaian
kepada masalah-masalah dengan menggunakan teknik, kaedah, reka
bentuk atau alat yang berkesan dan teruji.
Product/Material Bahan

Technology as a product or material: hardware and software

production processes result from the technology itself. For example,
the projector (hardware) and film (software) is the result of

Teknologi sebagai produk atau bahan: Penghasilan

perkakasan dan perisian hasil dari proses-proses teknologi itu
sendiri. Contohnya, projector (perkakasan) dan filem (perisian)
adalah hasil teknologi.
Technology does not mean the use of machines only,
it includes techniques of scientific knowledge.

Which is more important?

\\ Techniques \\ or // Product //
For Saettler (1990), the technique is more important than the
product because a process is required to produce something. The
process also needs to be viewed in the context of the use of methods
and techniques to enhance the teaching and learning process.

Technology bukan bererti penggunan mesin sahaja, tetapi meliputi

teknik penggunaan pengetahuan saintifik. Bagi Saettler (1990), teknik
lebih penting daripada produk kerana untuk menghasilkan sesuatu
memerlukan proses. Proses pula perlu dilihat dalam konteks
menggunakan kaedah atau teknik untuk meningkatkan proses
pengajaran dan pembelajaran.
Types of technology

Hard Soft
Technology Technology
Can function Must be enacted
independently by people
//Buzz groups
Discuss with your group and name at least two types of
hard and soft technology.
Write them on the board.
Great! So we have learnt what
technology is.

How about
educational technology

Who would like to give a try?

Do you know?
Malaysia has its own Division
for Educational Technology
//Buzz groups
Follow the link. Discuss with your group what you think
educational technology is.
Write it on your sticky notes.
Write your answer on the board.

Instructional technology is the theory and practice of design,

development, utilization, management, and evaluation of
processes and resources for learning.

Teknologi pengajaran adalah teori dan amalan reka bentuk,

pembangunan, penggunaan, pengurusan, dan penilaian bagi
proses dan sumber untuk pembelajaran.

(Seels dan Richey, 1994)


A discipline devoted to techniques or ways to make learning

more efficient based on theory but theory in its broadest sense,
not just scientific theory.

Suatu cabang ilmu yang bertumpu kepada cara-cara atau

teknik untuk menjadikan proses pembelajaran lebih cekap
dengan berlandaskan teori (terdapat pelbagai jenis teori, dan
ia tidak tertumpu kepada teori santifik sahaja).

a complex process involving people, tools, equipment,

hardware, software, and organization with the purpose to
analyze and solve learning problems

satu proses yang kompleks yang melibatkan manusia,

peralatan, perkakasan, perisian ,dan organisasi dengan tujuan
untuk menganalisis dan menyelesaikan masalah pembelajaran

Association for Educational Communications and technology

(AECT) 1972

Analysis of learning performance problems

Design, development, implementation, evaluation and management of
instructional and non-instructional processes and resources.

Analisis masalah prestasi pembelajaran

Reka bentuk, pembangunan, pelaksanaan, penilaian, dan pengurusan
proses dan sumber bagi pengajaran dan bukan pengajaran.

Reiser (2001)

The study and ethical practice of creating, using, and managing

appropriate technological processes and resources to better
facilitate learning

Amalan kajian dan etika bagi mencipta, menggunakan, dan

mengurus proses teknologi yang bersesuaian beserta sumber
untuk memudahkan pembelajaran yang lebih baik

Molenda & Robinson

(cited in Definition & Terminology Committee, AECT, 2004)

Any technology used by educators in support of the

teaching and learning process

Apa-apa bentuk teknologi yang digunakan oleh pendidik

untuk membantu proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran

Lever, Duffy & McDonald (2009)


Application of media, system, approach and techniques to

achieve effective teaching and learning

Aplikasi media, sistem, pendekatan, dan teknik untuk

mencapai pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang berkesan

Educational Technology Division, MOE (1991)

//Buzz groups
What do you think are the roles of educational technology?
Write it on your sticky notes.
Write your answer on the board.
Increase the effectiveness of
teaching and learning

Increase the quality of

teaching and learning

Overcome the teaching and

learning problems
systematically and
Achieve the teaching and
learning objectives

Increase teachers productivity

Support new teaching

Relate students to the content
under study

Motivation for students

Educational Technology Practices in
Teaching and Learning
Amalan Teknologi Pendidikan dalam
Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran

Planning (theory, approach, etc.)

Implementation process in classroom
Evaluation and review of the teaching and learning process

Perancangan (teori, pendekatan, dsbg.)

Proses pelaksanaan dalam bilik darjah
Penilaian dan semakan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran
What is your
*exit tweet
for this session?

*things that you found are most
appealing to you
Whats next?
[ Domains of educational
technology and their
functions ]