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Essential

Science Plus
6 PRIMARY

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Contents
UNIT TOPICS PRACTISING COMPETENCES

1 Nutrition Nutrition and diet


The digestive system
The respiratory system
Learning basic first aid procedures

The circulatory system


Blood circulation
The excretory system
4

2 Sensitivity I The function of sensitivity


The skin, the tongue and the nose
The eyes
Being physically active

The ears
The locomotor system
Movement
14

3 Sensitivity II The nervous system


Central and peripheral nervous systems
Voluntary and reflex movements
Testing your reaction time

The endocrine system


The endocrine glands
Internal coordination
24

4 Reproduction Sexual characteristics


The female reproductive system
The male reproductive system
Differentiating between identical
and fraternal twins

Fertilization
Pregnancy
Birth and lactation
34

END OF TERM

5 Matter General properties of matter


Specific properties of matter
Classification of matter by composition
Separating different types of
mixtures

Physical states of matter


Physical changes in matter
Chemical changes in matter
46

6 Energy Forms of energy


Properties of energy
Renewable energy sources
Understanding and interpreting
scientific information

Non-renewable energy sources


Energy consumption and saving
Light

56

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UNIT TOPICS PRACTISING COMPETENCES

7 Electricity
and magnetism
Electrical charges
Electric currents
Electric circuits
Building an electric circuit to test
conductivity

Production and distribution of electricity


Magnets and electromagnets
Uses of magnets
66

8 Machines
and technology
Types of machines
Uses of machines
Inside a machine
Managing your time with electronic
devices

Technological advances
Computers
The Internet
76

END OF TERM

9 Landscapes
of Europe
Plains
Mountains
Coasts and islands
Researching the climate and
vegetation of a country

Rivers and lakes


European climates
European vegetation
88

10 The population
and organization
of Europe
The population of Europe
The European Union
Institutions of the European Union
Interpreting population pyramids

Accomplishments of the European Union


The territorial organization of Spain
The political organization of Spain
98

11 Spain in
the Modern
Age
The discovery of America
Consequences of the conquest
The Spanish Empire
Creating a data sheet about
a historical source

Charles I and Philip II


The decline of the Spanish Empire
The War of the Spanish Succession
108

12 Spain from
the 18th century
Bourbon Spain
The 19th century
The 20th century
Analysing a historical painting

Transition and democracy


Spains modern democracy
Major events in democracy
118

END OF TERM AND KEY VOCABULARY

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1 Nutrition

1.1 Blood is a gift of life. Donating blood is extremely


important, because blood transfusions are needed
inmany operations. Blood is required in organ
transplants, after traffic accidents and in the
treatment of illnesses that require blood
components, such as chemotherapy.
There is no substitute for blood. In Spain, a blood
transfusion is needed every two minutes. To become
a blood donor, you must be healthy, 18 years old
orover, and you must weigh at least 50kilograms.
Thanks to blood donations, many lives are saved
every year and many people recover from serious
illnesses.

LOOK, READ AND SAY


Why is donating blood so important?
Name three situations where a blood
transfusion is needed.
What are the requirements to become
ablood donor?
Do you know anybody who has needed
ablood transfusion?
Would you like to be a blood donor one day?

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Unit 1

REFRESH YOUR MEMORY!

NUTRITION THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


Foods contain nutrients. The main groups Digestion is the process by which
ofnutrients are a. our body eliminates the parts of food
a. carbohydrates, fats, proteins, saliva wedo not need.
andvitamins. b. the heart pumps blood around our body.
b. carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals c. the blood carries nutrients and oxygen
and vitamins. toparts of our body.
c. blood, saliva, oils and gastric juices. d. our body breaks down food to absorb
d. milk, calcium, yoghurt and cheese. nutrients.

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM


Which parts of the body make up the What is the function of the kidneys?
respiratory system? a. To carry blood back to the heart from
a. The nose, mouth, trachea, lungs therest of the body.
andbronchi. b. To store urine.
b. The heart, lungs, trachea, arteries c. To filter the blood and reabsorb useful
andbronchi. nutrients.
c. The nose, mouth, trachea, lungs d. To filter the blood and reabsorb urine
andkidneys. and other waste substances.
d. The heart, bladder, trachea, lungs
andbronchi.

WHAT DO YOU REMEMBER? Test your partner. five 5

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Nutrition and diet
1.2 Nutrition A B
Nutrition is a combination of processes which supply our
body with the substances and the energy we need to live.
There are four processes involved in nutrition:
Digestion. This involves obtaining nutrients from food
for our body to use. Digestion takes place in the
digestive system. Digestive system. Respiratory system.
Respiration. This involves obtaining the oxygen we
need to live, and releasing carbon dioxide. Respiration
C D
takes place in the respiratory system.
Circulation. This involves transporting nutrients,
oxygen and waste products throughout the body.
Circulation takes place in the circulatory system.
Excretion. This involves eliminating waste produced in
our body. Excretion takes place in the excretory system. Circulatory system. Excretory system.

1.3 Diet
Acomplete balanced diet means eating the right amount of food from each of the food groups.
You should drink water regularly.

Don't eat too many sweets and animal fats.

Fats provide energy. Oils and butter.

Proteins are necessary for growth, and to repair our


body. Meat, fish, eggs, legumes, seeds and nuts.

Vitamins and minerals are necessary for our body


tofunction properly. Fruit and vegetables.

Fibre helps maintain a healthy digestive system.


Vegetables, whole grains and cereals.

Carbohydrates provide energy. Cereals, rice.

Water is an essential nutrient. It transports


other nutrients and waste around the body. The food pyramid.

Activities

1 Write one sentence in your notebook about each of the four processes involved in nutrition.

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Unit 1

The digestive system


1.4 Digestion is the process of breaking down food into nutrients that our body can use. It normally
takes 24 to 48 hours to digest food. Digestion begins in the mouth and ends at the anus.
The digestive system consists of one long tube, the digestive tube, and the helper glands.
The stages of digestion are:
Food is digested in the mouth, stomach and small intestine.
Digested food is absorbed into the blood in the small intestine.
Remaining solid food (without excess water) turns into faeces in the large intestine.
Faeces leave the body through the anus.

digestive tube

Mouth. It contains teeth


helper glands
that break down food.

Pharynx.
Salivary glands.
They produce saliva. Oesophagus. It connects
the mouth and the stomach.

Stomach. It produces
Liver. It releases bile gastric juices.
into the small intestine.
Small intestine. It is covered
with tiny, finger-like
projections, called villi and
Pancreas. It releases
produces intestinal juices.
pancreatic juice into
the small intestine.
Large intestine. It forms solid
waste called faeces. Anus.
Itis the opening for faeces.
The digestive system.

Activities

1 WORK WITH THE PICTURE. Look at the diagram. Describe to your partner what happens
when you eat an apple, from when you take a bite, to when you go to the toilet.

2 Copy and complete the sentences and write them in order.


a. Solid waste forms in the . d. Food is broken down with and
b. Gastric juices are produced in the . mixed with .

c. Faeces are released through the . e. Nutrients are absorbed in the .

3 WORK WITH THE PICTURE. Look at the food pyramid on page 6. With a partner, name
the food groups and the foods they include. What foods do you eat regularly?

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The respiratory system
1.5 Respiration is the process by which we breathe in or inhale, toobtain the oxygen our body
needs, and we breathe out, orexhale, to expel the carbon dioxide our body produces.
Respiration takes place in the respiratory system. It consists ofthe air passageways
and the lungs.

nostrils pharynx

larynx
air sacs

trachea

bronchi

bronchioles
lungs

The respiratory system.

When we inhale, air enters through the nostrils, goes to the pharynx, then, travels down
the larynx and the trachea. The trachea is divided into two branches called the bronchi.
The bronchi take the air to each lung.
Inside the lungs, the bronchi are divided into smaller branches called bronchioles.
The bronchioles lead to the air sacs. Airsacs are moist surfaces in the lungs where gas
exchange takes place: oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide leaves the blood.

Activities

1 WORK WITH THE PICTURE. Look at the diagram. Tell your partner what happens
when you breathe in and breathe out. Which part of the body is common
to both the respiratory and the digestive systems?

2 Use only the words related to the respiratory system to write sentences.

bronchiolessmall intestinelungsbilenostrils
pancreasair sacsstomachtracheateeth

3 SPEAKING. Discuss with your partner ways to keep your respiratory system healthy.
Example:Ithink it is healthy for my respiratory system to go for walks in the fresh air.
I think it is bad for the respiratory system to

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Unit 1

The circulatory system


1.6 Circulation is the movement of blood through
thecirculatory system. Blood carries nutrients heart
arteries
andoxygen to all parts of the body and collects waste
substances to be eliminated.
veins
The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood
and blood vessels.

The heart
The heart is a special type of muscle. It acts as a pump
to send blood around the body through the blood
vessels. The heart has four chambers: capilliaries

The right and left atria where blood enters the heart.
The right and left ventricles where blood leaves
theheart. The circulatory system and the heart.

Blood vessels right left


atrium atrium
Blood vessels are tubes which transport blood
throughout the body. There are three types:
Arteries. These carry blood away from the heart

towards all body tissues.
Veins. These carry blood back to the heart from

allbody tissues. right left
Capillaries. These have very thin walls. This allows
 ventricle ventricle
fornutrients and oxygen to pass into the body cells,
and for carbon dioxide and waste to leave the cells. Cross section of the heart.

Activities

1.7 1 WORK WITH THE PICTURE. Find the arteries, veins and capillaries on the diagram
of the circulatory sytem. Explain to your partner how the heart works. Are the four
chambers in the heart connected?

2 Read and answer the questions.


a. Which substances travel through the blood vessels into the body cells?
b. Which substances travel through the blood vessels away from the body cells?
c. Which part of the circulatory system is responsible for pumping blood?
d. In which chambers does blood enter the heart? From which chambers does blood exit?
e. Which blood vessels connect the arteries and veins?

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Blood
1.8 The components of blood plasma
Blood is a liquid substance in our body that transports
red blood cells
nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide and waste. Blood is
made up of:
white blood cells
Plasma. This is a clear fluid which transports nutrients platelets
and waste around the body. Blood composition.

Red blood cells. These carry oxygen from the lungs


to all body cells.
White blood cells. These protect the body from pulmonary
germs and disease. circulation

Platelets. These are fragments of old cells. They help


stop bleeding from wounds.

Blood circulation
Blood moves constantly through the circulatory system
through two separate circuits:
systemic
The pulmonary circuit. This carries blood to the lungs
blood with circulation
to expel carbon dioxide, and to obtain oxygen and
low oxygen
bring it back to the heart.
blood with
The systemic circuit. This carries blood with nutrients high oxygen
and oxygen to the rest of the body and returns blood
with carbon dioxide and waste back to the heart. Blood circulation.

How can you change your pulse rate?

Investigate!
Your pulse rate, or heart rate, tells you the number of times your heart
beats in a minute. You are going to take your pulse in different situations.

1 Find your pulse on your wrist. Count the number of beats while
your partner times you for 15 seconds. Multiply this number
by four to calculate the number of beats in a minute.

2 Take your pulse again in the following situations. Then, complete the table.

after running for after jumping for one


situation sitting standing
oneminute minute
pulse rate

3 Is your pulse rate always the same? When is your pulse rate theslowest/fastest?

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Unit 1

The excretory system


1.9 Excretion is the elimination of waste substances from
theblood.
The excretory system consists of the kidneys, the ureters,
thebladder and the urethra.
The kidneys filter the blood, retain waste substances and use
them to produce urine. They also reabsorb useful nutrients
andwater and put them back into the blood. The ureters carry
urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Urine is stored
inthebladder until it leaves the body through the urethra.

The importance of water


All blood is filtered by the kidneys about 300 times per day.
Our body is about two thirds water, so the kidneys also kidneys
help tomaintain a water balance by producing more
or less urine, depending on how much water we drink. ureters

bladder

urethra

The excretory system.

Activities

1 Talk to your partner about the diagram of blood circulation on page 10. What are
the two types of circuits? What is the function of each type?

2 WORK WITH THE PICTURE. Look at the diagram above. Describe the excretory
system to your partner. How is urine produced and eliminated?
Why is it important to drink a lot of water?

3 Correct the mistake in each sentence. Then, write them in order.


a. The urethra carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
b. Urine is stored in the ureters.
c. The kidneys filter the urine.
d. Urine leaves the body through the bladder.

4 Search the Internet for information about how to take care of the excretory
system. Write down healthy and unhealthy habits.

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Practising competences
LEARNING BASIC FIRST AID PROCEDURES

Do you know how to help when somebody is injured? Here are some simple
first aid procedures to follow in different situations.

As a general rule, STAY CALM

burn

Choking

twisted ankle

Cool the burn under cold,


running water for 10 minutes.
Then, cover it with a plastic
bag. If the burn is serious, ask Firmly slap the patient on the
an adult for help or call back until the object is expelled.
the emergency number, 112. Ifthe object is not expelled
and choking continues, ask Apply ice to the ankle. Keep
an adult for help or call theankle immobile. Then,ask
the emergency number, 112. an adult for help orcall
the emergency number,112.

MAKE A FIRST AID POSTER


a.With a partner, discuss each situation. Have you ever experienced any of these
situations? Did someone give you first aid? Write a short dialogue for one
ofthesituations.
b.In small groups, think about other emergency situations. Find out what to do for
these situations: a deep cut, a wasp sting, head concussion.
c.Prepare a first aid poster. Draw some emergency situations. Write what to do
ineach case.

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Unit 1
Show what you know
1 Copy and complete the table.

nutrients function present in


carbohydrates
bacon...
growth and repair
vitamins and minerals fruit...
whole grains

2 Copy the diagram and complete the parts of the digestive system in order.

liver

mouth stomach

3 Copy and complete the sentences about the respiratory system.


a. Air enters the body through the .
b. Then it goes through the , the and the .
c. The trachea is divided into two which take the air towards each .
d. Inside each lung, bronchi are divided into which end in .
e. In the air sacs, enters the blood and leaves the blood.

4 Look at the diagram. A


What system is it?
Copy it and label the parts.
B

5 SPEAKING. Read and discuss with your partner the mistake in each description.
a. A complete balanced diet means eating the same amount of food from each
of the food groups.
b. The stomach, pancreas and liver are helper glands.
c. Bronchioles are moist surfaces in the lungs where gas exchange takes place.
d. Arteries carry blood back to the heart from all body tissues.
e. When you cut your finger, red blood cells help close the wound.
f. Urine is stored in the urethra until it leaves the body.

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