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Outline Cell Signaling: Peptide/Protein Hormones

Types of Cell Signaling - 50 Amino Acids = 1 PEPTIDE

- Synthesized by: Rough ER
1. Direct - Stored in: Vesicles (Prohormones)
a. Connected by gap junctions - Secreted by: Exocytosis
2. Indirect - Hydrophilic
a. Releases chemical messenger o Soluble in aqueous solution
b. Carried in ECF o Travels to target cell by ECF
c. Activates signal transduction - Binds to transmembrane receptors
Indirect Signaling Over Short Distance - **RAPID EFFECT

1. Paracrine Synthesis
a. Nearby cell *17/105*
2. Autocrine
a. Back to self (MAKASARILI)
- From Cholesterol
Indirect Signaling Over Long Distance - Synthesized by: SMOOTH ER/ Mitochondria
1. Endocrine System - 3 Classes:
a. Hormones transport by circ system o Mineralocorticoids
2. Nervous System Electrolyte balance
a. Electrical signals along neurons and o Glucocorticoides
chemical messengers Stress hormones
(hormones/neurotransmitters) o Reproductive Hormones
Regulate Sex-Specific
Direct Signaling Characteristics
- Hydrophobic:
1. Gap Junctions
o Can diffuse thru plasma membrane
a. Aqueous pore between cells
o Cant be stored in cell
b. Mvmt ions
o Synthesized on demand
c. cAMP travels through here
o Transport by carrier proteins
Indirect Signaling - SLOW EFFECT (gene transcription)

Three Steps **25/105**

1. Release of chemical messenger Amines

2. Transport of messenger through extracellular
- Possess Amine Group (-NH2)
- Eg. Acetylcholine, catecholamines (dopamines etc)
3. Communication of signal to target cell
- Hydrophilic
6 Classes of Chemical Messengers: o Except thyroid hormones (hydrophobic)

- Peptides Other Chem Messengers:

- Steroids
- Eicosanoids
- Amines
o Paracrines
- Lipids
o Hydrophobic
- Purines
o In inflammation; leukotrienes
- Gases
- Gases
**Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic affects signaling o Paracrine
o Nitric oxide, Carbon Monoxide
- Purines Signal Transduction Pathway
o Neuromodulator and paracrine
o ATP, GMP etc - Converts change in receptor shape to intracellular
Communication to Target Cell - 4 Components
o Receiver (ligand binding region)
- Receptor on Target Cell o Transducer (conformational change of
o Hydrophilic Messenger receptor)
Bind to transmembrane receptor o Amplifier (increase number of molecules
o Hydrophobic messenger by signal)
Binds to intracellular receptor o Responder (functions that change in
- Ligand response to signal)
o Chemi messenger can bind to specific
receptor Types of Receptors:
- Receptor changes shape when ligand binds
- Intracellular
o Bind to hydrophobic ligands (in
Ligand Receptor Interactions cytoplasm/nucleus)
o Regulates transcription of target genes
- Specific o Affects prod of mRNA
- Mimics - Ligand gated ion channels
o Agonists activate receptors o Change in membrane potential
o Antagonists block receptors o Receptor changes shape
- May bind to more than 1 receptor o Binds to transmembrane receptor
o Receptor isoforms o Electrochemical gradient
Ligand Receptor Binding - Receptor enzymes
o Change in intracellular enzyme activity
- Receptors may become saturated if high ligand o Binds to Transmembrane receptor
o Starts a phosphorylation cascade
Changes in Number of Receptors
(maraming phinophosphorylate)
- Target Cells can alter receptor number o Guanylate cyclase, tyrosine Kinase, serine
o Down regulation threonine kinase
Target cell decreases number of - G-Protein Coupled
receptors o Activate membrane bound G-proteins
Due to high concentration ligand o Change in cell activities
o Up-regulation o Binds to transmembrane receptor
Target cell increases number of o Interacts with G-proteins
receptors o Activates amplifier enzymes
Adenosine vs caffeine Forms second messengers

Inactivation of Ligand Receptor Complex thru: Regulation of Cell Signaling

- By distant tissues - Components of Biological Control Systems

- By adjacent cells o Sensor
- By extracellular enzymes Detects variable
- Endocytosis o Integrating center (controller)
- Receptor inactivation Evaluates input from sensor
- Inactivation of signal transduction pathway Sends signal to effector
o Effector
Target tissue responds to signal
Regulation of Cell Signaling

- Set Point
o Value maintained by body
o Elem me ne yen
- Feedback Loops
o Positive
Output of effector amplifies from
set point
o Negative
Output of effector brings variable
back to set point

Feedback Regulation

- Direct Feedback Loop

- First-Order Feedback Loop
- Second Order Feedback Loop
- Third order feedback loop

Pituitary Hormones

- Pituitary gland secretes many hormones

- 2 distinct anatomic sections
o Anterior Pituitary
o Posterior Pituitary

Posterior Pituitary

- Extension of Hypothalamus
o Neurons from hypothalamus to posterior
o Eg. Neurohormones like oxytocin and
- First order endocrine pathway
o Hypothalamus receives sensory input
o Hypothalamus serves as integrating center

**Endocrine of physio ex is similar**

**49/105** **57/105** **60/105** **63/105**

**67/105** **70/105****71/105**