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# Structural design of RC building in Philippine (Draft)

## Proposed by Dr. Yashima August, 2016

. General
1. Architectural Design
2. Method of structural design
3. Materials properties
4. Structural design plan
1) Frame system
2) Stiffness of slab (rigid floor)
3) Foundation beam
4) Drawings of framing plan and framing elevation
. Preparation
1. Load calculation
1) Dead load
2) Live load
3) Seismic load
4) Others
5) Load combination
2. Preparation of calculation
1) Axial force of Column
2) C, M, Q of beams
3) Seismic load calculation
4) Assumption of column and beam sections
. Structural calculation
1. Frame and Stress analysis by computer software GRASP and GEAR
1) Stiffness reduction factor (NSCP 2010)
2) Member stress by vertical load
3) Member stress by seismic load
4) Earthquake resistant wall
5) Check maximum stress
Strength reduction factor (NSCP 2010)
6) Check irregularity
(1) Lateral stiffness ratio
(2) Eccentricity ratio
7) Check maximum lateral deformation (story drift angle) by earthquake

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1. Seismic design concept in Philippine
According to the reference 1, the following concept is introduced for the structural
design of buildings.
Most of building structures would typically be designed for lateral wind loads in
the range of 1% to 3% of their weight. Earthquake loads may reach 30%-40% of
the weight of the structure, applied horizontally. If concepts of elastic design
normally employed for primary loads are used for earthquake loads, the result
will be in the form of extremely heavy and expensive structures. Therefore,
seismic design uses the concepts of controlled damage and collapse prevention.
In earthquake engineering, the aim is to have a control on the type, location and
extent of the damage along with detailing process. This is illustrated in Figure 3-
1, where the elastic and inelastic responses are depicted, and the concept of
equal energy is employed to reduce the design force from Ve to Vd (denoting
elastic and design force levels).

## The philosophy of earthquake resistant design is that a structure should resist

earthquake ground motion without collapse, but with some damage. Consistent
with this philosophy, the structure is designed for much less base shear forces
than would be required if the building is to remain elastic during severe shaking
at a site. Such large reductions are mainly due to two factors: (1) the ductility
reduction factor (R ), which reduces the elastic demand force to the level of the
maximum yield strength of the structure, and (2) the overstrength factor, (),
which accounts for the overstrength introduced in code-designed structures.

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Thus, the response reduction factor (R) is simply times R. See Figure 3-2.
R = R x (1)

## Ductility Reduction Factor (R):

The ductility reduction factor (R) is a factor which reduces the elastic force
demand to the level of idealized yield strength of the structure and, hence, it may
be represented as the following equation:
R = Ve / Vy (2)
Ve is the max base shear coefficient if the structure remains elastic. The ductility
reduction factor (R) takes advantage of the energy dissipating capacity of
properly designed and well-detailed structures and, hence, primarily depends on
the global ductility demand, , of the structure ( is the ratio between the
maximum roof displacement and yield roof displacement . Newmark and Hall
(1973, 1982) made the first attempt to relate R with for a single-degree-of-
freedom (SDOF) system with elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) resistance curve.
They concluded that for a structure of a natural period less than 0.2 second
(short period structures), the ductility does not help in reducing the response of
the structure. Hence, for such structures, no ductility reduction factor should be
used. For moderate period structures, corresponding to the acceleration region
of elastic response spectrum T = 0.2 to 0.5 sec the energy that can be stored by
the elastic system at maximum displacement is the same as that stored by an

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inelastic system. For relatively long-period structures of the elastic response
spectrum, Newmark and Hall (1973, 1982) concluded that inertia force obtained
from an elastic system and the reduced inertia force obtained from an inelastic
system cause the same maximum displacement. This gives the value of ductility
reduction factor in a mathematical representation as:-

R = (3)

## Structural Overstrength ():

Structural overstrength plays an important role in collapse prevention of the
buildings. The overstrength factor () may be defined as the ratio of actual to the
design lateral strength:
= Vy / Vd (4)
Where Vy is the base shear coefficient corresponding to the actual yielding of the
structure; Vd is the code-prescribed un-factored design base shear coefficient.
The inertia force due to earthquake motion, at which the first significant yield in a
reinforced concrete structure starts, may be much higher than the prescribed un-
factored base shear force because of many factors such as (1) the load factor
applied to the code-prescribed design seismic force; (2) the lower gravity load
applied at the time of the seismic event than the factored gravity loads used in
design; (3) the strength reduction factors on material properties used in design;
(4) a higher actual strength of materials than the specified strength; (5) a greater
member sizes than required from strength considerations; (6) more reinforcement
than required for the strength; and (7) special ductility requirements, such as the
strong column-weak beam provision. Even following the first significant yield in
the structure, after which the stiffness of the structure decreases, the structure
can take further loads. This is the structural overstrength which results from
internal forces distribution, higher material strength, strain hardening, member
oversize, reinforcement detailing, effect of nonstructural elements, strain rate
effects.
Reference 1:
[RESPONSE MODIFICATION FACTOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
MOMENT-RESISTING FRAMES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES BY ADEEL
ZAFAR THESIS]
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of
Science in Civil Engineering in the Graduate College of the University of

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Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2009 Urbana, Illinois Adviser: Professor
Bassem Andrawes

The following Table 208-11A shows the force reduction factor R and overstrength
factor for earthquake-force-resisting structural system of concrete building in
NSCP 2010.

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2. Seismic structural design method in Japan
The basic concept of New Earthquake Regulation in July 1980 in Japan is to
ensure the safety of buildings against earthquakes by the following two
procedures. These are Level-1 design for 50 years return period of earthquake
and level-2 design for 500 years return period of earthquake.
Level-1 design is allowable stress design and base shear coefficient (C0) is equal
to 0.2. Level-2 design is corresponding to actual strength capacity envelope in
Figure 3-2 and the example is shown in the following Figure 10.

kN

## Story drift angle (/H)

Figure 10 Example of actual capacity envelope of 4 story school building
of CITU (By Dr. Yashima)

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3. Linier (elastic) dynamic response of building by earthquake
Base shear V is calculated by the following formula.
(NSCP 2010: Figure 208-3)

Eq-1

Cv I
V= W Eq-2
RT
Ca, Cv: Seismic coefficient
I: Important factor
R: Numerical coefficient of global ductility capacity
T: Period of vibration of structure
W: Total seismic dead load + Live load

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4. The vertical distribution of base shear over the height of building
When the natural period of vibration of building (T) is 0.7 second or less, the
remaining portion of base shear shall be distributed over the height of building
as shown in the equation of 208-17 (NSCP 2010)

This equation is derived from the first mode of dynamic response vibration of
building. If this building is 4 story building, there are 4 modes of vibration as shown
in the following figure 11. However the participation factor () of the first mode

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of vibration will be the biggest number and this mode will govern the behavior of
dynamic motion of building during the earthquake.

## Deformation Deformation Deformation Deformation

Mode Mode Mode Mode
5 5 5
5

4 4
4 4

3
3 3 3
Story

Story
Story
Story

2
2 2 2

1
1 1 1

0
0 5 0 0 0
-2.000 0.000 2.000 -2.000 0.000 2.000 -2.000 0.000 2.000

## First mode second mode third mode fourth mode

Figure 11 Modes of vibration of 4 story building

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5. Limitation of story drift by seismic lateral load (NSCP 2010)
Maximum story drift of building during earthquake event is limited by the
following equation of NSCP 2010.
M / h 1/40 ( T < 0.7 sec)
M / h 1/50 ( T 0.7 sec)
M = 0.7 Rs
h: height
R: the response reduction factor
s: horizontal displacement at design seismic load
T: natural period of vibration of building

## Stiffness reduction factor

Shear force at each story

Story drift

## Table 1 Stiffness reduction factor

NSCP 2010 column beam wall slab
SRF 0.7 0.35 0.7 0.25
SRF: Stiffness reduction factor
Moment of inertia of the above member of concrete section will be multiplied by
the stiffness reduction factor.

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6. Strength reduction factor (NSCP 2010)

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End

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