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RAN

Inter-Frequency Handover Description

Issue 01

Date 2008-05-30

Huawei Proprietary and Confidential


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Inter-Frequency Handover Description Contents

Contents

1 Change History...........................................................................................................................1-1
2 Inter-Frequency Handover Introduction ...............................................................................2-1
3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms .................................................................................3-1
3.1 Inter-Frequency Handover Types ..................................................................................................................3-1
3.1.1 Introduction to Inter-Frequency Handover Types ................................................................................3-1
3.1.2 Inter-Frequency Handover Type Switch ..............................................................................................3-2
3.2 Inter-Frequency Handover Procedure ...........................................................................................................3-2
3.2.1 Coverage-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Procedure.......................................................................3-2
3.2.2 QoS-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Procedure ...............................................................................3-4
3.2.3 Load-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Procedure ..............................................................................3-5
3.2.4 Speed-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Procedure ............................................................................3-6
3.3 Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement......................................................................................................3-7
3.3.1 Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Switches .............................................................................3-7
3.3.2 Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Report Modes .....................................................................3-9
3.3.3 Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Events.................................................................................3-9
3.3.4 Inter-Frequency Handover Neighboring Cell Combination Algorithm..............................................3-15
3.3.5 Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Quantity............................................................................3-16
3.3.6 L3 Filtering for Inter-Frequency Handover........................................................................................3-16
3.3.7 Inter-Frequency Handover Compressed Mode ..................................................................................3-17
3.4 Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution....................................................................................3-18
3.4.1 Coverage-Based and QoS-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution .....................3-18
3.4.2 Load-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution ......................................................3-20
3.4.3 Speed-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution.....................................................3-22
3.4.4 Blind Handover Decision and Execution Based on Event 1F............................................................3-23
3.4.5 Inter-Frequency Anti-Ping-Pong Algorithm.......................................................................................3-23
3.4.6 Inter-Frequency Handover Retry .......................................................................................................3-23
3.5 Inter-Frequency Handover of HSDPA.........................................................................................................3-24
3.6 Inter-Frequency Handover of HSUPA.........................................................................................................3-27
3.7 Signaling Procedures for Inter-Frequency Handover ..................................................................................3-29
3.7.1 Inter-Frequency Handover Within One RNC.....................................................................................3-30
3.7.2 Inter-Frequency Handover Between RNCs........................................................................................3-32

4 Reference Documents ...............................................................................................................4-1

Issue 01 (2008-05-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential i


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Contents Inter-Frequency Handover Description

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Inter-Frequency Handover Description 1 Change History

1 Change History

Inter-Frequency Handover Change History provides information on the changes between


different document versions.

Document and Product Versions


Document Version RAN Version RNC Version NodeB Version

01 (2008-05-30) 10.0 V200R010C01B051 V100R010C01B049


V200R010C01B040
Draft (2008-03-20) 10.0 V200R010C01B050 V100R010C01B045

There are two types of changes, which are defined as follows:


z Feature change: refers to the change in the feature of a specific product version.
z Editorial change: refers to the change in information that has already been included, or
the addition of information that was not provided in the previous version.

01 (2008-05-30)
This is the document for the first commercial release of RAN10.0.
Compared with draft (2008-03-20) of RAN10.0, issue 01 (2008-05-30) of RAN10.0
incorporates the changes described in the following table.

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1 Change History Inter-Frequency Handover Description

Change Change Description Parameter Change


Type

Feature None The renamed parameters are


change described as follows:
z Neigbhoring cell oriented
CIO is modified to
Neighboring cell oriented
CIO.
z Intrafrequency measurement
report interval of blind
handover is modified to
Intrafrequency measurement
report interval of blind HO
Editorial General documentation change: None
change z The Inter-Frequency Handover
Parameters is removed because of the
creation of RAN10.0 parameter reference.
z The structure is optimized.

Draft (2008-3-20)
This is a draft of the document for the first commercial release of RAN10.0.
Compared with issue 02 (2007-12-24) of RAN6.1, issue Draft (2008-3-20) of RAN10.0
incorporates the changes described in the following table.

1-2 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Issue 01 (2008-05-30)


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Inter-Frequency Handover Description 1 Change History

Change Change Description Parameter Change


Type

Feature The description of inter-frequency Added parameters The following


change handover based on QoS is added, paramters are described
as listed below: in 3.3.3
z 3.1 Inter-Frequency Handover Inter-Frequency
Types Handover
Measurement Events.
z 3.2 Inter-Frequency Handover
Procedure z Down Link RSCP
Used-Freq THD
z "Triggering of Event 2B" in
Hsyt
3.3.3 Inter-Frequency
Handover Measurement The following
Events parameters are
described in 3.3.7
z "Measurement Timer Length"
Inter-Frequency
in 3.3.7 Inter-Frequency
Handover Compressed
Handover Compressed Mode
Mode.
z 3.4.1 Coverage-Based and z Down Link QoS
QoS-Based Inter-Frequency Measure timer
Handover Decision and length
Execution
z Up Link QoS

Measure timer
length
The inter-frequency handover Deleted Inter-frequency
measurement quantities are parameter measure quantity
changed, as described in 3.3.5
Inter-Frequency Handover
Measurement Quantity.
The cell individual offset of a cell Deleted Cell offset
is used together with the parameter
neighboring cell oriented
individual offset. For detailed Added parameters z Cell oriented Cell
information, see 3.4.1 Individual Offset
Coverage-Based and QoS-Based z Neigbhoring cell
Inter-Frequency Handover oriented CIO
Decision and Execution.
The evaluation method of Deleted z Inter-freq
inter-frequency handover parameters handover min
triggered by periodic reporting is access Ec/No THD
changed. For detailed information, z Inter-freq
see 3.4.1 Coverage-Based and
handover min
QoS-Based Inter-Frequency
access RSCP THD
Handover Decision and
Execution.

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1 Change History Inter-Frequency Handover Description

Change Change Description Parameter Change


Type

Inter-frequency neighboring cells Added parameter The priority of


can have multiple frequencies. coverage based
The maximum number of inter-frequency
inter-frequency neighboring cells handover
supported is changed, as listed
below:
z The maximum number of
inter-frequency neighboring
cells on a single frequency is
32.
z The maximum number of
inter-frequency neighboring
cells on multiple frequencies is
64.
The description of how to
determine the inter-frequency
measurement range is added.
For detailed information, see
3.3.4 Inter-Frequency Handover
Neighboring Cell Combination
Algorithm.
The procedure of load-based Added parameter Blind handover
handover decision and execution condition
is changed. For detailed
information, see 3.4.2
Load-Based Inter-Frequency
Handover Decision and
Execution.
The procedure of speed-based None
handover decision and execution
is changed. For detailed
information, see 3.4.3
Speed-Based Inter-Frequency
Handover Decision and
Execution.
The feature of inter-frequency Added parameters z 2B event retry
handover retry is incorporated. period
z 2B event retry
period
z 2C event retry
period
z 2C event retry max
times

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Inter-Frequency Handover Description 1 Change History

Change Change Description Parameter Change


Type

The inter-frequency blind Deleted Blind handover


handover algorithm after an event parameter Priority
1F report is changed. For detailed
information, see3.4.4 Blind Added parameter 1F event blind
Handover Decision and Execution handover trigger
Based on Event 1F. condition
The feature of inter-frequency Added parameter 1F event blind
anti-ping-pong algorithm is handover trigger
incorporated. condition
The description of inter-frequency None.
handover of HSDPA is moved
from the HSDPA feature
document, see3.5 Inter-Frequency
Handover of HSDPA.
The description of inter-frequency None.
handover of HSUPA is moved
from the HSUPA feature
document, see 3.6
Inter-Frequency Handover of
HSUPA.
Editorial Some errors are corrected. The unit of the following parameter is
change changed to dB from 0:
z Inter-freq R99 PS measure start Ec/No
THD
z Inter-freq H measure start Ec/No
THD
General documentation change: None
Implementation information has
been moved to a separate
document. For information on
implementing inter-frequency
handover, refer to Configuring
Inter-Frequency Handover in
RAN Feature Configuration
Guide.

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Inter-Frequency Handover Description 2 Inter-Frequency Handover Introduction

2 Inter-Frequency Handover Introduction

Inter-frequency handover provides supplementary coverage for inter-frequency cells to share


load with each other.
From the UE point of view, inter-frequency handover is the same as intra-frequency hard
handover, because for both cases, the old connection is released before a new connection is
set up. For detailed information on the relationship with other handover types, see
Intra-Frequency Handover Introduction.
Inter-frequency handover can increase the resource use efficiency by solving the following
problems:
z Coverage problem caused by the moving of the UE
z QoS problem caused by the Link Stability Control Algorithm.
z Load problem in a multi-frequency network
z Frequent handovers of a fast-moving UE

Impact
z Impact on System Performance
Inter-frequency handover is implemented in compressed mode; therefore, one of the
impacts on the system is from the compressed mode. When too many UEs stay at the cell
edge, the downlink capacity and uplink coverage of the system may decrease.

For detailed information about the compressed mode, see 3.3.7 Inter-Frequency Handover
Compressed Mode.
Another impact is from the QoS requirement for the time delay-sensitive services,
because hard handover may introduce handover delay.
z Impact on Other Features
This feature has no impact on other features.

Network Elements Involved


The implementation of inter-frequency handover depends on the cooperation between the UE,
the NodeB, and the RNC.

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2 Inter-Frequency Handover Introduction Inter-Frequency Handover Description

Table 2-1 NEs involved in inter-frequency handover

UE NodeB RNC MSC Server MGW SGSN GGSN HLR

NOTE
z = NE not involved

z = NE involved
UE = User Equipment, RNC = Radio Network Controller, MSC Server = Mobile Service Switching
Center Server, MGW = Media Gateway, SGSN = Serving GPRS Support Node, GGSN = Gateway
GPRS Support Node, HLR = Home Location Register

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Inter-Frequency Handover Description 3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms

3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms

The algorithms of Inter-Frequency Handover are as follows:


z Inter-Frequency Handover Types
z Inter-Frequency Handover Procedure
z Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement
z Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution
z Inter-Frequency Handover of HSDPA
z Inter-Frequency Handover of HSUPA
z Signaling Procedures for Inter-Frequency Handover

3.1 Inter-Frequency Handover Types


Based on the triggering causes of handover, inter-frequency handover can be categorized into
four types.

3.1.1 Introduction to Inter-Frequency Handover Types


Table 3-1 Introduction to inter-frequency handover types

Inter-Frequency Description
Handover Types

Coverage-based If a moving UE leaves the coverage of the current


inter-frequency handover frequency, the RNC needs to trigger the coverage-based
inter-frequency handover to avoid call drops.
QoS-based inter-frequency According to the Link Stability Control Algorithm, the
handover RNC needs to trigger the QoS-based inter-frequency
handover to avoid call drops.
Load-based inter-frequency To balance the load between inter-frequency con-coverage
blind handover cells, the RNC chooses some UEs and performs the
inter-frequency blind handover according to user priorities
and service priorities.

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3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms Inter-Frequency Handover Description

Inter-Frequency Description
Handover Types

Speed-based inter-frequency When the Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS) applies, the
handover cells are divided into different layers according to
coverage. The macro cell has a larger coverage and a lower
priority, whereas the micro cell has a smaller coverage and
a higher priority.
Inter-frequency handover can be triggered by the UE speed
estimation algorithm of the HCS. To reduce the frequencies
of handover, the UE at a higher speed is handed over to a
cell under a larger coverage, whereas the UE at a lower
speed is handed over to a cell under a smaller coverage.
For detailed information about the cooperation between
HCS handover and inter-frequency handover, see HCS
Handover Description.

The coverage-based inter-frequency measurement and the QoS-based inter-frequency


measurement can coexist.

3.1.2 Inter-Frequency Handover Type Switch


The type of inter-frequency handover is determined by the parameter Inter-freq handover
type switch. According to the switch, the RNC chooses the inter-frequency measurement
control parameters to implement handover measurement based on coverage, QoS, speed, and
other types.

3.2 Inter-Frequency Handover Procedure


The inter-frequency handover procedure is divided into four phases: handover triggering,
handover measurement, handover decision, and handover execution. The procedure varies
with handover types.

3.2.1 Coverage-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Procedure


The following figure shows the four phases of coverage-based inter-frequency handover.

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Inter-Frequency Handover Description 3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms

Figure 3-1 Coverage-based inter-frequency handover procedure

z In the triggering phase


The RNC notifies the UE to measure through an inter-frequency measurement control
message. If the quality of the pilot signal in the current cell deteriorates, the CPICH
Ec/No or CPICH RSCP of the UMTS cell that the UE accesses is lower than the
corresponding threshold, and the UE reports event 2D.
z In the measurement phase
If the RNC receives a report of event 2D, the RNC requests the NodeB and UE to start
the compressed mode to measure the qualities of inter-frequency neighboring cells, and
the RNC sends an inter-frequency measurement control message.

In the measurement phase, the method of either periodical measurement report or event-triggered
measurement report can be used.
z In the decision phase
After the UE reports event 2B, the RNC performs the handover. Otherwise, the UE
periodically generates measurement reports, and the RNC makes a decision after
evaluation.
z In the execution phase
The RNC executes the handover procedure.

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3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms Inter-Frequency Handover Description

3.2.2 QoS-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Procedure


The following figure shows the four phases of QoS-based inter-frequency handover.

Figure 3-2 QoS-based inter-frequency handover procedure

z In the triggering phase


If the service quality of the current cell deteriorates, the Link Stability Control Algorithm
makes a handover measurement decision.
z In the measurement phase
The RNC requests the NodeB and the UE to start the compressed mode to measure the
qualities of inter-frequency neighboring cells. Then, the RNC sends an inter-frequency
measurement control message.

In the measurement phase, the method of periodical measurement report or event-triggered measurement
report can be used.
z In the decision phase
After receiving the event 2B measurement reports of CPICH RSCP and CPICH Ec/No of
the inter-frequency cell, the RNC performs the handover. Otherwise, the UE periodically
generates measurement reports, and the RNC makes a decision after evaluation.
z In the execution phase
The RNC executes the handover procedure.

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Inter-Frequency Handover Description 3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms

3.2.3 Load-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Procedure


The following figure shows the three phases of load-based inter-frequency handover.

Figure 3-3 Load-based inter-frequency handover procedure

z In the triggering phase


The Load Reshuffling (LDR) module directly determines whether the current cell is
overloaded and whether an inter-frequency handover needs to be performed. The LDR
module provides the target cell information for the current cell, and the RNC performs
the handover procedure.
z In the decision phase
The RNC decides to trigger an inter-frequency blind handover if the conditions are met.
If the inter-frequency blind handover can be triggered, the RNC enters the decision
phase.
If the inter-frequency blind handover cannot be triggered, the RNC does not perform
the handover.
After the inter-frequency handover is triggered, the RNC chooses a decision algorithm
according to whether the conditions of direct blind handover are met.

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3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms Inter-Frequency Handover Description

If the conditions of direct blind handover are met, the RNC performs an
inter-frequency blind handover.
If the conditions of direct blind handover are not met, the RNC initiates a
measurement, and then, if all the conditions are met, the RNC performs the handover.
z In the execution phase
The RNC performs the blind handover according to the decision result.

3.2.4 Speed-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Procedure


The following figure describes the procedure of the inter-frequency handover based on HCS
speed estimation.

Figure 3-4 Speed-based inter-frequency handover procedure

z In the triggering phase


The RNC receives the handover request according to the HCS speed estimation. The
handover based on HCS speed estimation is of two types: handover from the macro cell
to the micro cell and handover from the micro cell to the macro cell. For different types
of handover, the RNC acts differently.

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Inter-Frequency Handover Description 3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms

z In the measurement phase


If the handover is performed from a macro cell to a micro cell, the RNC sends an
inter-frequency measurement control message.
If the handover is performed from a micro cell to a macro cell, the RNC directly
performs blind handover, ignoring the measurement procedure.
z In the decision phase
After the UE reports event 2C, the RNC performs the handover decision.
z In the execution phase
The RNC initiates a handover procedure.
If the handover is performed from a micro cell to a macro cell and the target cell of
blind handover is configured, the RNC performs blind handover to the target cell.
If the blind handover fails or the handover is performed from a macro cell to a micro
cell, the RNC starts the inter-frequency (or inter-RAT) measurement procedure. If the
inter-frequency measurement mode is employed, the RNC performs the
inter-frequency handover procedure to the cell with the best quality after receiving
event 2C from the UE.

For detailed information of HCS speed estimation algorithm, see HCS Handover.

3.3 Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement


In the measurement phase of inter-frequency handover, the UE takes measurement according
to the MEASUREMENT CONTROL message received from the RNC. When the
measurement report conditions are met, the UE sends measurement reports to the RNC
according to the rules defined in the MEASUREMENT CONTROL message.
z Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Switches
z Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Report Modes
z Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Events
z Inter-Frequency Handover Neighboring Cell Combination Algorithm
z Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Quantity
z L3 Filtering for Inter-Frequency Handover
z Inter-Frequency Handover Compressed Mode

3.3.1 Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Switches


Some switches are important for inter-frequency handover because they decide whether the
handover can be performed successfully.
These switches are the parameter values of Handover algorithm switch in the command SET
CORRMALGOSWITCH, as described in the following table.

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3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms Inter-Frequency Handover Description

Table 3-2 Switches of inter-frequency handover measurement

Switch Name Description Default Value

SIGNAL_HO_SWITCH The switch decides when the RNC OFF


performs the
inter-frequency/inter-RAT
coverage-based handover
measurement.
z If the switch is set to ON, the RNC
checks whether the inter-frequency
or inter-RAT coverage-based
handover measurement can be
triggered after the RRC connection
setup is completed (before the RB
setup).
z If the switch is set to OFF, the
RNC checks whether the
inter-frequency or inter-RAT
coverage-based handover
measurement can be triggered after
the RB setup is completed.

ACT_SET_QUAL_SWITCH The switch decides whether the RNC ON


enables the active set quality
measurement.
z If the switch is set to ON, the RNC
enables the signal quality
measurement to all the cells in
active set after the RRC setup is
completed (if the
SIGNAL_HO_SWITCH is set
to ON), or after the RB connection
setup is completed (if the
SIGNAL_HO_SWITCH is set
to OFF).
z If the switch is set to OFF, the
RNC does not initiate the active
set quality measurement.

INTER_FREQ_HHO_SWIT The switch decides whether the ON


CH inter-frequency handover
measurement is allowed or the
inter-frequency hard handover based
on cell load is allowed.
z If the switch is set to ON, the RNC
enables the inter-frequency
handover measurement and the
inter-frequency load-based
handover.
z If the switch is set to OFF, the
RNC disables the inter-frequency
handover measurement.

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Inter-Frequency Handover Description 3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms

Switch Name Description Default Value

HO_BEYOND_UE_CAP_AD The reported measurement capability OFF


D_TO_MC_SWITCH of the UE is not the same as the
actual measurement capability of the
UE. Measurement capability at some
frequencies may not be reported due
to the limitation of the version of UE
protocol.
The switch decides whether the
neighboring cell will be sent in the
inter-frequency measurement control
message when the frequency of the
neighboring cell is not included in
the measurement capability of the
UE.
z If the switch is set to ON, the RNC
sends the inter-frequency
measurement control message with
the neighboring cell, whose
frequency is not included in the
measurement capability of the UE.
z If the switch is set to OFF, the
RNC sends the inter-frequency
measurement control message
without the neighboring cell,
whose frequency is not included in
the measurement capability of the
UE.

3.3.2 Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Report Modes


For the inter-frequency handover based on coverage and QoS, there are two report modes for
the measurement procedure: event-triggered measurement report mode and periodical
measurement report mode. For other types of inter-frequency handover, the measurement is
event-triggered only.
The measurement report mode of inter-frequency handover is configured through the
parameter Inter-frequency measure report mode.
The advantage of periodical measurement report is that if the handover fails, the RNC
reattempts the handover to the same cell after receiving the periodical measurement report
from the UE. This increases the probability of the success of inter-frequency handover.
Based on the measurement control message received from the RNC, the UE periodically
reports the measurement quality of the target cell. Then, based on the measurement report, the
RNC makes the handover decision and performs handover. The parameter Inter-frequency
measure periodical rpt period specifies the interval of the measurement reports.

3.3.3 Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Events


When the measurement thresholds are reached, the UE reports the events to the RNC to
trigger related handover procedures.

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3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms Inter-Frequency Handover Description

The following table describes the measurement events involved in inter-frequency handover.

Table 3-3 Measurement events involved in inter-frequency handover

Event Description

Event 2D The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain
threshold.
Event 2F The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is above a certain
threshold.
Event 2B The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is below a certain
threshold and the estimated quality of a non-used frequency is above a certain
threshold.
Event 2C The estimated quality of a non-used frequency is above a certain threshold.
Event 1F A Primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold.

Frequency Quality Estimation for Inter-Frequency Handover


In inter-frequency handover, the reporting criteria of measurement events are based on the
frequency quality estimation. The parameter Weight for used frequency specifies the
frequency weighing factor that is used to measure the quality of the current frequency.

For detailed information on the quality estimation formula, see section "Frequency Quality Estimate" in
3GPP TS 25.331.

This parameter is used for all event-triggered inter-frequency measurements but not for
periodical inter-frequency measurements. The event-triggered measurement events include
events 2D, 2F, 2B, and 2C.

Triggering of Event 2D
Event 2D is triggered on the basis of the following formula:
QUsed <= TUsed2d - H2d/2
where
z QUsed is the measured quality of the used frequency.
z TUsed2d is the absolute quality threshold of the cell that uses the current frequency. Based
on the service type (CS , PS domain R99 service, or PS domain HSPA service) and
measurement quantity (CPICH Ec/No or RSCP), this threshold can be configured
through one of the following parameters:
Inter-freq CS measure start Ec/No THD
Inter-freq R99 PS measure start Ec/No THD
Inter-freq H measure start Ec/No THD
Inter-freq CS measure start RSCP THD
Inter-freq R99 PS measure start RSCP THD
Inter-freq H measure start RSCP THD

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Inter-Frequency Handover Description 3 Inter-Frequency Handover Algorithms

z For the PS and CS combined services, the threshold is set to the higher one of CS or PS services.
z If the UE has only signaling connections currently, the thresholds for CS services are used.
z H2d is the event 2D hysteresis value 2D hysteresis.
After the conditions of event 2D are fulfilled and maintained until the 2D event trigger
delay time is reached, the UE sends the event 2D measurement report message.

Inter-freq H measure start Ec/No THD is valid only when OVERLAY_SWITCH in the command
SET CORRMALGOSWITCH is set to ON. Otherwise, the PS domain R99 and HSPA services will take
Inter-freq R99 PS measure start Ec/No THD as a measurement event threshold.
Inter-freq H measure start RSCP THD is valid only when OVERLAY_SWITCH in the command
SET CORRMALGOSWITCH is set to ON. Otherwise, the PS domain R99 and HSPA services will take
Inter-freq R99 PS measure start RSCP THD as a measurement event threshold.

Triggering of Event 2F
Event 2F is triggered on the basis of the following formula:
QUsed >= TUsed2f + H2f/2
where
z QUsed is the measured quality of the used frequency.
z TUsed2f is the absolute quality threshold of the cell that uses the current frequency. Based
on the service type (CS , PS domain R99 service or PS domain HSPA service) and
measurement quantity (CPICH Ec/No or RSCP), this threshold can be configured
through the following parameters:
Inter-freq CS measure stop Ec/No THD
Inter-freq R99 PS measure stop Ec/No THD
Inter-freq H measure stop Ec/No THD
Inter-freq CS measure stop RSCP THD
Inter-freq R99 PS measure stop RSCP THD
Inter-freq H measure stop RSCP THD

z For the PS and CS combined services, the threshold is set to the higher one of CS or PS services.
z If the UE has only signaling connections currently, the thresholds for CS services are used.
z H2f is the event 2F hysteresis value 2F hysteresis.
After the conditions of event 2F are fulfilled and maintained until the parameter 2F event
trigger delay time is reached, the UE reports the event 2F measurement report message.

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Configuration Rule and Restriction


z (Inter-freq CS measure start Ec/No THD 2D hysteresis / 2) < (Inter-freq CS
measure stop Ec/No THD + 2F hysteresis / 2)
z (Inter-freq R99 PS measure start Ec/No THD 2D hysteresis / 2) < (Inter-freq
R99 PS measure stop Ec/No THD + 2F hysteresis / 2)
z (Inter-freq H measure start Ec/No THD 2D hysteresis / 2) < (Inter-freq H
measure stop Ec/No THD + 2F hysteresis / 2)
z (Inter-freq CS measure start RSCP THD 2D hysteresis / 2) < (Inter-freq CS
measure stop RSCP THD + 2F hysteresis / 2)
z (Inter-freq R99 PS measure start RSCP THD 2D hysteresis / 2) < (Inter-freq
R99 PS measure stop RSCP THD + 2F hysteresis / 2)
z (Inter-freq H measure start RSCP THD 2D hysteresis / 2) < (Inter-freq H
measure stop RSCP THD + 2F hysteresis / 2)

Inter-freq H measure stop Ec/No THD is valid only when OVERLAY_SWITCH in the command
SET CORRMALGOSWITCH is set to ON. Otherwise, the PS domain R99 and HSPA services will take
Inter-freq R99 PS measure stop Ec/No THD as a measurement event threshold.
Inter-freq H measure stop RSCP THD is valid only when OVERLAY_SWITCH in the
command SET CORRMALGOSWITCH is set to ON. Otherwise, the PS domain R99 and HSPA
services will take Inter-freq R99 PS measure stop RSCP THD as a measurement event threshold.

Triggering of Event 2B
Event 2B is triggered on the basis of the following formula:
QNoused >= TNoused2b + H2b/2
QUsed <= TUsed2b - H2b/2
Where,
z QNoused is the measured quality of the cell that uses the other frequencies.
z TNoused2b is the absolute quality threshold of the cell that uses the other frequencies.
Based on the service type (CS , PS domain R99 service or PS domain HSPA service) and
measurement quantity (CPICH Ec/No or RSCP), this threshold can be configured
through the following parameters:
Inter-freq CS target frequency trigger Ec/No THD
Inter-freq R99 PS target frequency trigger Ec/No THD
Inter-freq H target frequency trigger Ec/No THD
Inter-freq CS target frequency trigger RSCP THD
Inter-freq R99 PS target frequency trigger RSCP THD
Inter-freq H target frequency trigger RSCP THD
z QUsed is the measured quality of the cell that uses the current frequency.
z H2b is the event 2B hysteresis value 2B hysteresis.
z TUsed2b is the absolute quality threshold of the cell that uses the current frequency.
TUsed2b is set in the following way:

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z Based on the service type (CS service, PS domain R99 service, or PS domain HSPA
service) and the measurement quantity (CPICH Ec/No or RSCP) in the coverage-based
handover, TUsed2b can be configured through the following parameters.
If the event 2D with the CPICH RSCP value is received by the RNC:
a. TUsed2b of event 2B with the CPICH RSCP value can be:
Inter-freq CS Used frequency trigger RSCP THD
Inter-freq R99 PS Used frequency trigger RSCP THD
Inter-freq H Used frequency trigger RSCP THD
b. TUsed2b of event 2B with the CPICH Ec/No value is configured as the maximum
value 0 dB according to 3GPP specification.
c. If the event 2F with the CPICH Ec/No value is received by the RNC and TUsed2b of
event 2B with the CPICH Ec/No value is modifiedTUsed2b is reset to 0 dB.
If the event 2D with the CPICH Ec/No value is received by the RNC:
a. TUsed2b of event 2B with the CPICH Ec/No value can be
Inter-freq CS Used frequency trigger Ec/No THD
Inter-freq R99 PS Used frequency trigger Ec/No THD
Inter-freq H Used frequency trigger Ec/No THD
b. TUsed2b of event 2B with the CPICH RSCP value is configured as the maximum
value -25 dB according to 3GPP specification.
c. If the event 2F with the CPICH RSCP value is received by the RNC and TUsed2b of
event 2B with the CPICH RSCP value is modified, TUsed2b is reset to -25 dB.
z In the uplink QoS-based handover, based on the measurement quantity (CPICH Ec/No or
RSCP), TUsed2b is configured as the maximum value according to 3GPP specifications, as
described below:
When event 2D with the CPICH_RSCP value is received by the RNC, TUsed2b of
event 2B with the CPICH Ec/No is configured as the maximum value 0 dB.
When event 2D with the CPICH_Ec/No value is received by the RNC, TUsed2b of
event 2B with the CPICH RSCP is configured as the maximum value -25 dBm.
z In the downlink QoS-based handover, TUsed2b is configured as described below:
If the measurement quantity is CPICH Ec/No, TUsed2b is configured as the maximum
value 0 dB.
If the measurement quantity is CPICH RSCP, based on the service type (CS, PS
domain R99 service, or PS domain HSPA service), TUsed2b can be configured as one of
the following items:
Sum of Inter-freq CS Used frequency trigger RSCP THD and Down Link
RSCP Used-Freq THD Hsyt
Sum of Inter-freq R99 PS Used frequency trigger RSCP THD and Down Link
RSCP Used-Freq THD Hsyt
Sum of Inter-freq H Used frequency trigger RSCP THD and Down Link RSCP
Used-Freq THD Hsyt

z For the PS and CS combined services, the threshold is set to the higher one of CS or PS services.
z If the UE has only signaling connections currently, the thresholds for CS services are used.

After the conditions of event 2B are fulfilled and maintained until the 2B event trigger delay
time is reached, the UE reports the event 2B measurement report message.

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z Inter-freq H target frequency trigger Ec/No THD is valid only when


OVERLAY_SWITCH in the command SET CORRMALGOSWITCH is set to ON. Otherwise,
the PS domain R99 and HSPA services will take Inter-freq R99 PS target frequency trigger
Ec/No THD as a measurement event threshold.
z Inter-freq H target frequency trigger RSCP THD is valid only when
OVERLAY_SWITCH in the command SET CORRMALGOSWITCH is set to ON. Otherwise,
the PS domain R99 and HSPA services will take Inter-freq R99 PS target frequency trigger
RSCP THD as a measurement event threshold.
z Inter-freq H Used frequency trigger Ec/No THD is valid only when
OVERLAY_SWITCH in the command SET CORRMALGOSWITCH is set to ON. Otherwise,
the PS domain R99 and HSPA services will take Inter-freq R99 PS Used frequency trigger
Ec/No THD as a measurement event threshold.
z Inter-freq H Used frequency trigger RSCP THD is valid only when
OVERLAY_SWITCH in the command SET CORRMALGOSWITCH is set to ON. Otherwise,
the PS domain R99 and HSPA services will take Inter-freq R99 PS Used frequency trigger
RSCP THD as a measurement event threshold.

Triggering of Event 2C
Event 2C is triggered on the basis of the following formula:
QNoused >= TNoused2c + H2c/2
where
z QNoused is the measured quality of the cell that uses the other frequencies.
z TNoused2c is the absolute quality threshold of the cell that uses the other frequencies,
namely, Inter-freq measure target frequency trigger Ec/No THD.
z H2c is the event 2C hysteresis value 2C hysteresis.
z For the PS and CS combined services, the threshold(s) for CS services is (are) used.
After the conditions of event 2C are fulfilled and maintained until the 2C event trigger delay
time is reached, the UE reports the event 2C measurement report message.

Triggering of Event 1F
Event 1F is triggered on the basis of the following formula:
10LogMOld <= T1f - H1f/2
Where:
z MOld is the measurement value of the cell that becomes worse.
z T1f is an absolute threshold. It is set to 1F event absolute EcNo threshold or 1F event
absolute RSCP threshold respectively, depending on the measurement quantity.
z H1f is the event 1F hysteresis value 1F hysteresis.
After the conditions of event 1F are fulfilled and maintained until the 1F event trigger delay
time is reached, the UE reports the event 1F measurement report message.

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3.3.4 Inter-Frequency Handover Neighboring Cell Combination


Algorithm
After the active set is updated, the RNC updates the neighboring cell list by using the
neighboring cell combination algorithm according to the status of the active set. This list
includes the new intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and inter-RAT neighboring cells.

Limitation on the Number of Inter-Frequency Neighboring Cells


When an inter-frequency measurement is triggered by event 2D or QoS, the configuration of
inter-frequency neighboring cells are as follows:
z The maximum number of inter-frequency neighboring cells on a single frequency is 32.
z The maximum number of inter-frequency neighboring cells on multiple frequencies is
64.

Algorithm of Determining Inter-Frequency Neighboring Cell Combination


Range
The algorithm for determining the range of inter-frequency neighboring cell combination is as
follows:
Step 1 Remove the inter-frequency neighboring cells that are not supported by the UE.
Step 2 Execute an inter-frequency cell selection algorithm according to the setting of
NCELL_COMBINE_SWITCH of Handover Algorithm Switch parameter.
The NCELL_COMBINE_SWITCH decides the measurement range of neighboring
cells.
If the switch is set to ON, measurement objects are chosen from the neighboring cells
of all the cells in the active set.
If the switch is set to OFF, measurement objects are chosen from the neighboring
cells of the best cell.
Step 3 Select the neighboring cells at two frequencies according to The priority of coverage based
inter-frequency handover.
Step 4 If the NCELL_COMBINE_SWITCH is set to ON, the RNC executes the algorithm to
combine the neighboring cells of the cells in the active set. If the
NCELL_COMBINE_SWITCH is set to OFF, the RNC does not execute this algorithm.
----End

Triggering of the Neighboring Cell Combination Algorithm


After the active set update is complete, the RNC updates the neighboring cell list by using the
neighboring cell combination algorithm:
z When receiving an event 1A or 1C report, the RNC uses this algorithm to update the
neighboring cell list. If the Radio Links (RLs) from the DRNC are added to the active set,
the SRNC buffers the intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and inter-RAT neighboring cells
list from the DRNC until the RLs from DRNC are removed from the active set.

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z When receiving an event 1B or 1D report or an RL OUT-OF-SYNCHRONIZATION


message from the NodeB, the RNC uses this algorithm to update the neighboring cell
list.

Description of the Neighboring Cell Combination Algorithm


After obtaining the inter-frequency neighboring cells of each cell in the active set, the RNC
calculates the union neighboring cell set (referred to as Sall) of the active set by using the
following method:
1. The intra-frequency, inter-frequency and inter-RAT neighboring cells of each cell in the
current active set are obtained.
2. The RNC sequences the cells in the active set in descending order according to the latest
measurement report (event 1A, 1B, 1C, or 1D) from the UE. The best cell is based on
event 1D, whereas other cells are based on the latest measurement report.
3. The cells in the active set are added to Sall.
4. The neighboring cells of the best cell in the active set are added to Sall. The flag of the
priority and The priority of neighbor cell, which are set for each neighboring cell, are
used to change the order of adding the neighboring cells to Sall.
5. The neighboring cells of other cells in the active set are added to Sall in descending order
by CPICH Ec/No values of these cells in the active set. The neighboring cell is added
according to The priority of neighbor cell.
6. If there are more than 64 neighboring cells (for inter-frequency neighboring cells on
multiple frequencies) or 32 (for inter-frequency neighboring cells on a single frequency)
in Sall, the top 64 or 32 neighboring cells are grouped into the final Sall.

z When The flag of the priority is switched to FALSE from TRUE, the Priority of neighbor
cell is cleared.
z When The flag of the priority is switched to TRUE from FALSE, the Priority of neighbor
cell is set simultaneously.

3.3.5 Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Quantity


Measurement quantities vary with types of inter-frequency handover.
z In inter-frequency handover based on coverage, event 2B/2D/2F or periodical
measurement takes both CPICH Ec/No and RSCP as measurement quantities.
In the triggering phase, events 2D and 2F that correspond to CPICH_Ec/No and
CPICH_RSCP are sent from the UE.
In the measurement phase, event 2B or periodical measurement that correspond to
CPICH_Ec/No and CPICH_RSCP are sent from the UE.
z In inter-frequency handover based on QoS, event 2B or periodical measurement takes
both CPICH Ec/No and RSCP as measurement quantities.
z In inter-frequency handover based on speed, event 2C takes only CPICH Ec/No as
measurement quantity.

3.3.6 L3 Filtering for Inter-Frequency Handover


The UE performs the layer 3 (L3) filtering of measurement values before it judges the
measurement event and sends the measurement report.

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The inter-frequency measurement model is similar to the intra-frequency measurement model.


For detailed information, see L3 Filtering for Intra-Frequency Handover.
The parameter Inter-frequency measure filter coeff is the filtering coefficient of the
inter-frequency measurement value, which is configured on the basis of inter-frequency
handover types.

3.3.7 Inter-Frequency Handover Compressed Mode


Compressed mode is defined as the mechanism whereby certain idle periods are created in
radio frames so that the UE can perform inter-frequency measurements during these periods.

Compressed Mode Concept


Compressed Mode control is a mechanism whereby certain idle periods are created in radio
frames during which the UE can perform measurements on other frequencies. The UE can
carry out measurements in the neighbouring cell, such as GSM cell and FDD cell on other
frequency. If the UE needs to measure the pilot signal strength of an inter-frequency WCDMA
or GSM cell and has one frequency receiver only, the UE must use the compressed mode.
Each physical frame can provide 3 to 7 timeslots for the inter-frequency or inter-RAT cell
measurement, which enhances the transmit capability of physical channels but reduces the
volume of data traffic.
Therefore, the compressed mode is usually used in inter-frequency or inter-RAT handover.
When the corresponding handover algorithm decides a measurement in compressed mode
based on the UE capability, the RNC performs the following procedures:
Step 1 Sends parameters for the compressed mode to the NodeB and the UE.
Step 2 Sets parameters for inter-frequency or inter-RAT cell measurement control.
Step 3 Activates the compressed mode.
Step 4 Updates the measurement control information to the UE when required.
----End

Compressed Mode Switches


The parameter Dl SF limit CM ind decides whether to start the DL compressed mode
according to the parameter Dl SF threshold to limit CM.
In addition, there are two switches, CMCF_UL_PRECFG_TOLERANCE_SWITCH and
CMCF_WITHOUT_UE_CAP_REPORT_SWITCH, involved in starting the compressed
mode. Both of them are values of the parameter CMCF algorithm switch that is configured
through the command SET CORRMALGOSWITCH.

Generally, it is recommended that the previously mentioned two switches are set to OFF.

Compressed Mode Types


The compressed mode is of the following two types:
z Spreading factor reduction (SF/2)
z High layer scheduling

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Which type of compressed mode to use is automatically decided by the RNC on the basis of
the spreading factor used in the uplink or the downlink.
z When the downlink spreading factor is greater than or equal to the parameter DL SF
threshold, the SF/2 approach is preferred. Otherwise, the high layer scheduling is used.
z When the uplink spreading factor is greater than or equal to the parameter UL SF
threshold, the SF/2 approach is preferred. Otherwise, the high layer scheduling is used.
To initiate the high layer scheduling, set the following two switches:
z If the algorithm switch CMCF_DL_HLS_SWITCH in the command SET
CORRMALGOSWITCH is set to ON, the DL high-layer scheduling for the compressed
mode is allowed.
z If the algorithm switch CMCF_UL_HLS_SWITCH in the command SET
CORRMALGOSWITCH is set to ON, the UL high-layer scheduling for the compressed
mode is allowed.

Measurement Timer Length


When the UE takes a long time to perform the inter-frequency measurement in compressed
mode, the radio network will be affected. To avoid the influence, the RNC stops the
inter-frequency measurement and disables the compressed mode if no inter-frequency
handover occurs upon expiry of the inter-frequency measurement timer. .
z The timer is specified by Inter-freq measure timer length in inter-frequency handover
based on coverage or HCS.
z The timer is specified by Down Link Qos Measure timer length or Up Link Qos
Measure timer length in inter-frequency handover based on downlink or uplink QoS
respectively.

3.4 Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution


Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution describes the procedure of decision and
execution of different types of inter-frequency handover.
z Coverage-Based and QoS-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution
z Load-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution
z Speed-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution
z Blind Handover Decision and Execution Based on Event 1F
z Inter-Frequency Anti-Ping-Pong Algorithm
z Inter-Frequency Handover Retry

3.4.1 Coverage-Based and QoS-Based Inter-Frequency Handover


Decision and Execution
The coverage-based and QoS-based inter-frequency handovers are categorized into two types
according to the following two measurement report modes: periodical measurement report
mode and event-triggered measurement report mode. Each mode corresponds to a different
decision and execution procedure.

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Coverage-Based and QoS-Based Inter-Frequency Handover in Periodical


Measurement Report Mode
After receiving the periodical measurement report of the inter-frequency cell, the RNC starts
the following decision procedures:
Step 1 Decide whether both the CPICH Ec/No value and CPICH RSCP value of the pilot signal of
the target cell meet the requirement of inter-frequency handover.
The evaluation formula is listed below:
Mother_Freq + CIOother_Freq Tother_Freq + H/2
where
z Mother_Freq is the CPICH Ec/No or CPICH RSCP measurement value of the target cell
reported by the UE. Both of the two measurement values of the inter-frequency cell must
satisfy the formula.
z CIOother_Freq is the cell individual offset value of the target cell. It is equal to the sum of
Cell oriented Cell Individual Offset and Neighboring cell oriented CIO.
z Tother_Freq is the decision threshold of inter-frequency hard handover.
Based on the service type (CS or PS service) and measurement quantity (CPICH Ec/No
or CPICH RSCP), this threshold can be configured through the following parameters:
Inter-freq CS target frequency trigger Ec/No THD
Inter-freq R99 PS target frequency trigger Ec/No THD
Inter-freq H target frequency trigger Ec/No THD
Inter-freq CS target frequency trigger RSCP THD
Inter-freq R99 PS target frequency trigger RSCP THD
Inter-freq H target frequency trigger RSCP THD

These thresholds are the same as the quality threshold of event 2B. For detailed information, see 3.3.3
Inter-Frequency Handover Measurement Events.
z H is the inter-frequency hard handover hysteresis value HHO hysteresis.
z For the PS and CS combined services, one or more handover thresholds for CS services
are used.
Step 2 Start the hard handover time-to-trigger timer, which is configured through the parameter
HHO period trigger delay time.
Step 3 Either the CPICH RSCP value or the CPICH Ec/No value of the inter-frequency cell satisfies
the following formula:
Mother_Freq + CIOother_Freq < Tother_Freq - H/2
where the parameters are the same as those mentioned previously.
Step 4 Select the cells in sequence, that is, from high quality cells to low quality ones, to initiate
inter-frequency handover in the cells where the hard handover time-to-trigger timer expires.
The quality of a cell is indicated by the measured RSCP.
Each cell in the measurement report shall be evaluated as mentioned previously. When the
HHO period trigger delay time of more than one cell expires at the same time, the latest
measurement report is used for selecting the best inter-frequency neighboring cell for
handover. For example, the cell with the highest CPICH RSCP in the latest measurement
report is selected, as shown in the following figure..

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----End

Figure 3-5 Selecting the cell with the highest CPICH RSCP in the latest measurement report for
Handover

Coverage-Based and QoS-Based Inter-Frequency Handover in Event-Triggered


Measurement Report Mode
After receiving the event 2B measurement reports of CPICH RSCP and CPICH Ec/No of the
inter-frequency cell, the RNC starts the following procedure:
Step 1 Add all the pilot cells that trigger event 2B to a cell set and arrange the cells according to the
measurement quality of CPICH_Ec/No in descending order.
Step 2 Select the cells in turn from the cell set to perform inter-frequency handover.
----End

3.4.2 Load-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and


Execution
The LDR algorithm may trigger an inter-frequency blind handover based on load. The
following describes the procedure for handover decision and execution.

Description of Load-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution


Step 1 The LDR algorithm learns that a cell is overloaded and provides target cells and the UE with
low priority for handover.
Step 2 The RNC determines to trigger an inter-frequency blind handover through parameter
LDR_HO_ALLOW_SHO_SWITCH of Handover Algorithm Switch parameter.

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z If the switch is set to ON, the UE in soft handover supports an inter-frequency blind
handover. The RNC determines whether the cell that triggers LDR is the best cell.
If this cell is the best cell, the RNC initiates intra-frequency measurement for
inter-frequency blind handover.
If this cell is not the best cell, the RNC does not initiate an inter-frequency blind
handover.
z If the switch is set to OFF, The RNC determines whether the UE has multiple RLs.
If the UE has multiple RLs, the RNC does not initiate an inter-frequency blind
handover.
If the UE does not have multiple RLs, the RNC initiates inter-frequency
measurement.
Step 3 According to the parameter Blind handover condition, the RNC executes:
z If the value of the parameter of a cell is -115, the RNC performs direct blind handover to
this cell.
z If there is no such cell with the parameter value -115, the RNC initiates an
intra-frequency measurement for conditional blind handover. For detailed information,
see Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement Based on Conditional Blind Handover.
----End

If the neighboring cells have the same Blind handover condition value, the RNC chooses any one of
them.

Intra-Frequency Handover Measurement Based on Conditional Blind Handover


The inter-frequency cells with the same coverage area have the same CPICH RSCP values.
By measuring the CPICH RSCP of the cell, the quality of the cells with the same coverage
area can be determined, which increases the probability of successful blind handover.
The intra-frequency measurement for conditional blind handover is described as follows:
Step 1 The RNC initializes the timer of intra-frequency measurement for blind handover. The timer
is specified by internal algorithm and needn't to be configured.
Step 2 The RNC modifies the measurement mode:
z The measurement reporting mode is changed to periodic reporting. The reporting period
is Intrafrequency measurement report interval of blind HO. The measurement
reporting number is Intrafrequency measurement report amount of blind HO.
z The intra-frequency measurement quantity is CPICH RSCP.
z The list of cells to be measured includes only the cell that triggers LDR.
Step 3 After receiving from the UE the intra-frequency measurement reports for conditional blind
handover, the RNC checks whether the following condition is met:
CPICH RSCP of the cell in the measurement report >= Blind handover condition
z If the condition is met, the RNC increments the counter of the number of intra-frequency
measurement reports for blind handover by 1.
z If the condition is not met, the RNC does not perform a blind handover to the cell that
triggers LDR and stops intra-frequency measurement for blind handover.

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Step 4 When the counter reaches the value of Intrafrequency measurement report amount of
blind handover, the RNC initiates a blind handover to the cell that triggers LDR. If the
counter does not reach this value, the RNC waits for the next intra-frequency measurement
report from the UE.
Step 5 If the timer of intra-frequency measurement for blind handover expires, the RNC does not
perform a blind handover to the cell that triggers LDR and stops intra-frequency handover for
blind handover.
----End

When the inter-frequency handover based on coverage or QoS is triggered, the RNC stops
intra-frequency measurement for blind handover.

3.4.3 Speed-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and


Execution
Speed-Based Inter-Frequency Handover Decision and Execution covers the decision and
execution of micro cell to macro cell, as well as that of macro cell to micro cell.

Decision and Execution of Micro Cell to Macro Cell Handover


If the handover is performed from a micro cell to a macro cell and a target cell for blind
handover is configured, the RNC performs a blind handover to the target cell. If the blind
handover fails, the RNC continues to perform a blind handover. The blind handover procedure
is as follows:
Step 1 The RNC selects the neighboring cells with a lower HCS priority level to generate a cell set.
The neighboring cells whose frequency band is not supported by the UE are not taken into
account. If there are neighboring cells with several candidate frequencies, then the RNC
selects one of the frequencies randomly.

For details about HCS priority level, refer to HCS Handover.

Step 2 The RNC searches for neighboring cells for blind handover according to Blind handover flag
from the cell set in step 1.
Step 3 The RNC chooses a neighboring cell whose Blind handover condition value is smallest for
blind handover.
Step 4 The RNC determines whether the target cell supports the current service. If the target cell
does not support the current service, the RNC does not perform the blind handover.
----End

Decision and Execution of Macro Cell to Micro Cell Handover


If the blind handover fails or the handover is performed from a macro cell to a micro cell, the
RNC starts the inter-frequency (or inter-RAT) measurement procedure. If the inter-frequency
measurement mode is employed, the RNC starts the following procedure:
Step 1 Add all the pilot cells that trigger event 2C to a cell set and arrange the cells according to the
measurement quality in descending order.

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Step 2 Select the cells in turn from the cell set to perform inter-frequency handover.
----End

3.4.4 Blind Handover Decision and Execution Based on Event 1F


When there is only one cell in the active set, the RNC performs inter-frequency blind
handover after receiving event 1F.
The procedure of blind handover decision and execution based on event 1F is as follows:
Step 1 The RNC determines whether the cell that reports event 1F is the best cell. If the cell is not
the best cell, the RNC does not initiate a blind handover.
Step 2 If the cell is the best cell, and the CPICH_RSCP of the cell is smaller than or equal to 1F
event blind handover trigger conditionthe RNC searches for neighboring cells for blind
handover according to Blind handover flag.
Step 3 If there are many neighboring cells, the RNC chooses a neighboring cell whose Blind
handover condition value is smallest for blind handover.
----End

z If the neighboring cells have the same Blind handover condition value, the RNC chooses any
one of them.

3.4.5 Inter-Frequency Anti-Ping-Pong Algorithm


After an inter-frequency handover based on coverage or an inter-frequency blind handover
based on event 1F occurs, the RNC starts the anti-ping-pong algorithm to prevent frequent
switching between inter-frequency handovers triggered by different causes.
The inter-frequency anti-ping-pong algorithm is as follows:
Step 1 When a coverage-based inter-frequency handover or an inter-frequency blind handover based
on event 1F occurs, the RNC starts the timer specified by The timer length of anti pingpang
NCOV interfreq handover for the UE.
Step 2 When a non-coverage-based inter-frequency handover is triggered, first, the RNC determines
whether the timer specified by The timer length of anti pingpang NCOV interfreq
handover expires.
z If the timer does not expire, the RNC cancels the handover.
z If the timer expires, the RNC performs the handover.
----End

3.4.6 Inter-Frequency Handover Retry


If an inter-frequency handover based on event-triggered measurement report mode fails, the
RNC initiates the inter-frequency handover attempt according to an inter-frequency retry
algorithm.
After the inter-frequency handover fails, the retry timer for the cell is started. After the retry
timer expires, the UE makes a handover attempt to the cell again until the retry number

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exceeds the maximum allowed retry number. If the handover succeeds or two new event 2B
reports are received, the periodical retry is stopped.
For the inter-frequency handover based on coverage or QoS, the following two parameters
determine the retry period and the maximum number of retry times:
z 2B event retry period
z 2B event retry max times
For the inter-frequency handover based on speed, the following two parameters determine the
retry period and the maximum number of retry times:
z 2C event retry period
z 2C event retry max times

3.5 Inter-Frequency Handover of HSDPA


Inter-frequency handover can be triggered on the basis of coverage, load, and Hierarchical
Cell Structure (HCS). The introduction of HSDPA does not affect the triggering conditions
and decisions of these types of inter-frequency handover.
Some types of data cards of HSDPA terminals cannot support compress mode (CM).
Therefore, the parameter CM permission ind on HSDPA is used to enable or disable CM for
HSDPA users.
The following table describes the three possible scenarios for inter-frequency handover.

Table 3-4 Scenarios for inter-frequency handover

Scenario Description

Scenario 1 Inter-Frequency Handover from an HSDPA Cell to an R99 Cell


The UE moves from an HSDPA cell to a non-HSDPA cell.
Event 2B is triggered.
Scenario 2 Inter-Frequency Handover from an R99 Cell to an HSDPA Cell
The UE moves from a non-HSDPA cell to an HSDPA cell.
Event 2B is triggered.
Scenario 3 Inter-Frequency Handover Between HSDPA Cells
The UE moves from one HSDPA cell to another HSDPA cell.
Event 2B is triggered.

Scenario 1: Inter-Frequency Handover from an HSDPA Cell to an R99 Cell


Assume that the UE moves from cell 1 (HSDPA) to cell 2 (R99), as shown in the following
figure. Cell 2 is an inter-frequency neighboring cell of cell 1.

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Figure 3-6 Inter-frequency handover from an HSDPA cell to an R99 cell

When the UE moves from cell 1 to cell 2 and the inter-frequency handover conditions are met,
event 2B is triggered and the RNC reconfigures the service onto the DPCH of cell 2.
The HSDPA handover decision is based on the measurement report about the neighboring
cells.

Scenario 2: Inter-Frequency Handover from an R99 Cell to an HSDPA Cell


Assume that the UE moves from cell 2 (R99) to cell 1 (HSDPA), as shown in the following
figure. Cell 1 is an inter-frequency neighboring cell of cell 2.

Figure 3-7 Hard handover from an R99 cell to an HSDPA cell

When the UE moves from cell 2 to cell 1 and the inter-frequency handover conditions are met,
the RNC reconfigures the service onto the HS-PDSCH of cell 1 if the service can be carried
on the HS-PDSCH.

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When the UE moves from an R99 cell to an HSDPA cell, event 2B is triggered. The RNC
hands over the UE to the DPCH first, and then to the HS-PDSCH if the service can be carried
on the HS-PDSCH.

Scenario 3: Inter-Frequency Handover Between HSDPA Cells


Assume that the UE moves from cell 1 (HSDPA) to cell 2 (HSDPA), as shown in the
following figure. Cell 2 is an inter-frequency neighboring cell of cell 1.

Figure 3-8 Inter-frequency handover between HSDPA cells

When the UE moves from cell 1 to cell 2 and the inter-frequency handover conditions are met,
the UE is handed over from cell 1 to cell 2. The target cell becomes the new serving
HS-PDSCH cell.

If the serving or target cell is in load congestion when the UE performs a serving cell update for
intra-frequency or inter-frequency handover, the service is reconfigured from the HS-PDSCH to the
DPCH.
The hard handovers of an HSDPA cell is the same as those of an R99 cell.

D2H Penalty Timer for Inter-Frequency Handover of HSDPA


To avoid frequent handovers in a multi-carrier area with an HSDPA cell and an R99 cell, a
protection timer is used. After an inter-frequency handover, the timer starts. If the target cell
supports HSDPA, or if it does not support HSDPA but has a DRD neighboring cell, the RNC
can reconfigure the service of the UE onto the HS-PDSCH of the HSDPA cell only after this
timer expires.
The timer length is specified by the parameter The timer length of D2H interfreq handover.

Handover Between a Cell Supporting the F-DPCH and a Cell Not Supporting the
F-DPCH
After the UE is handed over to an HSDPA cell from an R99 cell, the D2HRetryTimer starts.
After this timer expires, the RNC decides whether to switch the SRB to the HS-DSCH and

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whether to set up the F-DPCH. D2HRetryTimer is set through The timer length of D2H
Interfreq handover and The timer length of D2H Intrafreq handover.

For the detailed informtion of The timer length of D2H Intrafreq handover, see Intra-Frequency
Handover of HSDPA.

3.6 Inter-Frequency Handover of HSUPA


Inter-frequency handover can be triggered on the basis of coverage, load, and Hierarchical
Cell Structure (HCS). The introduction of HSUPA does not affect the triggering conditions
and decisions of these types of inter-frequency handover.
The parameter CM permission ind on HSUPA decides whether the Compressed Mode (CM)
can be used on HSUPA.
z If the parameter is set to Permit, UE in E-DCH state performs measurement.
z If the parameter is set to Limited, reconfiguration from E-DCH to DCH is required
before CM is activated because HSUPA does not support CM.
z If the parameter is set to BasedOnUECap, the RNC determines whether to perform E2D
procedure before CM activated based on the UE's capability.
During the execution phase, whether to reconfigure the services from E-DCH to DCH
depends on the HSUPA capability of the target cell. After the handover, a decision must be
made about whether to reconfigure the services from DCH to E-DCH.
The following table describes the three possible scenarios for inter-frequency handover.

Table 3-5 Scenarios for inter-frequency handover


Scenario Description

Scenario 1 Inter-frequency handover from an HSUPA cell to another HSUPA cell


z The UE moves from one HSUPA cell to another HSUPA cell.
z Event 2B is triggered.
Scenario 2 Inter-frequency handover from an HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell
z The UE moves from an HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell.
z Event 2B is triggered.
Scenario 3 Inter-frequency handover from a non-HSUPA cell to an HSUPA cell
z The UE moves from a non-HSUPA cell to an HSUPA cell.
z Event 2B is triggered.

Scenario 1: Inter-frequency Handover from an HSUPA Cell to Another HSUPA


Cell
Assume that the UE moves from HSUPA cell 1 to HSUPA cell 2 and that the two cells are
inter-frequency neighboring cells, as shown in the following figure.

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Figure 3-9 Inter-frequency handover from an HSUPA cell to another HSUPA cell

During this procedure, event 2B is triggered. The HSUPA admission request is made for the
target cell by the RNC.
z If the request is accepted, the handover is performed through the physical channel
reconfiguration message.
z If the request is rejected, the RB reconfiguration is implemented, and the services on
E-DCH are reconfigured for DCH.

Scenario 2: Inter-frequency Handover from an HSUPA Cell to a Non-HSUPA


Cell
Assume that the UE moves from HSUPA cell 1 to non-HSUPA cell 2 and that the two cells
are inter-frequency neighboring cells, as shown in the following figure.

Figure 3-10 Inter-frequency handover from an HSUPA cell to a non-HSUPA cell

During this procedure, event 2B is triggered, and the target cell does not support HSUPA. The
DCH admission request is made for the target cell.

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After the request is accepted, the RB reconfiguration is implemented, and the services on
E-DCH are reconfigured for DCH.

Scenario 3: Inter-frequency Handover from a Non-HSUPA Cell to an HSUPA


Cell
Assume that the UE moves from non-HSUPA cell 1 to HSUPA cell 2 and that the two cells
are inter-frequency neighboring cells, as shown in the following figure.

Figure 3-11 Inter-frequency handover from a non-HSUPA cell to an HSUPA cell

During this procedure, event 2B is triggered. The inter-frequency handover on DCH is


performed, and the HSUPA admission request is made for the target cell by the RNC.
After the request is accepted, the RB reconfiguration is implemented, and the services on
DCH are reconfigured for E-DCH.

D2H Penalty Timer for Inter-Frequency Handover of HSUPA


If the UE moves from a non-HSUPA or HSUPA cell to a target cell after the inter-frequency
handover, and the target cell does not support HSUPA but has a neighboring cell that supports
HSUPA DRD, the RNC starts a timer defined by the The timer length of D2H interfreq
handover parameter. After the timer expires, the services are reconfigured on E-DCH. If
reconfiguration fails, periodical retry from DCH to E-DCH is triggered.

3.7 Signaling Procedures for Inter-Frequency Handover


Signaling Procedures for Inter-Frequency Handover describes the signaling procedures for the
inter-frequency handover within one RNC or between the RNCs.
z 3.7.1 Inter-Frequency Handover Within One RNC
z 3.7.2 Inter-Frequency Handover Between RNCs

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3.7.1 Inter-Frequency Handover Within One RNC


Inter-Frequency Handover Within One RNC describes the signaling procedure for
inter-frequency handover within one RNC.
The following figure shows the inter-frequency handover for a UE that moves from NodeB 1
to NodeB 2 within one RNC.

Figure 3-12 Inter-frequency handover between NodeBs within one RNC

Before the handover, the UE sets up a connection to NodeB 1. After the handover, the UE sets
up a connection to NodeB 2.
The following figure shows the signaling procedure for inter-frequency handover between
NodeBs within one RNC.

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Figure 3-13 Signaling procedure for inter-frequency handover between NodeBs within one RNC

As shown in the figure, NodeB 1 is the source NodeB, whereas NodeB 2 is the target NodeB.
From step 1 through step 6, a new connection is set up. From step 7 through step 9, the old
connection is released.
The signaling procedures are described as follows:
Step 1 The SRNC decides to set up a radio link in a cell of NodeB 2, and sends a Radio Link Setup
Request message to NodeB 2.
Step 2 NodeB 2 configures its physical channel and starts to receive UE signals for uplink
synchronization, and then sends a Radio Link Setup Response message to the SRNC.
Step 3 The SRNC sets up an ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer to bear the new connection between
SRNC and NodeB 2.
Step 4 NodeB 2 sends a Radio Link Restore Indicate message to the SRNC.
Step 5 The SRNC sends an RRC message Physical Channel Reconfiguration to the UE through the
DCCH.
Step 6 The UE responds with an RRC message Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete.

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Step 7 The SRNC sends an NBAP message Radio Link Deletion Request to NodeB 1. NodeB 1
stops uplink reception and downlink transmission.
Step 8 NodeB 1 releases radio resources and sends an NBAP message Radio Link Deletion
Response.
Step 9 The SRNC initiates the release of the ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer through the ALCAP
protocol.
----End

3.7.2 Inter-Frequency Handover Between RNCs


Inter-Frequency Handover Between RNCs describes the signaling procedure for
inter-frequency handover between RNCs.
The following figure shows the signaling procedure for inter-frequency hard handover for a
UE that moves from a NodeB to another NodeB between the RNCs.

Figure 3-14 Inter-frequency hard handover between the RNCs

Before the handover, the UE sets up a connection to NodeB 1. After the handover, the UE sets
up a connection to NodeB 2.
The following figure shows the signaling procedures for inter-frequency handover between
the RNCs.

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Figure 3-15 Signaling procedures for inter-frequency hard handover between the RNCs

As shown in the figure, NodeB 1 is the source NodeB, whereas NodeB 2 is the target NodeB.
From step 1 through step 10, a new connection is set up. From step 11 through step 13, the old
connection is released.
The signaling procedures are described as follows:
Step 1 The SRNC decides to set up a radio link in a cell of NodeB 2, and sends a Radio Link Setup
Request message to the DRNC.
Step 2 The DRNC forwards this Radio Link Setup Request message to NodeB 2.
Step 3 NodeB 2 configures its physical channel and starts to receive UE signals for uplink
synchronization, and then sends a Radio Link Setup Response message to the DRNC.
Step 4 The DRNC sends a Radio Link Setup Response message to the SRNC.
Step 5 The DRNC sets up an ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer to bear the new connection between
NodeB 2 and DRNC.
Step 6 The SRNC sets up an ALCAP Iur Data Transport Bearer to the DRNC.

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Step 7 NodeB 2 sends a Radio Link Restore Indicate message to the DRNC.
Step 8 The DRNC forwards the Radio Link Restore Indicate message to the SRNC.
Step 9 The SRNC sends an RRC message Physical Channel Reconfiguration to the UE through the
DCCH.
Step 10 The UE responds with an RRC message Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete message
to the SRNC.
Step 11 The SRNC sends an NBAP message Radio Link Deletion Request to NodeB 1, and then
NodeB 1 stops uplink reception and downlink transmission.
Step 12 NodeB 1 releases radio resources and sends an NBAP message Radio Link Deletion Response
to indicate that the release has succeeded.
Step 13 The SRNC initiates the release of the Iub Data Transport Bearer through the ALCAP
protocol.
----End

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Inter-Frequency Handover Description 4 Reference Documents

4 Reference Documents

Inter-Frequency Handover Reference Documents lists the reference documents related to the
feature.
z 3GPP TS 25.331: RRC Protocol Specification
z 3GPP TR 25.931: UTRAN Functions, Examples on Signaling Procedures

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