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# Hydraulic Turbines

Hydraulic turbines Hydraulic turbines are the machines which use the energy
of water and convert it into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy
developed by a turbine is used in running an an electric generator which
couple to the turbine. According to the type of energy at the inlet or action of
water flowing through the turbine runners, turbines classified as
1. Impulse turbine
2. Reaction turbine

Also turbines are classified according to the direction of fluid flow or flow path
2. Axial flow turbine
3. Mixed flow turbine

In this turbine water flows along the radial direction and remins mainly in the
plane normal to the axis of rotation, as it passes through the runner. A radial
flow turbine may be either inward radial flow or outward radial flow type. Old
francis turbine is an example for the inward radial flow turbine
Axial flow turbine
In this flow of water through the runner is wholly and mainly along the
direction parallel to the axis of rotation. Eg: propeller turbine, Kaplan Turbine
Mixed flow turbine Water enters the runner at the outer periphery in radial
direction and leaves the turbine at the centre in the direction parallel to the
axis of rotation. Eg: modern Francis turbine

Impulse turbine

In the turbine all the available energy of water is converted into kinetic
energy or velocity head by passing it through a converging nozzle provided
at the end of penstock. Penstock is the pipe which carries water from the
dam to power station.
The water coming out of the nozzle is forced into a free jet which impinges on
a series of buckets of the runner, thus causing it to revolve. The runner is a
circular frame with series of buckets. These buckets are shaped like a double
hemispherical cup. The buckets are made up of cast iron , steel or bronze. The
term impulse means that the force that turns the turbine comes from the
impact of the jet on the blades.
Working
The water from the reservoir enters the nozzle through penstock. Nozzle
converts its pressure energy into Kinetic energy. Water leaves the nozzle in
the form of jet and impinges the buckets of runner, thus causing it to revolve.
Eg: Pelton turbine

Reaction turbine
In reaction turbine at the entrance to the runner, only a part of the available
energy of water is converted into kinetic energy and substantial part of
pressure energy remains. As the water flows through the runner the change
from pressure energy to K.E. takes place gradually.

## Francis Turbine is an Inward Flow Reaction Turbine having Radial Discharge at

Outlet. . Modern Francis Turbine is a mixed flow type turbine (i.e. Water
enters the runner of the
turbine in the radial direction and leaves the runner in the axial direction).
Radial Flow Turbines are those turbines in which the water flows in the
Radial Direction. In Francis Turbine the water flows from outwards to inwards
through the runner (Inward Flow Radial Turbine). Reaction Turbine means
that the water at the in let of the Turbine possesses Kinetic Energy as well
as Pressure Energy.
CONSTRUCTION: - The main parts of Francis Turbine are:

CASING
The runner is completely enclosed in an air-tight spiral casing. The casing
and runner are always full of water.

## GUIDE MECHANISM/GUIDE VANE

It consists of a circular wheel all round the runner of the turbine. The
stationary guide vanes are fixed on the guide wheel. The guide vanes allow
the water to strike the vanes fixed on the runner without shock at inlet. Also
width between the two adjacent vanes can be altered so that amount of water
striking the runner can be varied.

RUNNER
It is a circular wheel on which a series of Radial Curved Vanes are fixed. The
vanes are so shaped that the water enters and leaves the runner without
shock.

DRAFT TUBE
The pressure at the exit of the runner of Reaction Turbine is generally less
than atmospheric pressure. The water at exit cannot be directly discharged to
the tail race. A tube or pipe of gradually increasing area is used for
discharging water from the exit of turbine to the tail race. This tube of
increasing area is called Draft Tube. One end of the tube is connected to the
outlet of runner while the other end is sub-merged below the level of water in
the tail-race