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RENAISSANCE

1430-1600

THE INFLUENCES FROM OTHER CULTURES

Greek and Roman culture that influences in the rebirth of art at that period:

There were corruption in the Catholic Church. (Reform and Counter-reform)

The Greek and Roman provided answers to the people that the church couldn’t.

Rise of the middle-class people had a different way of thinking.

According to Burckhardt (1860):

‘Italy was a source of vast cultural transformation that began in

the 14 th century, it gradually spread new forms of thought to northern Europe after 1500 and marked the emergence of a

period of civilization that extended in some spheres until the late 17 th century.’

(The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy.1860)

Two divergent approaches to Renaissance:

It was primarily a movement which aimed to restore the philosophical and artistic values of classical antiquity.

It can effectively denote an era of frech beliefs and attitudes in individuals and ultimately in society, an age of discovery and accelerated change, in which innovations were justified by an appeal to their affinity

to a ‘golden age’ of the past.

(Grove Music)

JULES MICHELET ( 1798-1874)

The first historian to use

and define the word Renaissance.

The Humanism Concept

The strongest intellectual movement of the Renaissance. They studied

humanities that is things

pertaining (Affecting) human knowledge.

The Naturalism concept

Naturalism attempts to reproduce nature realistically, to represent subject matter

truthfully, without artificially.

It is also in tune with

humanist’s endeavor to see

and understand the world as it

really is.

CONDITIONS AND TRENDS OF THE TIME

Printing

New Bourgeoisie

Sacred Music

Music as a science of relationships

New function of music in social life

PATRONS ROLE IN MUSIC

Patronage can be described as the support (sponsorphip) given by a patron. Many rulers of the time supported music and there

was a competition among them from the best composer or performer. Excellent music was both enjoyable in itself and valuable as a way to display wealth and power to audiences at

home and abroad.

Court of the Gonzaga family 1465-1475

DEVELOPMENT IN THE

RENAISSANCE PERIOD

1. The International Style:

The core of the international style was counterpoint.

2. Just Intonation

This form was used for many years and implied that the intervals of 3 rd and 6 th were perfectly tuned.

3. Equal Temperament

This new tuning system reflects the musicians trust in what pleased the ear rather than received theory.

GREEK THEORIES AND

RENAISSANCE

Music should be part of the citizen’s education.

Men and ladies should have access to music( Read- sing- perform instrument for entertainment).

Power of the modes- that music affects Ethos through Harmonia

CURRENT VIEWS OF THE RENAISSANCE AS

A PERIOD

The views of Edward Lowinsky (Music of the Renaissance as viewed by the musicians- the renaissance image of man and the world. Columbus 1966).

In the 15 th century there was a steady growth and reorganization of musical institutions related to the migration of northern composers to Italy and the interaction of northern and Southern traditions.

Music was characterized by a broad ‘emancipation’ from medieval constraints, including modes, Pythagorean tuning etc.…

Criticism of medieval aesthetics

‘Emancipation’ from older modal system and the development of harmony and the introduction of chromaticism and modulation.

Transition from a ‘Successive’ to a ‘simultaneous’ conception of part-time music. Enlargement of tonal space Rise of expressivity and a new relationship between words and music Development of vocal and instrumental virtuosity. Increasing autonomy on instrumental music. Repudiation of authority on the part of musicians.

RENAISSANCE COMPOSERS

GUILLAUME DU FAY (1397- 1474) Most famous composer of his time.

RENAISSANCE COMPOSERS Most famous composer of his time. His many travels exposed him to a variety

His many travels exposed him to a variety of music and styles. One particularity of Dufay was his many stylistic traits which we can notice in his music. His music is a perfect example of the international style of the Renaissance period.

Resvellies Vous composed in 1423.

RESVELLIES VOUS (1423)

Resvelliés vous et faites chiere lye

Tous amoureux qui gentillesse amés;

Es batés vous, fuyés merancolye,

De bien servir point ne soyés hodés.

Car au jour d'ui sera li espousés,

Par grant honneur et noble seignourie;

Se vous convient ung chascum faire feste,

Pur bien grignier la belle compagnye Charle gentil, c'on dit de Malateste.

II.

Il a dame belle et bonne choysie, Dont il sera grandement honnourés;

Car elle vient de tres noble lignie

Et de barons qui sont mult renommés.

Son propre nom est Victore clamés; De la colomne vient sa progenie.

C'est bien rayson qu'a vascule requeste

De ceste dame mainne bonne vie

Charle gentil [c'on dit de Maleteste.

RESVELLIES VOUS (1423) Resvelliés vous et faites chiere lye Tous amoureux qui gentillesse amés; Es batés

SE LA FACE AY PALE (1430)

International Style Influences:

1. The piece shows a strong influence of English music (Tenor and cantus are in tune).

2. Contratenor fills the harmony, sometimes above and below. (Typical of French songs) 3. Graceful melodies, primarily syllabic with some Melismas (Typical of Italian and English).

4. Rhthmic energy of the Ars Nova is heard in syncopation with constantly varying rhythms.

5. Music is freely composed in (aabC)

SE LA FACE AY PALE (1430) • International Style Influences: • 1. The piece shows a

JOSQUIN DES PREZ (1440-1521)

‘ the first printer of polyphonic music, published

three books of Josquin masses and reprinted each

to meet the demand’

(palisca.2010)

Compositions:

19 Masses, Pange Lingua, De beata Virgine

Listening: Missa Pangue Lingua (Gloria)

JOSQUIN DES PREZ (1440-1521) ‘ the first printer of polyphonic music, published three books of Josquin

TRAITS OF 15 TH CENTURY MUSIC

Clarity in phrasing- Fluid and tuneful melodies

Form- Tranparent textures

Tonal organization- imitation and homophony.

LISTENING: Ave Maria Virgo Serena

TRAITS OF 15 CENTURY MUSIC • Clarity in phrasing- Fluid and tuneful melodies • Form- Tranparent

GIOVANNI PIERLUIGI DA

PALESTRINA (1525-1594)

Compositions: 104 Masses

51- Immitation of mases based on polyphony 34- Paraphrase masses 8- old fashion Cantus Firmus Method

Listening: Agnus Dei- Pope Marcellu Mass (1567)

GIOVANNI PIERLUIGI DA PALESTRINA (1525-1594) Compositions: 104 Masses 51- Immitation of mases based on polyphony 34-

ACTIVITY:

Compare and contrast two composers of your choice from the Renaissance period.